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Extending Self-Esteem Theory and Research

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List of contributors Part I. The Frame: 1. The future of self-esteem: an introduction Timothy J. Owens and Sheldon Stryker 2. The self as social product and social force: Morris Rosenberg and the elaboration of a deceptively simple effect Gregory C. Elliot Part II. Conceptual and Methodological Issues: 3. Theorizing the relationship between self-esteem and identity Laurie H. Ervin and Sheldon Stryker 4. Measuring self-esteem: race, ethnicity, and gender considered Timothy J. Owens and Adam King 5. The self as a social force Viktor Gecas 6. Self-certainty and self-esteem Ron Wright Part III. Social and Life Course Contexts of Self-Esteem: 7. Self-esteem of children and adolescents David H. Demo 8. Failure of the dream: notes for a research program on self-esteem and failed identity in adulthood Norman Goodman 9. Self-esteem and work across the life course Carmi Schooler and Gary Oates 10. Comfort with the self Roberta G. Simmons Part IV. Self-Esteem and Social Inequalities: 11. Self-esteem and race Pamela Braboy Jackson and Sonia P. Lassiter 12. Gender and self-esteem: narrative and efficacy in the negotiation of structural factors Anne Statham and Katherine Rhoades 13. Bereavement and the loss of mattering Leonard I. Pearlin and Allen J. LeBlanc 14. Self-esteem and social inequality L. Edward Wells 15. Self-evaluation and stratification beliefs Matthew O. Hunt Part V. Self-Esteem and Social Problems: 16. The science and politics of self-esteem: schools caught in the middle Martin V. Covington 17. Self-esteem and deviant behavior: a critical review and theoretical integration Howard B. Kaplan 18. Low self-esteem people: a collective portrait Morris Rosenberg and Timothy J. Owens Index.
... Birçok beceri gibi öz güvenin de düşük düzeyde olması başarıyı azaltmakta, öz güvenin yüksek olması başarıyı artırmaktadır. Öte yandan öz güven duygusu yüksek olan bireyler, karşılaştıkları problemleri çözmede daha başarılı olmaktadırlar (Owens, 2001). ...
... Like many skills, low self-confidence reduces success, while high self-confidence increases success. On the other hand, individuals with high self-confidence are more successful in solving the problems they encounter (Owens, 2001). In existing literature, there are numerous studies in the literature on students' future expectations. ...
... As explained above, the goal of this research is to explore the extent to which cyberbullying is associated with low self-esteem. We utilized Rosenberg's (1965) validated measure of self-esteem, 43 which includes a variety of questions designed to estimate one's level of self-esteem. Table 2 reports the items used to construct our measure of self-esteem. ...
... For example, Twenge and Campbell's metaanalysis 27 identified a positive relationship between age and self-esteem when the latter is measured by Rosenbaum's scale. 43 Moreover, a meta-analysis by Kling et al 44 found that males score minimally higher on measures of self-esteem than do females. Finally, Twenge and Crocker's meta-analysis 45 found that Blacks scored higher than Whites on self-esteem measures, who scored higher than Hispanics and Asians. ...
... Some researchers have failed to show conclusively that there is a clear link between self-esteem and academic achievement (Kohn, 1994). Self-esteem might not be sufficient to produce achievement or serve as a panacea for all educational problems (Kohn, 1994;Owens et al.). ...
... Beyond the rhetoric and beliefs surrounding self-esteem, this is a construct with a mixed record causing a discussion among some academics regarding the importance, if not relevance, of the concept (Owens, Stryker, & Goodman 2001). Owens et al. (2001) commonly studied self-esteem in their research as a control or an explanatory variable and then found it coming up short. The problems may be rooted in a misunderstanding of the concept that leads to the naïve misapplication of self-esteem theories and methods. ...
Article
This study examined the impact of self-esteem and identification with academics on the academic achievement of African American students in a charter school setting. Ninety-three students participated in this study. Using a pretest/posttest control group design, both the experimental group and the control group were administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the School Perception Questionnaire (SPQ) as pretest measures of self-esteem and identification with academics at the beginning of the experiment. The control and experimental groups were administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the School Perceptions Questionnaire (SPQ) at the end of the experiment. The control group received no intervention between the pretest and the posttest, while the experimental group was taught the Start Something curriculum. The grade point average (GPA) of each of the students in the control group and the experimental group were recorded at the beginning and of the experiment. African-American students who participated in the experimental group and were taught the Start Something curriculum had higher grade point averages than students in the control group who were not taught the curriculum. No differences were noted in self-esteem and identification with academics for the control group and experimental groups, as shown by pretest and posttest measures.
... The person with high self-esteem doesn't consider himself superior to others, but neither does he consider himself inferior. (Owens, 2001) According to Owens (2001), low self-esteem people are more likely to feel awkward, shy, conspicuous, and not to express themselves with ample confidence. The low self-esteem person is always anxious about committing a mistake, being embarrassed or being ridiculed. ...
... The person with high self-esteem doesn't consider himself superior to others, but neither does he consider himself inferior. (Owens, 2001) According to Owens (2001), low self-esteem people are more likely to feel awkward, shy, conspicuous, and not to express themselves with ample confidence. The low self-esteem person is always anxious about committing a mistake, being embarrassed or being ridiculed. ...
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The use of art therapy in handling the psychosocial concerns of children with cancer has been done for quite sometime but there still remains a big question as to its effectivity. This is a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of art therapy in alleviating anxiety and improving self esteem that utilized 20 children with different types of cancer within the 6-12 age group. The study included were 8 boys and 12 undergoing cancer treatment. The effect of the art therapy on the self esteem of the boys in the group was not significant wherein a p=.068 was obtained in the experimental group. This was congruent with the results of the anxiety measurements among the boys which showed p=.068, not significantly different. However, among the girls, the results were quite opposite of their male counterparts. For both self esteem and anxiety, p<.027 was obtained. This showed significant difference at .05 level of significance. Thus, art therapy is effective in alleviating anxiety and improving self esteem of female children with cancer. On the whole, in terms of self esteem, a score of p<.005. In anxiety, a score of p<.005 was also obtained. Both scores shows significant difference, thus, art therapy is effective in improving self esteem and alleviating anxiety among children with cancer.
... As explained above, the goal of this research is to explore the extent to which cyberbullying is associated with low self-esteem. We utilized Rosenberg's (1965) validated measure of self-esteem, 43 which includes a variety of questions designed to estimate one's level of self-esteem. Table 2 reports the items used to construct our measure of self-esteem. ...
... For example, Twenge and Campbell's metaanalysis 27 identified a positive relationship between age and self-esteem when the latter is measured by Rosenbaum's scale. 43 Moreover, a meta-analysis by Kling et al 44 found that males score minimally higher on measures of self-esteem than do females. Finally, Twenge and Crocker's meta-analysis 45 found that Blacks scored higher than Whites on self-esteem measures, who scored higher than Hispanics and Asians. ...
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This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending and lower self-esteem. It is therefore important to extend this body of research by determining how bullying augmented through the use of technology (such as computers and cell phones) is linked to differing levels of self-esteem. During March and April 2007, a random sample of 1963 middle school students (mean age 12.6) from 30 schools in one of the largest school districts in the United States completed a self-report survey of Internet use and cyberbullying experiences. This work found that students who experienced cyberbullying, both as a victim and an offender, had significantly lower self-esteem than those who had little or no experience with cyberbullying. A moderate and statistically significant relationship exists between low self-esteem and experiences with cyberbullying. As such, bullying prevention programs incorporated in school curricula should also include substantive instruction on cyberbullying. Moreover, educators need to intervene in cyberbullying incidents, as failure to do so may impact the ability of students to be successful at school.
... Condrill ve Bough (2000) özgüveni düşük bireylerin topluluk karşısında konuşmalarında gururunun yıkılacağına, başarısız olacağına, olumsuz tepki çekeceğine, sözlerini unutacağına ve rezil olacağına yönelik korkularının olduğunu belirtmiştir. Problem çözme becerisine sahip kişilik özelliklerine yönelik çalışma yapan Owens, Stryker ve Goodman (2006), Hair ve Graziano (2003) problem çözme becerisine sahip kişilerin, özgüven duygusuna ve nesnel bir bakış açısı ile yaratıcı düşünebilme yetisine sahip olduklarını ileri sürmüşlerdir. Topluluk karşısında konuşamama korkusunun biyolojik boyutuna vurgu yapan Vural (2007), bu korku sonucunda bireyde düşünce akışının engellendiğini, olumlu duyguların bir anda kaybedildiğini, vücutta-seste titreme ve ağız kuruluğunun başladığını, kalp çarpıntısının artığını belirtmiştir. ...
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Stemming from either external or internal factors, stress which often leads tension and depression and is considered as a 'modern society disease' has a significant effect on individual's psychological state as a coercive force to result in individuals' give up a need or react. Identifying stress sources of teacher candidates and measures taken in this context will contribute to train qualified teachers with professional awareness and competence, and thus to provide them with guidance roles they will undertake in their professional lives to educate the new generation to be individuals beneficial to the society. As the most important stage in stress analysis is to identify the sources of stress, in this study it is aimed to reveal the present situation by answering the question "What are the sources of stress for candidate teachers of Geography?". Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews from a working group of 22 candidate teachers, studying at the Department of Geography Education, Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education, Dicle University in 2013-2014 academic year. Data obtained were analyzed by using descriptive analysis and content analysis techniques. First, research data were separately coded by each researcher; then, encodings were compared and differences were handled. To calculate the reliability of the study was asked for expert opinion. The reliability with reference to the data was calculated and found as .97. As a result, 18 themes and 35 sub-themes were identified under the category of the process of education, social life, personal, internship process and the teaching profession as sources of stress. and suggestions were made.
... The two effort-specific variables capture different dimensions pertaining to the effort aspect of the agile Web portal . Comfort with changes refers to the degree to which employees are comfortable with the changes brought about by the frequent upgrades (Daniels 2000, Simmons 2001). Consistency refers to the degree to which the interface design remains consistent during the upgrades (Ozok and Salvendy 2001). ...
Article
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This paper discusses the value of context in theory development in information systems (IS) research. We examine how prior research has incorporated context in theorizing and develop a framework to classify existing approaches to contextualization. In addition, we expound on a decomposition approach to contextualization and put forth a set of guidelines for developing context-specific models. We illustrate the application of the guidelines by constructing and comparing various context-specific variations of the technology acceptance model (TAM)—i.e., the decomposed TAM that incorporates interaction effects between context-specific factors, the extended TAM with context-specific antecedents, and the integrated TAM that incorporates mediated moderation and moderated mediation effects of context-specific factors. We tested the models on 972 individuals in two technology usage contexts: a digital library and an agile Web portal. The results show that the decomposed TAM provides a better understanding of the contexts by revealing the direct and interaction effects of context specific factors on behavioral intention that are not mediated by the TAM constructs of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. This work contributes to the ongoing discussion about the importance of context in theory development and provides guidance for context-specific theorizing in IS research.
... Even though the scale was developed 40 years ago, continued use of this scale provides evidence of its reliability and validity (Vacha-Hasse, Kogan, & Thompson, 2000). According to Owens (2001), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the most widely used measure of selfesteem. Items on the scale are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. ...
Article
The authors used a cluster analysis procedure and the Counselor Burnout Inventory (S. M. Lee et al., 2007) to identify professional counselors' burnout types. Three clusters were identified: well‐adjusted, persevering, and disconnected counselors. The results also indicated that counselors' job satisfaction and self‐esteem were good discriminators between the 3 clusters. Implications for counselors are discussed.
... For example, since the persons with morbid obesity had relatively low scores on self-esteem before they started the educational course, they may find it easier to increase their self-esteem (due to regression toward the mean) than participants with COPD, who had higher scores both at baseline and across all assessment points during the follow-up period. Furthermore, self-esteem theory and research suggests a relationship between high level of self-esteem and high stability of this self-evaluation 30 and between high selfesteem and high emotional stability as personality trait. 31 The participants with morbid obesity had lower levels of self-esteem, perhaps indicating that their self-esteem is less stable than for the participants with COPD, and thus, also more changeable for them. ...
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Background: Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results: Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion: An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled With low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising.
... But he does suggest that they are related by describing self-efficacy as one potential source of self-esteem, and other theorists hold similar views. Owens, Stryker, and Goodman (2001) suggest that low self-efficacy in a role that one highly values may lead to lower selfesteem. Deci and Ryan (1 995) speculate that self-efficacy and autonomy (behavior emanating from one's self) are necessary for intrinsic motivation (motivation that is selfcreated and free of external pressure), a quality of "true" self-esteem. ...
Article
Abstract by Thomas John Herber. M.A. Washington State University May 2006 Chair: Arreed F. Barabasz Enhancing self-esteem may have significant therapeutic value, but little research has been done on the application of hypnotic ego strengthening for this purpose. This study examined,the effects of two procedures intended to enhance self-esteem: one in which ego strengthening suggestions were read verbatim to participants after a hypnotic
... Marsh, Scalas, & Nagengast, 2010;Tomas & Oliver, 1999) or separate positive and negative factors (e.g. Kaufman, Rasinski, Lee, & West, 1991;Owens, Stryker, & Goodman, 2001). Huang and Dong's (2012) meta-analysis reported that a 2-factor structure was supported, but recommended using a 1-factor solution unless positive and negative factors showed distinct associations with other important constructs. ...
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Background No studies have examined the association between self‐esteem and paranoia developmentally across the critical stages of psychosis emergence. The present study fills this gap and extends previous research by examining how different dimensions, measures, and types of self‐esteem relate to daily‐life paranoia across at‐risk mental states for psychosis (ARMS) and first episode of psychosis (FEP) stages. Furthermore, the moderation effects of momentary anxiety and momentary perceived social support on the association between momentary self‐esteem and paranoia were examined. Design This study used a multilevel, cross‐sectional design. Methods One‐hundred and thirteen participants (74 ARMS and 39 FEP) were assessed repeatedly over seven consecutive days on levels of momentary paranoia, self‐esteem, anxiety and perceived social support using experience sampling methodology. Measures of trait and implicit self‐esteem were also collected. Results Global momentary and trait self‐esteem, and their positive and negative dimensions, were related to daily‐life paranoia in both ARMS and FEP groups. Conversely, implicit self‐esteem was not associated with daily‐life paranoia in either group. Anxiety negatively moderated the association between positive self‐esteem and lower paranoia, whereas both feeling close to others and feeling cared for by others strengthened this association. However, only feeling cared for by others moderated the association between negative self‐esteem and higher paranoia. Conclusions Different types, measures and dimensions of self‐esteem are differentially related to paranoia in early psychosis and are influenced by contextual factors in daily‐life. This yields a more complex picture of these associations and offers insights that might aid psychological interventions. Practitioner points • Different measures (trait and momentary) and dimensions (positive and negative) of explicit self‐esteem are distinctly related to paranoia across risk and first‐episode stages of psychosis. • Explicit, but not implicit, self‐esteem is associated with real‐life paranoia in incipient psychosis. • Anxiety boosted the association of poor self‐esteem and paranoia ideation in daily‐life. • Social closeness, but feeling cared for by others in particular, interacts with self‐esteem tempering the expression of paranoia in real life.
... Various aspects of learning language skills are affected by self-esteem. A number of studies (Heyde, 1979;Hassan, 1992;Truitt, 1995;Shumin, 1997;Timothy et al., 2001) concluded that self-esteem is strongly correlated with oral communicative proficiency and low self-esteem students cannot express themselves with confidence. Similar results yielded in the area of writing (Frankburger, 1991;Grodnick, 1996;Cronwell & Mackay, 1999;Hassan, 2001) indicated that self-esteem can affect writing success. ...
Article
This study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-esteem, personality type and reading comprehension of Iranian EFL students. Data of this study were collected by administering a questionnaire of self-esteem including three sections: global self-esteem, situational self-esteem and task self-esteem, questionnaire of personality type measuring extroversion and TOEFL reading comprehension test that were prepared by the researcher. The instruments were administered to a random sample from English Institutes. The sample consisted of 55 students (13 males and 42 females). Pearson Coefficient-Moment Product Correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables. Results of the study revealed that there was a positive relationship between overall self-esteem and reading comprehension, and overall self-esteem and personality type, in general. Likewise, positive relationships between situational and task self-esteem with reading comprehension were shown but there wasn't a significant relationship between global self-esteem and reading comprehension. Also the relationship between personality type and reading comprehension was insignificant.
... Thus, the individual's judgments about his reading skills may influence self-worth. Furthermore, the individual's reading and reading comprehension skills may be a direct indicator of the level of his self-esteem because, people with low self-esteem are not able to express their feelings and ideas efficiently (Timothy, Sheldon, & Norman, 2001). ...
Article
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Using a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups, 93 eighth grade students were randomly assigned either to the experimental or to the control group and responded to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale two weeks before and after the intervention. While the students in the experimental group were instructed in quality books for children and reading comprehension skills based on metacognitive strategy for 10 weeks, the control group only received typical non-quality books. Study results showed that while the pre-test self-esteem scores of the students in both groups were similar before the intervention, the post-test self-esteem scores of the students in the experimental group were significantly higher than of those in the control group. Quality books and metacognitive strategy for students may not only help improve reading comprehension but also may increase self-esteem level. Keywords: the metacognitive strategy, reading comprehension instruction, self-esteem, secondary school students, Turkey
... Students who have self-confidence are better equipped to face a problem in school. That who have a higher level of self-confidence is more successful in solving problems [10]. Confidence students will perform appropriate actions when other people think there are challenges in a situation [11]. ...
Article
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This study was designed to know the effects of Think Pair Share using Scientific Approach on students' self-confidence and mathematical problem-solving. Quasi-experimental with pre-test post-test non-equivalent group method was used as a basis for design this study. Self-confidence questionnaire and problem-solving test have been used for measurement of the two variables. Two classes of the first grade in religious senior high school (MAN) in Indonesia were randomly selected for this study. Teaching sequence and series from mathematics book at control group in the traditional way and at experiment group has been in TPS using scientific approach learning method. For data analysis regarding students' problem-solving skill and self-confidence, One-Sample t-Test, Independent Sample t-Test, and Multivariate of Variance (MANOVA) were used. The results showed that (1) TPS using a scientific approach and traditional learning had positive effects (2) TPS using scientific approach learning in comparative with traditional learning had a more significant effect on students' self-confidence and problem-solving skill.
... Bireyler öğrenme ortamında kendilerine güven duyduklarında yüksek düzeyde öğrenmenin gerçekleşmesi sonucu kendilerini daha iyi hissederler. Kısacası öz güven duygusu yüksek olan bireyler günlük hayatta karşılaştıkları problemleri çözmede daha başarılıdır (Owens, 2001). Bu bilgiler doğrultusunda daha yaratıcı, başarılı, sorunlarla karşılaşmaktan ve üstesinden gelmekten korkmayan bireyler yetiştirmek bir öğretmen için önemlidir (Özevin Tokinan ve Bilen, 2011). ...
... Kehamilan karena remaja wanita ini membutuhkan cinta dan kedekatan dengan cara apapun. Hal ini terkait dengan remaja yang berusaha untuk meningkatkan harga dirinya dengan melakukan hubungan seks pranikah (Owens, Stryker, & Goodman, 2001). Sesuai dengan perkataan Ganguli, yang mengatakan bahwa perilaku seksual merupakan konfirmasi dari peran dan kegagahan seksual dari seseorang, sehingga perilaku seks pranikah bisa jadi merupakan salah satu langkah untuk mendapatkan kepercayaan diri dan self-esteem (Ganguli, 1988)Begitu pula dengan hubungan antara kualitas persahabatan dengan kecenderungan melakukan seks pranikah. ...
... Savivertė -pagrindinė žmogaus savybė, susijusi su savimone, emocijomis, gebėjimu pažinti, elgsena, gyvenimo būdu, bendra sveikata ir sociokultūriniais veiksniais (Wylie 1989;Owens 2001;Greenberg 2008). Daugelis tyrėjų yra linkę išskirti tris pagrindinius savivertės lygius, kurie taikytini visų sociokultūrinių bendruomenių atstovams. ...
... Th is is because when individuals have selfconfidence, they feel better within the process of learning and higher level of learning is accomplished. Th e basic opinion is that individuals having higher levels of self-confidence are more successful in solving problems that they confront (Owens, 2001). Th is situation emphasizes the necessity for defining self-confidence which is assumed to have a great eff ect on learning. ...
Article
The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers at different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self confidence levels have been examined under several variables. The research sampling has been formed by 162 students who are currently studying for their bachelor's degree in Marmara University, Ataturk Faculty of Education (n = 92 Music, n = 70 PCG). 70.7% of Music Teaching Department students are females, 29.3% are males and 69.6% is between 18-22 ages. 52.9% of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students are females, 47.1% is males and 97.1% of them consist of the students within this age group. The Problem Solving Inventory developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982) and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale adapted to Turkish by Catakli and Oner and Individual Information Form has been utilized in the research. The data of the research have been analyzed by, t-test, Kruskal Wallis-H, and Mann Whitney U tests. The findings have introduced that there are statistical differences in the aspect of some sub-dimensional values for both scales (Avoidance: t = -2.330; p < .05, Individual Control: t = -1,975; p < .05, Behavior: t = 2.009; p < .05, Intelligence and school status: t = -2.496; p < .05, Coming into Favor: t = 2.487; p < .05) and it has been revealed that the relations between students' self confidence and problem solving skills are negative. As a result, although correlation between two variables showed opposite relation, one variable is not decisive in the other.
... Ако самооценката представлява общата оценка за собствената личност, то усещането за контрол се изразява в причините, чрез които хората обясняват възникването на значими събития в техния живот (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978). Емпирично е доказано, че двете понятия са свързани, но различни и независими едно от друго (Franks & Marolla, 1976;Gecas, 1991;Owens, 2001). Склонността да се приписват резултати от действията на външни фактори се нарича "външен локус на контрола" (екстерналност). ...
Book
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Introduction by Martyn Barrett This book examines issues concerning identity and well-being in Bulgarians, not only Bulgarians who are living in Bulgaria itself but also those who are living in other European countries, in Canada and in the USA. The book also examines identity and well-being in two significant ethnic minority groups (Turks and Romany) living in Bulgaria. Given that previous research on other populations has revealed that identity formation and well-being can vary considerably both as a function of ethnonational community and as a function of the specific national context within which a particular ethnonational community lives (Barrett, 2007; Barrett, Riazanova & Volovikova, 2001; Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder, 2006; Sam & Berry, 2006), this breadth of perspective is vital for reaching an empirically robust understanding of these issues. While the research reported in this book focuses primarily on national, ethnic and religious identities, some attention is also devoted to other identities, including gender, local and European identities. This diversity of focus is important. All people have a large number of different identities. Some of these identities are social identities which are derived from their membership of large-scale social groups (groups to which we sometimes develop strong emotional attachments and a deep sense of subjective belonging, such as our membership of our nation and of our ethnic group, and these groups form the primary focus of this book). In addition, we sometimes use our personal attributes (e.g. conscientious, tolerant, fun-loving, etc.) and our interpersonal relationships and social roles (e.g. father, friend, boss, etc.) as well to define ourselves and our own uniqueness further. These multiple identifications with different social groups, attributes, relationships and roles help us to define, position and orientate ourselves within the social world relative to other people. These identifications also play an extremely important role in determining our internal sense of well-being. Previous research has found that our various identities do not operate in isolation from each other. Instead, they interact in a dynamic manner to drive our judgements, attitudes, self-evaluations and behaviours (Crisp & Hewstone, 2007; Deaux, 1992, 2000; Stryker, 1987). We are not only Bulgarian or British, male or female, black or white, Christian or Moslim. We are simultaneously either a white British agnostic male or a white Bulgarian Christian female. Furthermore, when we are perceived by other people, they perceive us in this much more complex holistic manner, and they relate to us and react to us accordingly. Our well-being can be vitally dependent upon whether we and other people perceive our multiple identities as being compatible or incompatible with each other. For example, there has been an intense debate within the UK in recent years about whether being British and being Moslem are compatible identities (and some white British people deny that these are compatible identities, despite the fact that many British Moslems themselves feel that they are fully compatible: see ETHNOS, 2005, 2006). The sense of social exclusion which can result from judgements of identity incompatibility can sometimes be a source of anxiety, psychological conflict and social maladjustment. Different cultural values and social practices may be adopted by an individual depending on how their various identities interact with one another. For example, within the UK or the USA, being a Hindu male adolescent of Gujarati descent entails a very different set of values and practices from those that are entailed by being a Hindu female adolescent of Gujarati descent. This is because young Hindu females, but not young Hindu males, are perceived by many of their parents’ generation to be the bearers of the cultural heritage who will in their turn be responsible for transmitting that heritage to the next generation; the result is that females are subject to far more restrictive rules than males (Ghuman, 2003; Maira, 2002). The point here is that it is not being female vs. male that is the crucial distinction – instead, it is the distinction between being a young female Hindu vs. a young male Hindu, with very different social expectations being imposed on these two groups by others within their ethnic community. In other words, it is how these individuals’ ethnic, gender and age identities intersect with one another that drives the social expectations which are placed upon them and which these individuals then have to navigate in the course of their everyday lives. A further complexity which is generated by our multiple identities is the fact that our various identities are never all activated simultaneously. Instead, as an individual moves across different social contexts, the subjective salience of any given identity fluctuates in a dynamic and fluid manner depending upon the particular social contrasts which are available in those contexts and depending upon the individual’s own motivations, needs and expectations in those situations (Turner et al., 1987; Oakes, Haslam & Turner, 1994). In other words, our national, ethnic or religious identities are not always salient to us irrespective of context. However, identities can sometimes become chronically salient when an individual is confronted on a daily basis with other people who belong to contrasting groups. It is for this reason that minority individuals can develop a chronically salient ethnic minority identity when they are living in a country dominated by a different ethnic majority group, particularly one which is hostile to and discriminates against that minority group. And the chronic salience of this identity can then have a significant impact on these individuals’ cultural adaptation and subjective sense of well-being. This book explores, in considerable detail, the nature of multiple identifications and both majority and minority individuals’ sense of well-being. The issue of well-being itself has been studied in relationship to national and ethnic identifications by previous investigators, but these studies have tended to focus their attention on the cultural adaptation of ethnic minority individuals using Berry’s (Berry, 1997; 2001) theory of acculturation. These studies have typically found that second generation minority adolescents are often better adapted both psychologically and socioculturally than comparison majority individuals drawn from the national population living within the same country (see Berry et al., 2006, for a review). The research reported in the current book has also found that Turkish and Romany adolescents in Bulgaria have a higher sense of mastery and higher self-esteem than Bulgarian adolescents. Some previous writers in this field have called this kind of phenomenon a “paradox”. However, the phenomenon is surely only a paradox if one adopts the assumption that living with a minority heritage culture in the family home and a different majority national culture outside the home is inherently problematic for psychological adaptation. I myself adopt a different interpretation. In my view, ethnocultural communities are heterogeneous collectivities in which the boundaries of the group, as well as the values, meanings, symbols, traditions and practices which are associated with the group, are constantly being contested, challenged, renegotiated and reinvented by different individuals and subgroups within the group, with individuals themselves frequently being inconsistent and self-contradictory insofar as they shift their own identities, interpretations and group definitions according to the context in which they are operating (Baumann, 1996, 1999; Maira, 2002; Vadher & Barrett, 2009). If one adopts this alternative characterisation of culture as a dynamic process, then we would expect minority individuals who have been negotiating multiple cultures since the early years of their childhood to be more rather than less adept in dealing with cultural issues than majority individuals who have only been living with a ‘single’ national culture since birth. Hence the finding that minority individuals are better adapted both psychologically and socioculturally than majority individuals is not a paradox at all in my view – it is a direct consequence of these individuals’ greater exposure to and experience of dealing with cultural issues, which renders them more sophisticated in managing their multiple identities and in navigating different cultural domains than their national majority peers. Hence, the findings in the present book that minority individuals have higher self-esteem and a higher sense of mastery than majority individuals are entirely consistent with this more dynamic view of the nature of culture. Of course, differences between cultures are sometimes profound, and the psychological conflicts which these differences can generate may on occasions be extremely problematic for both majority and minority individuals. However, it is arguable that these kinds of problems tend to arise primarily when the multiple cultures which are being negotiated by an individual contain negative representations of each other (Ballard, 1994). In our own research, working with both majority and minority adolescents living in London, we have found that most adolescents do not experience any problems at all, but are instead extremely adept at negotiating multiple cultures, not only local, national and global cultures but also traditional and modern cultures (Barrett, Garbin, Cinnirella and Eade, in press). The complexity of the cultural, social and psychological issues in this area of research means that there is no ideal single method which can be used to investigate these phenomena. Every research method which can be used always brings with it its own specific advantages and disadvantages. A particular strength of the research which is reported in this book is that it uses a wide variety of different methods and approaches. These methods include those which I myself have developed and used in other research contexts (Barrett, 2007; Barrett et al., 2001), those which have been developed and used by Jean Phinney and her colleagues (Berry et al., 2006; Phinney, 1992; Roberts, Phinney, Masse, Chen, Roberts & Romero, 1999), as well as a large number of other measures developed by Romanova (Romanova, 1994), Pearlin (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978; Pearlin et al., 1981), Rosenberg (1965), Scheier, Carver and Bridges (1994) and Russell, Peplau and Cutrona (1980). This diversity of measures means that if there are any measurement biases intrinsic to any one method, the triangulation of findings yielded by the different measures should provide a more veridical account than would have been yielded by the use of any single method on its own. Hence, the research in this book provides a particularly compelling portrait of the phenomena which it set out to investigate. In today’s globalised world, understanding issues of nation and ethnicity has gained a very real urgency. The upsurge of ethnic and regional nationalisms, the dominance of nationalist belief systems, the prejudice and hostility which is sometimes directed at different national, ethnic and religious groups, and the rapidity and fluidity of the societal and cultural changes which many countries are currently undergoing, make the task of understanding how people relate to their own ethnonational group all the more pressing. By examining social identities and psychological well-being within a particular national context in such great depth, and by using a multiplicity of different research methods, the research reported in this book yields great insights into the complex interplay between identity, context and human development. The findings which are reported will be of great interest to social scientists across the world, and the author is to be congratulated on developing such an important and informative line of research. Professor Martyn Barrett Academician of the Social Sciences London, July 2010
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Summary OBJECTIVES : To examine the relationships between dental appearance, characteristics of the individual and their environment, and oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) in young people over time. A total of 374 young people (122 boys, 252 girls) aged 11-12 years from seven different XX schools were recruited at baseline and 258 (78 boys, 180 girls) followed-up 3 years later, aged 14-15 years (69 per cent response rate). Participants completed a measure of OHQoL (CPQ11-14 ISF-16) and self-esteem (SE, CHQ-CF87). A clinical examination was undertaken, including clinician and self-assessed normative measures of need [Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN)] and dental caries. The Index of Multiple Deprivation was used to indicate socio-economic status (SES). There was a general improvement between baseline and follow-up in the measures of malocclusion, as well as OHQoL. Multiple linear regression indicated that there were significant cross-sectional associations at baseline between OHQoL and SES (rho = -0.11; P = 0.006), SE (rho = -0.50; P < 0.001), and self-assessed IOTN (rho = 0.27; P < 0.001). There were significant longitudinal associations between the change in OHQoL and change in SE (rho = -0.46; P < 0.001) and change in the decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (rho = -0.24; P = 0.001). The mean improvement in the total CPQ11-14 ISF-16 score for those with a history of orthodontic treatment was 3.2 (SD = 6.9; P = 0.009) and 2.4 (SD = 8.8; P < 0.001) for those with no history of treatment. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.584). OHQoL improved in young people over time, whether they gave a history of orthodontic treatment or not. Individual and environmental characteristics influence OHQoL and should be taken into account in future studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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