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Abstract

THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO REVIEW RECENT EVIDENCE TO HELP GUIDE THE TRAINING OF AGILITY. AGILITY SKILL USUALLY INVOLVES REACTING TO A STIMULUS BEFORE PERFORMING A MOVEMENT WITH A CHANGE OF DIRECTION OR VELOCITY. RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT BETTER PERFORMERS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM LOWER SKILLED ATHLETES BY THE ABILITY TO QUICKLY AND ACCURATELY REACT TO OPPONENT’S MOVEMENTS, BUT NOT TO A GENERIC STIMULUS SUCH AS A FLASHING LIGHT. THEREFORE, TRAINING FOR AGILITY SHOULD INCLUDE A PERCEPTUAL AND DECISION-MAKING COMPONENT INVOLVING REACTING TO MOVEMENTS OF OTHERS, AND THIS MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH EVASIVE DRILLS OR SMALL-SIDED GAMES.

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... Accordingly, practitioners should design representative learning environments that facilitate effective transfer of physical capacity gains to on-field agility performances. For example, for practitioners who are limited with time for S&C and isolated agility training, one possible solution is to integrate agility drills into technique/tactical training sessions, or working collaboratively with the skills coach to help design sports-specific attacking agility drills and scenarios to promote agility, sports technique, and tactical development (77,103). One such example is advising and designing small-sided games and attacking versus defending scenarios to provide the representative environments and constraints for agility development Attacking Agility Actions VOLUME 00 | NUMBER 00 | MARCH 2022 (77,103). ...
... For example, for practitioners who are limited with time for S&C and isolated agility training, one possible solution is to integrate agility drills into technique/tactical training sessions, or working collaboratively with the skills coach to help design sports-specific attacking agility drills and scenarios to promote agility, sports technique, and tactical development (77,103). One such example is advising and designing small-sided games and attacking versus defending scenarios to provide the representative environments and constraints for agility development Attacking Agility Actions VOLUME 00 | NUMBER 00 | MARCH 2022 (77,103). Additionally, integrating agility drills into warm-ups before technique or tactical skills training is also another opportunity to provide an agility stimulus, develop movement solutions, and modify athletes' technique (31), which is in line with the guidelines presented in Tables 1-3. ...
... Additionally, integrating agility drills into warm-ups before technique or tactical skills training is also another opportunity to provide an agility stimulus, develop movement solutions, and modify athletes' technique (31), which is in line with the guidelines presented in Tables 1-3. However, it is beyond the scope of this article to discuss agility programming and drill design, and thus, practitioners are encouraged to read the following literature for further information (24,31,77,80,81,103). ...
Article
Attacking agility actions, such as side steps, shuffle steps, crossover cutting, split steps, spins, decelerations, and sharp turns, are important maneuvers in invasion team sports, often linked with decisive match winning moments. Generally, the aims of these actions are to (a) evade and create separation from an opponent, (b) generate high exit velocities and momentums, or (c) facilitate a sharp redirection. However, these actions are also inciting movements associated with lower-limb injury. Given the importance of agility actions for sports performance and potential injury risk, in this review, we discuss the importance and contextual applications of attacking agility actions, while providing coaching and technique guidelines to best optimize the performance-injury risk conflict
... However, the utility of generic tests has been argued in recent times 7,8 . It has been proposed that generic stimuli only stress the visual reception of information in athletes as opposed to sports-specific interpretation of visual information 9 . ...
... Further, it has been suggested that context-relevant perceptual and decision-making skills are stressed during sport-specific reactive agility tests which permits enhanced transfer to game performance 9 . Previously, researchers have examined generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests by comparing performances between athletes from different playing levels. ...
... Research of this nature is important in that it can highlight differences between higher-and 4 lower-level athletes, which may identify optimal performance constructs contained in various agility tests 9 . ...
... However, the utility of generic tests has been argued in recent times 7,8 . It has been proposed that generic stimuli only stress the visual reception of information in athletes as opposed to sports-specific interpretation of visual information 9 . ...
... Further, it has been suggested that context-relevant perceptual and decision-making skills are stressed during sport-specific reactive agility tests which permits enhanced transfer to game performance 9 . Previously, researchers have examined generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests by comparing performances between athletes from different playing levels. ...
... Research of this nature is important in that it can highlight differences between higher-and 4 lower-level athletes, which may identify optimal performance constructs contained in various agility tests 9 . ...
Article
Aim: Comparisons between reactive agility tests incorporating generic and sport--specific stimuli have been performed only in field--based team sports. The aim of this study was to compare generic (light--based) and sport--specific (live opponent) reactive agility tests in court--based team sport athletes. Methods: Twelve semi--professional male basketball players (age: 25.9 ± 6.7 yr; stature: 188.9 ± 7.9 cm; body mass: 97.4 ± 16.1 kg; predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 49.5 ± 5.3 mL∙kg--1∙min--1) completed multiple trials of a Reactive Agility Test containing light--based (RAT--Light) and opponent--based stimuli (RAT--Opponent). Multiple outcome measures were collected during the RAT--Light (agility time and total time) and RAT--Opponent (decision time and total time). Results: Mean performance times during the RAT--Light (2.233 ± 0.224 s) were significantly (P < 0.001) slower than during the RAT--Opponent (1.726 ± 0.178 s). Further, a small relationship was observed between RAT--Light agility time and RAT--Opponent decision time (r10 = 0.20), while a trivial relationship was apparent between total performance times across tests (r10 = 0.02). Low commonality was observed between comparable measures across tests (R2 = 0--4%). Conclusion: Reactive agility tests containing light--based and live opponent stimuli appear to measure different qualities in court--based team sport athletes. Court--based team sport coaches and conditioning professionals should not use generic and sport--specific reactive agility tests interchangeably during athlete assessments.
... Despite its importance towards the tennis population, the definition of agility is often the subject of debate amongst the sport science community [13][14][15][16]. Within the literature, agility has been referred to by several definitions [13,14,[16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... Despite its importance towards the tennis population, the definition of agility is often the subject of debate amongst the sport science community [13][14][15][16]. Within the literature, agility has been referred to by several definitions [13,14,[16][17][18][19][20]. The most recent definition of agility describes elements of decision making ...
... Session 1 Session 2 Mean ± SD CV (%) SEM ICC (± 95% CI) Mean ± SD CV (%) SEM ICC (± 95% CI) Spider Drill (s) 16 monitoring changes in CODS, attributing this to the vast complexity of movement patterns completed throughout tennis match play. Given how varied movement patterns occur within the spider drill, when compared to the modified t-test, but also of the notable differences in total time taken to complete these tests, it may be suggested that if practitioners are to use more than one CODS test, that test selection is dictated by the demands of the test, and thus movements that occur. ...
... Importantly, in sport, athletes do not react to flashing lights, arrows, or colored cones; instead, they scan and process visual and kinematic cues regarding the environment, sport, and other athletes when performing MDS actions (110,152). Although a popular method, and arguably warranted in instances when diversifying training to improve player motivation, the use of an unanticipated stimulus in the form of the above-mentioned has been criticized because they are not truly sport-specific stimuli (101,110,152). ...
... Importantly, in sport, athletes do not react to flashing lights, arrows, or colored cones; instead, they scan and process visual and kinematic cues regarding the environment, sport, and other athletes when performing MDS actions (110,152). Although a popular method, and arguably warranted in instances when diversifying training to improve player motivation, the use of an unanticipated stimulus in the form of the above-mentioned has been criticized because they are not truly sport-specific stimuli (101,110,152). Furthermore, researchers have shown these types of "reactive agility" exercises (i.e., flashing lights or arrows) do not differentiate skillful performers (152)(153)(154) and, in fact, may even be a more complex and hazardous task compared with reacting to 2D video footage (76). ...
... Although a popular method, and arguably warranted in instances when diversifying training to improve player motivation, the use of an unanticipated stimulus in the form of the above-mentioned has been criticized because they are not truly sport-specific stimuli (101,110,152). Furthermore, researchers have shown these types of "reactive agility" exercises (i.e., flashing lights or arrows) do not differentiate skillful performers (152)(153)(154) and, in fact, may even be a more complex and hazardous task compared with reacting to 2D video footage (76). ...
... As such, the ability to perform COD movements is governed by task-specific physiological and mechanical parameters that distinguish it from other athletic capabilities (30,67,95,98). Accordingly, several authors have identified COD ability and agility to be discrete qualities (6,94,97). ...
... Consequently, what differentiates COD from agility is the absence of cognitive components, such as perception-action coupling and decision making, associated with the task (74,75). Given these capabilities are distinct, it follows that the development of COD versus agility will require somewhat different methods (36,67,75,79,94,95,97). ...
... Hence, this task has an innate requirement for higher levels of force-generation. It has been recognized that COD assessment include movements and maneuvers specific to the sport in question (34,38,80,95,97) (discussed later). ...
... However, these tests apply flashing lights or numbers on a screen as a stimulus to which the athletes have to respond to. Conversely, such nonspecific stimuli are considered inappropriate because they do not allow athletes to deploy their anticipation skills (28). To date, there seems to be no agility test that incorporates soccer-specific movements of a tester as a stimulus, which would increase the test's ecological validity (3,19). ...
... Moreover, in a recent review (19), reliability of agility tests applying a live tester did not seem to be lower compared with tests using nonspecific stimuli such as flashing lights. Regarding the type of stimulus, the application of a live tester is recommended by several authors (19,28) despite its limitations, because this approach offers specific body kinematic cues to which athletes can respond to. ...
Article
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Altmann, S, Neumann, R, Ringhof, S, Rumpf, MC, and Woll, A. Soccer-specific agility: reliability of a newly developed test and correlates of rerformance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2020—The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of a newly developed soccer-specific agility test and to determine the correlation of different performance parameters with overall agility performance as measured by the total time. Twenty-two amateur soccer players (age, 25.1 ± 4.0 years) completed a newly developed agility test on 2 separate occasions. The test required the players to conduct 2 changes of direction, one in a preplanned manner and one in response to a stimulus that was provided by a live tester who performed different soccer-specific passing movements. Regarding reliability, very large Pearson's r and intraclass correlation coefficient values were obtained for the total time and the movement time, with moderate and large-to-very large values being evident for the response time and the decision-making time, respectively. The usefulness to detect moderate performance changes was rated as “good” for the total time, the response time, and the movement time. The decision-making time was rated as “OK.” The movement time showed a very large relationship with overall agility performance as measured by the total time, while the response time and the decision-making time showed small to moderate relationships. In conclusion, the newly developed soccer-specific agility test is a reliable tool to assess the agility performance of soccer players and can be used by coaches and researchers to detect moderate performance changes. Because physical aspects, represented by the movement time, showed the greatest influence on total agility performance, they are advised to be included in soccer-specific agility training programs of amateur players.
... Several studies have used simple light stimuli [12][13][14]. However, using light stimuli was found to require limited perceptual abilities required to complete the task [15]. Moreover, perceptual cues that elite performers could recognize cannot be used by a light stimulus [16]. ...
... Better response movement time in elite players compared to sub-elite and amateur is most likely due to elite player's ability to anticipate the intended movement direction from the opponent, and to predict earlier their change of direction and hence complete the sprint component of the test with greater speed [47]. On the contrary, light or arrow based stimuli do not provide the opportunity for the use of perceptual or anticipatory skills because the light is off before the reaction [15]. Although perceptual or anticipatory ability was not investigated in this study, these results provide an insight into the potential benefit of effective anticipation, which could lead to advantages in decisive moments of the match. ...
Article
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The ability to differentiate the elite from nonelite athletes is not clearly defined. We investigated level differences in speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and reactive agility in a group of trained adolescent soccer players. A total of 75 adolescent male soccer players (aged 14-19 years) were recruited. The players were grouped based on the level of play to elite, sub-elite, and amateur players. Players were tested for 5-, 10-and 20-m sprints, CODS, and reactive agility tests (RAT). Elite players had faster reaction movement time during RAT with live opponent stimuli (p ≤ 0.01) compared to sub-elite and amateur players. Moreover, elite players showed a faster time during light stimuli (p ≤ 0.01) but only compared to amateur players. The times for 5-m and 10-m sprint groups did not differ (p > 0.05). The results demonstrated that the skilled players (elite and sub-elite) performed better in reactive agility tests, speed, and COD speed compared to amateur players. Additionally, we can conclude that total and reaction time in the agility test with live opponent stimuli can be a significant factor that differentiates between adolescent soccer players considering their level.
... Our results may be explained by the fact this test should involve highly specific training that recognizes the specific demands of the sport to be improved (Sheppard et al., 2006). Young and Farrow argue that the better performance in this test is associated to quick and accurate reaction to opponent's movements (Young & Farrow, 2013). In a previous study, Young and Rogers (2014) found better results in reactive agility after small-sided game and change-of-direction training, than in present study. ...
... The change-of-direction training experienced a no effect, while small-sided game training group experienced a moderate effect (−3.8%) on reactive agility. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of training agility through reacting to unexpected movements to others, more than generic stimulus such as flashing light patterns (Young & Farrow, 2013). However, the use of LED equipment plus regular practice seems to be more beneficial than the absence of generic stimulus on reactive agility. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BATAK Pro™ training program in combination with regular sport-specific training as compared with sport-specific training alone on motor performance among young athletes. Twenty-two athletes (aged 11–16 years), were recruited and randomly assigned to either an active control group or BATAK training group. The BATAK training program consisted of 2-3 sets of 4-5 exercises, biweekly for 12-weeks. The assessment of motor performance included upper limb movement speed, agility, reactive agility, acceleration, sprinting, and YBalance test. Within-group analyses revealed performance increases in the 10-m sprint test (-2.6%), and in Y-Balance test variables, specifically in anterior direction (4.0- 5.4%), posteromedial direction (6.6-8.0%) and in posterolateral direction (10.7-14.6%) in the BATAK group. This study reports for the first time that the use of LED lighting devices in addition to sport-specific training promotes increases in motor skills, particularly in dynamic stability. More studies are needed to confirm whether the training-induced benefits of this novel performance tool are significantly better as compared to other approaches, and whether these results can be translated into onfield performance outcomes, not only in terms of critical motor development but also in a meaningful increase of creative actions.
... In this sense, the application of trainings that affect decision-making skills and that are perceptual for these sports might be effective. Studies in relation to this, compared to the surveys on agility with change of direction, show the importance of branch-specific reactive agility workouts and also that they can train the perception and deciding components of agility more and more (39,43). Therefore, this study examines the hypothesis that hemsball trainings can affect the scores of "Reactive Agility Test". ...
... Balance skill is controlled by many perceptual systems and has a complicated structure (21). For example, reflexrelated balancing skill theory states that reaction and reflex responses are important in balancing (20,43). More complicated systems theory, on the other hand, accepts that many receptors (vestibular system, neuromuscular system, and kinesthetic data from proprioceptor), by being used dynamically against continuously changing internal and external forces, provide postural control (18,32). ...
Article
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This study was designed to investigate the effects of hemsball training, upon reactive agility, balance and vertical jump tests. 80 participants, 50 of whom were the experimental group (8,82± 1,44 years) and 30 of whom (9,00 ± 1,19 years) were the control group, took part in the study. While the experimental group had 1-hour training on three days of week throughout 8 weeks, no training was done to the control group. The pre and post test results revealing both the in-group variance and differences between the groups was analyzed with the multivariate analysis of variance in repeated measurements (MANOVA) by using SPSS 19 analysis software. It was seen that the participants who played hemsball had %36,85 progress, increasing their stork balance scores from 4,45 seconds to 6,09 seconds. While this progress made a statistically significant difference (p<0.05), the same progress did not improve for the control group (p>0,05). There is not any significant in-group or intergroup difference in other tests. It was revealed that hemsball training improves balance skills in children. It is beneficial to integrate hemsball trainings into the training programs which focus on balance improvement-maintenance.
... 4 however, research has consistently shown that effective agility blends perceptual and decision-making components with the ability to apply effective movement. 10 This has led to the development of more inclusive definitions of agility that reflect a reactive element, with Sheppard and Young 7 defining agility as a 'rapid, whole body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus'. ...
... data suggests that reactive agility is only effective at determining higher levels of performance when the stimulus is sportspecific, and that reaction to generic stimuli, such as flashing lights, cannot differentiate levels of performance. 10 Training simply to develop reactive agility may therefore be flawed; we need instead to determine which training methods best prepare athletes for performance and in order to fully assess this we need to look at the underlying purpose of agility. ...
... The ability to accelerate and decelerate during periods of speed, with or without a COD, seems to be decisive in multiple game situations (3). However, COD speed should be considered as a skill in its own right and, although being an important component of agility, should not be equated with it (47,49). Throughout this article, the acronym COD will be adopted, because any change of direction implies some amount of speed (even if marginal); it is then a matter of quantity of speed, varying from negligible to maximum. ...
... Conducting 2 to 3 SSG training sessions per week might be effective in triggering improvements in specific skills and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness such as speed, agility, jumping, and repeated sprint performance (7). Although evasion drills and SSG can be highly sport specific, it is acknowledged that athletes with relatively little training history may benefit from some planned COD speed training to learn basic COD techniques (47). Preparation for competition is optimized when a holistic approach is integrated in the planning cycles. ...
Article
Agility is a key and complex concept within team sports performance. Because of its multidimensional nature, agility benefits from perceptual and cognitive skills as well as physical capacity (e.g., ability to exert acceleration, deceleration, and changes of direction). Agility should be integrated in different and complementary ways in team sports training. From more analytical to more ecological tasks, there is a need to comprehend the respective adaptations and identify how to integrate such a spectrum and, eventually, combine them in the training process and manage it accordingly to the player's needs. Based on this premise, the purpose of this article is to present alternative methods and recommendations that may help to develop agility in field-based invasion sports. The main concepts pertaining to agility and associated capacities will be explored. Afterward, a proposal for a more analytical approach based on the use of cones and ladders will be introduced, as well as approaches based on small-sided games. Finally, an integration of agility training and a combination of approaches will be presented using soccer as an example.
... That is, to be able to complete a direction change, responding rapidly and accordingly to relevant stimuli (39). Focusing on agility as our end goal should enable this process to be broadly applicable to many sports, athletes, and coaches. ...
... Our top-down reasoning is identified in Figure 1, with our thought process of how we arrived at this, detailed and evidenced in the following sections. (39). Decision making is arguably best developed through sport practice and competition, so we will focus our attention on CoDS; however, we will include reactive drills such as partner tag and mirroring for example. ...
Article
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Typically, a coach may follow a process in which they first identify the key performance indicators of their sport, determine the physical attributes that map back to them, and then distribute the development of those capacities over the allocated timeframe. Furthermore, effective training plans are based on a theoretical or biological basis for how we move and adapt to exercise stimuli, coupled with an understanding of how these are best sequenced, such that one stimulus and subsequent adaptation can potentiate the next. Thus, reverse or backward engineering, when appropriately converged with the plans of those devised around nutrition, conditioning, technical, and tactical training for example likely gives athletes the best chance of attaining their performance goals. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of reverse engineering, exampling it within the context of developing an athlete who can demonstrate a high level of agility.
... Finally, if implementing an agility test in basketball players, the type of stimuli being used should be considered. In football codes, a sport-specific stimulus has been shown to be an important component when assessing agility [163] with players competing at higher levels often performing better than players competing at lower levels in Australian rules football [164,165] and rugby league [166,167]. Throughout the literature, timing light systems [113,118], light-up cone systems [49,85], and humans who initiate movement [4,21,60] were the stimuli identified in agility tests used to assess adult male basketball players. ...
Article
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Background As basketball match-play requires players to possess a wide range of physical characteristics, many tests have been introduced in the literature to identify talent and quantify fitness in various samples of players. However, a synthesis of the literature to identify the most frequently used tests, outcome variables, and normative values for basketball-related physical characteristics in adult male basketball players is yet to be conducted. Objective The primary objectives of this systematic review are to (1) identify tests and outcome variables used to assess physical characteristics in adult male basketball players across all competition levels, (2) report a summary of anthropometric, muscular power, linear speed, change-of-direction speed, agility, strength, anaerobic capacity, and aerobic capacity in adult male basketball players based on playing position and competition level, and (3) introduce a framework outlining recommended testing approaches to quantify physical characteristics in adult male basketball players. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify relevant studies. To be eligible for inclusion, studies were required to: (1) be original research articles; (2) be published in a peer-reviewed journal; (3) have full-text versions available in the English language; and (4) include the primary aim of reporting tests used and/or the physical characteristics of adult (i.e., ≥ 18 years of age) male basketball players. Additionally, data from the top 10 draft picks who participated in the National Basketball Association combined from 2011–12 to 2020–21 were extracted from the official league website to highlight the physical characteristics of elite 19- to 24-year-old basketball players. Results A total of 1684 studies were identified, with 375 being duplicates. Consequently, the titles and abstracts of 1309 studies were screened and 231 studies were eligible for full-text review. The reference list of each study was searched, with a further 59 studies identified as eligible for review. After full-text screening, 137 studies identified tests, while 114 studies reported physical characteristics in adult male basketball players. Conclusions Physical characteristics reported indicate a wide range of abilities are present across playing competitions. The tests and outcome variables reported in the literature highlight the multitude of tests currently being used. Because there are no accepted international standards for physical assessment of basketball players, establishing normative data is challenging. Therefore, future testing should involve repeatable protocols that are standardised and provide outcomes that can be monitored across time. Recommendations for testing batteries in adult male basketball players are provided so improved interpretation of data can occur.
... There is considerable research on the physiology of MGs, but much less emphasis on other components of development, including skill acquisition (49), despite the critical role of skill acquisition on performance and player development in youth sport (47). In skill acquisition, there is increasing evidence that exposure to a variety of game and practice environments is beneficial in the development process of elite players (4,44) so that players are afforded opportunities to experience representative game-based tasks in practice (46). ...
Article
By combining technical and tactical game components with appropriate physical loading, modified games can provide an ideal environment for young athletes to develop aerobic fitness, while at the same time accumulate precious hours of technical skills development. Furthermore, modified games provide an opportunity for players to develop their decisionmaking and problem solving skills under stressful physical loads, which are critical factors in successful long-term player development. This article discusses those constraints believed important in optimizing aerobic fitness and skill acquisition in youth using a modified games approach. For a video abstract describing this issue, see video, supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/scj/a203.
... This issue can be addressed by comparing higher-and lower-standard groups of athletes. If a superior-skilled group is better on a particular test, the quality assessed by that test can be said to be important for performance in the sport [21]. Conversely, if a higher-level group is not better on a test, the quality assessed by that test would appear to have little relevance to superior sports performance. ...
Article
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This review explores the differences between agility in invasion sports (defined as including reactive decision-making) and change-of-direction speed (CODS), and highlights the implications for training. Correlations between agility tests and CODS tests indicate that they represent independent skills. Agility tests discriminate higher- from lower-standard athletes better than CODS tests, indicating that the cognitive element of agility is important to performance. Training studies have shown that the development of strength qualities can transfer to gains in CODS, but this has never been shown for agility. There is some evidence that the importance of physical qualities is greater for CODS than for agility. It was concluded that the reactive element should be included in agility training, testing and research. While there appears to be no research evidence for the benefits of strength and power training, there is some support for the use of small-sided games for improving agility.
... In a team game, moving as fast as possible in a controlled manner is the desired outcome. Young and Farrow (2013) described the need for progressing the athlete from CODS, to "generic", then to "sport-specific" cues during training. The same can be assumed for testing. ...
Article
Until recently, measurement and evaluation in sport science, especially agility testing, has not always included key elements of proper test construction. Often tests are published without reporting reliability and validity analysis for a specific population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the test re-test reliability of four versions of the 3-Cone Test (3CT), and provide guidance on proper test construction for testing agility in athletic populations. Forty male students enrolled in classes in the Department of Physical Education at a mid-Atlantic university participated. On each of test day participants performed 10 trials. In random order, they performed three trials to the right (3CTR, standard test), three to the left (3CTL), and two modified trials (3CTAR and 3CTAL), which included a reactive component in which a visual cue was given to indicate direction. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated a moderate to high reliability for the four tests, 3CTR 0.79 (0.64-0.88, 95%CI), 3CTL 0.73 (0.55-0.85), 3CTAR 0.85(0.74-0.92), and 3CTAL 0.79 (0.64-0.88). Small standard error of the measurement (SEM) was found; range 0.09 to 0.10. Pearson correlations between tests were high (0.82-0.92) on day one as well as day two (0.72-0.85). These results indicate each version of the 3-Cone Test is reliable; however, further tests are needed with specific athletic populations. Only the 3CTAR and 3CTAL are tests of agility due to the inclusion of a reactive component. Future studies examining agility testing and training should incorporate technological elements, including automated timing systems and motion capture analysis. Such instrumentation will allow for optimal design of tests that simulate sport-specific game conditions.
... 34 Developing this physical quality is complex as true agility requires an external stimulus to react to, which involves perceptual decision making processes. 17,19,32,45,56,57,58,59 However, change of direction speed (CODS) focuses on drills where the athlete knows what to perform, but simply trains to perform the task as efficiently as possible. The design of these drills can be at the discretion of the coach -as long as it replicates the movement patterns and time frames during the sport. ...
... This issue can be addressed by comparing higher-and lower-standard groups of athletes. If a superior-skilled group is better on a particular test, the quality assessed by that test can be said to be important for performance in the sport [21]. Conversely, if a higher-level group is not better on a test, the quality assessed by that test would appear to have little relevance to superior sports performance. ...
... With respect to validity of perceptual-cognitive assessment, it is known that not only do light-based agility tests increase the loading at the joints beyond that of 2D or 3D stimuli (46) but they fail to allow for assessment of sport-relevant perceptual-cognitive ability (70,105). A light stimulus will not allow for the use of perceptual cues that elite performers actually utilize, and therefore both video and human stimuli are more ecologically valid and provide improved stimulus-response compatibility (71). ...
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THE ABILITY TO CHANGE DIRECTION IS A HIGHLY VALUED ATHLETIC QUALITY IN SPORT AND HAS BEEN MEASURED EXTENSIVELY. DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE AND MAGNITUDE OF RESEARCH ON CHANGE OF DIRECTION (COD) AND AGILITY, THE VALIDITY OF THE PERFORMANCE MEASURES USED TO ASSESS THESE ABILITIES HAVE FACED LIMITED SCRUTINY. A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF OUR CURRENT MEASURES OF COD AND AGILITY ARE PRESENTED. FURTHERMORE, A SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS TO ENHANCE THE VALIDITY OF COD AND AGILITY ASSESSMENT IS PROVIDED IN THE ULTIMATE EFFORT TO IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THIS CRUCIAL ATHLETIC QUALITY. A VIDEO ABSTRACT DESCRIBING THIS ARTICLE CAN BE FOUND IN SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT 1 (SEE VIDEO, http://links.lww.com/SCJ/A217).
... Keiner et al. (2014) also showed that apart from linear sprints soccer players perform, there are many sprints with changes of direction (COD). Young and Farrow (2013), in their study of COD sprinting ability, found that it was also associated with acceleration and deceleration skills. Bloomfield et al. (2007) noted that during a single match, soccer players perform more than 700 changes of direction and turnovers at various angles. ...
Article
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The mastery of maximal and high-intensity physical activities is key for successful performance in football. The aim of this study was to compare respective sprinting skills of Polish and South African soccer players by conducting straight and zig-zag sprint tests. The study sample comprised a total of 40 college level soccer players, 20 from Poland and 20 from South Africa. The sprint tests included a 30m-straight sprint test and a 30m-Zig-zag sprint test. ANOVA, followed by Fisher’s LSD as a post-hoc test, were used for statistical analysis. The study found that the Polish players were significantly faster by a margin of 0.117 seconds (p≤0.001) than their South African counterparts, and developed a significantly higher running speed with a corresponding margin of 0.198m/s (p≤0.001) after 30 metres. In the 30m-Zig-zag sprint test, the Polish players also exhibited a significantly higher level of speed skills than the South African players, with a difference in a running time of 0.939 seconds (p≤0.001) and in a running speed of 0.307m/s (p≤0.001) that represented greater differences than those found in the 30m straight sprint test.
... Collectively, the braking force characteristics of CODs are 'angle dependent', with a limited role of the PFC when changing direction ≤ 45°, but a prominent role for CODs ≥ 60° during pre-planned tasks (Fig. 1). Unfortunately, however, the results of Jones et al. [62] indicate that unanticipated situations do not allow postural adjustments prior to the FFC to evoke greater braking force characteristics during the PFC; however, it should be noted that the unanticipated COD task involved responding to a light stimuli, which is more challenging than using a sports-specific stimulus [63,64], and it also lacks specificity to the sporting situations where athletes typically scan and process kinematic and postural cues prior to changing direction [65]. Further research is warranted investigating the role of the PFC during unanticipated tasks utilising sports-specific stimuli. ...
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Changes of direction (CODs) are key manoeuvres linked to decisive moments in sport and are also key actions associated with lower limb injuries. During sport athletes perform a diverse range of CODs, from various approach velocities and angles, thus the ability to change direction safely and quickly is of great interest. To our knowledge, a comprehensive review examining the influence of angle and velocity on change of direction (COD) biomechanics does not exist. Findings of previous research indicate the biomechanical demands of CODs are ‘angle’ and ‘velocity’ dependent and are both critical factors that affect the technical execution of directional changes, deceleration and reacceleration requirements, knee joint loading, and lower limb muscle activity. Thus, these two factors regulate the progression and regression in COD intensity. Specifically, faster and sharper CODs elevate the relative risk of injury due to the greater associative knee joint loading; however, faster and sharper directional changes are key manoeuvres for successful performance in multidirectional sport, which subsequently creates a ‘performance-injury conflict’ for practitioners and athletes. This conflict, however, may be mediated by an athlete’s physical capacity (i.e. ability to rapidly produce force and neuromuscular control). Furthermore, an ‘angle-velocity trade-off’ exists during CODs, whereby faster approaches compromise the execution of the intended COD; this is influenced by an athlete’s physical capacity. Therefore, practitioners and researchers should acknowledge and understand the implications of angle and velocity on COD biomechanics when: (1) interpreting biomechanical research; (2) coaching COD technique; (3) designing and prescribing COD training and injury reduction programs; (4) conditioning athletes to tolerate the physical demands of directional changes; (5) screening COD technique; and (6) progressing and regressing COD intensity, specifically when working with novice or previously injured athletes rehabilitating from an injury.
... Agility has been traditionally referred to as physical quickness including the ability to generate explosive power 1,2 and the ability to change direction rapidly 3,4 . However, a comprehensive definition of agility suggests that the perceptual quickness related to cognitive and decision-making skills is another key element constituting agility 5,6 , and should be considered in developing sport-specific agility test and training 7,8 . In invasion sports where opponents attempt to invade each other's territory to gain advantages, the cognitive element of agility test has been shown sensitive to discriminate between high-level and low-level athletes 9 . ...
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Background: Despite its well-known importance in sports, agility is ambiguously defined and lack of research. Shuttle Run (SR) challenges physical quickness and is commonly used to improve the on-court agility of badminton players. In contrast, Reactive Initiation Training (RIT) challenges perceptual quickness, merely demanding rapid initiation of step toward the direction of shuttlecock. Methods: The current study explores to compare SR with RIT to determine the relative effectiveness of these training on improving the on-court agility of badminton. 20 novice badminton players were split in half to receive either RIT or SR on court for five days. Before and after training, the on-court agility test with and without anticipation was administered. Results: The results showed that both training methods shortened the mean running time, however, only RIT additionally reduced the initiation time and its proportion on those time-consuming positions when agility was assessed without anticipation. Conclusions: Therefore, the agility training for novice badminton players should be more perceptually than physically challenging to avoid vain effort and unnecessary injuries.
... In terms of the applied stimuli, it has been shown in other sports (e.g., Australian rules football, field hockey) that humans or video sequences appear to be more appropriate than flashing lights when examining construct validity [5]. This seems reasonable as the latter does not allow higher-level players to utilize their anticipation and decision-making skills, but simply to react to a non-specific signal [135]. Given the small total number of investigations and the lack of studies using humans or video sequences as a stimulus, it can be concluded that the soccerspecific agility research is still in its infancy. ...
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Introduction: Speed is an important prerequisite in soccer. Therefore, a large number of tests have been developed aiming to investigate several speed skills relevant to soccer. This systematic review aimed to examine the validity and reliability of speed tests used in adult soccer players. Methods: A systematic search was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if they investigated speed tests in adult soccer players and reported validity (construct and criterion) or reliability (intraday and interday) data. The tests were categorized into linear-sprint, repeated-sprint, change-of-direction sprint, agility, and tests incorporating combinations of these skills. Results: In total, 90 studies covering 167 tests were included. Linear-sprint (n = 67) and change-of-direction sprint (n = 60) were studied most often, followed by combinations of the aforementioned (n = 21) and repeated-sprint tests (n = 15). Agility tests were examined fewest (n = 4). Mainly based on construct validity studies, acceptable validity was reported for the majority of the tests in all categories, except for agility tests, where no validity study was identified. Regarding intraday and interday reliability, ICCs>0.75 and CVs<3.0% were evident for most of the tests in all categories. These results applied for total and average times. In contrast, measures representing fatigue such as percent decrement scores indicated inconsistent validity findings. Regarding reliability, ICCs were 0.11-0.49 and CVs were 16.8-51.0%. Conclusion: Except for agility tests, several tests for all categories with acceptable levels of validity and high levels of reliability for adult soccer players are available. Caution should be given when interpreting fatigue measures, e.g., percent decrement scores. Given the lack of accepted gold-standard tests for each category, researchers and practitioners may base their test selection on the broad database provided in this systematic review. Future research should pay attention to the criterion validity examining the relationship between test results and match parameters as well as to the development and evaluation of soccer-specific agility tests.
... Kelincahan adalah kemampuan seseorang mengubah arah gerak dengan cepat dan tanpa kehilangan keseimbangan (Horicka, Hianik, & Šimonek, 2014;Ozmen & Aydogmus, 2016). Kelincahan adalah suatu kemampuan tubuh dalam mengubah arah gerak dengan cepat yang dilakukan bersamaan dengan gerakan lainnya (Spiteri, Newton, & Nimphius, 2015;Young & Farrow, 2013). Kelincahan merupakan aktivitas gerak yang membutuhkan kecepatan dalam mengubah posisi tubuh dan bagian-bagiannya (Sudarsono, Saichudin, & Andiana, 2020;Zahrina, 2021). ...
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This development research aims to develop learning of physical fitness agility elements based on interactive multimedia in SMP Negeri 4 Malang. Using the Research and Development (R&D) model with Lee & Owen. Using a small group trial subject of 20 students and a large group trial subject of 60 students consisting of class VII and class VIII. Based on the results of data analysis obtained from learning experts with a percentage of 93%, physical fitness experts with a percentage of 91%, media experts with a percentage of 90%, small group trials 89%, and large group trials 89%. Based on the analysis of the data that has been obtained, it is concluded that the development product is suitable for use in the learning process. Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan mengembangkan pembelajaran kebugaran jasmani unsur kelincahan berbasis multimedia interaktif di SMP Negeri 4 Malang. Menggunakan model Reseach and Development (R&D) dengan Lee & Owen. Menggunakan subjek uji coba kelompok kecil 20 siswa dan subjek uji coba kelompok besar 60 siswa terdiri dari kelas VII dan kelas VIII. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data yang diperoleh dari ahli pembelajaran dengan persentase 93%, ahli kebugaran jasmani dengan persentase 91%, ahli media dengan persentase 90%, uji coba kelompok kecil 89%, dan uji coba kelompok besar 89%. Berdasarkan analisis data yang telah diperoleh, disimpulkan bahwa produk pengembangan layak digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran.
... Training in sports-specific situations might be one key to improving performance, particularly in terms of prediction and anticipation of opposing players' movements. According to Young and Farrow [23], non-sport-stimuli, such as preplanned cutting drills may improve reaction times in terms of improving tolerance on time stress, but these drills should progress to tailored drills based on sport-specific situations as a way to maximize an athlete's performance and improve cognitive functions. Reviewing plays focusing on the components of reactive agility, including both cognitive and physical functions, may be important for players to improve sport-specific physical skills [24]. ...
... One potential issue of this study was using the arrow stimulus to trigger reactive agility performance. While sport-specific stimuli have been recommended for reactive agility tests to create a realistic representation (Young & Farrow, 2013), the arrow stimulus was appropriate to examine the processes associated with reacting to an unpredictable stimulus. By incorporating the arrow stimulus, potential stimulus pre-cues were removed that may have provided additional early information regarding the stimulus and allowed a clear investigation on the role of imagery for reacting to unpredictable stimuli. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of imagery training on reactive agility and whether reacting to unpredictable stimuli could be improved using imagery. Forty-seven female athletes (Mage = 21.51, SD = 2.32) were randomly assigned to either a three-week physical training, imagery training, or control condition. Physical training condition involved physically rehearsing the reactive agility task, whereas the imagery training condition involved imagining the presenting stimulus and performing the reactive agility task. The control condition did no reactive agility training. A 3 (training conditions) x 7 (reactive agility performance components) mixed-model MANOVA was conducted to examine changes in reactive agility performance from the training interventions. Physical training improved decision time components and overall reactive agility performance. Imagery training improved Stimulus-Decision Time and Stimulus-Foot performance, but not overall reactive agility performance. No performance improvements occurred for the control condition. Findings support imagery use for the decision time variables associated with light-stimulus reactive agility performance. The lack of overall reactive performance improvement may indicate that imagery training is not effective for all components of perceptual-motor performance. Performance change inconsistencies appear to indicate that participants may not have generated unpredictable stimuli during imagery. Future investigation as to whether imagery improvements translate to sport-specific reactive tasks is needed.
... Additionally, the range of stimuli presented in the analysed studies encompasses both sports-specific and artificial cues. Previous studies have demonstrated mediating effects of stimulus-response compatibility in baseball players (Nakamoto & Mori, 2008) and that stimulus specificity has implications in training agility and athletic performance (Young & Farrow, 2013). As stimulus artificiality may affect cortical processes and behavioural outcomes, these results point to the importance of utilizing sport-specific stimuli within the realm of exercise neuroscience research, which could be accomplished through the incorporation of real-world sport equipment and adherence to competition guidelines in the experimental set-up. ...
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The contribution of cortical processes to adaptive motor behavior is of great interest in the field of exercise neuroscience. Next to established criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity, ecological validity refers to the concerns of whether measurements and behavior in research settings are representative of the real-world. Since exercise neuroscience investigations using mobile electroencephalography are oftentimes conducted in laboratory settings under controlled environments, methodological approaches may interfere with the idea of ecological validity. This review utilizes an original ecological validity tool to assess the degree of ecological validity in current exercise neuroscience research. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles investigating cortical dynamics during goal-directed sports movement. To assess ecological validity, five elements (environment, stimulus, response, body and mind) were assessed on a continuum of artificiality-naturality and simplicity-complexity. 47 studies were included in the present review. Results indicate lowest average ratings for the element of environment. The elements stimulus, body and mind had mediocre ratings, and the element of response had the highest overall ratings. In terms of the type of sport, studies that assessed closed-skill indoor sports had the highest ratings, while closed-skill outdoor sports had the lowest overall rating. Our findings identify specific elements that are lacking in ecological validity and areas of improvement in current exercise neuroscience literature. Future studies may potentially increase ecological validity by moving from reductionist, artificial environments towards complex, natural environments, and incorporating real-world sport elements such as adaptive responses and competition.
... While providing first insights into factors contributing to agility performance, a drawback of these studies is that the applied agility tests use numbers on a screen or flashing lights as a stimulus to which the players are required to respond to. In particular, research has shown that such non-specific stimuli do not allow players to deploy their anticipation skills but rather force them to simply react [18]. Practically speaking, while higher-level athletes are able to make use of anticipatory kinematic cues during a sport-specific scenario, a light is simply either on or off, thereby only assessing the athletes' speed of information processing [6]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of physical and perceptual-cognitive factors with agility performance in amateur soccer players. Fifteen male amateur soccer players (age, 24.5 ± 1.9 years) completed a linear-sprint test with splits at 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m, a change-of-direction test of 12 m with 2 pre-planned directional changes of 45° at 2 m and 7 m, and a soccer-specific agility test with same movement pattern as the change-of-direction test but with the inclusion of a human stimulus performing passing movements. Additionally, the perceptual-cognitive deficit (agility performance minus change-of-direction performance) was calculated. In relation to agility performance, linear-sprint performance showed large relationships, which were higher with increasing sprint distance (5 m, r = 0.57; 10 m, r = 0.59; 30 m, r = 0.69), change-of-direction performance a very large relationship (r = 0.77), and the perceptual-cognitive deficit a large relationship (r = 0.55). The findings of this study highlight the relatively high contribution of both physical (i.e., linear-sprint and change-of-direction performance) and perceptual-cognitive factors (i.e., perceptual-cognitive deficit) in relation to soccer-specific agility performance at an amateur level. Consequently, such elements might be recommended to be included in training programs aimed at improving agility performance at this playing level. Moreover, the here introduced perceptual-cognitive deficit allows for a convenient and likewise thorough analysis of agility performance. Future studies should investigate the effects of both physically and perceptual-cognitive oriented training interventions on agility performance, which is considered a key element for success in soccer.
... When assessing agility performance, however, versions of the Y-sprint drill are often implemented to maintain high sprint velocity and mimic the "cut" action, commonly observed during team and invasion sports [12,[20][21][22]. Moreover, it is suggested that the presence of a stimulus may influence the physical demands elicited during a test [10,[22][23][24]. Therefore, sufficient consideration should be given to both mechanical and conditional demands when selecting suitable COD and agility tests [15]. ...
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Considering the vast physical and neural developments experienced throughout adolescence, the reliability of physical performance may vary in youth populations. This study aimed to examine the reliability of change of direction (COD) and agility tests in youth soccer players. Altogether, 86 youth soccer players, aged 13.6 ± 2.0 years, volunteered to participate. Data were collected from a modified 505 COD test (m505COD) and the Y-sprint drill in both pre-planned (Y-SprintPRE) and reactive (Y-SprintREACT) conditions during 2 sessions, 7 days apart. Anthropometric data including body mass, standing stature, and sitting height were also collected. COD and agility tests demonstrated good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.91; CV = 1.2-2.0; d = 0.00-0.31; p < 0.01) for our entire sample. However, we observed a small negative relationship between age and intersession differences for the Y-SprintPRE (r = −0.28; p = 0.04), and moderate negative relationships between both age (r = −0.41; p < 0.01), and maturity offset (r = −0.39; p < 0.01) for the Y-SprintREACT. Although the COD and agility tests adopted within this study possess good intersession reliability, we observed greater intersession differences for younger and less mature individuals. We suggest that while COD and agility tests may provide meaningful objective data for monitoring the development of youth soccer players, these tests should be used with caution when evaluating younger, more immature athletes.
... These decision-making processes require perceptual-cognitive factors (i.e., visual scanning, knowledge of situations, pattern recognition, and anticipation) to be coupled with a motor response that will produce a whole-body movement (176). As such, although the aforementioned preplanned qualities (i.e., acceleration, deceleration, COD, and curvilinear speed) discussed in this text are considered essential elements to develop within a soccer strength and conditioning program, it is the interaction of perceptive, cognitive, and motor control capabilities with the ability to apply effective movement that wholly contributes to MDS performance (93)(94)(95)209). ...
... kinematics have been observed between pre-planned and unplanned (generic stimuli) cutting [154,155]. However, it is worth noting that the use of generic stimuli for the unplanned cutting tasks (i.e.., flashing light/arrow) have been criticised because they are not a sport-specific stimulus and lack ecological validity [10,156,157]. Further insight is required into biomechanical determinants of performance and surrogates of ACL injury risk in cuts and turns of different angles, actions, and unplanned tasks utilising a sportspecific stimulus. ...
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Background Most cutting biomechanical studies investigate performance and knee joint load determinants independently. This is surprising because cutting is an important action linked to performance and non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutting biomechanics and cutting performance (completion time, ground contact time [GCT], exit velocity) and surrogates of non-contact ACL injury risk (knee abduction [KAM] and internal rotation [KIRM] moments) during 90° cutting. Design Mixed, cross-sectional study following an associative design. 61 males from multidirectional sports performed six 90° pre-planned cutting trials, whereby lower-limb and trunk kinetics and kinematics were evaluated using three-dimensional (3D) motion and ground reaction force analysis over the penultimate (PFC) and final foot contact (FFC). Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations were used to explore the relationships between biomechanical variables and cutting performance and injury risk variables. Stepwise regression analysis was also performed. Results Faster cutting performance was associated ( p ≤ 0.05) with greater centre of mass (COM) velocities at key instances of the cut ( r or ρ = 0.533–0.752), greater peak and mean propulsive forces ( r or ρ = 0.449–0.651), shorter FFC GCTs ( r or ρ = 0.569–0.581), greater FFC and PFC braking forces ( r = 0.430–0.551), smaller hip and knee flexion range of motion ( r or ρ = 0.406–0.670), greater knee flexion moments (KFMs) ( r = 0.482), and greater internal foot progression angles ( r = − 0.411). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that exit velocity, peak resultant propulsive force, PFC mean horizontal braking force, and initial foot progression angle together could explain 64% ( r = 0.801, adjusted 61.6%, p = 0.048) of the variation in completion time. Greater peak KAMs were associated with greater COM velocities at key instances of the cut ( r or ρ = − 0.491 to − 0.551), greater peak knee abduction angles (KAA) ( r = − 0.468), and greater FFC braking forces ( r = 0.434–0.497). Incidentally, faster completion times were associated with greater peak KAMs ( r = − 0.412) and KIRMs ( r = 0.539). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that FFC mean vertical braking force and peak KAA together could explain 43% ( r = 0.652, adjusted 40.6%, p < 0.001) of the variation peak KAM. Conclusion Techniques and mechanics associated with faster cutting (i.e. faster COM velocities, greater FFC braking forces in short GCTs, greater KFMs, smaller hip and knee flexion, and greater internal foot progression angles) are in direct conflict with safer cutting mechanics (i.e. reduced knee joint loading, thus ACL injury risk), and support the “performance-injury conflict” concept during cutting. Practitioners should be conscious of this conflict when instructing cutting techniques to optimise performance while minimising knee joint loading, and should, therefore, ensure that their athletes have the physical capacity (i.e. neuromuscular control, co-contraction, and rapid force production) to tolerate and support the knee joint loading during cutting.
... In addition, the COD requirements vary for different playing positions and sports. 98,99 There are examples from running studies, where in-lab movements are different from real life movements and there is more variability in game situations, which requires repeated measurements to establish typical movement patterns. 29,30,96,100,101 Participant characteristics Previous research suggests that females might be at greater risk of ACL injury during COD tasks, 102 despite the potential confounding of other physical factors, such as muscle strength. ...
Article
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Change of direction movement is common in sports and the ability to perform this complex movement efficiently is related to athlete's performance. Wearable devices have been used to evaluate aspects of change of direction movement, but so far there are no clear recommendations on specific metrics to be used. The aims of this scoping review were to evaluate the reliability and validity of inertial measurement unit sensors to provide information on change of direction movement and to summarize the available evidence on inertial measurement units in analyzing change of direction movement in sports. A systematic search was employed in MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO host), SPORTDiscus (EBSCO host), EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science to identify eligible studies. A complementary grey literature search was employed to locate non-peer reviewed studies. The risk of bias of the studies evaluating validity and/or reliability was evaluated using the AXIS tool. The initial search identified 15,165 studies. After duplicate removal and full-text screening 49 studies met the inclusion criteria, with 11 studies evaluating validity and/or reliability. There are promising results on the validity and reliability, but the number of studies is still small and the quality of the studies is limited. Most of the studies were conducted with pre-planned movements and participants were usually adult males. Varying sensor locations limits the ability to generalize these findings. Inertial measurement units (IMU) can be used to detect change of direction (COD) movements and COD heading angles with acceptable validity, but IMU measured or derived kinetic or kinematic variables present inconsistency and over-estimation. Studies can be improved with larger sample sizes and agreement on the metrics used and sensor placement. Future research should include more on-field studies.
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Snel bewegen met richtingsveranderingen, waarbij je moet versnellen en vertragen en tevens je lichaam onder controle probeert te houden, is kenmerkend voor veel verschillende sporten. Behendigheidsvormen zijn steeds vaker onderdeel van trainingsprogramma’s en (sport-)revalidatietrajecten en worden in de volksmond vaak ‘agility’ genoemd. De definities van agility lopen echter nogal uiteen.
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Background: Kumite is a category in karate match. It is a one-on-one match that requires complex physical aspects, one of which is physical agility. In a real match, kumite requires movements to shift the direction quickly when a karateka aims to hit his opponent. For that reason, there should be a program and an assessment to improve the physical agility of the karate athletes who compete in kumite category. The document analysis of this research found that there has not been any assessment tool for the agility aspect in kumite, while the existing agility test measuring tool was only designed for sports in general. Purpose: This research aimed to develop the construction of karate agility test for the kumite category. Design/methodology/approach: This is a developmental research which consisted of 3 stages. In the first stage, documents and research journals were analyzed to develop the construction of karate agility test for the kumite category. In the second stage, the Delphi technique was utilized and the experts were asked to assess he construction of karate agility test for the kumite category resulted in the first stage. In the third stage, the results of expert judgment with the Aiken formula were analyzed to test the content validity. The participants in this research were documents and seven experts. Results: It was found in the construction of the Kumite category karate agility test; item one, the content or material got a V value of 0.85; item two, the distance between the cone had a V value of 0.95; item three, the safety of the equipment used has a V value of 0.90; item four, the number of test replications had a V value of 0.90; item five, the clarity of the test procedure had a V value of 0.90; items six, the clarity of the test score had a V value of 0.90. Conclusion: The karate agility test construction for the kumite category had high content validity.
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At the end of this chapter, you will be able to: • Explain the multidimensional nature of sprint running and its implications for training and testing • Describe the mechanical aspects of sprint running • Describe the biomechanical aspects of sprint running • Explain the etiology of some of the common musculoskeletal injuries associated with sprint running • Develop a qualitative analysis of sprint running • Develop specifi c workouts targeting muscular strength commensurate with the biomechanical aspects of sprint running • Explain agility performance and its importance in sport • Develop specifi c workouts based on representative learning that enhance the attunement of the athlete's sprinting and agility movements to environmental information
Chapter
Schnelligkeit ist eine koordinativ-konditionelle Fähigkeit, basierend auf einem komplexen Geflecht aus Leistungsvoraussetzungen, auf Reize schnellstmöglich zu reagieren und/oder Bewegungen mit höchsten Geschwindigkeiten zu realisieren. Aus evolutionärer Sicht war die Fähigkeit zur schnellen Fortbewegung überlebenswichtig. Heute ist die Schnelligkeitsleistung ein zentraler leistungslimitierender Faktor in vielen Sportarten. Das Kapitel liefert einen Überblick über Bedeutung und Erscheinungsformen der Schnelligkeit, über biologische Grundlagen für die Realisierung der Schnelligkeitsleistung sowie über Anpassungsvorgänge, Trainingsmethoden und Belastungsdosierung und stellt schließlich ausgewählte Trainingsbeispiele vor. Die Schnelligkeit kann in ihrer Reinform als primär koordinativ-technisch akzentuierte Fähigkeit charakterisiert werden, während komplexen sportartspezifischen Schnelligkeitsleistungen auch ein konditionell-energetischer Fähigkeitscharakter unterstellt werden kann. Neben neuronalen und tendomuskulären Leistungsvoraussetzungen sind sensorisch-kognitive und psychische sowie anlage-, entwicklungs- und lernbedingte Einflussgrößen in Abhängigkeit der sportartspezifischen Besonderheiten in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß von Bedeutung. Zur Verbesserung der Schnelligkeit existieren zahlreiche Trainingsbereiche und Methoden, die hinsichtlich der angestrebten Anpassungsvorgänge den verschiedenen Erscheinungsformen der Schnelligkeit zugeordnet werden können. Hierzu zählt beispielsweise das Training der elementaren oder komplexen Schnelligkeit. Aus der grenzenlosen Vielfalt an Trainingsformen werden konkrete Trainingsbeispiele vorgestellt.
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Data collection and interpretation plays a major role in strength and conditioning practice. The most common situation this applies to is the measurement of physical capabilities, and the subsequent analysis of testing scores. However, the importance of data handling skills and statistical analysis is not always adequately emphasised during applied strength and conditioning education, which may result is some individuals lacking confidence in this area. In particular, it is important that the practitioner understands the difference between an observed score and the true score, and how error in measurement reduces our ability to detect real change in testing scores. The following article aims to provide an applied step by step guide to calculating typical error, determining reliability, and establishing the minimum difference to be considered real.
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Background. Despite its well-known importance in sports, agility is ambiguously defined and lack of research. Shuttle Run (SR) challenges physical quickness and is commonly used to improve the on-court agility of badminton players. In contrast, Reactive Initiation Training (RIT) challenges perceptual quickness, merely demanding rapid initiation of step toward the direction of shuttlecock. The current study compared SR with RIT to determine which one is more effective for improving on-court agility of novice badminton players. Methods. 20 novice badminton players were split in half to receive either RIT or SR on court for five days. Before and after training, participants were assessed on their ability to intercept the shuttlecocks randomly thrown by a coach to six corners of the court with and without visual occlusion of the coach. All trials of interception were videotaped by a motion camera for chronological analysis of initiation time, running time and total time. Results. The mean total times were greater with visual occlusion and varied systematically with the position of interception. Both training methods shortened the mean running time, however, only RIT additionally reduced the initiation time and its proportion on those time-consuming positions in the occluded condition. Therefore, RIT is more effective than SR to improve the on-court agility of novice badminton players, and the agility training for novice badminton players should be more perceptually than physically challenging to avoid vain effort and unnecessary injuries.
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This study compared the effects of dynamic and static core training programs on speed, agility, related anaerobic power tests, core stability tests and body composition measurements in recreational soccer players. A static (n = 14) and dynamic (n = 13) training group performed three 30 min sessions per week for eight weeks meanwhile attended normal soccer training sessions with a control group (n = 11). Effects of different core training regimes were compared after eight weeks the with repeated measures MANOVA (p<0,05) for field, core stabilization and body composition tests. Sprint (10m-30m), agility (505-Arrowhead), vertical and standing long jump scores did not increased in any groups and no difference found between groups. Neither group demonstrated difference for body composition measurements (weight, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, body fat percentage) for repeated test scores and between groups comparisons. Two experiment groups improved in dynamic and static core stabilization tests except the plank test (for plank test, dynamic and conrtol group has the same score) while control group did not changed. Core stabilization tests showed that the improvements of experiment groups affected by the movement specifity and static training group increased static test scores (plank 23,8% - back isometric 28,9% - leg raise 15,6%) while dynamic training group increased mostly the dynamic test scores (sit-up 21,2%, push up 16,2%). Results indicate that both training types improved movement related measures of core stability but did not transfer into any anaerobic skills and body composition. Core stability training is not generate sufficient stimulus to improve power and strength dependent performance skills like sprint and agility and not required to be the main part of soccer conditioning programs.
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Introduction: Many sporting activities require both vertical jumping in combination with agility. Yet, both vertical jumping and agility can be executed either bilaterally or unilaterally.Problem Statement and Approach:There exist no literature exploring the association between unilateral agility with vertical jump performance variables.Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine associations and predictive ability between performance measures during unilateral and bilateral vertical countermovement jumpswith unilateral agility measures.Material and Method: Thirty recreationally active adults participated in two non-consecutive sessions. During the first session,participants completed three trials of right-sideunilateral countermovement jumps, left-side unilateral countermovement jumps, and bilateral countermovement jumpsin a randomized order. All jumps were performed akimbo, on force platforms, withthirty seconds of rest between trials. During the second session,participantscompleted two distinct unilateral agilitymaneuvers:single leg up three-back one and single leg cross hops, and were given two trials for each maneuver with thirty seconds rest between trials. The average of all completed trials for all countermovement jumps and agility maneuvers were used for statistical analysis. Spearman'sR correlation were used to find significant associations between completion time for the agility maneuvers and jump height, peak force, relative force, peak power, relative peak power, and landing force for all countermovement jumpconditions. Results:There were significant correlations between the cross hop and up three-back one agility maneuver completion time with countermovement jump height, peak force, peak power, relative peak power, and landing force during both unilateral and bilateral jumps. Conclusions:There appears to be an association between certain performance measures during bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps and unilateral agility. Peak power and landing force assist in predicting unilateral agility completion time. Therefore, coaches may desire to implement unilateral jumping with individuals necessitating single leg agility to complete their desired exercise or sport activity.
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Individuals from a range of different sports require linear and change-of-direction (COD) speed. Linear speed incorporates the ability to maximally run in a straight line. COD speed involves the ability to decelerate, stop and cut, and reaccelerate in a new direction. These capacities are specific, in that the ability to run fast in a straight line does not always translate to faster COD speed. There are a number of important technique characteristics specific to linear and COD speed that must be understood by strength and conditioning coaches and sport and exercise practitioners prior to training program implementation. Following this, there are a range of training protocols that can be used to enhance linear and COD speed in young adults. There are some similarities in the modalities utilized for both linear and COD speed, as most training modalities target some type of technique, force, or power adaptation. Coaches should be aware of how force and power are expressed within these training modalities, and how this could then be transferred to linear and COD speed. Free sprinting typically forms the basis for linear speed training. When training for linear speed, it is important that the distances used (acceleration is approximately the first 15 meters of a maximal sprint, maximum velocity is typically attained within 30-60 meters) during training are specific to the individual’s requirements. Additional protocols such as resistance or strength training, plyometrics, resisted sprinting, and assisted sprinting have also been utilized to enhance linear speed. COD speed requires different technical movements to linear sprinting, such as the ability to cut from each leg. Strength training and plyometrics can also be used to develop strength and power specific to COD speed. A variety of COD drills have been used in training to develop COD speed, with deceleration training being one novel training variation. If a coach or practitioner has knowledge of the individual’s training background, their sport, and can appropriately implement different training modalities, they will be able to enhance the linear and COD speed for their athletes.
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The study examined effects of spatial stimulus–response compatibility on response time and response accuracy in 20 novice combat sport athletes. Two equivalent groups, based on initial reaction time measures, were required to perceive and move quickly and accurately in response to an unspecific visual stimulus presented on a large screen during two types of perceptual training in eight laboratory sessions. One group reacted by moving the fist towards the stimulus location on the target (direct compatibility condition). Another group was required to move the fist away from target in the opposite direction (indirect compatibility condition). Specifically, the indirect compatibility group achieved faster reaction times than the direct compatibility group during the two post-tests containing video-projected attacks of the opponents, and in one of the two post-tests containing real opponents´ attacks. Results seem to reveal higher combat performance against real opponents when athletes trained with an indirect stimulus-response compatibility condition. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Perceptual and Motor Skills on 1 May 2020, available online: https://journals.sagepub.com/DOI: 10.1177/0031512520917806
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RECENT DATA SUGGEST ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY OCCURRENCE IN TEAM SPORTS IS NOT DECREASING. ALTHOUGH THE REASONS CURRENTLY ELUDE US AND ARE LIKELY COMPLEX, ADOPTING A MORE HOLISTIC APPROACH THAT SHIFTS OUR PERSPECTIVE FROM PURELY PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS MAY BE A GOOD STARTING POINT. CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE INHERENT PERCEPTUAL DEMANDS OF TEAM SPORTS AND THE COMPLEX INTERPLAY BETWEEN PHYSICAL CAPACITIES AND DECISION MAKING, WHICH ULTIMATELY DETERMINES MOVEMENT, PERFORMANCE, AND INJURY RISK. TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINING A BROADER ARRAY OF PERCEPTUALLY DEMANDING EXERCISE DRILLS DEVELOPED IN CONSULTATION WITH PLAYERS AND COACHES MAY ALSO PROVE A FRUITFUL ENDEAVOR.
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Purpose: Despite its well-known importance in sports, agility is ambiguously defined and lack of research. Shuttle Run (SR) is commonly used to improve the on-court agility of badminton players. Reactive Initiation Training (RIT) contrasts SR in that it only demands rapid generation of initiation step toward the direction of shuttlecock. The current study compared SR with RIT to determine which one is more effective for improving on-court agility of novice badminton players. Method: 20 novice badminton players were split in half to receive either RIT or SR on court for five days. Before and after training, participants were assessed on their ability to intercept the shuttlecocks randomly thrown by a coach to six corners of the court with and without visual occlusion of the coach. All trials of interception were recorded for video analysis of initiation time, running time and total time. Results: The mean total times were greater with visual occlusion and varied systematically with the position of interception. Both training methods shortened the mean running time, however, only RIT additionally reduced the initiation time and its proportion on those time-consuming positions in the occluded condition. Conclusion: RIT is more effective than SR to improve the on-court agility of novice badminton players.
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This study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg-1) on performance of a reactive agility test (RAT) in 17 elite, male, youth (M = 14 yrs) soccer players. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, players completed 4 days of testing on the RAT after a standardized warm-up. On Day 1, anthropometric measurements were taken and players were accommodated to the RAT. On Day 2, baseline performance was established. Caffeine or placebo conditions were randomly assigned on Day 3 and the condition was reversed on Day 4. Players completed 3 randomized trials of the RAT on Days 2, 3, and 4 with at least one trial to the players' dominant and non-dominant sides. There were no significant differences among conditions in reaction time (RT) to the dominant side, heart rates at any point of measurement, or ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after completion of the warm-up. Caffeine produced faster RT to the non-dominant side (P = .041), higher RPE at the conclusion of the RAT (P = .013). The effect on the Total Time (TT) to complete the agility test to the non-dominant side approached significance (P = .051). Sprint time and TT to either side did not differ. Caffeine supplementation may provide ergogenic benefit to elite, male, youth soccer players.
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This study examined the relative contribution of visual, perceptual, and cognitive skills to the development of expertise in soccer. Elite and sub-elite players, ranging in age from 9 to 17 years, were assessed using a multidimensional battery of tests. Four aspects of visual function were measured: static and dynamic visual acuity; stereoscopic depth sensitivity; and peripheral awareness. Perceptual and cognitive skills were assessed via the use of situational probabilities, as well as tests of anticipation and memory recall. Stepwise discriminant analyses revealed that the tests of visual function did not consistently discriminate between skill groups at any age. Tests of anticipatory performance and use of situational probabilities were the best in discriminating across skill groups. Memory recall of structured patterns of play was most predictive of age. As early as age 9, elite soccer players demonstrated superior perceptual and cognitive skills when compared to their sub-elite counterparts. Implications for training perceptual and cognitive skill in sport are discussed.
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Purpose: To compare the agility demands of 4 small-sided games (SSGs) and evaluate the variability in demands for elite Australian Football (AF). Methods: Fourteen male elite Australian Football League (AFL) players (mean ± SD; 21.7 ± 3.1 y, 189.6 ± 9.0 cm, 88.7 ± 10.0 kg, 39.4 ± 57.1 games) completed 4 SSGs of 3 × 45-s bouts each with modified designs. Video notational analysis, GPS at 5 Hz, and triaxial accelerometer data expressed the external player loads within games. Three comparisons were made using a paired t test (P < .05), and magnitudes of differences were reported with effect size (ES) statistics. Results: Reduced area per player (increased density) produced a small increase in total agility maneuvers (SSG1, 7.2 ± 1.3; SSG2, 8.8 ± 4.1), while a large 2D player load was accumulated (P < .05, ES = 1.22). A reduction in players produced a moderate (ES = 0.60) total number of agility maneuvers (SSG 3, 11.3 ± 6.1; SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6); however, a greater variability was found. The implementation of a 2-handed-tag rule resulted in a somewhat trivial decline (P > .05, ES = 0.16) in agility events compared with normal AFL tackling rules (SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6; SSG 4, 7.8 ± 2.6). Conclusions: SSG characteristics can influence agility-training demand, which can vary considerably for individuals. Coaches should carefully consider SSG design to maximize the potential to develop agility for all players.
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EFFECTIVE MOVEMENT IS A KEY ELEMENT OF ELITE SPORTS PERFORMANCE IN A RANGE OF SPORTS, AND AGILITY TRAINING HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN MANY SPORTS PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT PROGRAMS. TRADITIONALLY, AGILITY TRAINING HAS FOCUSED ON THE EXECUTION OF CLOSED DRILLS THAT ALLOW FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE MOVEMENT PATTERS BUT MAY NOT OPTIMALLY TRANSFER DIRECTLY TO ENHANCED SPORTS PERFORMANCE. THIS ARTICLE AIMS TO EXAMINE THE NATURE OF REACTIVE AGILITY AND PROVIDE A THEORETICAL SUPPORT FOR THE APPLICATION OF REACTIVE AGILITY EXERCISES AND ALSO SUGGESTS METHODS OF DELIVERING THESE EXERCISES TO MAXIMIZE THE TRANSFER TO ENHANCED SPORTS PERFORMANCE.
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To study the validity of a video-based reactive agility test in Australian footballers. 15 higher performance, 15 lower performance, and 12 nonfootballers completed a light-based reactive agility test (LRAT), a video-based reactive agility test (VRAT), and a planned test (PLAN). With skill groups pooled, agility time in PLAN (1346 ± 66 ms) was significantly faster (P = .001) than both reactive tests (VRAT = 1550 ± 102 ms; LRAT = 1572 ± 97 ms). In addition, decision time was significantly faster (P = .001; d = 0.8) in LRAT (278 ± 36 ms) than VRAT (311 ± 47 ms). The correlation in agility time between the two reactive tests (r = .75) was higher than between the planned and reactive tests (r = .41-.68). Higher performance players had faster agility and movement times on VRAT (agility, 130 ± 24 ms, d = 1.27, P = .004; movement, 69 ± 73 ms, d = 0.88, P = .1) and LRAT (agility, 95 ± 86 ms, d = 0.99, P = .08; movement, 79 ± 74 ms; d = 0.9; P = .08) than the nonfootballers. In addition, higher (55 ± 39 ms, d = 0.87, P = .05) and lower (40 ± 57 ms, d = 0.74, P = .18) performance groups exhibited somewhat faster agility time than nonfootballers on PLAN. Furthermore, higher performance players were somewhat faster than lower performance for agility time on the VRAT (63 ± 85 ms, d = 0.82, P = .16) and decision time on the LRAT (20 ± 39 ms, d = 0.66, P = .21), but there was little difference in PLAN agility time between these groups (15 ± 150 ms, d = 0.24, P = .8). Differences in decision-making speed indicate that the sport-specific nature of the VRAT is not duplicated by a light-based stimulus. In addition, the VRAT is somewhat better able to discriminate different groups of Australian footballers than the LRAT. Collectively, this indicates that a video-based test is a more valid assessment tool for examining agility in Australian footballers.
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Small-sided games (SSGs) are played on reduced pitch areas, often using modified rules and involving a smaller number of players than traditional football. These games are less structured than traditional fitness training methods but are very popular training drills for players of all ages and levels. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSGs can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical or tactical skills in footballers. However, many prescriptive variables controlled by the coach can influence the exercise intensity during SSGs. Coaches usually attempt to change the training stimulus in SSGs through altering the pitch area, player number, coach encouragement, training regimen (continuous vs interval training), rules and the use of goalkeepers. In general, it appears that SSG exercise intensity is increased with the concurrent reduction in player number and increase in relative pitch area per player. However, the inverse relationship between the number of players in each SSG and exercise intensity does not apply to the time-motion characteristics. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, but most rule changes do not appear to strongly affect exercise intensity. The variation of exercise intensity measures are lower in smaller game formats (e.g. three vs three) and have acceptable reproducibility when the same game is repeated between different training sessions or within the same session. The variation in exercise intensity during SSGs can also be improved with consistent coach encouragement but it is still more variable than traditional generic training methods. Other studies have also shown that SSGs containing fewer players can exceed match intensity and elicit similar intensities to both long- and short-duration high-intensity interval running. It also appears that fitness and football-specific performance can be improved equally with SSG and generic training drills. Future research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSGs training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill and tactical proficiency.
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Field testing is a key component to measure player performance in all sports, which provides coaches and strength and conditioning staff information to evaluate player performance and measure desired training effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a rugby union field test protocol based on analysis of the components of the game. Participants were placed in an Academy (n = 17) or Club (n = 11) group determined by current playing level. Trials of 10- and 30-m linear speed (LS), change of direction speed, and reactive agility speed were measured to evaluate the field test protocol's utility in distinguishing players of different playing abilities. Reliability analysis of each field test demonstrated stable values allowing this field test protocol to be used to compare between groups. Furthermore, the Academy players performed significantly (p < 0.05) faster compared to Club players in all LS and agility components. These results suggest that this field test protocol is appropriate to identify rugby union players of varying playing abilities allowing coaches and strength and fitness staff to measure a player's capability to execute critical aspects of the game and may have application in performance evaluation and talent identification. The results from this study suggest that this test battery is an appropriate measure in identifying the varying playing abilities of rugby union players. This enables coaches and fitness staff to assess a player's capability in executing critical aspects of the game and also may have application in performance evaluation and talent identification.
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The purpose of the current study was to assess the reliability of a new protocol that examines different components of agility using commercially available timing gates. Seventeen physically active males completed four trials of a new protocol, which consisted of a number of 10-m sprints. Sprints were completed in a straight line or with a change of direction after 5 m. The change of direction was either planned or reactive, with participants reacting to a visual light stimulus. There was no systematic bias in any of the measures, although random variation was reduced in the straight acceleration and planned agility when considering only the final pair of trials, with mean coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.6% (95% CI, 1.2% to 2.4%) and 1.1% (0.8% to 1.7%), respectively. Reliability of reactive agility remained consistent throughout with mean CVs of approximately 3%. Analyses revealed a high degree of common variance between acceleration times and both planned (r2 = .93) and reactive (r2 = .83) agility, as well as between the two agility protocols (r2 = .87). Both planned and reactive agility could be measured reliably. Protocol design and use of a light stimulus in the reactive test emphasize physical abilities comparable with other test measures. Therefore, inclusion of a reactive light stimulus does not appear to require any additional perceptual qualities.
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We used a novel methodological approach to examine skill-based differences in anticipation and visual search behaviour during the penalty kick in soccer. Expert and novice goalkeepers were required to move a joystick in response to penalty kicks presented on film. The proportion of penalties saved was assessed, as well as the frequency and time of initiation of joystick corrections. Visual search behaviour was examined using an eye movement registration system. Expert goalkeepers were generally more accurate in predicting the direction of the penalty kick, waited longer before initiating a response and made fewer corrective movements with the joystick. The expert goalkeepers used a more efficient search strategy involving fewer fixations of longer duration to less disparate areas of the display. The novices spent longer fixating on the trunk, arms and hips, whereas the experts found the kicking leg, non-kicking leg and ball areas to be more informative, particularly as the moment of foot-ball contact approached. No differences in visual search behaviour were observed between successful and unsuccessful penalties. The results have implications for improving anticipation skill at penalty kicks.
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between leg muscle power and sprinting speed with changes of direction. the study was designed to describe relationships between physical qualities and a component of sports performance. testing was conducted in an indoor sports hall and a biomechanics laboratory. 15 male participants were required to be free of injury and have recent experience competing in sports involving sprints with changes of direction. subjects were timed in 8 m sprints in a straight line and with various changes of direction. They were also tested for bilateral and unilateral leg extensor muscle concentric power output by an isokinetic squat and reactive strength by a drop jump. The correlations between concentric power and straight sprinting speed were non-significant whereas the relationships between reactive strength and straight speed were statistically significant. Correlations between muscle power and speed while changing direction were generally low and non-significant for concentric leg power with some moderate and significant (p<0.05) coefficients found for reactive strength. The participants who turned faster to one side tended to have a reactive strength dominance in the leg responsible for the push-off action. The relationships between leg muscle power and change-of-direction speed were not consistent. Reactive strength as measured by the drop jump appears to have some importance for lateral change-of-direction speed, possibly because of similar push-off actions. It was concluded that reactive strength of the leg extensor muscles has some importance in change-of-direction performance but the other technical and perceptual factors than influence agility performance should also be considered.
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The ability to detect deceptive movement was examined in skilled and novice rugby players. Participants (14 per group) attempted to predict direction change from video of expert and recreational rugby players changing direction with and without deceptive movement. Confidence associated with judgments was recorded on each trial to seek evidence regarding use of inferential (heuristic-based) and direct-perceptual (invariant-based) judgments. Novices were found to be susceptible to deceptive movement whereas skilled participants were not; however, both skilled and novice participants were more confident on trials containing deceptive movement. The data suggest that the skill-level difference in sensitivity to advance visual information extends to deceptive information. The implications of this finding, and the importance of considering the underlying process of anticipation skill, are discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new test of agility, the reactive agility test (RAT), which included anticipation and decision-making components in response to the movements of a tester. Thirty-eight Australian football players took part in the study, categorized into either a higher performance group (HPG) (n=24) or lower performance group (LPG) (n=14) based on playing level from the previous season. All participants undertook testing of a 10m straight sprint (10mSS), a 8-9m change of direction speed test (CODST), and the RAT. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability testing measures were conducted with the LPG. The intra-class correlation (ICC) of the RAT was 0.870, with no significant (p<0.05) difference between the test results obtained on the first and second test sessions using a t-test. A dependent samples t-test revealed no significant (p<0.05) difference between the test results of two different testers with the same population. The HPG were significantly (p=0.001) superior to those of the LPG on the RAT, with no differences observed on any other variable. The RAT is an acceptably reliable test when considering both test-retest reliability, as well as inter-rater reliability. In addition, the test was valid in distinguishing between players of differing performance level in Australian football, while the 10mSS and CODST were not. This result suggests that traditional closed skill sprint and sprint with direction change tests may not adequately distinguish between players of different levels of competition in Australian football.
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At present, no agreement on a precise definition of agility within the sports science community exists. The term is applied to a broad range of sport contexts, but with such great inconsistency, it further complicates our understanding of what trainable components may enhance agility. A new definition of agility is proposed: "a rapid whole-body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus". Agility has relationships with trainable physical qualities such as strength, power and technique, as well as cognitive components such as visual-scanning techniques, visual-scanning speed and anticipation. Agility testing is generally confined to tests of physical components such as change of direction speed, or cognitive components such as anticipation and pattern recognition. New tests of agility that combine physical and cognitive measures are encouraged.
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Research focusing on perceptual-cognitive skill in sport is abundant. However, the existing qualitative syntheses of this research lack the quantitative detail necessary to determine the magnitude of differences between groups of varying levels of skills, thereby limiting the theoretical and practical contribution of this body of literature. We present a meta-analytic review focusing on perceptual-cognitive skill in sport (N = 42 studies, 388 effect sizes) with the primary aim of quantifying expertise differences. Effects were calculated for a variety of dependent measures (i.e., response accuracy, response time, number of visual fixations, visual fixation duration, and quiet eye period) using point-biserial correlation. Results indicated that experts are better than nonexperts in picking up perceptual cues, as revealed by measures of response accuracy and response time. Systematic differences in visual search behaviors were also observed, with experts using fewer fixations of longer duration, including prolonged quiet eye periods, compared with non-experts. Several factors (e.g., sport type, research paradigm employed, and stimulus presentation modality) significantly moderated the relationship between level of expertise and perceptual-cognitive skill. Practical and theoretical implications are presented and suggestions for empirical work are provided.
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Different coaching methods are often used to improve performance. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 methodologies for speed and agility conditioning for random, intermittent, and dynamic activity sports (e.g., soccer, tennis, hockey, basketball, rugby, and netball) and the necessity for specialized coaching equipment. Two groups were delivered either a programmed method (PC) or a random method (RC) of conditioning with a third group receiving no conditioning (NC). PC participants used the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) conditioning method, and RC participants played supervised small-sided soccer games. PC was also subdivided into 2 groups where participants either used specialized SAQ equipment or no equipment. A total of 46 (25 males and 21 females) untrained participants received (mean +/- SD) 12.2 +/- 2.1 hours of physical conditioning over 6 weeks between a battery of speed and agility parameter field tests. Two-way analysis of variance results indicated that both conditioning groups showed a significant decrease in body mass and body mass index, although PC achieved significantly greater improvements on acceleration, deceleration, leg power, dynamic balance, and the overall summation of % increases when compared to RC and NC (p < 0.05). PC in the form of SAQ exercises appears to be a superior method for improving speed and agility parameters; however, this study found that specialized SAQ equipment was not a requirement to observe significant improvements. Further research is required to establish whether these benefits transfer to sport-specific tasks as well as to the underlying mechanisms resulting in improved performance.
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While studies have investigated speed and change of direction speed in rugby league players, no study has investigated the reactive agility of these athletes. In addition, the relationship among speed, change of direction speed, and reactive agility within the specific context of rugby league has not been determined. With this in mind, the purpose of this study was to investigate a wide range of speed, change of direction speed, and reactive agility tests commonly used by rugby league coaches to determine which, if any tests discriminated higher and lesser skilled players, and to investigate the relationship among speed, change of direction speed, and reactive agility in these athletes. Forty-two rugby league players completed tests of speed (5 m, 10 m, and 20 m sprint), change of direction speed ('L' run, 505 test, and modified 505 test), and reactive agility. The validity of the tests to discriminate higher and lesser skilled competitors was evaluated by testing first grade (N = 12) and second grade (N = 30) players. First grade players had faster speed, and movement and decision times on the reactive agility test than second grade players. No significant differences were detected between first and second grade players for change of direction speed. While movement times on the reactive agility test were significantly related to 10 m and 20 m sprint times and change of direction speed, no significant relationships were detected among measures of decision time and response accuracy during the reactive agility test and measures of linear speed and change of direction speed. These findings question the validity of preplanned change of direction speed tests for discriminating higher and lesser skilled rugby league players, while also highlighting the contribution of perceptual skill to agility in these athletes.
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We compared the efficacy of three physical conditioning programmes provided over a 12 week period (24 h in total) on selected anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in female soccer players. Two of the groups received physical conditioning training in accordance with speed, agility and quickness (SAQ); one group used specialized resistance and speed development SAQ equipment (equipment group; n = 12), while the other group used traditional soccer coaching equipment (non-equipment group; n = 12). A third group received their regular fitness sessions (active control group; n = 12). All three interventions decreased (P < 0.001) the participants' body mass index (-3.7%) and fat percentage (-1.7%), and increased their flexibility (+14.7%) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (+18.4%). The participants in the equipment and non-equipment conditioning groups showed significantly (P < 0.005) greater benefits from their training programme than those in the active control group by performing significantly better on the sprint to fatigue (-11.6% for both the equipment and non-equipment groups versus -6.2% for the active control group), 25 m sprint (-4.4% vs -0.7%), left (-4.5% vs -1.0%) and right (-4.0% vs -1.4%) side agility, and vertical (+18.5% vs +4.8%) and horizontal (+7.7% vs +1.6%) power tests. Some of these differences in improvements in physical fitness between the equipment and non-equipment conditioning groups on the one hand and the active control group on the other hand were probably due to the specificity of the training programmes. It was concluded that SAQ training principles appear to be effective in the physical conditioning of female soccer players. Moreover, these principles can be implemented during whole team training sessions without the need for specialized SAQ equipment. Finally, more research is required to establish the relationship between physical fitness and soccer performance as well as the principles underlying the improvements seen through the implementation of SAQ training programmes.
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summary: Agility is an important component of many sports but has not been extensively researched. The various components that contribute to agility performance are discussed and training guidelines are provided. There appears to be limited transfer to agility performance from straight sprint training as well as from general strength training. The principle of training specificity is emphasized to achieve maximum transfer to on-field performance. (C) 2006 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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In an attempt to develop a new measure of agility in the horizontal plane, this study examines several tests, including: the Illinois agility test, the 20m dash and two new tests - the Up and Back (UAB) and 505 tests, which both involve a short sprint and a reversal of direction. Eighteen subjects performed the tests in a randomised order. A strobe video and time were used to record the displacement data of the subjects, over set intervals, in the UAB and 505 tests. These data were then smoothed using a least-squares polynomial, and differentiated to produce a velocity and acceleration values. Times were recorded for the completion of the Illinois agility test and the 20m dash. The results for the four tests and the derived velocity and acceleration values were subjected to a correlation matrix. Significant correlations were found between the 505 test and acceleration values, but not with velocity values. The other tests correlated significantly with each other. It is concluded that the UAB test and Illinois Agility test are not purely agility tests because of their significant relationships with the 20m dash. The 505 test, however, has no significant correlation with velocity, but rather with acceleration. Therefore, the 505 test is seen as the test which best isolates agility in the horizontal plane.
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provides a brief overview of the existing state of knowledge on motor expertise through discussion of the historical origins of motor expertise research, identification of contemporary areas of research focus, description of the prototypic motor expertise studies, and assessment of the degrees of generalizability possible from the existing knowledge base examines strategies for improving/modifying paradigmatic approaches to the study of motor expertise by discussing the necessity to recognize the limitations within the use of recipient paradigms, to value situation specificity and ecological validity, and to link studies of motor expertise to contemporary theories of motor control and learning alternatives to traditional cross-sectional research designs and to "one-off" research studies are described as strategies for improving methodological approaches to the study of motor expertise [discusses] strategies for improving the measurement of motor expertise, highlighting existing anomalies in the definition of experts, in the formation of control groups, and in the use of uni-dimensional forms of performance measurement (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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SPEED AND AGILITY FOR TENNIS IS A MULTIFACTORIAL CONCEPT AND SO REQUIRES AN APPROACH TO TESTING THAT IS BOTH SPORT SPECIFIC AND MULTIFACETED. BY ASSESSING SPEED, ACCELERATION, CHANGE OF DIRECTION, AND REACTIVE AGILITY, IT IS POSSIBLE TO DIFFERENTIATE THOSE FACTORS IN NEED OF SPECIFIC ATTENTION. A CASE EXAMPLE IS PRESENTED TO ILLUSTRATE THIS. TRAINING METHODS SHOULD BE SPORT SPECIFIC IN NATURE AND INTEGRATE BOTH THE PERCEPTUAL MOTOR AND DECISION-MAKING SKILLS REQUIRED IN TENNIS.
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Three experiments examined the relative importance of attributes determined largely by the efficiency of the visual/central nervous system versus cognitive domain-specific skills, in the determination of expertise in soccer. In Experiment 1, expert and intermediate soccer players were assessed on various non-specific abilities including: processing (simple reaction time, peripheral reaction time, visual correction time), optometric (static, dynamic and mesopic acuity), and perimetric parameters (horizontal and vertical peripheral range). In Experiment 2, domain-specific variables were assessed including complex decision speed and accuracy, number of visual fixations, fixation duration, and fixation location in solving game problems. Stimuli were initially presented by slides (Experiment 2) and later by 16 mm film (Experiment 3). Eye movements were recorded and analysed. A stepwise discriminant analysis of both non-specific abilities and soccer-specific skills revealed an average squared canonical correlation=0.84, with the significant step variables all being domain-specific skills. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Young, W, Farrow, D, Pyne, D, McGregor, W, and Handke, T. Validity and reliability of agility tests in junior Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3399-3403, 2011-The importance of sport-specific stimuli in reactive agility tests (RATs) compared to other agility tests is not known. The purpose of this research was to determine the validity and reliability of agility tests. Fifty junior Australian football players aged 15-17 years, members of either an elite junior squad (n = 35) or a secondary school team (n = 15), were assessed on a new RAT that involved a change of direction sprint in response to the movements of an attacking player projected in life size on a screen. These players also underwent the planned Australian Football League agility test, and a subgroup (n = 13) underwent a test requiring a change of direction in response to a left or right arrow stimulus. The elite players were significantly better than the school group players on the RAT (2.81 ± 0.08 seconds, 3.07 ± 0.12 seconds; difference 8.5%) but not in the arrow stimulus test or planned agility test. The data were log transformed and the reliability of the new RAT estimated using typical error (TE) expressed as a coefficient of variation. The TE for the RAT was 2.7% (2.0-4.3, 90% confidence interval) or 0.07 seconds (0.5-1.0), with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.33. For the test using the arrow stimulus, the TE was 3.4% (2.4-6.2), 0.09 (0.06-0.15) seconds, and ICC was 0.10. The sport-specific stimulus provided by the new RAT is a crucial component of an agility test; however, adoption of the new RAT for routine testing is likely to require more accessible equipment and several familiarization trials to improve its reliability.
Article
Agility is an open motor skill; requiring change of direction speed (CODS) and perceptual and decision-making ability. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceptual and decision-making component of agility can be trained. Fifteen rugby league players were tested on a sport-specific reactive agility test (RAT) and a CODS test. Players were then allocated to a training group (n = 8) or a nontraining group (n = 7). The training group underwent 3 weeks of reactive agility training that was designed to enhance perceptual and decision-making ability. After 3 weeks, all players were tested again. The training group's mean reactive agility time was 1.92 ± 0.17 seconds preintervention and 1.66 ± 0.14 seconds postintervention. The nontraining group's mean reactive agility time was 1.89 ± 0.16 and 1.87 ± 0.15 seconds, respectively. Mean CODS time for the training group was 1.64 ± 0.15 seconds preintervention and 1.66 ± 0.14 seconds postintervention. The nontraining group's mean CODS time was 1.61 ± 0.12 and 1.62 ± 0.12 seconds. Mean perception and response time for the training group, measured on the RAT, was 0.33 ± 0.33 seconds preintervention and 0.04 ± 0.22 seconds postintervention. The nontraining group's values were 0.34 ± 0.20 and 0.27 ± 0.28 seconds, respectively (results are ±σ). Differences in mean reactive agility time and perception and response time from pre to postintervention for the training group were statistically significant, as were differences in those values between the training and nontraining group post intervention. All other comparisons were not. Results from this study suggest that the perceptual and decision-making components of agility are trainable. Coaches should incorporate some open motor skills training in their programs when training agility.
Article
Agility requires change of direction speed (CODS) and also perceptual and decision-making skills and reaction speed. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid agility test for rugby league, which stressed all those dimensions. Players from a subelite rugby league team were tested twice on a sport-specific reactive agility test (RAT) and CODS test. Data were analyzed for reliability. For validity results from the subelite groups, first test was compared with data from an elite group. The RAT required participants to run toward an unpredictable life-size video of an attacking opponent and react to that video by changing direction. The CODS test required the same movement patterns however direction changes were preplanned. The subelite group's mean time to complete the CODS test and RAT on their first test was 1.67 ± 0.15 and 1.98 ± 0.16 seconds, respectively, and 1.62 ± 0.14 and 1.91 ± 0.17 seconds, respectively, on their second test (results are ± σ). Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in means (p < 0.05) and good correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.87 and 0.82, respectively). The elite group's mean time to complete the tests was 1.65 ± 0.09 and 1.79 ±0.12 seconds, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed a significant difference in mean RAT time between the elite group and the subelite group (p < 0.05). The RAT was reliable and valid. Performance differences on the RAT were attributed to differences in perceptual skills and/or reaction ability. Testing and training agility should therefore stress those dimensions of agility and not just CODS.
Article
The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reactive agility test by determining the relationships between the total time recorded for the test and various components. A tester used side-step movements to provide a stimulus for the athlete to change direction. By using electronic timing and high speed video analysis of the test, three times were recorded. These were the time taken for the tester to display the stimulus to change direction (tester time), the time taken by the participant to respond to the stimulus (decision time), and the time taken by the participant to change direction and sprint to the left or right (response movement time). Thirty-one semi-professional Australian Rules football players were assessed by analysing the mean of eight trials of the reactive agility test. The greatest correlation with total time was r=0.77 for decision time (p=0.00), with movement time and tester time producing coefficients of 0.59 (p=0.00) and 0.37 (p=0.04), respectively. The coefficient of variation for the mean tester time was 5.1%. It was concluded that perceptual skill as measured by decision time is an important component of the reactive agility test and the tester time should be controlled by using high speed video recordings to isolate its influence.
Article
To determine how unanticipated performance of cutting maneuvers in sport affects the external loads applied to the knee joint and the potential risk for ligament injury. A 50-Hz VICON motion analysis system was used to determine the lower limb kinematics of 11 healthy male subjects during running and cutting tasks performed under preplanned (PP) and unanticipated (UN) conditions. Subjects performed the UN tasks in response to a light stimulus on a target board. A kinematic model was then used in conjunction with force place data to calculate the three-dimensional loads at the knee joint. External flexion/extension moments at the knee joint were similar between PP and UN conditions; however, the varus/valgus and internal/external rotation moments during the UN cutting tasks were up to twice the magnitude of the moments measured during the PP condition. Cutting maneuvers performed without adequate planning may increase the risk of noncontact knee ligament injury due to the increased external varus/valgus and internal/external rotation moments applied to the knee. These results are probably due to the small amount of time to make appropriate postural adjustments before performance of the task, such as the position of the foot on the ground relative to the body center of mass. Subsequently, training for the game situation should involve drills that familiarize players with making unanticipated changes of direction. Practice sessions should also incorporate plyometrics and should focus on better interpretation of visual cues to increase the time available to preplan a movement.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if straight sprint training transferred to agility performance tests that involved various change-of-direction complexities and if agility training transferred to straight sprinting speed. Thirty-six males were tested on a 30-m straight sprint and 6 agility tests with 2-5 changes of direction at various angles. The subjects participated in 2 training sessions per week for 6 weeks using 20-40-m straight sprints (speed) or 20-40-m change-of-direction sprints (3-5 changes of 100 degrees) (agility). After the training period, the subjects were retested, and the speed training resulted in significant improvements (p < 0.05) in straight sprinting speed but limited gains in the agility tests. Generally, the more complex the agility task, the less the transfer from the speed training to the agility task. Conversely, the agility training resulted in significant improvements in the change-of-direction tests (p < 0.05) but no significant improvement (p > 0.05) in straight sprint performance. We concluded that straight speed and agility training methods are specific and produce limited transfer to the other. These findings have implications for the design of speed and agility training and testing protocols.
Article
The number of researchers studying perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is increasing. The intention in this paper is to review the currently accepted framework for studying expert performance and to consider implications for undertaking research work in the area of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport. The expert performance approach presents a descriptive and inductive approach for the systematic study of expert performance. The nature of expert performance is initially captured in the laboratory using representative tasks that identify reliably superior performance. Process-tracing measures are employed to determine the mechanisms that mediate expert performance on the task. Finally, the specific types of activities that lead to the acquisition and development of these mediating mechanisms are identified. General principles and mechanisms may be discovered and then validated by more traditional experimental designs. The relevance of this approach to the study of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is discussed and suggestions for future work highlighted.
Article
We examined differences in visual search behaviors and decision-making skill across different microstates of offensive play in soccer using youth participants (13.0-15.8 years) varying in skill and experience. We used realistic film simulations of offensive play, movement-based response measures, and an eye movement registration technique. Playing experience, skill level, and the unique constraints of the task, expressed by the number of players and relative proportion of offensive and defensive players, determined both the observed search behavior and processing requirements imposed on players in dynamic offensive team simulations. Significant differences in performance were observed between players and nonplayers and across three groups of soccer players who differed in skill level. Implications for talent identification and development are considered.
Anticipation skill and susceptibility to Stimulus for Training Agility VOLUME 35 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2013 deceptive movement
  • R C Jackson
  • S Warren
  • B Abernethy
Jackson RC, Warren S, and Abernethy B. Anticipation skill and susceptibility to Stimulus for Training Agility VOLUME 35 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2013 deceptive movement. Acta Psychol (Amst) 123: 355-371, 2006.
Perceptual and cognitive skill development in soccer: The multidimensional nature of expert performance 26. Williams AM and Ericsson KA. Perceptualcognitive expertise in sport: Some considerations when applying the expert performance approach
  • P Ward
  • Am Williams
Ward P and Williams AM. Perceptual and cognitive skill development in soccer: The multidimensional nature of expert performance. J Sport Exerc Psychol 25: 93–111, 2003. 26. Williams AM and Ericsson KA. Perceptualcognitive expertise in sport: Some considerations when applying the expert performance approach. Hum Mov Sci 24: 283–307, 2005.
The effects of task constraints on visual search behavior and decision-making skill in youth soccer players
  • R Vaeyens
  • M Lenoir
  • A M Williams
  • L Mazyn
  • R M Phillippaerts
Vaeyens R, Lenoir M, Williams AM, Mazyn L, and Phillippaerts RM. The effects of task constraints on visual search behavior and decision-making skill in youth soccer players. J Sport Exerc Psychol 19: 147-169, 2007.