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Organisational Politics: The Positive and Negative Sides

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Abstract

There are two ways of viewing organisational politics: either as a symptom of social influence processes that benefit the organisation, or a self serving effect that goes against the organisational goals (Mintzberg, 1985: 148; Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 498). Nevertheless, the concept of organisational politics is a key social influence process that can be either functional or dysfunctional to employees and organisations (Allen et al, 1979: 82). Organisational politics, as argued by various researchers, can be either positive or negative (Othman, 2008: 44) and this paper delves into both sides of the organisational politics by offering examples from literature and research carried out throughout the years.
European Scientific Journal January 2015 edition vol.11, No.1 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
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ORGANISATIONAL POLITICS: THE POSITIVE &
NEGATIVE SIDES
Karen Cacciattolo
D.Soc.Sci.(Leic.), M.Sc. (Trng& HRM) (Leic.)
University of Malta, Malta
Abstract
There are two ways of viewing organisational politics: either as a
symptom of social influence processes that benefit the organisation, or a self
serving effect that goes against the organisational goals (Mintzberg, 1985:
148; Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 498). Nevertheless, the concept of
organisational politics is a key social influence process that can be either
functional or dysfunctional to employees and organisations (Allen et al,
1979: 82). Organisational politics, as argued by various researchers, can be
either positive or negative (Othman, 2008: 44) and this paper delves into
both sides of the organisational politics by offering examples from literature
and research carried out throughout the years.
Keywords: Organisational Politics, Organisational Behaviour
Introduction
According to Vigoda-Gadot & Dryzin-Amit (in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006), organisational politics are important since these provide an
understanding of the informal processes of conflicts and co-operations in
organisations, and their impact on the employees’ performance (2006: 7).
Othman (2008) mentions two sides of organisational politics in his paper on
the role of justice, trust and job ambiguity (2008: 44), namely the negative
side, which involves convenient and illegal behaviour, and the positive side
which is a social function that is important for organisations to survive
(2008: 44). Negative organisational politics are disapproved of because of
the ethical dilemmas encrusted with them and the workplace conflicts that
are generated, whilst positive organisational politics results from the
amalgamation of shared goals and stimulating collaboration (Drory &
Vigoda-Gadot, 2010: 196; Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 509).
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The Positive Side of Organisational Politics
Organisational politics and their processes are often understood to be
the organisational defensive routines that alter and filter legitimate
information (Seo, 2003: 11). However, organisational politics do not have
to be about power manipulation, trust issues and hidden agendas.
Organisational politics can also be functional in ways that are beneficial for
more than just a politically-skilled and politically motivated minority
(Vredenburgh & Shea-VanFossen, 2010: 41). The person-based
interactionist approach empirical study of Rosen et al (in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006), regarding the understanding of personality traits in politics,
demonstrates that organisational politics may not always direct towards
negative effects, since different personalities may perceive politics more
positively than others (2006: 47).
Positive organisational politics may provide the basis for competitive
advantage, especially when people are appropriately politically skilled. It
has been suggested that politically skilled management successfully manages
those organisational environments that are under stress a political skill that
includes an aptitude to employ actions that support feelings of trust,
confidence and sincerity (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010: 195; Gotsis &
Kortezi, 2010: 504). This means that positive politics are mainly visible
when individuals know how to use positive influence behaviours and
strategies, and evade negative behaviour. Drory & Vigoda-Gadot (2010)
argue that when one develops a set of positive political skills, an effective
political environment is created that does not suffer from injustice,
unfairness and inequity (2010: 197).
Some view organisational politics as a means for working through
conflicts in organisations, and employees use their perception of
organisational politics to make sense of the environment they work in
(Ladebo, 2006: 256). Others argue that being politically skilled may
improve an individual’s and the organisation’s success, and can facilitate
organisational change and adaptation to the environment (Ladebo, 2006:
256, 259; Vredenburgh & Shea-VanFossen, 2010: 41). Kurchner-Hawkins
& Miller (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006) argue that political behaviour is
positive when it serves the organisation’s vision and objectives, develops
teamwork and confidence, and is ethically well-balanced (2006: 337).
Moreover, positive or constructive political behaviour can be advantageous
to greater organisational equality (Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 505). This is
because constructive political behaviour is seen as a necessity to bring
together the dissimilar interests of stakeholders, depending on the ability to
set in equilibrium the competing motivations and views of organisational
members.
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Extending this line of argument, Butcher and Clarke (2006: 297) argue
that managers who are keenly aware of the political environment in their
workplace are more likely to be able to manage those political behaviours in
order to promote equality. This is also because, according to Kurchner-
Hawkins & Miller (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006), organisational politics
is a key leadership concern taking into account the prospective influence of
political behaviour on the environment and efficiency of an organisation
(2006: 331). Consequently, if political behaviour is perceived to be a
natural and constructive thing in organisations, than political strategies may
be viewed as affiliation, setting up of connections, alliance-creation or even
guidance (Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 498). Moreover, according to Kurchner-
Hawkins & Miller (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006), those connections and
alliances that are shaped on trust and conformity, and are as well in line with
the organisation’s goals and objectives, may be considered as “politically
positive” (2006: 341).
Coopey & Burgoyne (2000) argue that a liberal form of politics may
have a positive effect on learning, regardless of the role and status of
individuals in their organisation (2000: 869). More specifically they argue
that an open form of politics stimulates individuals of an organisation to
become more persistent towards learning ideas (2000: 879). Coopey &
Burgoyne (2000) use the institutional theory to illustrate that learning
throughout an organisation is a function of open political processes at group
level that involves various individuals. They also state that organisational
politics might enhance the flexibility and innovativeness of organisational
forms. This would allow the interconnectedness within communities of
practice to disseminate learning (Coopey & Burgoyne, 2000: 882).
Similarly, Engestrӧm (2001) claims that some conflict, as well as the process
of finding ways to resolve that same conflict, may promote workplace
learning.
Vigoda-Gadot & Kapun (2005) provide a set of positive outcomes of
politics, namely “career advancement, recognition and status, enhanced
power and position, attainment of personal and organisational goals,
successful accomplishment of a job or policy implementation, and feelings of
achievement, ego, control and success” (2005: 256). This means that
political behaviour may be necessary in all of the cases mentioned above,
especially if someone wants to advance in an organisation or needs to be
acknowledged by his or her co-workers (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010: 195).
Mintzberg (1985) presents several positive aspects of organisational
politics in relation to his identification of games (in Vredenburgh & Shea-
VanFossen, 2010: 41). He states that organisational politics can sometimes
be used to pursue rightful ends, for example, when one uses the whistle
blowing and Young Turks games, it could be beneficial to correct
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irresponsible or inefficient behaviours or even to effect beneficial changes
that are otherwise resisted (Mintzberg, 1985: 148, 149). Also, politics can
provide alternating routes of information and promotion, as when the
sponsorship game enables a manager to rise over a weaker manager. In this
case, political games may provide an insight on the potential for leadership.
According to the findings of Luthans et al’s study (1985) there is a
relationship between successful managers and the frequent use of
organisational politics (Vigoda-Gadot & Dryzin-Amit in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006: 7). Infact, Kurchner-Hawkins & Miller (in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006) state that leadership is “a political art rather than a strategic
science” that involves human management and political skills (2006: 331).
Organisational politics may also encourage a variety of voices to be heard
that may be beneficial to the organisation (James in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory,
2006: 53; Mintzberg, 1985: 150).
The Negative Side of Organisational Politics
Although organisational politics are widely accepted to have positive
potential, studies show that individuals still predominantly perceive these as
negative (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010: 195; Othman, 2008: 44; Poon,
2003: 138). A famous and interesting statement presented by Block (1988)
states that “If I told you, you were a very political person you would either
take it as an insult or at best as a mixed blessing” (1988: 5). Therefore,
usually political work environments are perceived negatively by individuals
and may induce a sense of unfairness, deprivation and inequity (Gotsis &
Kortezi, 2010: 499; Harris et al, 2009: 2669; Ladebo, 2006: 256; Vigoda-
Gadot & Kapun, 2005: 258). Consequently those employees who perceive
their organisation as being politicized will tend to withhold useful
information (Beugré & Liverpool in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006: 125).
Organisational politics may mute and warp the voices and opinions of
individuals, facts that spawn defence mechanisms and uphold uncertainty
(Vince, 2001: 1344). Within political environments, employees tend to feel
threatened by the uncertainty, ambiguity and the self-interest actions that
occur with individuals (Harris et al, 2009: 2680). Vredenburgh & Shea-
VanFossen (2010) argue that genetic tendencies such as forcefulness, power
and control need, manipulation, rank rivalry, and egotism can all materialize
in response to common organisational circumstances of uncertainty, resource
shortage, and disagreement (2010: 35).
In fact, several researchers found that organisational politics have a
negative affect on the job performance and organisational commitment,
especially to the lower status employees (Drory, 1993; Ferris et al, 1989:
158; Gotsis & Kortezi, 2010: 499; Vigoda-Gadot & Kapun, 2005: 258).
Others propose that organisational politics are the source of stress and
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conflict at the workplace (Ladebo, 2006: 263; Vigoda-Gadot & Kapun, 2005:
259). Cropanzano & Li (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006) mention Ferris et
al’s study of 1993, in which it transpired that politics were strappingly
related to job anxiety for those with less perceived control (2006: 143). This
means that employees with a lower level of power feel more stressed when
they perceive politics in their work environment.
As a result, organisational politics may cause an individual to detach
either physically or mentally from the workplace (Vigoda-Gadot & Kapun,
2005: 260). Therefore, whilst people may be present at the place of work,
their mind could be elsewhere and may lack concentration. Studies that
focus on the notion that organisational politics refers to the strategic
behaviour that promotes self-interest, offer a negative image of workplace
politics, and thus individuals continue to enforce their negative perspective
of organisational politics (Vigoda-Gadot, 2007: 662).
Some state that political behaviour restricts information sharing and
communication (Curtis, 2003: 296; Poon, 2003: 138) and thus inhibits
learning. In this case, Kurchner-Hawkins & Miller (in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006) state that communication and information are the key players in
political practices and their control is of huge significance to the political
processes in organisations (2006: 339). This is because both information and
communication are the ways for producing and making aware those issues
and actions taking place at work.
Political behaviour is included in the cultural factors that may also
inhibit learning. Bishop et al (2006) state that cultures that give importance
to the attainment and hoarding of technical skills that are used independently
by individuals are less likely to support knowledge-sharing networks (2006:
20). Likewise, cultures that are distinguished by a lack of trust will
probably not encourage the transfer of knowledge from the individual to the
group or the organisation (Bishop et al, 2006: 20). Albrecht (in Vigoda-
Gadot & Drory, 2006) notes that when employees feel that they cannot trust
other employees and the procedures of an organisation, they tend to reduce
their dedication, put in less effort, and engage in withdrawal behaviour
(2006: 109). Moreover, different groups or jobs inside the same organisation
may have completely dissimilar views about which knowledge is valuable or
applicable (Bishop et al, 2006: 19). An example of this is the study by Fuller
& Unwin (2003) in which three different organisations and their type of
apprenticeships were considered.
Fuller & Unwin’s study shows that one organisation enabled
apprentices to accomplish a quick passage to full participation, but at the
expense of moving beyond its boundaries to meet new learning potentialities
(2003: 417). Another organisation demonstrated an unclear function and
path of the apprenticeship, which weakened the learning process, even when
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the apprentice was allegedly given the opportunity to participate in a new
community of practice within the company (Fuller & Unwin, 2003: 417).
Both these companies presented a learning horizon for apprentices, which
were truncated by the lack of opportunities built into their apprenticeships to
belong to communities outside the organisation. Here the apprentices were
deprived by being engaged as novices to companies where there was no
tradition of apprenticeship prerequisite (Fuller & Unwin, 2003: 417). This
means that the learning opportunities in these two companies have been
restricted.
Organisational politics is also linked with the issue of trust. Trust
often affects the behaviour of individuals, and employees are more likely to
be suspicious of the intentions of others if they work in a low trust climate
(Othman, 2008: 45; Poon, 2003: 142; Zaleznik, 1971: 58). This results in
informal highly political behaviour. In addition, Cropanzano & Li (in
Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006) state that political climate can have negative
consequences even for those who are not directly affected by the primary
political activity (2006: 146). This is because according to Vigoda’s (2002)
study, politics create anguish which in turn generates violent behaviour,
causing more anguish among colleagues (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006:
146). Some individuals tend to be more highly political than their
counterparts due to differing characteristics. Curtis (2003) mentions the
‘Machiavellianism’ and ‘locus of control’ as examples of particular
characteristics of highly political individuals (2003: 293). People who tend
towards Machiavellianism are portrayed as being rational rather than
sensitive, do not value camaraderie, and like to manoeuvre others and lie in
order to accomplish personal objectives (Rosen et al, in Vigoda-Gadot &
Drory, 2006: 32). Other writers comment that organisations often become
crippled by these so called organisational politics or ‘workplace toxins’ as
referred to by Chircop (2008: 9). In her article, Chircop argues that leaders
with awareness of and expertise in the management of workplace politics are
needed.
Conclusion
Provis (in Vigoda-Gadot & Drory, 2006) argues that the ‘unitary’
notion of organisations affirms that the members of an organisation work
towards common goals and objectives in a pleasant setting wherein political
action can be seen as anomalous (2006: 95). This may not be the case since
organisations are a combination of various individuals and a plurality of
interest groups (Smith, 2001), and thus internal politics may be a natural
thing. Of course, one cannot ignore the possibility that people with certain
personality types are more likely to engage in organisational politics, such as
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those with Machiavellian orientations and those with a ‘grand’ need for
power (Curtis, 2003: 293). In addition, Lawrence et al (2005) argue that
employees need to be appropriately politically skilled in order for ideas to
flow from one process to another. This may be seen as a positive effect.
Lawrence et al (2005) also argue that managers must understand that
organisations need active actors who are willing to engage in political
behaviour that pushes ideas forward (Lawrence et al, 2005: 190).
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... Therefore, organisational politics can either be positive or negative. Positive organisational politics may provide bases for competitive advantages, especially when people are appropriately politically skilled, positive politics is mainly visible when individuals know how to use positive influencial behaviour and strategies and evade negative behaviour (Cacciattolo, 2015). Other Positive effects of organisational politics was further advanced by Cacciattolo (2015) which include carrier advancement, recognition and status, enhanced power and position, attainment of personal and organisational goals, successful accomplishment of job or policy implementation and feelings of achievement, ego, control and success. ...
... Positive organisational politics may provide bases for competitive advantages, especially when people are appropriately politically skilled, positive politics is mainly visible when individuals know how to use positive influencial behaviour and strategies and evade negative behaviour (Cacciattolo, 2015). Other Positive effects of organisational politics was further advanced by Cacciattolo (2015) which include carrier advancement, recognition and status, enhanced power and position, attainment of personal and organisational goals, successful accomplishment of job or policy implementation and feelings of achievement, ego, control and success. On the other hand (Schneider, 2016), sees organizational politics, as a source of stress and dissatisfaction among employees because it affects the performance of an employee at work. ...
... Therefore, whilst people may be present at the place of work, their mind could be elsewhere and may lack concentration. Studies that focus on the notion that organisational politics refers to the strategic behaviour that promotes self-interest, offer a negative image of workplace politics, and thus individuals continue to enforce their negative perspective of organisational politics (Cacciattolo, 2015). ...
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... In the case where they fail in discouraging such innovation, they resort to unethical politics of hatred that could sink the head of such innovator. This kind of leadership attitude towards subordinates is described by Cacciattolo (2015) as a political environment that is replete with unfairness, inequality, inequity and derision. One could perceive the leaders found in this act as selfish, and subordinates who share such perceptions against their leaders or the system may not perform as expected, and may even display an act of insubordination (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010). ...
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... In de literatuur beschrijft men een aantal specifiekere prescripties om de divergentie van doelen te voorkomen. Uit (Schneider, 2016;Kurchner-Hawkins & Miller, 2006;Cacciattolo, 2015;Othman, 2008;Byrne, 2005;Witt, Andrews, & Kacmar, 2000) werden volgende zaken samengevat: ...
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