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In this Paper we will discuss about birthday attack which is mainly based on birthday problem .Birthday problem is basically a probability problem in which situation is, if there are 23 people in a room, the probability of two people having birthday on same date is slightly more than 0.50. If there are 30 people, the probability increases to 0.70. This is called the birthday paradox. We use this problem in a generalized form in cryptography which we call as Birthday attack. Consider a variation of the same problem, suppose there are two rooms, each with 30 people, what is the probability that someone in the first room has the same birthday as someone in the second room? Birthday attack can even be used to find collisions for hash functions if the output of the hash function is not sufficiently large. In this paper we shall see what hash function is and why birthday attack is so important for hash function. The paper has 3 main segments, 1) Introduction – Two sub parts a) Terminology – Definition of the terms used in birthday attack. b) Method – What is birthday attack Algorithm? What is its use in real life? A discussion on variation of birthday attack problem. 2) Background-In this section we will discuss extensively about past work. 3) Conclusion

Content uploaded by Ganesh Gupta

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All content in this area was uploaded by Ganesh Gupta on Feb 02, 2015

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... In the birthday assault, the data length is quite important. If a hashed output is relatively short in length, the birthday an attack is more likely to succeed [26]. ...

With ever-increasing network connectivity, message integrity and authenticity are critical. The primary building component of message integrity is cryptographic hash the functions. Hash functions are utilized and developed in a variety of ways. The purpose of this study is to a propose and discuss the new keyed hash function. The Hash function and the Henon map are used in this suggested technique. For whatever length of input, this technique generates a 128-bit hash code. The function hashes a message with a key so that an intruder who doesn't know the key can't fabricate the hash code, and so it meets a security, authentication, and integrity requirements for the communication in a network. The paper explains the function design an algorithm, as well as its security and implementation details. The simulation findings suggest that a text authentication and forensics algorithm with strong tampering localization ability may be utilized to authenticate and forensics text authenticity and integrity.

... Obviously, N M 2 M 1. It is shown in [41] that the collision probability is It is known that the Maclaurin series of e −x is e −x ≈ 1 − x for |x| 1, where |x| denotes the absolute value of x. Since 0 < (M 2 /2N) 1, the above expression of p(M, N) can be written as ...

In current healthcare systems, electronic medical records (EMRs) are always located in different hospitals and controlled by a centralized cloud provider. However, it leads to single point of failure as patients being the real owner lose track of their private and sensitive EMRs. Hence, this paper aims to build an access control framework based on smart contract, which is built on the top of distributed ledger (blockchain), to secure the sharing of EMRs among different entities involved in the smart healthcare system. For this, we propose four forms of smart contracts for user verification, access authorization, misbehavior detection, and access revocation respectively. In this framework, considering the block size of ledger and huge amount of patient data, the EMRs are stored in cloud after being encrypted through the cryptographic functions of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA), while their corresponding hashes are packed into blockchain. The performance evaluation based on a private Ethereum system is used to verify the efficiency of proposed access control framework in the real-time smart healthcare system.

... The length of the data is quite significant in the birthday attack. Birthday attack is more likely to be successful if the hashed output is quite small in length [19]. ...

IOTA is a lightweight quantum-resistant distributed ledger protocol designed for Internet of Things devices. The protocol uses a one-time cryptographic signature scheme that is resistant against attacks by quantum computers. This one-time signature scheme results in a portion of an address’s private key being revealed in the signature of each outgoing transaction from that address. If an address is used for multiple outgoing transfers, it is feasible for an adversary to forge a signature by using parts of the private key associated with the address that have been revealed. In this paper, we propose the use of the cuckoo filter in the IOTA core lightweight client in order to avoid address reuse. We validate our proposed approach by implementation and evaluation in the real IOTA architecture. The obtained performance results show that the cuckoo filter integration in the IOTA core lightweight client avoids address reuse and makes the process of new address generation much more efficient and secure. Additionally, our approach can be integrated directly into the current IOTA core lightweight client.

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