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Common ground: Eight factors that influence walking and biking to school

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... In conclusion, the literature on parents' perceptions of the dangers and difficulties that their children may face on their way to school shows that travel distance, weather conditions, traffic conditions and fear of crime are key concerns that prevent parents from permitting their children to walk to school (Ahlport et al., 2008;Buliung et al., 2017;Chaufan and Yeh, 2012;Hsu and Saphores, 2013;Stewart et al., 2012). However, the above findings are based on studies conducted in the general population and are not specific to refugee students in the camp context. ...
... Our findings indicate that traffic collisions and fear of exposure to crime were the most frequently mentioned by parents during the FGDs, which supports findings of many previous studies that both factors are the most significant concerns in children's independent travel (Al-omari et al., 2012;Easton and Ferrari, 2015b;Faulkner et al., 2010;Garrard, 2017;Huertas-delgado et al., 2011;Ikeda et al., 2018a ;Oyeyemi et al., 2012;Seraj et al., 2009;Stewart et al., 2012). On the other hand, the possibility of being attacked by stray dogs and snakes emerged in the context of travelling to school in a refugee camp. ...
... In addition, rain exacerbates the drainage problems in the camp, as children who walk long distances get completely wet, which can cause them to contract illnesses. This result is in line with previous research results (Easton and Ferrari, 2015b;Stewart et al., 2012;Zhai et al., 2019;Zhou et al., 2010). ...
Article
Introduction: Despite the growing global interest in the safety of school children over the past decade, the safety of school routes in vulnerable populations, such as those in refugee camps, has not received enough attention from the global research community. Therefore, this qualitative study contributes to the limited literature on this issue by attempting to shed light on the safety challenges faced by schoolchildren aged 6–15 years old who travel independently inside refugee camps. Methods: Through a thematic analysis of the output of two focus group discussions involving refugee parents in Jerash Camp in Jordan, the study identifies key issues and threats that concern parents in refugee camps regarding the safety and security of their children when walking to school. Results: The analysis of the FGDs yields three themes: (1) safety and security issues (2) factors influencing exposure to hazards; and (3) suggestions for safety improvement. It also generates sub-themes related to safety and security issues such as traffic collision, crime risk and animal attack. Other sub-themes that represent the factors associated with exposure to safety hazards were grouped into four categories: built environmental factors, socio-cultural and economic factors, demographic factors and behavioural factors. Suggestions for improving safety of school routes included three main sub-themes, these are: providing a free transport service to school, improving road infrastructure and pedestrian facilities; and providing adequate education to increase awareness of safety issues. Conclusion: This study highlights the critical level of safety and security inside refugee camps, and thus draws the attention of international organisations and policymakers and emphasizes the need for safety programmes intervention focusing on children in refugee camps.
... Building on McMillan's work, Panter et al. expanded on the analysis by including location-based neighborhood characteristics such as origins, destinations, and routes (Panter et al., 2008). Stewart et al. (2012) synthesize previous findings on AST and propose a conceptual framework consisting of eight groups of factors related to school children walking or bicycling to school, including distance to school, parental fear of traffic and crime, schedule constraints, value, weather, school characteristics, resources, and culture. Mitra (2013) reviewes related literature and proposes a framework of multiple levels of influence on mode choice for school transportation, including urban environment, household, characteristics of a child/youth, and other external factors. ...
... Distance to school is the most important factor in determining walking or bicycling among students. Even for students who live within a walkable or bike-able distance to school, distance acts as a strong determinant, influencing the likelihood of walking and biking (Stewart et al., 2012).The effect of density on school children AST has also been repeatedly examined. Many studies have suggested that either household density or population density is positively associated with AST (Broberg and Sarjala, 2015;Deka, 2013;Frank et al., 2007;Kerr et al., 2006;Kweon et al., 2006;McDonald, 2007McDonald, , 2008bMitra et al., 2010). ...
... A study conducted in California suggests that the total length of bike lanes within a 400-m buffer near homes is not significantly associated with a difference in AST (Yarlagadda and Srinivasan, 2008). Similarly, another study assesses five state SRTS programs and finds that bike infrastructure improvement has no statistically significant effect on increasing the rate of biking to school (Stewart et al., 2012). Another study indicates that route conditions (including the presence of steep hills, speed and traffic, and insufficient daylight in the morning, etc.) have an effect on mode choice (Chillón et al., 2014). ...
... Shaw where a child has no other choice but to travel independently or actively. This can be the case for example for children accessing schools in disadvantaged communities, who may often be captive active travelers, with parents not affording school busses or other motorized modes (Stewart et al., 2012). Yet whether or not they should be labeled as captive can be subject to much discussion since many children in developing countries, especially in poorer areas, greatly depend on using formal and informal transport services and walking in which available resources and urban and social contexts are different (Salon and Gulyani, 2010;Porter et al. 2011). ...
... Children's mobility in many cases may be largely influenced by factors that are not necessarily related to economic rationality, such as factors of culture and values (Stewart et al., 2012). Many factors influencing travel behavior are highly subjective and depend on individual perceptions such as fear of traffic and crime, or varying attitudes towards different transport modes embedded since childhood during the earlier socialization process of transport options (Baslington, 2008;Westman et al., 2013;Flamm and Kaufmann, 2006). ...
... Lang 2007) found that students walking to schools within their neighborhood were 6 times the number walking to the more distant city-wide schools. This exemplifies the importance of smaller closer schools, as well as the relevance to disadvantaged communities that might not have access to nearby schools and would therefore need to exit their settlement to access schooling (Stewart et al., 2012;UNICEF 2013). Children would therefore have to interact with poorly planned streets and transport systems. ...
Thesis
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Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die tatsächliche und potenzielle Mobilität von Kindern aus einer ‎informellen Siedlungsstruktur in einer Megacity des globalen Südens am Fall Ezbet El-Hagganas im ‎Großraum Kairos; die Entwicklung von Mobilitätsgewohnheiten in der Kindheitsphase ‎und bezieht sich dabei nicht nur auf Kinder als Nutzer, sondern berücksichtigt zudem deren ‎unmittelbares soziales Umfeld und den gesamtgesellschaftlichen Kontext. Der theoretische Rahmen für die ‎Untersuchung der Mobilität von Kindern basiert auf Icek Ajzens Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens ‎sowie auf Vincent Kaufmanns Konzeptualisierung des Motilitätsbegriffes. Primärdaten wurden in ‎einer Feldstudie und in Fokusgruppen erhoben. Die Ergebnisse deuteten auf eine hohe Prävalenz der ‎unabhängigen Mobilität von Kindern (child independent mobility, CIM) auf deren am häufigsten zu ‎bewältigenden Strecke (zur Schule) hin, zunächst durch nicht motorisierte Formen der ‎Verkehrsteilnahme, aber weitgehend auch mit Hilfe von verschiedenen formellen wie informellen ‎Nahverkehrsmitteln. Es wurden sozio-kulturelle und sozialpsychologische Einflussfaktoren seitens ‎sowohl Kindern als auch ihren Eltern identifiziert, die die Verkehrsteilnahme von Kindern hemmen ‎oder befördern können. Gleichermaßen wurden hemmende ‎Faktoren untersucht. Die Akzeptanz des Radfahrens von Kindern wurde als Fallbeispiel für ‎unerschlossenes Mobilitätspotenzial untersucht und deutet auf die Prävalenz sozialpsychologischer ‎Faktoren hin, die Entscheidungsfaktoren rationaler und praktischer Natur entgegenstehen und die die ‎Verkehrsmittelnutzung von Kindern mindern; hier benannt als Nutzungslücke (appropriation gap). Die ‎Ergebnisse wurden schließlich in Zusammenhang mit dem Konzept der Verkehrsteilnahme gestellt ‎und erlauben die Diskussion von Implikationen für die politische Ebene und für den Diskurs von ‎Mobilität in benachteiligten Gruppen der Gesellschaft.
... Bicycling is a popular means of leisure, exercise and transport for children and youth around the world [1]. All forms of active travelling, such as walking and biking to school, are seen as environmentally friendly and also as an easy and convenient way for children to improve their health [2,3]. However, bicycling related accidents are relatively common. ...
... attending and responding in traffic) skills or actions at the same time [30]. However, due to children's still developing physical, cognitive and psychosocial abilities, they may be especially vulnerable to traffic dangers [3,31,32,33]. According to Liikenneturva [4] bicycling children are likely to be involved in crashes at intersections, for example where a bike lane and a roadway intersect. ...
... Children are a vulnerable group in traffic due to their still developing physical and cognitive abilities and their lack of experience [3,31,32,33]. This is reflected in their less developed hazard perception skills [23,42]. ...
Conference Paper
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Getting more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits. However, bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this is children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should support the hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game for 6-10 year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the players' task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either other road users on a potential collision course or locations where other road users could suddenly emerge from. If a target was missed or pointed out too late, the video was paused and feedback given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2 nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests using a switching replication design. In the tests similar videos were used as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked, and the participants were asked to point out those locations among multiple alternatives where any of the targets was present at the moment when the video was masked. Adults performed better than children both in terms of the percentage of correct answers and answer latencies. The game significantly shortened the answer time in the situation awareness test, but did not significantly increase the proportion of the correct answers. The results suggest that the game speeds up the acquisition of situational awareness. Overall, the children regarded the game positively, which indicates that the concept has potential for children's bicycling safety education.
... Bicycling is a popular means of leisure, exercise and transport for children and youth around the world (Macarthur et al., 1998). All forms of active travelling, such as walking and biking to school, are seen as environmentally friendly and an easy and convenient way for children to improve their health (De Hartog et al., 2010;Stewart et al., 2012). However, bicycling related accidents are relatively common. ...
... attending and responding in traffic) skills or actions at the same time (Ellis, 2014). However, due to children's still developing physical, cognitive and psychosocial abilities, they may be especially vulnerable to traffic dangers (Barton and Morrongiello, 2011;Dye and Bavelier, 2010;Klenberg et al., 2001;Stewart et al., 2012). According to Liikenneturva (2015a) bicycling children are likely to be involved in crashes at intersections, for example where a bike lane and a roadway intersect. ...
... Children are a vulnerable group in traffic due to their still developing physical and cognitive abilities and their lack of experience (Barton and Morrongiello, 2011;Dye and Bavelier, 2010;Klenberg et al., 2001;Stewart et al., 2012). This is reflected in their less developed hazard perception skills (Meyer et al., 2014;Oron-Gilad et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children’s less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children’s situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8–9 year old children.
... Des études longitudinales sont donc requises pour explorer les liens de causalité entre ces variables. Toutefois, certaines corrélations importantes ont été observées à l'effet que le sentiment d'appartenance au voisinage est un facteur qui atténue le sentiment d'insécurité des parents par rapport à la sécurité routière de leurs enfants (Stewart, Moudon, & Claybrooke, 2012). Dans les zones urbaines, les mères ayant une peur du crime et un faible sentiment d'appartenance avec le voisinage ont une perception plus élevée du danger social. ...
... Les parents qui accordent beaucoup d'importance à l'activité physique en général ne perçoivent pas nécessairement le trajet pour aller à l'école comme une opportunité d'activité physique (Stewart et al., 2012). Par conséquent, les campagnes de sensibilisation et d'éducation à l'égard du déplacement actif devraient mettre l'accent sur l'opportunité qu'il présente de pratiquer une activité physique. ...
... En effet, le manque d'exposition au transport actif de leurs enfants ne leur permet pas de les rassurer quant à leurs craintes à l'égard de ce mode de déplacement. L'ensemble de ces conditions sont donc corrélées directement au déplacement actif (Gielen et al., 2004;Stewart et al., 2012). ...
Technical Report
Rapport de recherche préparé pour le Ministère des transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’Électrification des transports (Québec). Programme de recherche en sécurité routière FQRNT-MTQ-FRSQ Dossier : 2013-SO-170806 : « La sécurité aux abords des écoles et des terrains de jeu : évaluation des interventions récentes et élaboration d’outils pour une promotion effective du transport actif chez les enfants ».
... The use of bicycles as a means of transportation can reduce congestion. Bicycles are also the most environmentally friendly means of transportation [1][2] [3][4] [5], provide health benefits [3][6] [7]. The program to use bicycles to school has been socialized to attract school students, in this case junior high school students, to use bicycles to school. ...
... The use of bicycles as a means of transportation can reduce congestion. Bicycles are also the most environmentally friendly means of transportation [1][2] [3][4] [5], provide health benefits [3][6] [7]. The program to use bicycles to school has been socialized to attract school students, in this case junior high school students, to use bicycles to school. ...
... Topographic factors are assumed that road surface factors in Surakarta will affect a person in using a bicycle to school. The distance factor [3][4] [6][10] [11] can be assumed that whether a distance or a distance will affect someone in using a bicycle. Weather factors [5] it is assumed that whether the weather is hot or rainy day someone will use a bicycle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cycling to school is a Surakarta City government program to reduce the use of motorbikes by students. The development of facilities for cyclists by the City of Surakarta is still limited to certain areas. On the other hand, the traffic conditions when going to school and coming home from school are problems and considerations for students to cycle to school. This paper will examine the factors that influence junior high school students to cycle to school in Surakarta using the ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. There are four main factors and 16 sub-factors of each of the main factors used in this paper. The main factors are behaviour, physical condition, social conditions, and environmental conditions. The results of the study that the environmental conditions are the greatest factor students cycling to school. When reviewed as a whole, these factors are calculated simultaneously, and found the five most influential factors. The five factors are bike ownership, health, parent’s salary, gender and no cycling friends.
... Numerous factors influence caregivers' willingness to allow children to actively commute to school. A review of the literature by Stewart, Moudon and Claybrooke (2012) identifies eight common factors that caregivers and/or children report as barriers or facilitators to active commuting to school, including the cultural experiences of the children. The variables that comprise individuals' cultural experience include individuals' foreign-born status, race and ethnicity, and regional location. ...
... In addition to the research on the travel-mode choices of children with foreign-born caregivers, a great deal of research documents variation in travel-mode choice by race and ethnicity (Stewart, Moudon, & Claybrooke, 2012). After controlling for individual and neighborhood covariates, researchers found that being African-American is associated with higher probability of walking to school (McDonald, 2007b). ...
Article
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This study explores how the cultural backgrounds of caregivers influence their perceptions and attitudes toward their children's active commuting to school. Caregivers in a suburban school district reported low rates of active commuting among children. Domestic and foreign-born caregivers differed in their perceptions of safety from crime. In addition, foreign-born caregivers who are more acculturated tend to be more reluctant to allow children's active commuting to school in the near future, compared to foreign-born caregivers who are less acculturated. Cultural factors and perceptions of safety from crime should be considered in the development of programs that promote active commuting to school.
... In Fig. 1, I have used italicized text for elements that are accounted for in this study, while plain text is used for elements that have not been included. The list of elements are loosely based on the factors identified in the literature review of Stewart et al. (2012), and are not intended to be exhaustive. ...
... In some instances, encouragement can overlap with education efforts, such as wayfinding signs and bicycle-specific maps which simultaneously celebrate and normalize bicycling while educating citizens about how they can travel by bicycle. In a review of both quantitative and qualitative research on active school travel, Stewart et al. (2012) identified eight common factors that serve as a hindrance or a catalyst for active school travel. Of those factors, the role of the built environment was the most frequently analyzed and encouragement the least. ...
Article
Efforts to encourage bicycling to school can achieve numerous societal benefits, including improved childhood health, reduced traffic congestion, and even long-term effects such as increased bicycling skill and attitudes. Most of the literature on children bicycling to school focuses on the influence of infrastructure interventions, yet relatively few studies have robustly evaluated the influence of encouragement efforts. This study seeks to examine the effects of three encouragement efforts undertaken at primary and secondary schools in Davis, California: the Active4.me scanning program, the Monkey Money incentive system, and the national Bike-to-School Day celebration. I use a binomial regression to statistically analyze bicycle rack count data and Safe Routes to School classroom tallies collected by city employees and local volunteers. After accounting for the schools’ physical environment and characteristics, as well as the influence of weather and the natural environment, I find that all three of the encouragement efforts increase levels of bicycling to school. I conclude by suggesting that these encouragement programs have the potential for lasting influence by providing children with the skills and confidence to bicycle later in life. I also note the value of further state support for the parent volunteers who operate these encouragement programs, in order to allow the spread of similar encouragement programs across a variety of cities, including disadvantaged communities.
... In agreement with findings from previous studies, distance to school was strongly associated with AST and increased by school year [3,9,10,16,26,[58][59][60][61]. Our measure of Active Mobility Environment was not directly associated with AST but was mediated by distance to school, suggesting that urban environments that support active mobility (i.e., increased residential density and street connectivity as well as less busy roads) can shorten distance to school and encourage AST. ...
... Research has shown that parents of children who use active travel modes and those who use passive travel modes can both perceive their school travel mode as convenient or easy [26,66]. However, parents of passive travellers more often quoted its convenience or ease in terms of their time, distance and schedules [60,[66][67][68]. In addition, trip chaining by car has been viewed as the best and least stressful way for working parents and/or parents who have more than one child in their household to move around multiple destinations including schools [66,[69][70][71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Active school travel (AST) is influenced by multiple factors including built and social environments, households and individual variables. A holistic theory such as Mitra’s Behavioural Model of School Transportation (BMST) is vital to comprehensively understand these complex interrelationships. This study aimed to assess direct and indirect associations between children’s AST and environmental, household and child factors based on the BMST using structural equation modelling (SEM). Methods Data were drawn from Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK), a cross-sectional study of 1102 children aged 8–13 years (school years 5–8) and their parents from nine intermediate and 10 primary schools in Auckland, New Zealand between February 2015 and December 2016. Data were collected using an online participatory mapping survey (softGIS) with children, a computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey (CATI) with parents, and ArcGIS for built environment attributes. Based on the BMST a conceptual model of children’s school travel behaviour was specified for SEM analyses (‘hypothesised SEM’), and model modification was made to improve the model (‘modified SEM’). SEM analyses using Mplus were performed to test the hypothesised/modified SEM and to assess direct and indirect relationships among variables. Results The overall fit of the modified SEM was acceptable (N = 542; Root mean square error of approximation = 0.04, Comparative fit index = 0.94, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92). AST was positively associated with child independent mobility, child-perceived neighbourhood safety, and parent-perceived importance of social interaction and neighbourhood social environment. Distance to school, and parental perceptions of convenience and concerns about traffic safety were negatively associated with AST. Parental fears of stranger danger were indirectly related to AST through those of traffic safety. Distance to school and child independent mobility mediated relationships between AST and child school year and sex. Conclusions Increasing children’s AST requires action on multiple fronts including communities that support independent mobility by providing child friendly social and built environments, safety from traffic, and policies that promote local schools and safe vehicle-free zones around school. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12966-019-0794-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Otro aspecto importante que resaltar es que el tema de la seguridad vial y personal está atravesado por la variable del género. La sobreprotección de los padres y/o madres hacia sus hijas es mayor que hacia los hijos según algunos autores (Davison et al., 2008;Stewart et al., 2012;Villanueva et al., 2014). En la revisión de literatura realizada por Davison et al. (2008) se menciona que la posibilidad de que los escolares varones se movilicen de forma activa es dos veces más alta en comparación con las mujeres. ...
... La distancia hacia la escuela puede considerarse una de las barreras más importantes para la movilidad activa y existe una relación inversa entre ellas. Esto se ha demostrado tanto en estudios aplicados a escolares (Ferri-García et al., 2019;Ikeda et al., 2019;Moran et al., 2018;Rojas Lopez, & Wong, 2017;Stewart et al., 2012;Wilson et al., 2018); como en estudios aplicados a padres y/o madres (Huertas-Delgado et al., 2018;Palma et al., 2019). Estos resultados llevan a poner a las relaciones de proximidad, como protagonistas de un futuro cambio en los modos de desplazamiento. ...
Article
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Se ha demostrado que la movilidad activa para los niños en edad escolar es fundamental para la salud, las relaciones sociales y el desempeño académico. Por ello, resulta preocupante que, en las últimas décadas, la movilidad activa hacia las escuelas haya disminuido. A pesar de que existe un creciente interés en promover la movilidad escolar a pie y en bicicleta, la evidencia científica es dispersa y poco estructurada, lo que dificulta la toma de decisiones adecuadas. En este artículo buscamos aportar a la sistematización del conocimiento acerca de movilidad escolar activa a través de una revisión de la literatura científica de los años 2009-2019 incluida en la base de datos bibliográfica Scopus. Se evidencia que las decisiones al respecto son tomadas principalmente por los padres, quienes ven como una barrera fundamental para la movilidad activa la inseguridad, tanto vial como personal; sin embargo, también inciden factores relacionados con el entorno construido, las condiciones sociodemográficas de los barrios, la distancia, el clima y la conveniencia de los padres. La revisión de la literatura evidencia también la concentración de este tipo de estudios en países desarrollados, y la incipiente investigación sobre la temática en países en vías de desarrollo.
... Parents who regularly choose the car seem to have different thoughts regarding what constitutes a close enough distance to enable walking or cycling to school in comparison with parents who choose active travel for their children-even though they share the same distance between home and school ( Lee et al., 2013). Distance between home and school may influence how parents value their child's ability to safely navigate traffic, handle social interactions, and avoid potentially dangerous situations, in turn influencing the decision to take (or not to take) the car ( Stewart et al., 2012). Parents who regularly use the car perceive the built environment to be more hazardous than parents who allow their children to walk or cycle ( Johansson, 2006). ...
... To investigate how parental and child sociodemographics impact upon the choice of taking the car, we asked the parents to provide information about their children's age and gender as well as background questions (i.e., parental gender, academic degree, income, car ownership, and occupational status). Based on earlier research into parental travel mode choice ( Johansson, 2006;McMillan, 2007;Stewart et al., 2012;McDonald et al., 2016;Ahern et al., 2017), a number of possible reasons for car choice were given. Thus, the parents stated their reasons for choosing the car on a five-point rating scale, ranging from disagree completely (1) to agree completely (5). ...
Article
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Children's school journeys have changed vastly during recent decades: More children are being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier research into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys—in particular how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode. This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school. We additionally investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors, distance, and both the stated reasons and the actual mode decision. A sample of 245 parents (194 women) of school children aged 10–15 in the County of Värmland in Sweden were included in the study. The results of PLS-SEM show that the factor Social convenience has a direct relationship with the frequency of car use indicating that the wish to accompany the child and the convenience of car impacts on car choice. If the child is not allowed to travel independently, the parents choose the car to take him/her to school. Sociodemographic factors had a direct relationship with the stated reasons, whereby parents with a higher level of education valued safety/security less. Quite surprisingly, distance (i.e., environmental factor) did not affect car use, indicating that parents drive their children to school regardless of distance. By isolating the particular reasons for choosing the car, this paper focuses on a potentially important missing piece as regards finding out what motivates the increasing car usage in children's school journeys. An increased knowledge of what motivates the decision to take children by car is important for effective policies aimed at changing parents' inclination toward choosing the car.
... Many empirical studies have verified the substantial role of the built environment in either prompting or limiting AST, such as home-to-school distance, intersection density, street connectivity, land use mix, traffic calming, landscape affordance, weather, traffic noise and volume (Clark et al., 2015;Giles-Corti et al., 2011;Ikeda et al., 2018;Stewarta et al., 2012;Su et al., 2013). Compared to other built-environment factors, distance (either actual or perceived) is the dominant reason that influences how children travel to and from school in many countries (Giles-Corti et al., 2011;Hume et al., 2009;Rodr ıguez-Rodr ıguez et al., 2017;Rothman et al., 2017;Stewarta et al., 2012;Sun et al., 2018;Wong et al., 2011). ...
... Many empirical studies have verified the substantial role of the built environment in either prompting or limiting AST, such as home-to-school distance, intersection density, street connectivity, land use mix, traffic calming, landscape affordance, weather, traffic noise and volume (Clark et al., 2015;Giles-Corti et al., 2011;Ikeda et al., 2018;Stewarta et al., 2012;Su et al., 2013). Compared to other built-environment factors, distance (either actual or perceived) is the dominant reason that influences how children travel to and from school in many countries (Giles-Corti et al., 2011;Hume et al., 2009;Rodr ıguez-Rodr ıguez et al., 2017;Rothman et al., 2017;Stewarta et al., 2012;Sun et al., 2018;Wong et al., 2011). McDonald (2007McDonald ( , 2011 found a strong negative relationship between distance to school and the rates of AST. ...
Article
The distance between home and school considerably influences the probability of children’s walking or biking to school (termed Active School Travel) which is a significant opportunity to promote their daily physical activity. This study investigated the shortest routes from home to school of primary school students and how the route distance can be shortened at the household level in Nanjing, China. We found that gated urban form results in significantly roundabout routes to school. In 2016, China issued the Opening and Prohibiting Gated Communities policy, subsequently the Healthy Cities Initiative, etc. which may leverage cities towards more healthy and sustainable transformations. In the light of these policies, we hypothesised that providing through access as management option, and opening new entries as reengineering option, would shorten school travel distance with minor costs. The scenario analysis shows that such management and reengineering adaptions would provide shorter and potentially less exposed routes for students. This study identifies how the existent urban form works against active school travel, and proposes how salutogenic pathways may be created in the gated urban form. The study, with transferability to other cities, can assist urban designers and policy makers in piloting urban (re)form incrementally and pragmatically to prompt active travel to schools.
... Otro aspecto importante que resaltar es que el tema de la seguridad vial y personal está atravesado por la variable del género. La sobreprotección de los padres y/o madres hacia sus hijas es mayor que hacia los hijos según algunos autores (Davison et al., 2008;Stewart et al., 2012;Villanueva et al., 2014). En la revisión de literatura realizada por Davison et al. (2008) se menciona que la posibilidad de que los escolares varones se movilicen de forma activa es dos veces más alta en comparación con las mujeres. ...
... La distancia hacia la escuela puede considerarse una de las barreras más importantes para la movilidad activa y existe una relación inversa entre ellas. Esto se ha demostrado tanto en estudios aplicados a escolares (Ferri-García et al., 2019;Ikeda et al., 2019;Moran et al., 2018;Rojas Lopez, & Wong, 2017;Stewart et al., 2012;Wilson et al., 2018); como en estudios aplicados a padres y/o madres (Huertas-Delgado et al., 2018;Palma et al., 2019). Estos resultados llevan a poner a las relaciones de proximidad, como protagonistas de un futuro cambio en los modos de desplazamiento. ...
Article
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Avances en el conocimiento de la relación entre la movilidad activa a la escuela y el entorno urbano. Revista de Urbanismo, (45), 182-198. https://doi.org/10.5354/0717-5051.2021.58168. Se ha demostrado que la movilidad activa para los niños en edad escolar es fundamental para la salud, las relaciones sociales y el desempeño académico. Por ello, resulta preocupante que, en las últimas décadas, la movilidad activa hacia las escuelas haya disminuido. A pesar de que existe un creciente interés en promover la movilidad escolar a pie y en bicicleta, la evidencia científica es dispersa y poco estructurada, lo que dificulta la toma de decisiones adecuadas. En este artículo buscamos aportar a la sistematización del conocimiento acerca de movilidad escolar activa a través de una revisión de la literatura científica de los años 2009-2019 incluida en la base de datos bibliográfica Scopus. Se evidencia que las decisiones al respecto son tomadas principalmente por los padres, quienes ven como una barrera fundamental para la movilidad activa la inseguridad, tanto vial como personal; sin embargo, también inciden factores relacionados con el entorno construido, las condiciones sociodemográficas de los barrios, la distancia, el clima y la conveniencia de los padres. La revisión de la literatura evidencia también la concentración de este tipo de estudios en países desarrollados, y la incipiente investigación sobre la temática en países en vías de desarrollo. Active mobility for school-age children has been demonstrated to be critical to health, social relationships, and academic performance. That is why it is worrying that active mobility to schools has decreased in recent decades. Despite the growing interest in promoting school mobility on foot and by bicycle, the scientific evidence is scattered and poorly structured, making it difficult to make good decisions. This article aims to contribute to the systematization of knowledge about active school mobility through a review of scientific literature of the years 2009-2019, included in the bibliographic database Scopus. Parents make decisions about mobility mainly by parents, who see insecurity and road safety as barriers to active mobility. Factors related to the built environment, the socio-demographic conditions of the neighborhoods, the distance, the climate, and the convenience of the parents also have an influence. The literature review has also evidenced the concentration of studies in developed countries and the developing research on the subject in developing countries. Active mobility, non-motorized mobility, school mobility, sustainable transportation Keywords Movilidad activa, movilidad escolar, movilidad no motorizada, transporte sustentable Palabras clave Resumen Abstract Avances en el conocimiento de la relación entre la movilidad activa a la escuela y el entorno urbano
... Data from several previous studies have demonstrated that the macro levels of urban morphological characteristics, such as land-use mix, residential density, road intersection density, and road network connectivity, are significant influence factors on children's active school travel [7][8][9]. Some targeted optimization strategies have been proposed, which are difficult to implement by urban planners and managers working in local communities. ...
... The Standard for the Environment Noise defines that the environmental noise limit of residential, cultural, and educational areas is 55 dB in the daytime and 45 dB at night. Thus, the sound decibels ( 8 ) were divided into three levels: 8 ( 6 ), and green looking ratio ( 7 ) were graded by the natural breaks method (Table 6). Each index was further analyzed to identify weaknesses in each street, providing detailed insights into possible problems identified. ...
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(1) Background: school travel is an important part of a child’s daily activities. A comfortable walking environment can encourage children to walk to school. The existing methods of evaluating walking environments are not specific to children’s walks to school. (2) Methods: this study proposes a method of evaluating walking comfort in children traveling to school at street scale. Related indexes were selected that reflect children’s school travel behavior and their needs in street environments based on walking environment audit tools. Factor analysis was then used to calculate the relative weight of each index. (3) Results: the new evaluation method was tested in the neighborhoods around the First Central Primary School in Hedong District, Tianjin, China. The walking comfort for children’s school travel was evaluated in eight indexes: effective street width; street flatness; street cleanliness; interface diversity; buffer; shade coverage; green looking ratio; and sound decibels. Different classes and types of streets were found to have various vulnerabilities. (4) Conclusions: this evaluation method can accurately locate the weak spots in streets to improve the local policymakers’ perception of street environments, which can greatly facilitate the implementation of precise measures to promote children walking to school.
... L'usage du vélo change au cours de l'enfance, et devient plus utilitaire avec l'âge [59]. Les collégiens l'utilisent davantage comme un moyen de transport, par exemple pour se rendre à leurs activités extra-scolaires [54], et moins comme un loisir ou pour s'amuser [58]. ...
... Concernant la mobilité indépendante, un certain nombre de travaux montre que les garçons d'âge scolaire et les adolescents se déplacent plus en autonomie (à pied ou à vélo) pour se rendre à l'école ou rentrer à la maison que les filles [40,51,59,64,70]. Une étude internationale sur la mobilité indépendante des enfants âgés de 7 à 15 ans [37] nuance néanmoins ce constat puisque la grande majorité des résultats va dans le sens d'une mobilité autonome équivalente chez les filles et les garçons, à pied et à vélo. ...
... Changes in the physical and social environment can provide necessary supports for a culture of walking (Hovell et al., 2009); our study helps to elucidate factors that are associated with the development of this environment and what is necessary to maintain it over time. Research has shown that parents are more likely to allow their children to walk/bike to/from school if they perceive the environment to be safe and pleasant (Chaufan, Yeh, & Fox, 2012;Chillon et al., 2014;DeWeese et al., 2013;Hsu & Saphores, 2014;Oluyomi et al., 2014;Stewart, Moudon, & Claybrooke, 2012). There are different ways to address the safety of the built environment around schools, including physical (sidewalks, crosswalks, traffic signals, etc.) and non-physical (crossing guards, walking school bus, etc.) improvements. ...
Article
In an effort to understand factors influencing the implementation and outcomes of the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program in Texas, interviews were conducted in 2014 with 34 community- and state-level stakeholders involved in the 2007 SRTS grant program. Participants were asked a series of multiple-choice and open-ended questions about SRTS program planning, implementation, and sustainability. Transcribed responses were organized and grouped according to thematic elements using standard qualitative methods. Results indicate the SRTS program was perceived as beneficial by providing funds for both infrastructure and education projects. Although most community representatives reported accomplishments toward planned goals (improved infrastructure and perceived increase in active commuting), many had significant challenges including lack of communication and up-front funding, and difficulty navigating the regulatory process. Future SRTS programs should be structured to be more compatible with community-based needs and limitations, provide adequate underlying infrastructure and resources, and include at least partial funding up-front.
... Those statistics are not presented in the interest of brevity but are available upon request. Sirard and Slater 2008;Stewart, Moudon, and Claybrooke 2012). These factors include child demographics, aspects of the built environment (e.g. ...
Article
According to data from the National Household Travel Survey, 49.3 percent of American children in Kindergarten through sixth grade either walked or biked to school in 1969. By 2017, only 11 percent of elementary children still walked or biked to school. In this study, we examine the effect of school transport mode on a child’s academic achievement using data from a nationally representative dataset of American children. We rely on instrumental variables regression to isolate the effect of mode on achievement. Our results suggest children who are dropped off from private vehicles, and to a lesser extent, walk to school, have higher test scores than children who ride the bus.
... Stewart et al. [15] reviewed qualitative and cross-sectional studies on active travel to school and identified eight common factors that influence cycling (and walking) to school in North America: distance to school, parental fear of traffic and crime, family schedule constraints and values (e.g. attitudes toward general physical activity), neighbourhood and family resources and culture, weather, and school characteristics. ...
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IntroductionElectric bikes (e-bikes) may help in transport decarbonisation in European cities. To fully assess the market potential of e-bikes, further research is needed to understand users' preferences and the range of factors that can contribute to people to shift from car use to low carbon vehicles such as e-bikes.This paper is built on the Be4Schools R&D project implemented in the smart city of Águeda in Portugal. It comprised the former study in the country that examined the willingness of students (aged 15-21 years) to use e-bikes for daily trips to school and that gathered their preferences towards specific ICT related attributes. Methods The methodology comprised a mobility survey and a stated-choice experiment (SC). The SC experiment gathered 2232 observations for modelling which were able to provide the relevant attribute informa'on trade-off between car travel, route and e-bike features (with or without specific ICT equipment).An extensive econometric analysis using was performed to assess the nature and extent of students' heterogeneity of preferences which also considered gender issues. The study aimed to contribute to the regional economic cluster on powered two-wheels' industry & innovation. ResultsThe absence of cycling infrastructures (segregated from main road) and the absence of cycle lanes in the road infrastructure were ranked as the first, second and third most important barriers, by 25.4% and 24.8% of the students, respectively.The importance of a dedicated cycling route to school (segregated from main traffic) revealed to be critical as the odds of choosing an e-bike was found to be 6.5 'mes higher in comparison with the “no cycling infrastructure” option, ceteris paribus. This finding is aligned with the fact that cyclists would need to be exposed to high levels of motorized traffic in main roads and to increased perceived risks.The market potential of e-bikes is likely to be higher if ICT features can be added to e-bikes as the odds of choosing an e-bike when it comes with the preferred ICT devices is 1.7 times higher than the opposed situation (e-bike without additional ICT devices). Conclusions Research results are interesting for mobility policies and industry as the possible integration of ICT equipment in e-bikes may speed up the market uptake of this technology in smart cities. On the other hand, cycling infrastructures seem to be critical elements for increasing the demand for both conventional and e-bikes in the smart city of Águeda.
... This seems to point out that the mere existence of good cycling infrastructure is not sufficient to engage individuals in cycling. Stewart et al. (2012) reviewed qualitative and cross-sectional studies on active travel to school and identified eight common factors that influence cycling (and walking) to school in North America: distance to school, parental fear of traffic and crime, family schedule constraints and values (e.g. attitudes toward general physical activity), neighborhood and family resources and culture, weather, and school characteristics. ...
Article
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Electric bikes (e-bikes) may help in transport decarbonisation in European cities. To fully assess the market potential of e-bikes, further research is needed to understand users’ preferences and the range of factors that can contribute for people to shift from car use to low carbon vehicles such as e-bikes. This paper is built on the Be4Schools R&D project implemented in the city of Águeda which is considered the first smart city in Portugal. It comprised the former study in the country that examined the willingness of students (aged 15-21 years) to use e-bikes for daily trips to school and that gathered their preferences towards specific ICT related attributes. The methodology comprised a mobility survey and a stated-choice experiment (SC). The SC experiment gathered 2232 observations which were able to provide the relevant attribute trade-off information between car travel and e-bike (with or without specific ICT equipment). An extensive econometric analysis was performed to assess the nature and extent of students’ heterogeneity of preferences which also considered gender issues. The study aimed to contribute to the regional economic cluster on powered two-wheels’ industry & innovation. Research results are interesting for city mobility policies and the regional industry as the possible integration of ICT equipment in e-bikes may speed up the market uptake of this technology.
... Planning for walkability remains largely a built environment endeavor, despite the adoption of social ecological frameworks by some planning scholars (Alfonzo, 2005 ;Miles & Jacobs, 2008 ;Rodríguez, Khattak, & Evenson, 2006 ;Sallis et al., 2006 ;Stewart, Vernez Moudon, & Claybrooke, 2012 ) and new research on the importance of social factors related to walking (Belon, Nieuwendyk, Vallianatos, & Nykiforuk, 2016 ;Bracy et al., 2014 ). A recent survey of pedestrian master plans and the planners responsible for overseeing them in 50 U.S. cities shows that although 30% of the plans reviewed included provisions for safety and security, they mostly only addressed safety as preventing automobile collisions, despite evidence that fear of crime prevents walking (Stangl, 2011 ). ...
Article
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Problem, research strategy, and findings: Supportive built environments for walking are linked to higher rates of walking and physical activity, but little is known about this relationship for socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., low-income and racial/ethnic minority) populations. We review 17 articles and find that most show that the built environment has weaker effects on walking and physical activity for disadvantaged than advantaged groups. Those who lived in supportive built environments walked more and were more physically active than those who did not, but the effect was about twice as large for advantaged groups. We see this difference because disadvantaged groups walked more in unsupportive built environments and less in supportive built environments, though the latter appears more influential. Takeaway for practice: Defining walkability entirely in built environment terms may fail to account for important social and individual/household characteristics and other non–built environment factors that challenge disadvantaged groups, including fear of crime and lack of social support. Planners must be sensitive to these findings and to community concerns about gentrification and displacement in the face of planned built environment improvements that may benefit more advantaged populations. We recommend five planning responses: Recognize that the effects of the built environment may vary by socioeconomics; use holistic approaches to improve walkability; expand walkability definitions to address a range of social and physical barriers; partner across agencies, disciplines, and professions; and evaluate interventions in different socioeconomic environments.
... The physical activity proposals in The Policy centre around advice to schools and funding for cycling and walking initiatives. However, The Policy lacks engagement with wider determinants of active travel including environmental constraints, distance from school, and time poverty [68][69][70] and unmeasured factors found to be associated with cycling including home and social arrangements that facilitate cycling and owning a bike [71]. The proposals do not demonstrate how they are going to target children from less affluent backgrounds to increase physical activity and reduce these inequalities. ...
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Background The UK government released Chapter 1 of the ‘Childhood Obesity: a plan for action’ (2016), followed by Chapter 2 (2018) and preliminary Chapter 3 was published for consultation in 2019 (hereon collectively ‘ The Policy’) . The stated policy aims were to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity in England, addressing disparities in health by reducing the gap (approximately two-fold) in childhood obesity between those from the most and least deprived areas. Methods Combining a realist approach with an analysis of policy discourses, we analysed the policies using a social determinants of health (SDH) perspective (focusing on socio-economic inequalities). This novel approach reveals how the framing of policy ‘problems’ leads to particular approaches and interventions. Results While recognising a social gradient in relation to obesity measures, we critique obesity problem narratives. The Policy included some upstream, structural approaches (e.g. restrictions in food advertising and the soft-drinks industry levy). However, the focus on downstream individual-level behavioural approaches to reduce calorie intake and increase physical activity does not account for the SDH and the complexity and contestedness of ‘obesity’ and pays insufficient attention to how proposals will help to reduce inequalities. Our findings illustrate that individualising of responsibility to respond to what wider evidence shows is structural inequalities, can perpetuate damaging narratives and lead to ineffective interventions, providing caution to academics, practitioners and policy makers (local and national), of the power of problem representation. Our findings also show that the problem framing in The Policy risks reducing important public health aims to encourage healthy diets and increase opportunities for physical activity (and the physical and mental health benefits of both) for children to weight management with a focus on particular children. Conclusions We propose an alternative conceptualisation of the policy ‘problem’, that obesity rates are illustrative of inequality, arguing there needs to be policy focus on the structural and factors that maintain health inequalities, including poverty and food insecurity. We hope that our findings can be used to challenge and strengthen future policy development, leading to more effective action against health inequalities and intervention-generated inequalities in health.
... The research on the ways in which the built environment affects children's physical activity has expanded rapidly over the past few years. This rapidly growing interest in activity promoting environments is reflected in the number of reviews on matter (Pont et al. 2009, Wong, Faulkner & Buliung 2011, Dunton et al. 2009, Stewart, Vernez Moudon & Claybrooke 2012, van Loon, Frank 2011, Sirard, Slater 2008, McMillan 2005, Davison, Werder & Lawson 2008, Mitra 2013, Ding et al. 2011, Panter, Jones & van Sluijs 2008. Further, a review on these reviews (Ding, Gebel 2012) and a methodological paper on how to perform the reviews concerning children's mobility environments (Gebel et al. 2014) has been published. ...
Thesis
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Interest towards children's mobility patterns has increased due to the health risks related to sedentary lifestyles and increasing obesity levels. While there are indications that the participation of Finnish children and youth in structured exercise has increased, the level of unstructured physical activity, such as walking and cycling for transportation and playing outdoors, has decreased. The decreasing activity levels of children and youth call for a better understanding of the possibilities of different environments to promote physical activity. This thesis examines the mobility behaviours of children and youth in two urban areas of Finland. The main objective is to identify the characteristics of the built environment which promote children's independent mobility and active transportation. Concurrently, I develop new ways of conceptualizing and operationalizing the environment that matters for children's mobility outcomes. Understanding the multiple ways in which the elements of the built environment matter for children's active living requires a specific place-based methodology. In this thesis, an Internet-based softGIS method was used to collect data from children and youth on their mobility during school journeys as well as on their way to the places meaningful to them. My findings show that distance and consequently the density of the built environment are the most crucial elements of environment for children's mobility. Moderately dense urban environments promote children's independence and activity, whereas the places in the densest urban cores are reached in the company of adults using passive transport modes. However, the urban cores offer multitude of interesting things to experience. I conclude that planning and the promotion of physical activity should not concentrate exclusively on some specific journeys or on places specially designed for children and youth. Instead, the whole environment should be considered as a potentially meaningful setting for activities. Based on these findings, new urban areas should be connected to the existing urban structure, and good public transportation links should be developed to allow for independent mobility. In future research, emphasis should be given to the places children frequent, and the environment around these places. Independent mobility should be studied in line with transport mode when we are interested in physical activity during transportation. Moreover, distance should always be taken into account when analysing the associations between environment and mobility.
... For example, this reliance on motorized transport leads to fewer pedestrians of any age being present within the neighborhood and lower levels of social cohesion (Leyden, 2003). This may lead to higher levels of parental concern related to traffic and crime, which has been found to be a barrier to ATS (Stewart, Moudon & Claybrooke, 2012;Giles-Corti et al., 2011). Additionally, Schoeppe et al. (2015) reported that adults with higher perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion were more likely to permit greater distances for children's independent travel. ...
Article
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Single entry communities (SECs) and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS) rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. Parental-reported data was collected from 11 elementary schools on ATS rates (n=1217). SECs and cul-de-sacs were quantified for each school zone. Logistic regression models were used to predict ATS. 23.9% of students reported ATS all of the time and 31.4% some of the time. SECs per school zone ranged from 0 to 25 (mean=11.9). Cul-de-sacs ranged from 12 to 315 (mean=138.3). Some ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p≤0.001;OR=0.61), parental education (high school: p=0.004;OR=0.53, some college: p=0.001;OR=0.50, 4year degree: p=0.004;OR=0.52) and cul-de-sacs (p≤0.001;OR=0.99). A separate model using distance from school (p≤0.001;OR=0.61), parental education (high school: p=0.002;OR=0.51, some college: p≤0.001;OR=0.45, 4year degree: p≤0.001;OR=0.45) and SECs (p≤0.001;OR=0.96) predicted some ATS. All ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p≤0.001;OR=0.58), parental education (Grades 9–11: p=0.05;OR=0.61, high school: p≤0.001;OR=0.45, some college: p≤0.001;OR=0.41, 4year degree: p≤0.001;OR=0.38) and SECs (p≤0.001;OR=0.97). A separate model using distance from school (p≤0.001;OR=0.58), parental education (Grades 9–11: p=0.041;OR=0.59, high school: p≤0.001;OR=0.47, some college: p≤0.001;OR=0.44, 4year degree: p≤0.001;OR=0.43) and cul-de-sacs (p≤0.001;OR=0.99) predicted all ATS. Current findings reveal that both SECs and cul-de-sacs were predictors of ATS beyond distance. Students with more SECs and cul-de-sacs in their school zone were less likely to utilize ATS.
... Children dwelling within one kilometer (km) of school prefer walking while those living beyond three kilometers use vehicles. According to Stewarta et al. [19], the distance to school, parental attitude towards traffic, culture, climate, and family resources are some of the significant factors affecting walking and biking to school. ...
Article
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Many techniques including logistic regression and artificial intelligence have been employed to explain school-goers mode choice behavior. This paper aims to compare the effectiveness, robustness, and convergence of three different machine learning tools (MLT), namely the extreme learning machine (ELM), support vector machine (SVM), and multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) to predict school-goers mode choice behavior in Al-Khobar and Dhahran cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It uses the students' information, including the school grade, the distance between home and school, travel time, family income and size, number of students in the family and education level of parents as input variables to the MLT. However, their outputs were binary, that is, either to choose the passenger car or walking to the school. The study examined a promising performance of the ELM and MLP-NN suggesting their significance as alternatives for school-goers mode choice modeling. The performances of the SVM was satisfactory but not to the same level of significance in comparison with the other two. Moreover, the SVM technique is computationally more expensive over the ELM and MLP-NN. Further, this research develops a majority voting ensemble method based on the outputs of the employed MLT to enhance the overall prediction performance. The presented results confirm the efficacy and superiority of the ensemble method over the others. The study results are likely to guide the transport engineers, planners, and decision-makers by providing them with a reliable way to model and predict the traffic demand for transport infrastructures on the basis of the prevailing mode choice behavior.
... Similarly, Ewing and Cervero (2010) suggested that the magnitude of walking (measured as trip frequency, trip length, or mode share) is substantially affected by junction density, distances to market, and bus stop frequency, while keeping all the demographics constant. The walking time per week is also affected by the distance between households and destinations such as stores and restaurants (Stewarta et al., 2012). A study in Rajshahi, Bangladesh revealed that people prefer to walk when the duration of the walk is less than 10 min (Jamal & Mohiuddin, 2020). ...
Article
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Non-motorized transport (NMT) is the use of a bicycle or walking to travel from one place to another. It is gaining popularity especially in the developed countries due to low transport externalities such as emissions and traffic congestion alongside its benefits to physical and mental health. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the existing literature related to NMT is presented focusing on the factors including built environment, geography, and weather, the health, and environmental benefits of NMT, and the motivational approach for increasing the use of NMT. The built environment, geography and weather, and socioeconomic factors significantly affect the use of NMT as a travel mode. This study reviewed some unique characteristics of NMT especially in developing countries to provide a clear understanding of the dynamics of NMT. Despite existence of vast research on NMT, a comprehensive literature review to evaluate different aspects of NMT seems essential to address the future challenges with significant automobile ownership increase in the developing nations and the associated externalities. The developing nations have to understand the factors of NMT with reference to their socio-economic conditions and perform quantitative analyses to estimate and project benefits of NMT including health benefits. The policy makers in the developing countries should consider the NMT as one element of the solution matrix to address the challenges of road transport. Graphic Abstract
... Among the relevant national and international researches that analyzed the route of the child to school using different modes of transport are: Müller and Arruda (2013); Mendoza et al. (2012); Collins & Kearns (2005); Stewart et al. (2012); Yeung et all (2008);Ipingbemi & Aiworo (2013). However, these studies are related mostly to the definition and / or implementation of new safe methods to take and pick up children to/from school or analyze what are the factors that determine the choice of a transport mode to perform this route. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents the evaluation of micro accessibility in the surrounding area of a school located in a residential neighborhood in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Micro accessibility indicators related to the quality of both comfort and safety of users were used for this study as well as multi methods in order to assess the quality of micro accessibility in the vicinity of this area. The results show that the indicators used are effective to identify problems related to comfort and safety of students and school staff who use public transportation. These results may assist local managers in planning and monitoring the spatial quality of the sidewalks located around school areas and contribute to the formulation of municipal policies on this topic.
... Cycling, as a moderate intensity exercise, is a suitable strategy for children to increase their physical activity levels (Panter, Jones, Van Sluijs, & Griffin, 2010) to improve health and fitness (de Hartog, Boogaard, Nijland, & Hoek, 2010;Stewart, Vernez Moudon, & Claybrooke, 2012) whilst reducing cardiovascular risk factors (Oja et al., 2011). Although cycling for leisure, or as mode of transport, introduces new health risks associated with accidents, injuries and exposure to air pollution, the benefits of cycling still outweigh these risks (de Hartog et al., 2010;Hillman, 1993). ...
... The absence of supported pedestrian facilities (i.e. sidewalks, crossings, and lighting), poor connectivity of roadway network (which limits the alternatives to walking along busy routes) and other hazardous conditions along the way were associated with lower rates of walking (McDonald et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2010;Stewarta et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
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Promoting active travel to school has become a growing interest for governments and organizations in the past decades. However, it is less known how children in the refugee camps travel to school. This paper aims to identify the possibility for the children at Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan (Jerash Camp) to involve with the Active School Travel. Jerash camp was selected as a representative case of the ten official camps in Jordan for Palestinian refugees because of it is among the oldest and compact refugee camps. The preliminary investigation found factors such as social and economic conditions on the safety and security of school children may contribute to the possibility of Active School Travel in the camp. However, the condition of pedestrian facilities and route conditions maybe become the deterrent factors. As a conclusion, the findings from the preliminary study can be used to plan a better design and improvement to promote the active school travel for children in Jerash camp.
... But childrenʼs travel behavior is different in developing countries in this respect, especially in poorer areas where children greatly depend on using formal and informal transport services and walking (Salon andGulyani 2010, Porter et al. 2014). Stewart et al. (2012) conducted an extensive review and synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research on ATS, and found eight common factors that influenced ATS: distance to school, parental fear of traffic and crime, family schedule constraints, values, school characteristics, neighborhood and family resources, culture, and weather. This synthesis may help in addressing the issue holistically. ...
Article
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The majority of residential settlements in Greater Cairo are informal, yet little is known about travel behavior within its informal settlements. The present paper explores aspects of travel behavior in one of Egypt's largest and most dense informal settlements, Ezbet El-Haggana, through a qualitative study of children's travel to school. The key research question was: How do children interact with transport options to access schools in a dense informal settlement in Egypt? Ten Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) for this research were conducted, 4 with mothers, 5 with children, and 1 with transport service providers. Design of FGDs leveraged existing behavioral theories commonly used in exploring travel behavior and also included photo-elicitation. Qualitative data was also complimented with field observations and interviews with community leaders and government officials. Findings highlighted the high degree of children's independent mobility (CIM) and the diversity of modes of transport used and multitude of trip-to-school arrangements facilitated by community collaboration and entrepreneurial initiatives standing in contrast to current mainstream knowledge about trips to school in formal urban areas. Another distinct feature is prevalence of strong socio-cultural factors strongly inhibiting the consideration of cycling as a mode of transport, more so for older females, but also for all other segments. Implications for accompanying culturally-sensitive gender-specific soft measures that are needed together with the planned hard interventions are discussed in order to (a) maintain existing elements of sustainable travel behavior observed today (mode choices and efficient trip planning) sustaining their relatively low carbon footprint, and (b) mainstream underutilized modes such as cycling and Walking School Buses (WSB), and (c) inhibit adoption of unsustainable travel behavior in the future as found in the formal counterpart of the city that informal settlements are converging with.
... Whether children engage in active commuting to school is consistently associated with paren- tal perceptions. Common parental concerns include neighborhood safety, traffic, distance to school, and busy schedules (2,8,9). ...
Article
Thousands of communities across America now promote walking and biking (active commuting) to school as a mechanism to increase physical activity, reduce traffic congestion, and improve air quality. Distance to school and attributes of the built environment are crucial factors in a child's mode choice, and some of the most difficult determinants to influence with programmatic interventions. Further understanding the built environment's role may help in assessing a school's mode shift potential and more effectively planning and implementing strategies that increase walking and biking to school. Based on a student travel behavior survey of 18,713 responses from 105 schools in Massachusetts, a multilevel model was used to investigate the effects of route, neighborhood, and school characteristics on walking to school. The model results indicate that the built environment affects the odds of walking to school. Specifically, short routes along less-trafficked streets with mixed land use are associated with the increased odds of children walking to school. Investigating these built environment characteristics of the route, neighborhood, and school through a multilevel model, the study created a framework for examining between-school differences in walk-to-school rates, while controlling for built environment factors of the school and student body. A potential application for this work is to compare walkto- school rates across heterogeneous schools and contextualize schools' baseline walk share, set appropriate and measurable mode shift goals, and track their progress over time.
... These concerns stem in part from previous studies that have found increased density results in social withdrawal (Bramley and Power 2009;Carroll, Witten, and Kearns 2011), higher levels of stress and dissatisfaction (Bramley and Power 2009), neighborhood crime (Carroll, Witten, and Kearns 2011;Kearns and Collins 2006), traffic pollution (Freeman and Tranter 2011), and loss of urban green spaces (Kearns and Collins 2006;Wheeler 2013). These issues also resonate with parental concerns for children's safety (e.g., Cox 2013;Stewart, Vernez Moudon, and Claybrooke 2012). However, the majority of studies exploring the impacts of density on children are set in cities outside the United States that have different histories and structures than the majority of American cities undergoing densification today (e.g. ...
Article
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Young people have much to offer urban planning, yet are not often included in such processes. A unique partnership in Boulder, Colorado, provides a venue for young people’s participation in city planning. Boulder is in many ways a learning laboratory with progressive ideals and sustainability thinking. As the city began planning for its Comprehensive Housing Strategy, tensions about the future of density within the city emerged. Participatory planning can have significant impacts on children and can also contribute new ideas to planning processes. In this study, young people demonstrated attitudinal changes toward government, increased recognition of diverse needs within a city, and integration of social and environmental sustainability into their recommendations for neighborhood planning.
... The safety of home-school routes must therefore be taken into consideration for the success of a bike sharing program. It is important to note that safety is not only referred to the separation of the cycle traffic from other vehicular traffic or to the absence of obstacles on the cycle paths but also to the sense of security that the urban environment transmits, in relation to architectural degradation and crime (Stewart et al., 2012). ...
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Encouraging active and sustainable transport modes in order to limit the excessive use of cars, as well as reducing pollutant emissions and creating livable urban environments, has become one of the priorities for policymakers in recent years. The introduction of innovative systems increasingly being introduced in modern cities, such as bike sharing, can certainly contribute to the spread of cycling and thus allow a radical change in the mobility habits of their citizens. This can be especially true for high-school students who are often otherwise accompanied by their parents with private cars. This article aims to assess the influence that a bike sharing program for students has on modal share and on city mobility. As a case study, the city of Palermo was chosen, where the use of the car for home-school trips is prevalent. The “Go2School” project, which involves the creation of a bike sharing program for four schools, with the construction of cycle docks and cycle paths in the nearby areas, will soon become a reality. Thanks to appropriate surveys and questionnaires, a multinomial logit model was calibrated to estimate the modal share towards bike sharing for the students and evaluate the demand for this transport mode.
... Although previous studies have shown associations between AST and several correlates, including distance, motor vehicle ownership, perceived safety, land use mix, walking and cycling infrastructure, walkability, urban form, and social interactions [25][26][27][28][29], there is evidence that shows that associations and the direction of association may differ across countries [25]. Furthermore, distance between home and school has been described as the most consistent correlate of AST [26,27,30], and together with safety perceptions and resources availability, such as car ownership, are among the main factors that influence AST and can guide public policy design [31]. However, the studies that have objectively measured the distance to school have been conducted only in HIC [30]. ...
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Walking and biking to school represent a source of regular daily physical activity (PA). The objectives of this paper are to determine the associations of distance to school, crime safety, and socioeconomic variables with active school transport (AST) among children from five culturally and socioeconomically different country sites and to describe the main policies related to AST in those country sites. The analytical sample included 2845 children aged 9-11 years from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations between distance, safety and socioeconomic variables, and the odds of engaging in AST. Greater distance to school and vehicle ownership were associated with a lower likelihood of engaging in AST in sites in upper-middle- and high-income countries. Crime perception was negatively associated to AST only in sites in high-income countries. Our results suggest that distance to school is a consistent correlate of AST in different contexts. Our findings regarding crime perception support a need vs. choice framework, indicating that AST may be the only commuting choice for many children from the study sites in upper-middle-income countries, despite the high perception of crime.
... Therefore, more locales should be explored to further refine LTS 1. There are other perceptions that impact a parent's decision to allow their child to bike, such as personal safety and social norms, which could be accounted for in subsequent research (65,66). Future work could also disaggregate these results by children's age because the question remains: for what age should our cities be built? ...
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Chapter
In order to reduce the number of cars on the road, one of the most incisive actions is to encourage cycling, e.g. through the introduction of bike-sharing systems. In particular, the activation of special bike-sharing programs for school students could lead students to choose this mode of transport to make their own home-school travel. The success of such initiatives is primarily linked to the presence of a continuous and functional cycle network, which can create safe routes to school. It is, therefore, necessary a cycle network design model that allows determining the optimal allocation of new cycle paths, maximizing the number of users and considering technical and economic constraints. As a case study, the city of Palermo has been chosen; in fact, the Go2School project, a bike-sharing initiative aimed at students of four high schools, has been launched in Palermo.
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Thesis
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In recent decades, overweight and obesity have been increased in children due to their sedentary lifestyle and increased use of motor vehicles. On the other hand, previous studies have shown that the urban form is directly associated with active travels and physical activities of the children by facilitating commuting, guaranteeing safety for them, and improving access to the schools. Therefore, evaluating the relationship of urban form with active travel is essential for encouraging the children to use active travels when going to school or in their leisure time. Accordingly, the present study makes an effort to investigate the effects of elements of urban form on the travel patterns and physical activities of the elementary students. The information about individual, interpersonal, and economic-social characteristics of 558 students and their families in six state elementary schools of Shiraz was collected. The urban form information, including land use, transport infrastructure, density, housing type, and layout, has been extracted, and the effective factors in the students’ travel have been analyzed using the binary logit regression model. The results showed that the factors student age and sex, number of students in household, Number of driving license holders in household, the commuting pattern of the mother, and the parents’ attitude toward the streets leading to the school had a particular relationship with the active travels of the children. Moreover, among the elements of urban form, the street connectivity, portion of service use around the house, distance from school, and walkability catchment within an 800-m radius of the school had a clear relationship with the travel pattern of the student.
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Behavioral survey used to propose cleaner transport options. Uses data from a smaller group's transport habits to extrapolate to a larger population, measuring approximate nitrous oxide emissions. Written for environmental science course.
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Context The number of children who bicycle or walk to school has steadily declined in the U.S. and other high-income countries. In response, several countries responded in recent years by funding infrastructure and noninfrastructure programs that improve the safety, convenience, and attractiveness of active travel to school. The objective of this study is to synthesize the economic evidence for the cost and benefit of these programs. Evidence acquisition Literature from the inception of databases to July 2018 were searched, yielding 9 economic evaluation studies. All analyses were done in September 2018–May 2019. Evidence synthesis All the studies reported cost, 6 studies reported cost benefit, and 2 studies reported cost effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness estimates were excluded on the basis of quality assessment. Cost of interventions ranged widely, with higher cost reported for the infrastructure-heavy projects from the U.S. ($91,000–$179,000 per school) and United Kingdom ($227,000–$665,000 per project). Estimates of benefits differed in the inclusion of improved safety for bicyclists and pedestrians, improved health from increased physical activity, and reduced environmental impacts due to less automobile use. The evaluations in the U.S. focused primarily on safety. The overall median benefit‒cost ratio was 4.4:1.0 (IQR=2.2:1–6.0:1, 6 studies). The 2-year benefit–cost ratios for U.S. projects in California and New York City were 1.46:1 and 1.79:1, respectively. Conclusions The evidence indicates that interventions that improve infrastructure and enhance the safety and ease of active travel to schools generate societal economic benefits that exceed the societal cost.
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Purpose: Human behavior is complex, resulting from dynamic person-environment interactions. The study of determinants in an ecological model can be useful to understand this complexity. When it comes to bicycle commuting, previous research has identified several individual and environmental determinants that can influence behaviour and likelihood to cycle. The purpose of this article is to provide an analytical framework integrating the determinants of cycling in an analysis from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Methodology: Through a literature review, we select scientific articles that include studies conducted from a variety of cities in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Findings: As a result, the article presents the determining factors for bicycle commuting in a diagram based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. Research limitation: Further research, which may include a systematic or an umbrella review, could be conducted to confirm the determining factors that influence bicycle commuting in urban areas. In addition, broader work is needed to understand which factors influence the adhesion of shared bicycles and how they fit into the ecological model proposed by Bronfenbrenner. Originality: Our article provides guidelines for an analytic framework that can be a useful tool in case studies or comparative research on mobility and urbanism.
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This is among the first studies to provide empirical evidence on active school travel rates and determinants before and after the first Covid-19 lockdown in spring 2020. We have collected and analyzed primary survey data on the school travel patterns of 472 school-age children in Hanoi, Vietnam. The findings show that the Covid-19 pandemic has been quite detrimental: once schools reopened, the prevalence of active school travel decreased from 53% to less than 31%. Where parents, especially mothers, did not face barriers to motorized travel, they assumed the role of chauffeur. Parents who were more concerned about community infections were more motivated to shift children to motorized modes. Walking was more affected than cycling because it was seen as more likely to lead to physical contact and virus transmission. Active school travel dropped more steeply in urban districts (as opposed to poorer, non-urban districts) and in those areas where home-school distances were the largest. It appears that the most common perceptions around barriers to active school travel have been exacerbated during the pandemic as parents and children adapt to “the new normal”.
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Background Physical activity in early childhood can impact favourably on later child and adult health and walking or cycling for transport, otherwise known as ‘active travel’, is recommended as a way of increasing activity levels in children and adults. This preliminary study focussed on active travel amongst pre-school aged children, an age group that has received little attention in this respect. It aimed to determine the prevalence of active travel in four pre-school settings and assess factors influencing travel patterns. Methods A cross sectional travel survey in four pre-schools: two in each of two contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods was completed in April 2013. Results 289 questionnaires were completed i.e. a response rate of 83.5%. Analysis focussed on the four pre-schools since sample heterogeneity precluded neighbourhood comparisons. Active travel prevalence for children usually arriving and/or collected for each pre-school was 40.8% (A), 56.9% (B), 34.1% (C) and 60.0% (D). Regression analysis showed that distance to pre-school, weather and other travel commitments independently predicted active travel. Conclusion This preliminary study identified factors associated with active travel amongst pre-school aged children and issues warranting further research. Addressing these could assist in developing effective strategies to promote active travel in the early years of life.
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Introduction: Driven largely by international declines in rates of walking and bicycling to school and the noted health benefits of physical activity for children, research on children's active commuting to school has expanded rapidly during the past 5 years. We summarize research on predictors and health consequences of active commuting to school and outline and evaluate programs specific to children's walking and bicycling to school. Methods: Literature on children's active commuting to school published before June 2007 was compiled by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, and the National Transportation Library databases; conducting Internet searches on program-based activities; and reviewing relevant transportation journals published during the last 4 years. Results: Children who walk or bicycle to school have higher daily levels of physical activity and better cardiovascular fitness than do children who do not actively commute to school. A wide range of predictors of children's active commuting behaviors was identified, including demographic factors, individual and family factors, school factors (including the immediate area surrounding schools), and social and physical environmental factors. Safe Routes to School and the Walking School Bus are 2 public health efforts that promote walking and bicycling to school. Although evaluations of these programs are limited, evidence exists that these activities are viewed positively by key stakeholders and have positive effects on children's active commuting to school. Conclusion: Future efforts to promote walking and bicycling to school will be facilitated by building on current research, combining the strengths of scientific rigor with the predesign and postdesign provided by intervention activities, and disseminating results broadly and rapidly.
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Regular active commuting by walking/cycling can help maintain an active lifestyle. The frequency, duration and correlates of school active commuting were examined for primary school children in NSW, Australia. Walking/cycling-only and in combination with bus/car were of short duration (median 7 or 4 min, respectively) and their frequency dropped within a short distance (>0.75 km) from school. Apart from distance, child's age, school affiliation and perceived safety, regular walking/cycling (10 trips, 22%) was associated with parents' travel mode to work and with father taking the child to school. Frequent walking/cycling (5 trips, 37%) was associated with child's level of independence and the perceived benefits of active commuting. Behaviour change in this setting requires multi-level strategies.
Technical Report
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Data collected from questionnaires, individual interviews and a group interview shed light on influences and motivators for six Vancouver teenagers who were old enough to drive but regularly cycled to secondary school. The participants began cycling by themselves around the age of ten because it afforded independence, fun, speed and time efficiency. Their parents resisted habitual chauffeuring and modeled bicycle use for recreation and transportation. The participants continued cycling throughout their mid-teen years because those early motivators—along with fitness and health—were stronger than negative comments from peers. They rode neither new nor expensive bikes, and considered bicycle "advocacy" to be too aggressive to be directed at their peers. However, rigorous tactics to encourage friends to cycle indicated that friends of current cyclists are an important target in bicycle promotion at secondary schools.
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Communities are traditionally built with one transportation mode and user in mind—the adult automobile driver. Recently, however, there has been an international focus on the trip to school as an opportunity to enhance children's independent active travel. Several factors must be considered when designing programs to promote walking and bicycling. This paper examined the influence of child sex on caregivers' decisions about travel mode choice to school. Caregivers of children in grades three to five from ten California Safe Routes to School communities were surveyed on their child's normal travel mode to school and factors that determined travel decisions. Results indicate that the odds of walking and bicycling to school are 40 percent lower in girls than boys; however, this relationship is significantly moderated by the caregiver's own walking behavior. The findings suggest that programs that focus on increasing children's active travel to school should consider multiple influences on health behavior, including the neighborhood physical activity of parents.
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An activity-based approach is used to analyse one specific short-trip purpose that has persistently frustrated transport analysts trying to induce more walk, cycle or public transport based trips. This study of the journey-to-school trip is motivated by a general consensus that, to effect a more sustainable transport system, there is a necessity to reduce car use (especially for short trips). Resistance to modal transfer from cars has been shown to be embedded in various psycho-social obstacles which are not readily teased out in orthodox econometric studies of travel demand. We report on an empirical study which fuses psychometric (construction of coping scales) and econometric analyses (logit analysis) in an attempt to uncover the psychological and sociological factors influencing modal choice, as well as the usual range of economic and demographic factors.
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The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is committed to improving the justice system's response to crimes against children. OJJDP recognizes that children are at increased risk for crime victimization. Not only are children the vic- tims of many of the same crimes that victimize adults, they are subject to other crimes, like child abuse and neglect, that are specific to childhood. The impact of these crimes on young victims can be devastating, and the violent or sexual victimization of children can often lead to an intergenerational cycle of violence and abuse. The purpose of OJJDP's Crimes Against Children Series is to improve and expand the Nation's efforts to better serve child victims by presenting the latest information about child victimization, including analyses of crime victimization statistics, studies of child victims and their spe- cial needs, and descriptions of programs and approaches that address these needs.
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Walking and bicycling (active commuting) to school has been proposed as a strategy for increasing youth physical activity and decreasing the prevalence of overweight. Citations for this review were retrieved through PubMed, Transport, ERIC, and ISI database searches using relevant keywords (1975 to March 2007), government and organization Web sites, and bibliographic citations. This review presents (1) prevalence estimates for active commuting to school; (2) the correlates of active commuting to school, presented using a new conceptual framework; (3) the associations between active commuting to school and health (ie, physical activity, weight status, environmental); and (4) a summary of the findings and recommendations for further research. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the reviewed studies for sample size and demographics, the methods used to measure active commuting, and the definition used to identify a positive case (active commuter). In general, active commuting to school is much less prevalent in the United States compared with European countries. A wide range of correlates of active commuting to school have been studied (individual to policy level). Active commuters tend to be more active than nonactive commuters, although no difference in weight status was observed in most studies. More research is needed to corroborate these findings and build on the knowledge base so that effective walk-to-school interventions can be implemented independently or as part of other health promotion efforts, including physician counseling for physical activity.
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For over 50 years the U.S. has been shifting away from small, neighborhood schools to larger schools in lower density areas. Rates of children walking and biking to school have declined significantly over this period. This study examines the relationship between urban form, distance, and middle school students walking and biking to and from four schools in Oregon. Five primary results emerge: (1) urban form helps predict travel mode to and from school; (2) middle school students walk further than planners expect; (3) many students use a different mode when they travel to school and when they leave school; (4) urban form measures that predict walking behavior differ from those that predict biking behavior; and (5) urban form is only one factor in students' transportation decisions.
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The annual distance walked by children has fallen 28% since 1972, partly because car travel has replaced walking on many school journeys. Increasing car use has been linked with obesity, adverse health effects in later life, limitations on children's independence, traffic congestion, and pollution. To inform the development of strategies to reduce school related car travel, we surveyed the travel patterns of urban primary school children. Methods and results The survey was conducted in the inner London boroughs of Camden and Islington. The questionnaire—based partly on published surveys and prepared in English, Bengali, Turkish, Greek, and Cantonese (first languages of 85% of eligible pupils)—asked about that day's school journey, children's independent travel, and parental concerns. From the sampling frame of all primary schools (excluding pilot, boarding, and special schools), 31 of the 100 eligible schools were randomly selected. We weighted sampling probability by combined class sizes in year 2 (ages 6-7 years) and year 5 (ages 9-10). Questionnaires, with a letter from the head teacher and a multilingual request form for translation, were distributed to pupils for completion at home. Questionnaires were left for absentees. One week later, we collected completed questionnaires, gave new questionnaires to non-respondents, and distributed requested translations. All pupils were given pencil cases. We used logistic regression, including a random effect (school) to account for cluster sampling, to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for determinants of car travel versus walking. We excluded pupils who used public transport. Thirty schools (97%) agreed to participate. Of 2476 enrolled children, 2086 (84%) returned usable questionnaires: 96% English, 2% Bengali, 1% Turkish, and 1% English and Bengali (duplicate versions returned). Response rates were highest in independent schools (96%) and lowest in local authority schools (81%). Excluding independent schools, for which the information was unavailable, the respondents' ethnic distribution (54% white, 18% black, 14% Asian, and 15% other) was similar to that of the school population (50% white, 18% black, 15% Asian, 17% other). Comment Distance to school and car ownership were principal determinants of car travel. After adjustment for these factors, children at independent schools were still more likely to travel by car. Parental fear about “stranger danger” also influenced the decision to drive children to school. Although few translated questionnaires were requested, the study population adequately represented the ethnic distribution of children attending school in the two boroughs. Our results might appropriately be generalisable to other urban primary school populations. Increasing emphasis on school choice has been accompanied by a 20% increase in average distance travelled to school. Policies that encourage children to attend nearby schools are likely to reduce car travel and increase walking. Parents who currently drive their children might forgo the car for safe, convenient alternatives that address their fears. Unless such alternatives are developed, parents who do not currently drive to school are likely to do so when the option becomes available. KW: SR2S Language: en
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The potential benefits of active school travel (AST) are widely recognized, yet there is consistent evidence of a systematic decline in the use of active modes of transportation to school since the middle part of the 20th century. This study explored parental accounts of the school travel mode choice decision-making process. Thirty-seven parents of children (17 who walked; 20 who were driven) from four elementary schools in Toronto, Canada participated in semi-structured interviews. The schools varied with respect to walkability of the built environment and socio-economic status. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified a two-stage decision-making process. An initial decision concerned the issue of escorting or chauffeuring a child to/from school. This decision appeared to be primarily influenced by concerns about traffic, the child's personal safety, and the child's maturity and cognitive ability regarding navigating his/her way to/from school safely. Following the escort decision, parents considered mode choice, typically selecting what they perceived to be the easiest and most convenient way to travel. The ascription of convenience to the various modes of transportation was influenced by perceptions of travel time and/or distance to/from school. Convenience became a particularly salient theme for parents who found it necessary to complete multi-activity trip chains. The school travel mode choice decision process is complex. Future research and practice should continue to address safety concerns that are typically the focus of active school transport initiatives while addressing more explicitly the behavioural cost of competing mode choices.
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We directly observed the prevalence of walking and bicycling (active commuting) to 8 randomly selected urban and suburban elementary schools. When school was used as the unit of analysis, only 5.0% of the students actively commuted to or from school across all observed trips. Active commuting was not affected (P >/=; 18) by school urbanization level, school socioeconomic status, time of day, day of week, weather conditions, or temperature. These results indicate a need for school- and community-based interventions.
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The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relationships between transport to and from school (active vs. passive), sedentary behaviours, measures of socio-economic position and perceived environmental variables, and (2) to determine which, if any, variables were predictors of active transportation. The sample comprised 705 girls with mean age of 14.7 (SD = 1.6) years old. Questionnaires were used to describe travel mode to school and to estimate weekly television and computer use (screen time). Girls were assigned to active transportation (AT) or passive transportation (PT) groups depending on whether they walked or bicycled (AT) to and from school or travelled by car or bus (PT). Screen time was determined by the number of hours they reported watching television and using computers in the week preceding the examination, including weekends. Socio-economic position was established by parental occupation and educational level. A questionnaire assessed Perceived Neighbourhood Environments. No statistically significant differences were seen for screen time between travel groups. Occupational status of both mother (r = -0.17) and father (r = -0.15) and father's educational level (r = -0.10) were significantly and negatively associated with AT, while street connectivity (r = 0.10) was positively and significantly associated with AT. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of active commuting decreased by around 50% with increasing father's occupation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51; p </= 0.05) and father's education (OR = 0.52; p </= 0.05) from low to middle socio-economic position groups. Further, the data showed that girls who agreed that 'there are many four-way intersections in my neighbourhood' were more likely to be active (OR = 1.63; p </= 0.05). The data of this study showed that lower socio-economic position is associated with active commuting to school and that street connectivity is a predictor of active transportation in adolescent girls.
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Walking to school may be an important source of daily physical activity in children's lives, and government agencies are supporting programs to encourage walking to school (e.g., Safe Routes to School and the CDC's KidsWalk programs). However, little research has looked at differences in behavior across racial/ethnic and income groups. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey to document rates of walking and biking to school among low-income and minority youth in the U.S. (N=14,553). Binary models of the decision to use active transport to school were developed to simultaneously adjust for trip, individual, household, and neighborhood correlates. All analyses were conducted in 2007. The data showed that low-income and minority groups, particularly blacks and Hispanics, use active travel modes to get to school at much higher rates than whites or higher-income students. However, racial variation in travel patterns is removed by controlling for household income, vehicle access, distance between home and school, and residential density. Active transportation to school may be an important strategy to increase and maintain physical activity levels for low-income and minority youth. Current policy interventions such as Safe Routes to School have the opportunity to provide benefits for low-income and minority students who are the most likely to walk to school.
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Rising rates of overweight children have focused attention on walking and biking to school as a means to increase children's physical activity levels. Despite this attention, there has been little documentation of trends in school travel over the past 30 years or analysis of what has caused the changes in mode choice for school trips. This article analyzes data from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001 National Personal Transportation Survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Transportation to document the proportion of students actively commuting to school in aggregate and by subgroups and analyze the relative influence of trip, child, and household characteristics across survey years. All analyses were done in 2006. The National Personal Transportation Survey data show that in 1969, 40.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=37.9-43.5) of students walked or biked to school; by 2001, the proportion was 12.9% (95% CI=11.8-13.9). Distance to school has increased over time and may account for half of the decline in active transportation to school. It also has the strongest influence on the decision to walk or bike across survey years. Declining rates of active transportation among school travelers represents a worrisome loss of physical activity. Policymakers should continue to support programs designed to encourage children to walk to school such as Safe Routes to School and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's KidsWalk. In addition, officials need to design policies that encourage schools to be placed within neighborhoods to ensure that the distance to school is not beyond an acceptable walking distance.
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... con- ducted in as little as ten-minute bouts three times a day —the equivalent of ... Boarnet and Crane 2001; Boarnet and Sarmiento 1998; Crane and Crepeau 1998; Boarnet and Greenwald ... per- sonal health and the environment, discomfort, and no knowledge of safe travel routes ...
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This literature review identified common factors associated with active transportation to school (ATS). It used a conceptual framework of a child’s commute mode to school to classify 480 variables from forty-two studies that were tested for association with ATS. Four factors most frequently influenced ATS: distance, income, traffic and crime fears, and parental attitudes and schedules. Regular ATS results in more physical activity but research is lacking on other outcomes. Safe Routes to School, a program designed to increase rates and safety of ATS, can use an understanding of these influences and outcomes to more effectively allocate its limited resources.
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This article examines children's spatial mobility in urban settings. Through data from a study of children living in contrasting urban environments, London and a lower-density new town, the article focuses on how children move around in the public realm. The data show that there are significant variations in how contemporary children use their public spaces. Children's freedom to move around their neighbourhood was greatest in the new town. Girls and minority ethnic children were more restricted in their use of urban space. Comparison with previous research suggests a decrease in independent use of public space for 10/11-year-old English children since the 1970s. It is argued that future debate about children's place in the city should move away from `the unitary public child'. Lack of attention to the different ways children use their cities will hinder advances in social policies designed to enhance participation for all children.
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Problem: Rates of walking and bicycling to school have declined sharply in recent decades, and federal and state governments have committed funds to reverse these trends. To increase rates of walking and biking to school will require understanding why many parents choose to drive their children to school and how well existing programs, like Safe Routes to School, work.Purpose: We aimed to understand why many parents choose to drive their children even short distances to school, and what implications this has for programs to increase walking and biking to school.Methods: We used data from a telephone survey to explore why parents drive their children to school.Results and conclusions: We found that 75% of parents driving their children less than 2 miles to school said they did this for convenience and to save time. Nearly half of parents driving their children less than 2 miles did not allow their child to walk to school without adult supervision. Accompanying a child on a walk to school greatly increases the time the household devotes to such a trip. Few Safe Routes to School programs effectively address issues of parental convenience and time constraints.Takeaway for practice: Safe Routes to School programs should take parental convenience and time constraints into account by providing ways children can walk to school supervised by someone other than the parent, such as by using walking school buses. To be effective, such programs need institutional support. Schools should take a multimodal approach to pupil transportation.Research support: This research was funded by the Active Living Research program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the U.S. and California Departments of Transportation through the University of California Transportation Center.
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This study is the first to examine the relationship between mode of travel to school and the full range of factors that might affect mode choice. With data from Gainesville, Florida, a multinomial logit model was estimated to explain school mode choice for a sample of K-12 students. Students with shorter walk or bike times to school proved significantly more likely to walk or bike. If confirmed through subsequent research, this finding argues for neighborhood schools serving nearby residential areas. Students traveling through areas with sidewalks on main roads were also more likely to walk. If confirmed, this finding argues for "safe routes to school" sidewalk improvements. As noteworthy as the significant factors are those that did not prove significant. School enrollment was not significant after controlling for travel time between home and school. Larger schools may draw students from larger areas and thereby indirectly affect mode choices. But school size does not appear to have a direct effect on mode choices. Land use variables such as density and mix also were not significant. The travel behavior literature emphasizes the importance of such variables in travel decision making. Apparently, school trips are different They tend to be unlinked to other activities, and thus reduce the need for proximity to other land uses. They are mandatory; thus the walking environment may be less important than it is with discretionary travel. And school trips involve children, who may be less sensitive to walking conditions than are their adult counterparts
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In many Western cities, the journey between home and school has become problematic, due to intensifying traffic and growing fears for children's safety. Accordingly, many parents now chauffeur their children to and from school. This situation has compounded congestion, prompting efforts to identify safe alternatives. One recent innovation is the walking school bus (WSB). In this paper we report on the development of this initiative, and its adoption at a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. We conclude that although WSBs extend children's geographies they are, at best, an ambivalent response to the hegemony of motorized transport.
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Children's safety is an issue high on the public agenda in both the UK and North America. In particular, the “stranger-danger” discourse plays an important part in constructing children as “vulnerable” and “at risk” in public space. This paper begins by exploring how adults define whether their children are competent to negotiate public space unsupervised and how they control and manage their children's use of space. It then goes on to consider children's own understandings of their ability to negotiate public space safely, exploring how they subvert restrictions placed on them by parents and how they define their parents' levels of competence to make decisions about their spatial ranges. In doing so the paper demonstrates the instability and contested meanings of the binary concepts —”adult” and “child.”
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Walking and bicycling to school has decreased in recent years, while private vehicle travel has increased. Policies and programs focusing on urban form improvements such as Safe Routes to School were created to address this mode shift and possible related children’s health issues, despite minimal research showing the influence of urban form on children’s travel and health. This research examined: (1) the influence of objectively measured urban form on travel mode to school and; (2) the magnitude of influence urban form and non-urban form factors have on children’s travel behavior. The results of the analysis support the hypothesis that urban form is important but not the sole factor that influences school travel mode choice. Other factors may be equally important such as perceptions of neighborhood safety and traffic safety, household transportation options, and social/cultural norms. Odds ratios indicate that the magnitude of influence of these latter factors is greater than that of urban form; however, model improvement tests found that urban form contributed significantly to model fit. This research provides evidence that urban form is an influential factor in non-motorized travel behavior and therefore is a possible intervention to target through programs such as Safe Routes to School.