Article

A Longitudinal Study of Marital Problems and Subsequent Divorce

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Abstract

This study investigated the extent to which reports of marital problems in 1980 predicted divorce between 1980 and 1992, the extent to which these problems mediated the impact of demographic and life course variables on divorce, and gender differences in reports of particular marital problems and in the extent to which these reports predicted divorce. Wives reported more marital problems than husbands did, although this was due to husbands' tendency to report relatively few problems caused by their spouses. A variety of marital problems predicted divorce up to 12 years in the future. A parsimonious set of marital problems involving infidelity, spending money foolishly, drinking or drug use or both, jealousy, moodiness, and irritating habits mediated moderate proportions of the associations between demographic and life course variables and divorce.

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... The reasons of marital infidelity are the most varied and complex throughout the marital relationships. Bradbury, Finchman and Beach showed that low marital satisfaction is a strong predictor of divorce and infidelity, while in compatibility, behavioral and relationship problems rank high among the reasons people gave for their divorces [62][63][64][65]. In the Netherlands, De Graaf and Kalmijn described the motives people give for their divorce [65]. ...
... Marital infidelity makes distress in partner intimacy and reduces relationship satisfaction in both spouses [82]. Further, the victims and doers of marital infidelity also frequently experience negative outcomes, for example decreased self-esteem, increased risk of mental health issues, shame and guilt feelings, and depression [63,[83][84][85]. Identifying psychological characteristics that may be associated with a risk of perpetrating infidelity may help interventions to better target at risk partners. ...
... Therefore, marital infidelity can display as a strong predictor of divorce [63]. The impact of parental infidelity on children can vary based on the child's gender, age, and even culture [43]. ...
... Evlilikte aldatma hemen hemen bütün dinlerde onaylanmayan ve yaptırımla karşılanan bir olgudur. Pek çok çalışma dini pratiklere katılma oranı arttıkça aldatma olasılığının düştüğünü göstermiştir (örn., Amato ve Rogers, 1997;Atkins ve Kessel, 2008;Burdette, Ellison, Sherkat ve Gore, 2007;Treas ve Giesen, 2000). İlginç bir şekilde bu bulgu, inancın kuvveti ve dua etmenin sıklığı kontrol edildiğinde geçerliliğini korumaktadır (Atkins ve Kessel, 2008). ...
... Pek çok demografik, bireysel, ilişkisel ve durumsal faktörden etkilenerek gelişen aldatma davranışı, hem ilişki hem de partnerler için pek çok probleme yol açmakta ve romantik ilişkilerde yaşanan en önemli sorunlardan biri olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Aldatma, ilişkinin ayrılıkla sonuçlanması için ciddi bir risk oluşturmaktadır (Allen ve Atkins, 2012;Amato ve Previti, 2003;Amato ve Rogers, 1997). Yüz seksen altı ülkede yapılan kültürlerarası bir çalışmada, aldatma en yaygın boşanma nedeni olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Betzig, 1989). ...
... Faktor lain yang turut berpengaruh terhadap terjadinya perceraian adalah faktor tidak langsung, disebut distal causes, misalnya: perceraian orang tua, usia saat menikah, tingkat pendidikan, dan status pekerjaan. Faktor-faktor tersebut dapat meningkatkan risiko perceraian (Amato and Rogers 1997). Adapun berdasarkan hasil wawancara dengan Drs. ...
... Beberapa cara untuk menumbuhkan keharmonisan dalam keluarga adalah dengan memperlakukan pasangan dengan baik dan patuh, memahami peran dan fungsi masing-masing pihak, jujur satu sama lain, saling menghormati, selalu berusaha untuk menyenangkan pasangan Anda, jika ada masalah mencoba mencari solusinya bersama, jadilah qana'ah, panggil bersama panggilan yang menyenangkan, toleransi, solidaritas, perhatian dan menciptakan rumah tangga sebagai sesuatu yang sakral. Berikut ini empat faktor yang mencegah terjadinya perceraian menurut Amato dan Roges (Amato and Rogers 1997). ...
Article
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Maintaining the integrity of the household is not easy, the dynamics of life as husband and wife must be lived with patience and caution. However, this circumstances are sometimes seems insufficient to maintain the household. This indication could be seen that number of couples who prefer to end their marital relationship with dissolution. This article attempts to answer two main questions, namely: first, what are the main factors that cause the divorce in Rembang City; second, does the COVID-19 pandemic affect the divorce rate in Rembang City. This article is a qualitative research using a normative-empirical approach. The results of the analysis of this study show that the COVID-19 pandemic does not significantly affect changes in the divorce rate in Rembang City. This is due to the background of the Rembang community which is dominated by santri. Spiritual values are still a solid foundation that can maintain the unity of the household when some couples choose to divorce due to the economic and mental depression that caused by the pandemic. Mempertahankan keutuhan rumah tangga bukan perkara mudah, dinamika kehidupan sebagai suami dan istri harus dihadapi dengan penuh kesabaran serta kehati-hatian. Akan tetapi, sikap tersebut terkadang dirasa kurang cukup untuk mempertahankan rumah tangga. Hal ini ditandai dengan banyaknya pasangan yang lebih memilih untuk mengakhiri hubungan perkawinannya dengan jalur perceraian. Artikel ini berusaha untuk menjawab dua persoalan utama, yaitu: pertama, apa saja faktor utama yang menjadi alasan perceraian di Kota Rembang; kedua, apakah pandemi COVID-19 berpengaruh terhadap angka perceraian di Kota Rembang. Artikel ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif menggunakan metode pendekatan normatif-empiris. Hasil dari analisis penelitian ini menggambarkan bahwa faktor yang menyebabkan perceraian di Rembang adalah: kekerasan fisik dan psikologis, perselingkuhan, kurangnya tanggung jawab suami dalam menafkahi istri dan anak serta komunikasi yang buruk sekali pandemi COVID-19 tidak terlalu berpengaruh secara signifikan atas perubahan angka perceraian di Kota Rembang. Hal ini disebabkan oleh latar belakang masyarakat Rembang yang didominasi kalangan santri. Nilai-nilai spiritual masih menjadi landasan kokoh yang dapat mempertahankan keutuhan rumah tangga di saat beberapa pasangan memilih untuk bercerai karena depresi ekonomi dan mental yang disebabkan pandemi.
... Evlilikte aldatma hemen hemen bütün dinlerde onaylanmayan ve yaptırımla karşılanan bir olgudur. Pek çok çalışma dini pratiklere katılma oranı arttıkça aldatma olasılığının düştüğünü göstermiştir (örn., Amato ve Rogers, 1997;Atkins ve Kessel, 2008;Burdette, Ellison, Sherkat ve Gore, 2007;Treas ve Giesen, 2000). İlginç bir şekilde bu bulgu, inancın kuvveti ve dua etmenin sıklığı kontrol edildiğinde geçerliliğini korumaktadır (Atkins ve Kessel, 2008). ...
... Pek çok demografik, bireysel, ilişkisel ve durumsal faktörden etkilenerek gelişen aldatma davranışı, hem ilişki hem de partnerler için pek çok probleme yol açmakta ve romantik ilişkilerde yaşanan en önemli sorunlardan biri olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Aldatma, ilişkinin ayrılıkla sonuçlanması için ciddi bir risk oluşturmaktadır (Allen ve Atkins, 2012;Amato ve Previti, 2003;Amato ve Rogers, 1997). Yüz seksen altı ülkede yapılan kültürlerarası bir çalışmada, aldatma en yaygın boşanma nedeni olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Betzig, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
İnsanların inançları, yaşamlarını sürdürdükleri coğrafya, kurmuş oldukları toplumsal düzen, diğer topluluklarla kurmuş oldukları ilişkiler, teknolojik gelişmeler toplumların hayatlarını doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak etkilemiştir. Doğal olarak da toplumların çocuklara bakış açıları da değişime uğramıştır. Tarihe bakıldığında çocukluk kavramının yetişkinlik kavramından farkının olmadığı, sonraki süreçlerde ise bu kavramın toplumların yaşamış oldukları değişim süreciyle başkalaşıma uğradığı göze çarpmaktadır. İlk toplumlarda fiziksel, duygusal ve davranışsal açıdan yetişkinlerden farklılıkları olmasına rağmen çocuklar çocuk olarak kabul edilmemiş, her bakımdan minyatür birer yetişkin olarak görülmüşlerdir. Çocuklar ne kadar seviliyor olsalar da bütün toplumlarda çocukluk bilincinin geçmişte de günümüzde de eksik olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Dünyadaki toplumlar çocuk hakkında tarihsel süreç içinde yeterli bilgiye sahip olamamış ve bu bilgi eksikliği ne yazık ki günümüzde de devam etmektedir. Dünya genelinde yapılan ve yapılmakta olan başarılı uygulamaların çok az sayıdaki çocuklara ulaştığı ve çocuk eğitim programlarının da bunun etkisiyle istenen seviyelere gelmediği söylenebilir. Bu nedenle çocukların eğitimi söz konusu olduğunda birçok problemin tarih boyunca çocukların karşısına çıktığı görülmektedir. Bir toplumun çocuğa olan bakış açısı o toplumda var olan çocuk eğitim programına yansımaktadır. Çocukluk kavramı birçok araştırmaya konu olmasına rağmen çocuk eğitim programlarının bu araştırmalardan nasibini alamadığı önemli bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada da bu problem göz önünde bulundurularak Dünyada ve Türkiye’de çocukluk kavramının tarihsel gelişimi ve bunun eğitim programlarına nasıl yansıdığı tartışılacaktır.
... Evlilikte aldatma hemen hemen bütün dinlerde onaylanmayan ve yaptırımla karşılanan bir olgudur. Pek çok çalışma dini pratiklere katılma oranı arttıkça aldatma olasılığının düştüğünü göstermiştir (örn., Amato ve Rogers, 1997;Atkins ve Kessel, 2008;Burdette, Ellison, Sherkat ve Gore, 2007;Treas ve Giesen, 2000). İlginç bir şekilde bu bulgu, inancın kuvveti ve dua etmenin sıklığı kontrol edildiğinde geçerliliğini korumaktadır (Atkins ve Kessel, 2008). ...
... Pek çok demografik, bireysel, ilişkisel ve durumsal faktörden etkilenerek gelişen aldatma davranışı, hem ilişki hem de partnerler için pek çok probleme yol açmakta ve romantik ilişkilerde yaşanan en önemli sorunlardan biri olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Aldatma, ilişkinin ayrılıkla sonuçlanması için ciddi bir risk oluşturmaktadır (Allen ve Atkins, 2012;Amato ve Previti, 2003;Amato ve Rogers, 1997). Yüz seksen altı ülkede yapılan kültürlerarası bir çalışmada, aldatma en yaygın boşanma nedeni olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Betzig, 1989). ...
... Especially in relationships with long-term interactions such as marriage, emotional conflicts and tensions are commonplace (Kerr, 1981). However, the issue is not the experience of negative experiences and emotions, but the way they are handled (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Fincham et al., 2004;Gottman, 1994;Gottman & Levenson, 1999). Generally, both spouses contribute to the problems in marital relationships. ...
... The methods such as usage of destructive and humiliating communication style between couples, always making different and negative inferences from each other's behaviors, expecting their spouse to understand them by reading their mind instead of talking and cutting communication do not just ensure the solution of the problem but add new problems on top of the existing problem. There are many studies showing that communication problems negatively affect marriage (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Orbuch et al., 2002;Rogge & Bradbury, 1999;Rogge et al., 2006;Clements et al., 2004;Stanley et al., 2002). As a result of long-term research, Gottman (2000) identified behaviors that harm the spouses' relationships and listed them as criticism, always getting defensive, behaviors that belittle and cutting of the communication. ...
... Berikut ini empat faktor yang mencegah terjadinya perceraian menurut Amato dan Roges (Amato & Rogers, 1997). Ada faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi tekad seseorang dalam memutuskan suatu perceraian. ...
Article
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Pandemi Covid-19 menghambat berbagai kegiatan sehari-hari. Kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut terpaksa dilakukan dari rumah, mulai dari work from home, sekolah daring, hingga kuliah daring. Kondisi seperti ini membuat interaksi keluarga menjadi lebih intens dari hari-hari sebelumnya. Beberapa keluarga merasakan dampak positif dari hal ini. Meningkatnya intensitas komunikasi dalam keluarga juga meningkatkan keintiman hubungan mereka. Beberapa keluarga menggunakan kesempatan ini untuk lebih saling mengenal antar anggota keluarga mereka. Namun, di samping itu, ada pula beberapa keluarga yang merasakan dampak negatif dari pandemi ini. Intensitas yang tinggi dalam keluarga juga dapat menimbulkan konflik, salah satunya yaitu perceraian. Berbagai faktor menjadi pemicu dalam perceraian di masa pandemi ini, misalnya menurunnya perekonomian, perselisihan, hingga KDRT. Dalam kondisi ini, sangat urgen melakukan penguatan terhadap prinsip dan hakikat perkawinan, khususnya dalam perspektif hukum islam. Metode yang dipakai dalam pengadian ini adalah berupa ceramah, tanya jawab interaktif dan pendampingan. Hasil dari pengabdian ini adalah para peserta memiliki insight bahwa sebuah perkawinan bertujuan untuk mencapai keluarga yang sakinah, mawadah wa rahmah. Kegiatan pengabdian ini menjadi oase di tengah pandemi untuk sharing dan mencari solusi terkait dengan rumah tangga agar terhindar dari perceraian. Assistance in Islamic Marriage Law in Efforts to Reduce Divorce Rates during the Pandemic (Study in Salimah Ta'lim, Surakarta) The Covid-19 pandemic has hampered various daily activities. These activities have to be carried out from home, starting from work from home, online schools, to online lectures. Conditions like this make family interaction more intense than the previous days. Some families feel the positive impact of this. The increased intensity of communication within the family also increases the intimacy of their relationship. Some families use this opportunity to get to know each other better among their family members. However, besides that, there are also several families who feel the negative impact of this pandemic. High intensity in the family can also lead to conflict, one of which is divorce. Various factors trigger divorce during this pandemic, for example, the declining economy, disputes, and domestic violence. In this condition, it is very urgent to strengthen the principles and nature of marriage, especially from the perspective of Islamic law. The method used in this court is in the form of lectures, interactive question and answer, and mentoring. The result of this dedication is that the participants have the insight that marriage aims to achieve a sakinah, mawadah wa rahmah family. This service activity has become an oasis in the midst of a pandemic for sharing and finding solutions related to the household to avoid divorce.
... According to one of the most prestigious in the field studies in America have shown that 21 percent of men and 11 percent of women in their lifetime are committed marital infidelity (Morris & Carter, 1999;Wilcox & Wolfinger, 2007). Betrayal as one of the main reasons that couples have come to the max system family counseling (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Gottman, 2013Gottman, , 2014 America are divorced, have reported that in life Relations outside of marriage have been involved at least once (Janus and Janus, 1993). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to predict extramarital relationships (betrayal) based on gender schemas. Methods: The present study was correlational and forecasts. The study population were all Couples who Applicant to Divorce referred to medical centers in Shiraz and 300 people were selected by multistage random sampling. In this study, data were collected by Inventory meta-marital relationships and Bem gender Schema Questionnaire. First, the coefficient of correlation was obtained, then the data were analyzed by regression analysis. Results: the results showed that gender schemas, significantly and positively will predict spouses extramarital relations. Conclusion: According to study findings, we can say that there is a significant relationship between gender schemas as a psychological components and meta-marital relationships.
... Feeling distressed, unwillingness to solve problems, frustration from solving problems, depression, feeling emptiness and meaninglessness, and lack of emotional support are the emotional symptoms of sexually abusive people (Amato & Rogers, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
From the old days, people believe that men have less non-commitment in their relationship with the opposite sex, while according to new research women can betray and not be in a relationship with men! Therefore, the ultimate goal of the studies was to identify the main cause and the main pattern of this non-commitment, and to continue to refine and provide solutions to this problem. The fact is that some women in the long-standing relationship and finally commitment in all years will eventually betray their Infidelity and commit themselves. Of course, men may also be betrayed after having had a long relationship with one person. At the same time, none of the parties, ultimately lethargy, refuse to accept their own indignation and Infidelity! With the difference that the method of Infidelity and its causes are different in both sexes, they are completely different. Men, while committing to their own people, if they are fascinated, emotionally or sexually abusive others, on the contrary, women, until they are fully satisfied by their man, Committed to their commitment. But as soon as a person creates and continues to experience the emotions, sexual relations, finances and ... on the part of the man, with the onset of problems between the two, the woman is also drawn to Infidelity and inertia. Most women cannot easily engage in sexually abusive relationships and intimacy with another man, because unlike men, the creation of a new sexual relationship on the part of the woman is quite apparent in the state of affection and self-expression in relation to the previous man. For women: "If men learn to respect their own person, emotionally, financially, and financially, there is no reason for a woman to betray her.
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Complaints, their forms, and their functions, as well as their institutionalization in various sectors of the economy, attract increasing interest among scientists around the world. According to O. S. Sukharev, ideas about the socio-psychological nature of complaints suggest a certain dysfunction of the relevant institution, which reduces its effectiveness but does not lead to its collapse. This article reflects the result of correspondence with a representative of the Novosibirsk economic and sociological school Prof. O. E. Bessonova, the author of a series of articles on the benefits of complaints as a signaling institution of a non-market type. The discussion concerned the controversy regarding the effectiveness and functionality of complaints in the field of housing and communal services in Russia. The author’s position is that the institution under consideration is not fully effective due to various circumstances. The dysfunctionality of complaints is demonstrated in various cases of institutional abuse, with one of the results being the mimicry of the institution as defined by E. V. Balatsky (a complaint as a denunciation). Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of vacuous, perfunctory bureaucratic replies to complaints, considered an institutional trap by V. M. Polterovich. The problem of false signals of complaints and their consequences is analyzed. The advantages of a personal appeal as an informal way of solving a problem are compared to a formal written complaint. At the same time, the role of transaction costs in the choice of one or another method of filing a complaint is noted. In conclusion, a forecast is given about the decrease in the functionality of the institution of complaints in modern Russian conditions in relation to the housing and communal services
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This study focuses on financial disagreements as a particular subtopic of this developing field. Considering the presence of the significant association between financial disagreements and the increasing rate of divorce [Amato, Rogers 1997; Polina Zhidkova Zagorsky 2003;Cubbins, Vannoy 2004;Britt, Huston, Durband 2010;Dew 2009;Dew, Britt, Huston 2012], the study aims to expand our understanding of the factors behind the alarming rate of divorce in Russia [Zakharov 2015]. ...
... This form of betrayal is a leading cause of relationship dissolution and diminished mental health among couples (Fincham & May, 2017), destabilizing the relationship's secure attachment (Macintosh et al., 2007). Other devastating repercussions that often accompany infidelity include emotional distress, family disturbances, violence (Negash & Morgan, 2016), and even divorce among married couples (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Marín et al., 2014). Couples following an affair's discovery are also more apt to experience post-traumatic stress symptomatology and increased conflict (Gottman & Gottman, 2017b). ...
Thesis
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The present study applies a Gottman Method Couples Therapy (GMCT) intervention, the Trust Revival Method (TRM), to couples' relationships following an affair, using a randomized control waitlist design. Couples (n= 84) were recruited nationally and internationally and subsequently randomized to either an immediate treatment group or a 3-week waitlist group. A 6-month post-trial follow-up was conducted for couples that completed treatment. The revised Specific Affect Coding System (Coan & Gottman, 2007) was used to code couples' interactions during a 10–15-minute conflict discussion. Significant effects were found when comparing couples' codes against treatment retention and later relationship functioning. Couples also completed various assessments three times during the study, including the 480-question Gottman Connect (GC) assessment tool. Couples on the 3-week waitlist completed one additional pre-treatment assessment before their 3-week wait commenced. Multivariate statistics with appropriate univariate follow-up procedures were employed to determine group differences between the control and experimental groups. Follow-up procedures were also conducted to investigate any differential rates of symptom reduction or treatment success. The researcher used path analysis procedures following Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM- Kenny et al., 2020) assumptions to examine the effects of the intervention on overall relationship satisfaction and subsequent affair recovery, revealing significant effects between assessment scores and coded behaviors. Clinical significance testing also showed significant effects in specific relationship domains. The results add to the current research literature, validating GMCT as an effective broad-based couple therapy approach to repair relationships following infidelity. Implications for clinical practice, graduate training, and research are discussed. ISBN: 9798841795896
... In particular, health, employment, and economic stability are important factors in the maintenance of marital relationships. 11,12 The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on those with health problems or workers experiencing presenteeism (the loss in productivity of workers not fully functional on the job) is particularly significant. Treatment interruptions, anxiety, loneliness, and difficulty receiving support from the company due to telecommuting during the pandemic affected the working styles and quality of life of people with health problems. ...
Article
Objective: We examined the association between the presenteeism and the risk of divorce among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A prospective study of 27,036 individuals was conducted starting in December 2020, with 18,560 (68.7%) participating in the follow-up in December 2021. The Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun) was used to measure the degree of work function impairment. Results: Compared to the group with the lowest WFun score, the OR for the group with moderate WFun was 1.16 (95% CI: 0.74-1.82, p = 0.525), and the OR for the group with the highest WFun was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.18-2.62, p = 0.006). Conclusions: The present study suggests that supporting workers with presenteeism has important implications not only from the perspective of labor productivity in management but also for the individual's quality of life in terms of family relationships.
... Age and age at marriage can be essential and underlying factors in increasing the stability of marriage (Strong et al., 2011). Given the emotionally challenging nature of intimacy (Cordova & Scott, 2001), people who married at a younger age are more likely to experience marital conflicts, mainly in the area of disloyalty and jealousy (Smart, 2008;Amato & Rogers, 1997). As people age, there is greater stability in emotional experience and better able to solve highly emotional problems (Carstensen et al., 2011), and emotional stability is a significant predictor of the happiness (Hills & Argyle, 2001). ...
Article
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The quality of marital relationship has far-reaching implications for the health and well-being of the family. Several studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics and mindful awareness significantly predict the quality of the marital relationship. Literature is scarce about these studies conducted among Nigerian samples. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic factors and mindful awareness as predictors of marital satisfaction among nursing mothers in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. The data for this study were collected at the postnatal clinics and children's welfare clinics of two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, using Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Index of Marital Satisfaction, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Correlation analysis was used to test for association. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictor variables for marital satisfaction. The age range of nursing mothers was 20-46 years. Over 88% of the nursing mothers enrolled or completed tertiary education program. Higher levels of marital satisfaction were reported in 185 (61.7%) of the mothers. Multiple regression analysis suggested that higher levels of mindfulness and higher levels of educational attainment predicted higher levels of marital satisfaction, while an increase in the level of pregnancies predicted lower levels of marital satisfaction. The research findings may carry significant implications for the role of social-demographic characteristics and mindfulness, awareness in building and sustaining happy marital relationships and general well-being of the family.
... Marriages tend to be more stable among religious individuals than among nonreligious individuals (Burdette et al., 2007), and this relationship is partially mediated by lower risks of marital problems, such as jealousy, infidelity, alcohol consumption, and drug use among the religious (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Atkins et al., 2001). In addition, religious individuals may spend more time with a church community, internalizing pro-marital behavioral norms and receiving congregational support as a couple (Wilcox & Wolfinger, 2007). ...
Article
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This investigation examined the relationship between religiosity and marriage across a period of life marked by the transition from emerging adulthood and established adulthood. While many studies have established a positive link between religiosity and marriage, little longitudinal research has been conducted to prospectively predict one from the other. Using data from 290 young adults participating in the Longitudinal Study of Generations in 2000 and 2016, we applied latent class analysis to identify three religious classes at both periods based on religious attendance, intensity, attitudes, spirituality, and beliefs. We then used these classes as leading predictors of later marriage and as outcomes predicted by earlier marriage. We found statistically significant relationships between stronger religiosity and greater likelihood of marriage and between marriage and stronger religiosity in the transition from emerging to established adulthood. Significantly larger effects in both directions were observed for men than for women. We conclude that while both religiosity and marriage have declined in the population, an increasingly narrow but distinctive subset of individuals simultaneously maintain traditional religious orientations and a proclivity to marry by established adulthood. Future research on this topic and implications for clergy are discussed.
... The salience of family and individual resilience for reducing stress has been broadly studied in the context of various types of stressful conditions, such as physical illness of a partner (Daniel et al., 2009;Li et al., 2018), significant financial difficulties (Amato and Rogers, 1997), and significant life events (Cohan, 2010), all of which constitute risk factors for marital dissatisfaction and divorce. Some research focuses specifically on the conditions that simultaneously create stress throughout communities, like disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and terrorist attacks. ...
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The present study examined effects of sociodemographic, risk, and resilience factors on marital, parental, and financial stress early in the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 480 married Palestinians living in Israel, using self-report questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were computed. Then, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict each of the three stress measures. Finally, dominance analyses were conducted to compare the contributions of sociodemographic, risk, and resilience factors. The results showed considerable differences between predictors of marital and parental stress and predictors of financial stress. For marital and parental stress, resilience factors mainly family resilience were the strongest predictors, followed by risk factors and then sociodemographic characteristics. For financial stress, risk factors (mainly financial damage and prior stressful life events) were the strongest predictors, followed by sociodemographic characteristics and resilience factors (mainly individual resilience). These results suggest that family and individual resilience reduce marital and parental stress under difficult conditions, including the COVID-19 pandemic. Though resilience has been found to ameliorate financial stress to some extent, it appears that other measures are required to manage stress related to financial difficulties.
... İlişkilerde karşılaşılan kıskançlığın genelde olumlu etkiler bıraktığı söylenemez. 8 Kıskançlığın olumsuzluklarını azaltmak için ebeler kadınları ruhsal, psikolojik ve davranışsal olarak takip etmelidir. 9 Mutluluk bireyin kendisinden yola çıkılarak öznel beğeniden, maddi manevi tüm değerlere, toplumsal takdire konu olan çeşitli değerlere veya bahsedilen tüm değişkenlere sahip olunmasına kadar geniş bir yelpazeye sahiptir. ...
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Aim: The research was conducted to determine the jealousy and happiness levels of women of different social status, to compare and relationship-seeking. Methods: A comparative, relationship-seeking and descriptive study; It was conducted with 1525 (303 single women + 307 women with children + 305 women without children + 306 primiparous pregnant + 304 multiparous pregnant women) who met the inclusion criteria in Malatya Akçadağ Şehit Gökhan Aslan State Hospital gynecology outpatient clinic between 30.05.2019-26.03.2020. Personal Information Form, Subjective Happiness Scale (SCS) and Multidimensional Jealousy Scale (DICAS) were used to collect study data. Results: It was found that the average SME score of the singles was 22.00±5.09, the mean MSCS score was 85.30±24.08; the mean SME score of married women with children was 22.53±5.07, and the mean SDLS score was 81.06±21.66; the mean SME score of married and childless women was 24.64±5.03, and the mean MSCS score was 87.45±18.91; It was found that the mean SCPI mean score of primipara pregnant women was 24.08±4.19, the mean SDLS score was 86.68±17.69, the mean SDS score of multiparous pregnant women was 23.53±5.27, and the mean MSCS score was 83.75±20.05; It was found that the mean SDLS and SCI scores of married and childless women were higher than the other groups and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p <0.001). Conclusion: It was determined that women with different social status have moderate jealousy and all of them are happy. It was found that married and childless people are the happiest and the most jealous, and adding a child to the family is a factor that negatively affects jealousy.
... O verspending by emerging adults (ages 18-30; Arnett, 2004) is negatively associated with psychological wellbeing (Andrews & Wilding, 2004;Berger et al., 2015;Taylor et al., 2011), physical wellbeing (Taylor et al., 2011), social wellbeing (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Britt et al., 2008;Cutrona et al., 2003), and financial wellbeing (Lyons, 2008;Robb, 2011). Overspending by emerging adult college students (i.e., the population focused on in the current study) and subsequent financial stress are also associated with lower academic performance (Andrews & Wilding, 2004;Britt et al., 2016;Broadbridge & Swanson, 2006) and decreased academic retention (Shaffer, 2014). ...
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Using consumer socialization theory, this study examined the associations between perceived influence of parents, peers, employment, and media and spending behaviors of emerging adult college students from three different regions of the US: Northeast, South Atlantic, and Mountain regions. Data from the Emerging Adult Financial Capability Study ( N = 2,322) were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Greater parental and employment influences perceived by the students were linked with more responsible spending behaviors, while greater peer and media influences were associated with less responsible spending behaviors. This study highlights the importance of the home and the workplace as the nexus for financial learning. This knowledge can help focus efforts to help future emerging adult college students learn responsible spending behaviors.
... Matriliny, the diminished influence of traditional norms and values governing marriage and the rather increasing influence of Western norms and values of individualism have been noted to be responsible for marriage instability in Ghana (Takyi and Gyimah, 2007;Nukunya, 2003;Takyi, 2001). Research also indicates that marital break-up through divorce is the consequence of a number of social factors including engagement in extra marital relationships by spouses (Diefenbach and Opp, 2007;Amato and Previti, 2003;Amato and Rogers, 1997), male violence (Lawrence and Bradbury, 2001;DeMaris, 2000), HIV infection of a spouse (Porter, Hao, Bishai, Serwadda, Wawer, Lutalo, Gray, and the Rakai Project Team, 2004), alcoholism (Amato and Previti, 2003), unhappiness of husbands (Gager and Sanchez, 2003), urbanization (Cvrcek, 2011), internal and international migration (Boyle, Kulu, Cooke, Gayle, Mulder, 2008;Frank and Wildsmith, 2005) and the implementation of unilateral divorce laws (Kneip and Bauer, 2009;Gruber, 2004). Economic factors also account for divorce. ...
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This article examines the coping strategies of single female parents in Accra. Single female parents within Maamobi, New Dansoman and Roman Ridge areas in Accra were interviewed through in-depth interviews and a survey. Specifically, the study sought to find out the socioeconomic factors that account for single female parenthood and how single female parents economically and socially support their households. The major findings are that divorce is principally responsible for single female parenthood mainly due to the infidelity of husbands. In the absence of men (husbands), single female parents although earning incomes which are low, bear the bulk of responsibility in the maintenance of children and the household. The fathers of the children of single female parents mostly do not assist the women in the maintenance of children. Kin of single female parents on the other hand mostly assist the women with housing and household chores. The study concludes that single female parents are to a great extent self-reliant in dealing with their responsibilities as parents.
... Previous research has linked higher levels of debt to marital strain (Conger & Elder, 1994;Dew, 2007), which in turn increases the risk of divorce (Conger et al., 1999;Dew, 2011). Other studies link negative perceptions of partners' spending habits to relationship conflict and divorce (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Britt et al., 2008). To the extent that any negatively perceived spending is done on credit resulting in debt, this is likely to further increase the level of conflict in a relationship. ...
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As households have become increasingly financialized, family scholars have considered the consequences of assets, credit, and debt for family dynamics. Previous studies that focused on labor force participation or earnings found that inequality between partners has important gendered consequences for relationship stability. We expand on this by considering within-couple financial inequality—the extent to which partners hold assets and debts unequally—and its implications for marital stability. Two competing perspectives—financial equality and financial specialization—offer different predictions. Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), we find strong support for the financial equality perspective and little support for the financial specialization perspective. Couples with equal holdings have the most stable marriages. We also find that the positive association between equal financial holdings and marital stability is driven primarily by financial integration, or joint holdings. In some cases, we also find support for a modified version of the gendered institution perspective, as marriages with female partners holding most of the asset or debt are less stable than marriages with male partners holding most or partners holding them equally. We further distinguish among different types of assets and debts in our analyses, in recognition of the growing diversity of financial holdings and their varied implications for relationship quality and stability.
... The average age of marriage in this group of women was fairly young (16.47 years), and most of their infidelities occurred between the ages of 17 and 30. This is consistent with Amato and Rogers (1997) who found a predictive relationship between lower age at marriage and the likelihood of later infidelity. ...
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This phenomenological study investigated the lived experien�ces of Iranian women who had engaged in an extramarital affair. Seventeen women participated in semi-structured inter�views at a residential center for women in Ahvaz Iran. Questions focused on the circumstances and marital experien�ces that participants felt contributed to their infidelity, as well as information about how the affair began and was main�tained. Six main themes emerged: wives’ emotional issues, cul�tural and social factors, substance abuse, husbands’ psychological issues, financial concerns, and sexual concerns. Findings may be useful in designing education for couples and families that may help prevent the occurrence of mari�tal infidelit
... Demographic and life course characteristics most frequently linked to the risk of marriage breakdown and divorce include early age at marriage, cohabitation and pregnancy prior to marriage, low education and income, parental divorce, non-traditional family values, previous marriage, and womens' employment (Amato and Rogers, 1997;Glezer, 1994;Ono, 1998;Sarantakos 1994;White, 1990). ...
... Within the family domain, researchers have found that crisis has the potential to generate positive outcomes for family members, such as improvements in cohesion, resilience, communication, and intimacy (Eby et al., 2016). However, there is also a possibility that crisis may elicit fundamental differences between partners and even lead to relationship dissolution (Amato & Rogers, 1997;Dew et al., 2012;Neppl et al., 2016). Paying attention to this possibility of "crisis coming into the family" is particularly important because of the greater power of negative experiences over positive ones (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001). ...
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As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our societies went into a lockdown model and many organizations required or permitted their employees to work from home. As a result, employees need to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic while they work from home, providing an opportunity to examine how COVID-19 prevention experiences influence those who are working from home. Based on the interpersonal self-regulation perspective, we propose that employees who perceive having more disagreements with their partners over COVID-19 prevention measures are more likely to experience a reduction in their identification with the partner which is subsequently associated with their negative work outcomes through emotional exhaustion. Results from a two-wave survey study with a sample of 282 employees who worked from home during the COVID-19 pandemic supported our predictions: perceived self-partner disagreements over COVID-19 prevention measures related to a reduction in identification with the partner, which was subsequently associated with exhausted regulatory resources and undermined work outcomes. Furthermore, these negative effects were particularly salient for individuals who were not married. Theoretical and practical implications for family-to-work interference and working from home in times of crisis are discussed.
... Conflicts of interest between partners are distressing [20] and have the potential to disrupt the bond between people in irreversible ways [42]. However, given the interdependence that characterizes relationships [21], these situations are inevitable and people need to learn to navigate these complex interpersonal affairs. ...
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While previous research has found that prosocial behavior increases personal and relationship well-being, a particularly costly type of prosocial behavior—sacrifice—can sometimes have aversive effects and is the focus of the current review. We consider effects for both the individual who enacts the sacrifice and the recipient. Sacrifice can take a toll on the giver’s well-being, is a mixed blessing for the recipient (when they perceive the sacrifice), and may have some harmful consequences for relationships in the long-run. We discuss the importance of finding the right strategies (e.g., alternative solutions, comparison of costs and rewards between partners, reappraisals) to navigate these complex interpersonal situations in which partners’ goals and preferences conflict.
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Aims When assessing the ill-effects this pandemic has brought to humans, one of the most important factors is the psychological influence it has caused on married couples. The study is designed to understand whether they suffer from fears of financial situation/uncertainty and the role of resource availability on the level of adjustment of spouses. Objective The objectives of this study were to identify whether individuals suffer from fears of financial situation and uncertainty, to analyse the level of adjustment of spouses, to investigate the resources available for spouses, and to understand whether resource availability moderates the relationship between individuals' fears on financial situation/uncertainty and the level of adjustment of spouses. Methods An online survey was conducted among a chosen random sample and data were collected from 301 participants who were adults 25 years or older, residing in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the moderator effect of resources available for spouses. Results The results showed that COVID-19 created uncertainty and fear of financial situation among married couples and, it was concluded that cultural beliefs and support extended from their respective families contributed to the adjustment of Sri Lankan spouses, who managed to remain in stable relationships during the global crisis as a result. Conclusion The study concluded the support extended from the families and cultural beliefs contributed significantly to the adjustment of spouses who managed to stay strong during the global crisis.
Article
Objectives Divorce is one of the most important social harms. This study investigated the divorce trends, causes, and implemented interventions. Methods A qualitative approach with a content analysis method was conducted. The study data were collected by reviewing relevant documents such as scientific articles and official reports, interviewing experts, and holding focus group Discussion. Sampling was performed with purposive sampling and the snowball technique to identify experts and professionals in this area. Results In recent years, the ratio of the divorce to marriage has been increasing, and in 2016, it reached its highest level (25.3 divorce per 100 marriages). Weak literacy and marital skills, changing patterns of matching, increased individualism and self-interest seeking, unemployment, addiction, and cyber ads (online advertising) were considered the most important reasons for divorce, according to the experts’ views. Currently, a program for controlling and decreasing the divorce rate is implemented. However, the most critical challenges of the program are weak inter-sectoral collaboration and community participation, dispersing and islanding social services, and also the effect of political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and international macro factors on mentioned national program. Conclusion Social harms inside the family are complicated. So, it requires the cooperation of scattered and islanding services in the form of comprehensive social care units for the target population throughout the country. Also, capacity building and national programs institution literacy should be strengthened.
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This study aims to investigate the contexts, conditions, process and consequences of the adaptive divorce in Talesh. 18 males who had adaptively divorced participated at this study. Participants and concepts were selected by one of the strategies of purposive sampling, maximum variety and theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed by using qualitative methodology of grounded theory. The in-depth interview was the technique of collecting data. Finally, 12 categories and a core category were extracted during coding process which are: perceived crudity for marriage; precipitant familiarity; interfere and importance of significant others; disagreement of family; status differences; infidelity of spouse; ongoing contentions; agreement for separation; Bargaining and agreement on dowry; pain of separation; satisfaction of remarriage; believe in better life after divorce. Finally, the core category extracted as” superficiality, infidelity and difference as the passage of adaptive divorce”.
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El objetivo del artículo es analizar la posible relación entre los estilos de apego, la infidelidad y la incapacidad de separarse de la pareja después de una experiencia de infidelidad, a pesar del malestar que esta generó. Se realizó una monografía mediante la revisión de la literatura, con especial interés en las teorías sociocognitiva y sistémica del aprendizaje, que destacan que el tipo de relación entre un niño y su cuidador es un posible determinante para el tipo de relación romántica que establecerá en su vida adulta. Esta reflexión teórica pretende aportar a la práctica clínica un conocimiento que pueda fortalecer la capacidad de decisión, autoestima, autoimagen y el empoderamiento de la persona que acude a terapia por no estar conforme con su relación de pareja.
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Purpose Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the financial condition and the mental health of millions of workers from various informal sectors. This study aims to look into the hawkers’ community’s mental health and living conditions in Bangladesh during COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach The researchers have applied the purposive sampling technique to choose ten hawkers from Khulna city, a district in the southern region of Bangladesh. An in-depth interview was taken in the Bengali language in an unstructured manner and lasted 30–40 min per respondent. Findings The findings showed that the Hawkers’ income reduced, and specifically, during the pandemic, they had earned half of what they usually made before. Besides, they could not open their stores because law enforcement agencies imposed restrictions on opening business centres during the lockdown except for some emergency necessities shops. This restriction led the hawkers to stop selling their products because there was a high chance of spreading the virus through the products they sold. Due to income reduction, they had to eat cheap food, which caused their health problems. Consequently, this community mentally got depressed. Practical implications Policymakers in Bangladesh might think about enacting more effective measures to provide some extrinsic and intrinsic support in improving the mental health of the hawkers’ community. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the mental of the hawkers’ community during COVID-19.
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The objectives this study was to investigate whether individuals suffer from fear of financial situation and uncertainty, to investigate the level of adjustment of spouses, to investigate support extended by the other family members and to analyse whether the support extended by the other family members moderates the relationship between individuals' fears on financial situation/uncertainty and the level of adjustment of spouses. The data was collected from an online survey which was conducted from a random sample of 300 adults aged 25 years and older residing in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. A conceptual model was developed and variables such as fear of financial situation, uncertainty and extended family support available for spouses were reviewed in relation to the adjustment of spouses. Four hypotheses were established. Statistical analysis was performed to identify moderator effect of resources available for spouses. It was identified that COVID-19 created fear of financial situation and uncertainty among married couples and, it was concluded that support provided from their respective families contributed to adjustment of Sri Lankan spouses. A key limitation was that there was no equal participation from both genders. Future research may include replicating the same study with a more diverse sample. Future researchers can conduct a follow-up study to identify long-term effects of COVID-19 on Sri Lankan married couples.
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Aim and Background: Treatment of the couples suffer from infidelity, is a complex and multifaceted process. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of couple therapy after the infidelity of men. Methods and Materials: This was a quasi-experimental research with pretest, posttest, and follow up, as well as the control group. The study population consisted of all the couples living in Kerman City, Iran, and referred to counseling centers in this city. Those who had the problem of marital infidelity in years 2015-2016 enrolled in this study. The sample included 16 couples that responded desire to divorce scale. Then randomly divided into two groups of control and experimental. In the experimental group, 6-12 therapy sessions were conducted with an average of 9 meetings. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Findings: The treatment decreased couples’ desire to divorce, and the scores in 3 measurements (pretest, posttest, and follow up) were significantly different (P < 0.010). Conclusions: Access to mental health care after infidelity of couples reduces the desire to divorce.
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The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging; relationship satisfaction declines over time, and relationship dissolution is frequent. This raises the question of which factors contribute to the maintenance versus decline of relationship satisfaction. In this Review, we examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Specifically, we describe how self-reported perceptions (subjective perceptions of the self, the partner or the relationship), implicit evaluations (automatic evaluations of one’s partner assessed indirectly) and objective indexes (demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological indexes) relate to relationship satisfaction. This synthesis suggests that self-reported perceptions are not always the most reliable predictors of longitudinal changes in relationship satisfaction. Thus, to uncover why some relationships flourish and others struggle over time, future research should not solely focus on self-reported perceptions, but also on implicit evaluations, demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological factors, and their combination. The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging. In this Review, Righetti et al. examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
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This publication presents the fatherhood of men in relation to adults with profound intellectual disabilities from two perspectives. The first perspective concerns the biographical experience of fatherhood, including the meaning that fathers have given it over the years. The second takes into consideration the shaping of fatherhood in the socio-cultural dimension. The issues presented in this publication do not exhaust the topic; however, in a certain way, they map the problems that fathers of children with profound intellectual disabilities face from childhood to adulthood. My own academic investigation was embedded in the methodology of qualitative research in the constructivist and interpretive current (with an emphasis placed on the interpretive aspect). The main research goal was to explore, analyse and describe the experiences of the fatherhood of men-fathers of children with profound intellectual disabilities and the meanings hidden within them. Regardless of the perspective or context assumed, fatherhood is a role that can not be planned in advance. Moreover, global changes worldwide cause that not only social expectations but also conceptual constructs associated with social and individual roles are modified. These changes impact the redefinition of fatherhood, the role of the father in the family, social expectations placed on him and the demands of personal development. The research issues addressed in this monograph and how they are interpreted reveal the different ways women and men experience a child’s disability, and the context fathers give to it.
Chapter
This chapter analyses the effects of remote work on family relationships during confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is centered on faculty and staff members from a private business school in Puebla, Mexico. The research was conducted almost five months after the university closed its doors and moved all its activities online, having participants time to adapt to the new normal. A scale was developed and validated, and later on, it was applied in a country where family values, cultures, and traditions are strong. The scale included five distinct areas of study: remote working conditions, time and task management, work performance, stress, and family relations. All the business school faculty and administrative staff were invited to participate in the study. Results show employees' perceptions about how working remotely positively or negatively affected their relationships at home and their productivity at work, leading to the design of best practices and useful guidelines that will minimize the adverse effects of remote work while enhancing the positive ones.
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Dahil ang Pilipinas ay isang patriyarkal na lipunan, kinikilala ng mga Pilipino ang pagiging dominante ng mga lalaki sa iba’t ibang aspekto ng pakikisalamuha, mula sa gobyerno at trabaho hanggang sa pamilya at relasyon. Dahil dito, nakatuon ang mga nakaraang pag-aaral sa naratibo at karanasan ng kalalakihang sila ang may hawak ng kapangyarihan, lalo na sa usapin ng kanilang pangangaliwa—na itinuturing na mas katanggap-tanggap sa lipunan kompara sa pangangaliwa ng mga babae. Gayunpaman, madalas hindi nabibigyang-pansin ang mga pangyayaring nakukuwestiyon ang pagiging makapangyarihan ng mga lalaki, gaya ng pagtataksil sa kanila ng karelasyong babae. Nais naming tugunan sa pananaliksik na ito ang kakulangan sa literatura at kaalaman ukol sa pangangaliwa ng mga babae at kung paano binibigyang-kahulugan ng kanilang mga karelasyong lalaki ang karanasang ito. Layon din naming malaman ang kanilang paraan ng pag-igpaw at pagbangon mula sa ganitong mga karanasan. Panghuli, nais naming pagtuunan ng pansin ang naging epekto ng pagtataksil ng kanilang kapareha sa kanilang pananaw sa sari-saring aspekto ng kanilang búhay. Kinapanayam namin ang sampung Pilipinong lalaking naninirahan sa Luzon at nakararanas ng pangangaliwa sa iba’t ibang antas ng kanilang relasyon. Ang bawat panayam ay aming sinuri gámit ang Discourse Analysis upang magkaroon ng mas malalim na pag-unawa sa kanilang naratibo at malaman kung paano sumasalamin ang wikang kanilang ginamit sa kanilang pagtingin at pagbibigay-kahulugan sa kanilang dinanas. Lumabas sa pananaliksik ang sumusunod na mga tema: ang paninisi sa kaparehang babae ngunit hindi sa karibal na lalaki, ang hindi pagbanggit at hindi pagharap sa karibal, at ang pagsasawalang-bahala sa nangyari. Ang lahat ng ito ay umiikot sa konsepto ng kahihiyan. Sa kanilang pananaw, ang pangangaliwa ng kanilang karelasyon ay kabawasan sa kanilang pagkalalaki. Dahil dito, ang kanilang mga aksiyon matapos ang ganitong karanasan ay nakatuon sa pagbuong muli ng kanilang reputasyon o imahen sa lipunan at sa pagbawi sa kanilang dangal at pagkalalaki.
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In this mixed-methods study, we analyzed data from 351 couple therapists who completed our Therapists’ Experiences Treating Infidelity (TETI) survey. The present survey is a follow-up of previous iterations that examined therapists’ attitudes toward infi- delity and affair recovery treatment. Our TETI survey provided additional questions pertaining to therapists’ personal history with affairs and perceptions on current research and training standards. Results showed that various therapist and couple fac- tors serve to impede affair recovery treatment. Additionally, this survey revealed several similarities in therapists’ attitudes from prior surveys, despite decades having passed between when the present survey and previous versions. In this article, we (a) out- line findings from this mixed-methods survey, (b) discuss implications for the field, and (c) offer directions for future research.
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Numerous studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with an increase in adult children's divorce risk. We extend this literature by assessing how parental divorce on both sides of a couple is related to their partnership dynamics, specifically, whether there is parental divorce homogamy and whether a history of parental divorce for both partners is associated with increased dissolution risks for cohabiting and married unions. We use Finnish Census Panel data on 28,021 cohabiting and marital partnerships to conduct event-history models that follow individuals between ages 18 and 45. Findings show substantial parental divorce homogamy. Children with experience of parental divorce have 13% greater odds of cohabiting with and 17% greater odds of marrying a fellow child of divorcees, compared with those whose parents have not divorced. Moreover, contrary to evidence from the United States and Norway, our findings for Finland support an additive—rather than multiplicative—association between parental divorce homogamy and union dissolution. Parental divorce homogamy increases offspring's union dissolution risk by 20% for cohabitation and 70% for marriage, compared with couples for whom neither partner's parents are divorced. In Finland, the sizes of these associations are notably weaker than in the United States and Norway, likely because cohabitation and separation are more widespread and socially accepted in Finland, and an expansive welfare state buffers the socioeconomic consequences of divorce.
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Purpose The anonymity of the Internet supports an increasing number of deviant behaviors such as secret affairs. This paper aims to investigate whether religiosity has a negative relationship with the incidence of secret affairs in cyberspace and how it moderates the substitution effect between the use of online and off-line channels for such deviant behaviors. Design/methodology/approach The authors constructed a cross-sectional county-level dataset containing data on US religious adherents' ratios and actual expenditures on a social website related to extramarital affairs. The data were analyzed by ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regression models. Findings In general, religiosity has a negative relationship with secret affairs in cyberspace. It also moderates the relationship between using online (secret affairs websites) and off-line (entertainment facilities) channels for extramarital affairs. The deterrent effect of religiosity is weakened in religious communities with diversified religious teachings/structures and stricter requirements. Originality/value This work enriches the understanding of the role of religiosity in online deviant behaviors and provides essential insights for policymakers (e.g. in relation to spillover effects of social norms in cyberspace).
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Decreasing the duration of marriage leading to divorce is one of the social issues of Iranian society. This phenomenon has a determining role in continuing below-replacement level fertility. This paper aims to explain the duration of marriage leading to divorce in Iran. The research method is post-event and a cross-sectional approach was used in data analysis. Data adopted from the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI) and National Organization for Civil Registration (NOCR). Results showed that the average duration of marriage resulted in divorce is slightly more than seven years, ranging from 2.6 to 12 years. Districts located in the western, southern, and eastern regions of the country have the shortest duration of marriage leading to divorce. Accordingly, it can be said that a particular cultural pattern dominates the geographical distribution of divorce in Iran. Multivariate analysis show that the level of development, sex ratio of literates, sex ratio of university graduates, men unemployment and the difference of mean age at marriage between men and women have the most impact on durability of marriage leading to divorce respectively. Therfore, the adoption of policies in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural context of the Iranian society is essential to strengthen the family's foundation.
Thesis
This dissertation examines the associations among the family life course, labor migration, and marital processes. Existing literature shows that moving for work threatens marital quality and even increases the risk of marital dissolution. Scholars have also found, albeit indirectly, that marriage and parenthood greatly limit individuals’ mobility. These literatures, however, are embedded in larger assumptions about marriage and the nature of migration, and are thus limited in their generalizability. In this study, I advance current understandings of how migration relates to family life, particularly the marital relationship, both theoretically and methodologically. I aim to identify specific conditions under which we would, and would not, expect these results. I leverage unique data and produce more precise estimates of two under-studied relationships - the family life course and spouses’ marital quality, respectively, on men’s subsequent migration – as well as of the effects of temporary migration on spouses’ marital quality. Theoretically, I draw on streams of prior research – the life course, historical gender norms, spousal decision-making processes, and social support – to develop a framework to understand this association. I then apply this framework to the rural, agricultural setting of Nepal, where the cultural conditions are similar to those in Western settings previously examined, but the social organization of work has shifted, from one close to home toward international markets. These conditions - patriarchal and family-oriented marriage norms; significantly higher international wages relative to those local; and strict migrant-monitoring systems in receiving countries – create expectations that family-related provider roles will increase men’s likelihood of migration; husbands in higher quality marriages will be more likely to migrate; and husbands’ labor migration actually improves spouses’ marital quality. Methodologically, I leverage four analytic tools in order to account for the highly selective nature of family and migration. First, the Chitwan Valley Family Study is a longitudinal data set, which tracks family and migration events among a representative sample of nearly 10,000 individuals in rural Nepal, no matter where study members move. The second is measurement of a broad array of physical, social, and human capital and demographic characteristics, prior to men’s marriage and risk of migration. The third is the ability to link individuals’ reports of marriage and migration to those of their spouses. The fourth is repeated measures of multiple dimensions of marital quality among the same married individuals over time (enabled because Nepalese marriages rarely end in divorce). These tools present the rare opportunity to test these hypotheses regarding family, marriage, and migration among a population in which the majority are married. Results show a number of patterns. One, husbands and fathers are significantly more likely to subsequently migrate than single/never married men and men who have no children, respectively. Second, husbands in higher quality marriages have greater odds of subsequently migrating than husbands in lower quality marriages. Third, controlling for marital quality assessed prior to migration, the temporary absence of a migrant husband does not negatively impact spouses’ marital quality, although improvements do not benefit husbands and wives equally. In sum, this dissertation critiques existing assumptions about the associations among family life, marriage, and migration by identifying specific conditions under which earlier results do not hold. Additionally, it utilizes unique panel data to produce more accurate estimates of specific relationships previously under-studied, as well as changes in spouses’ marital quality.
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The post-1980 decline in the crude divorce rate must be interpreted in the context of the long-term trend and in terms of what we know about composition effects on crude measures—particularly given shifts in age at marriage and the age composition effects of the baby boom. Data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey permit more detailed, exposure-specific measurements as well as the use of separation as the event terminating marriage. Estimates from these data suggest a decline followed by a recovery. Taking into account well-known levels of underreporting, we find that recent rates imply that about two-thirds of all first marriages are likely to end in separation or divorce. We examine the persistence of major differences in marital stability and evaluate the comparative stability of first and second marriages.
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We propose a two-part generalization about sex differences in entering into and giving up romantic attachments: (1) Men tend to fall in love more readily than women; (2) women tend to fall out of love more readily than men. Evidence in support of these generalizations is derived from a longitudinal study of 231 college student dating couples. The data suggest that women are more cautious than men about entering into romantic relationships, more likely to compare these relationships to alternatives, more likely to end a relationship that seems ill fated, and better able to cope with rejection. We consider several possible explanations of these sex differences from the standpoints of psychoanalytic theory, the social and economic context of mate selection, and the socialization of men and women in the management of their own emotions. To evaluate these (and any other) explanations, further research might profitably investigate whether and to what degree these sex differences are found in other segments of the population.
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Journals in the fields of family, religion, sociology, psychology, and therapy were searched for articles examining both religion and the family. The interface between religion and family is being addressed by social scientists studying the family who also have an interest in religion, and by some social scientists studying religion who also have an interest in family. Few articles examine the interrelations among multiple dimensions of each institution. This review reveals a pressing need for more serious theoretical and conceptual work that incorporates multidimensional approaches and is specifically designed to illuminate the interrelationships between religion and the family.
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Patterns of marital complaints in a sample of divorcing men and women in metropolitan Cleveland are explored. Two codes of complaints are used: William Goode's code developed for his 1948 study of Detroit women's adjustment to divorce and a second code developed for the Cleveland study. Approximately half of the respondents made complaints which were either infrequently mentioned or not mentioned at all by Goode's respondents. Comparisons of the distribution and types of marital complaints made by Detroit and Cleveland mothers age 38 and under suggest the reasons people give for their divorces today differ from those of 25 years ago. Marital complaints also are shown to vary by sex, education, social class, length of marriage, and income. While some types of complaints are correlated with symptoms of mental health disturbance, others reflecting relief that the marriage has ended are associated with fewer symptoms of mental health disturbance.
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This study uses national longitudinal data to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of offspring divorce, especially when wives and both spouses have experienced the dissolution of their parents' marriage. Offspring age at marriage, cohabitation, socioeconomic attainment, and prodivorce attitudes mediate modest proportions of the estimated effect of parental divorce. In contrast, a measure of interpersonal behavior problems mediates the largest share of the association. The findings suggest that parental divorce elevates the risk of offspring divorce by increasing the likelihood that offspring exhibit behaviors that interfere with the maintenance of mutually rewarding intimate relationships.
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Although telephone interview surveys using random digit dialing to select the sample are increasingly being used, little is known about tracking a panel of respondents selected using this method. This article reports on a three-year panel study of 2032 married respondents selected using a national random digit dialing sample. Of the original sample, 78% was reinterviewed three years later. Tracking procedures used are described in detail and the success of various strategies are reported. Overall, the findings suggest that with proper planning and tracking, panel studies based on random digit dialing samples can yield samples comparable to those gathered by more traditional methods.
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Using three data sources we explore the effects of the quantity and quality of potential new marital partners available in local marriage markets on the risk of marital dissolution. Data from the National Survey of Families and Households demonstrate that, among recently-divorced men and women, a substantial percentage had been romantically involved with someone other than their spouse prior to divorcing. Merging microlevel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with aggregated Public Use Microdata from the 1980 U.S. Census, we examine the impact of marriage market characteristics and other contextual variables on the risk of marital dissolution, net of individual-level predictors. Proportional hazards models reveal that, among non-Hispanic Whites, the risk of dissolution is highest where either wives or husbands encounter an abundance of spousal alternatives. Increased labor force participation among unmarried women and high geographic mobility rates in the local area also increase marital instability. Our results suggest that many persons remain open to alternative relationships even while married and that the supply of spousal alternatives in the local marriage market significantly increases the risk of marital dissolution.
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Four models of the way in which premarital cohabitation may affect marital quality are examined using interview data from a national probability sample of married persons. The idea that cohabitation improves mate selection and marital training is rejected. Cohabitation is negatively related to marital interaction and positively related to marital disagreement, proneness to divorce, and the probability of divorce in nonminority populations. No evidence is found that the accelerated marriage model explains these findings. Some support is found for the explanation that some of those who cohabit are poor marriage risks before they marry. No support is found for the idea that cohabitation itself causes a decline in marital quality, but this argument cannot be rejected with confidence, given the data at hand.
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This paper examines the effects of childhood family disruption on adult family experience by applying proportional hazard models to data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). The results provide strong evidence that women who spend part of their childhoods in one-parent families are more likely to marry and bear children early, give birth before marriage, and have their own marriages break up. The major exception is that, among blacks, early marriage is unrelated to family background. Several explanations for intergenerational consequences are tested, including the economic-deprivation hypothesis, the socialization hypothesis, and the stress hypothesis. The results are most consistent with the socialization explanation, which argues that parental role models and parental supervision are the major factors in determining offspring's future family-formation behavior.
Article
Recent evidence linking premarital cohabitation to high rates of divorce poses a complex theoretical and empirical puzzle. We develop hypotheses predicting that premarital cohabitation is selective of those who are prone to divorce as well as hypotheses predicting that the experience of premarital cohabitation produces attitudes and values which increase the probability of divorce. Using multiwave panel data from a recent cohort of young men and women in the United States, we specify and test models of these predictions. The results are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that cohabitation is selective of men and women who are less committed to marriage and more approving of divorce. The results also are consistent with the conclusion that cohabiting experiences significantly increase young people's acceptance of divorce.
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"This study uses a [U.S.] national sample of married persons under age 55, interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983, to estimate why divorce and marital instability vary by age and duration of marriage. Results indicate that the accumulation of assets substantially reduces the propensity to divorce. We also find that several important correlates of divorce and instability (age at marriage, health, social integration, and income) interact with age and duration. In general, these factors seem to operate almost exclusively among young people and young marriages."
Article
"This review of recent literature on the whos and whys of divorce examines data on the frequency of divorce and research on the predivorce period. The still lingering emphasis on a pathological perspective to explain marital dissolution is posited as a reason for the focus of much of the divorce literature on demography rather than process or outcome. Societal and legal explanations for the increase in the divorce rate are explored. Demographic correlates, mental and physical health issues, and the reasons the divorced themselves give for the decision to end their marriages are reviewed." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Marital instability over the life course: Methodology report for fourth wave. Lincoln: Uni-versity of Nebraska Bureau of Sociological Age at marriage and marital instability
  • A Booth
  • P R Amato
  • D Johnson
  • J Edwards
Booth, A., Amato, P. R., Johnson, D., & Edwards, J. (1993). Marital instability over the life course: Methodology report for fourth wave. Lincoln: Uni-versity of Nebraska Bureau of Sociological Research. Booth, A., & Edwards, J. (1985). Age at marriage and marital instability. Journal of Marriage and the Fam-ily, 47, 67-75.
Why men resist Rethinking the family: Some feminist questions
  • W J Goode
Goode, W. J. (1982). Why men resist. In B. Thorne (Ed.), Rethinking the family: Some feminist questions (pp. 287-310). Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Parting: The aftermath of separation and divorce Women's employ-ment, time expenditure, and divorce
  • G B Spanier
  • L Thompson
Spanier, G. B., & Thompson, L. (1987). Parting: The aftermath of separation and divorce. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Spitze, G., & South, S. J. (1985). Women's employ-ment, time expenditure, and divorce. Journal of Fam-ily Issues, 6, 307-329.