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Abstract

Social TV is the use of communication devices to connect with family and friends watching other TV screens. Plausible arguments suggest both positive and negative effects of social TV viewing on ad-effectiveness. This study contributes by providing evidence for the direction of social TV's effects. The results of a controlled laboratory experiment suggest that the benefits of social TV, principally its association with live TV and therefore less ad-avoidance, come at the cost of negative distraction effects. Like normal coviewing, social TV viewing distracts from ad-processing, reducing unaided recall and brand attitude favorability, compared to individual (solus) viewing. However, social TV messaging about ads improved brand attitude. Perceived creativity increased the likelihood of ad-related messaging. Social TV also has an additional source of distraction, multitasking, but in this study, multitasking did not further reduce ad-effectiveness compared to coviewing. The paper concludes with implications for advertisers and future research.

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... Media and Viewer Bellman et al. (2017) Television viewers using communication technologies to connect with their friends and family, even when they are not watching the same screen Viewer and Media Angell et al. (2016) Simultaneously engaging in multiple tasks; simultaneous use of multiple devices (e.g. TV, cell phone, tablet, and laptop) ...
... In particular, those who are skeptical about social TV have claimed that although it can help viewers engage with TV programs, second-screening in general tends to distract viewers from processing commercials (e.g. Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2017;Fossen & Schweidel, 2017;Zhang, Jeong, & Fishbein, 2010). ...
... Therefore, viewers engaging in second-screening activities are likely to be less attentive to commercials or less successful in processing commercials (e.g. Bellman et al., 2017;Brasel & Gips, 2011), particularly when they immerse themselves in the live TV program (e.g. Tavassoli, Shultz, & Fitzsimons, 1995). ...
Article
As live TV has lost viewers to streaming services and digital videos, TV producers have strived to bring viewers back to TV screens by integrating social features in programing. Meanwhile, social TV has become a prevalent TV-viewing pattern. Although previous findings indicate that social TV can help increase engagement with TV programs, how it benefits advertisers is still uncertain. This study sheds light on this idea by investigating what live TV viewers talk about during commercial breaks. A content analysis was conducted using 4,792 live comments posted on a major social TV platform during the commercial breaks in five episodes of a popular South Korean TV drama. Results indicate that (a) the majority of the live comments pertained to the drama episodes (79.7%) rather than commercials (8.9%) and (b) comments related to commercials were more likely to be negative (50.1%) than positive (20.6%). Overall, the findings suggest that social TV viewers are generally program-oriented and, thus, either neglect or unfavorably perceive program-irrelevant tasks (e.g. attending to and processing commercials). The findings emphasize the need for an advertising-centric theoretical approach to social TV and provide practical implications for advertisers based on analyzing social TV behavior.
... The concept of Social TV (STV) is more than "just watching" [22]. Instead, there are webbased social relationships where the audience is virtually connected [23]. It relies on both the media and users to improve its technology-usage experience [19], [22]. ...
... It relies on both the media and users to improve its technology-usage experience [19], [22]. STV is described as an opportunity for the audience to share their TV-watching experience on other online platforms [23], [24] e.g., YouTube TV, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and etc., with users using STV to share their experiences and interact with larger online audiences [25]. There is a direct relationship between interaction and communication of two screens [15]. ...
... This sense facilitates more extensive social activity, including education and information. The integration also exceptally provides better options for extending students' educational experiences and exposure [23]. The Internet works as a binder between "Tele TV" and the users, as shown by Budden et al. [42]. ...
Conference Paper
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Social media has integrated into traditional TV that has improved the learning, entertainment and communication process. Social TV is a new learning and connectivity aspect using interactive media platforms. This study highlights the impact of STV on students' AP in Jordan using a quantitative approach and a selected sample (n=516) of university students. The findings revealed a robust and significant relationship between STV and students' academic performance (AP). STV has significantly improved their interaction and learning experiences. They were capable of learning new things from watching STV and shared their experiences with others through online platforms. The study proposed a research model and assessed it using the PLS-SEM technique.
... The integration of social TV with digital technology allows us to be more connected with others for different reasons, including educational purposes [14,15]. Our assumption is that social TV would have an impact on learning and academic performance in Jordan [16] for several reasons e.g., viewers watch TV and regard it as social integration and interaction [4,13,[17][18][19][20]. Therefore, social TV, as discussed below, can be seen as a new dimension of communication, education, entertainment, and information [18,21,22]. ...
... A pre-structured questionnaire was developed from relevant literature on social TV perspectives [9,13,[17][18][19]22,58], with two main parts. The first part included the instructions and the main aims of the research, along with respondents' demographic features (Table 1); and the second part was designed to gather responsesrelated to the factors in the conceptual modelon social TV's impact on academic performance. ...
Article
The integration of the TV screen, so that it becomes a new media interaction, is one of the most significant shifts that technology has brought and is known as “social TV”. This paper examines the interaction and influence of social TV on academic performance during Covid-19. It also focuses on the link between social media usage, traditional TV, social TV, and most importantly on whether the latter has impacted on improvements in students’ academic performance in Jordan. A total of 546 university students participated in this study via online survey. Through a self-proposed model, using the PLS-SEM software, the study found that respondents understand the concept of social TV and have used it to improve their interaction with others, helping them to share their experiences and – interestingly – to improve their academic performance. Thus, the findings are discussed in relation to social media integration with social TV in educational and non-educational settings.
... Scholars have increasingly paid attention to media multitasking and its consequences for advertising effectiveness (Bellman et al. 2014;Bellman et al. 2012;Varan et al. 2013). For the most part, multitasking has a negative impact. ...
... While our study identifies a context whereby multitasking proves to be beneficial, it is also consistent with the prior studies detailed in Table 1. In fact, our results fully support the notion that, in most cases, media multitasking will lead to worse recall and recognition (Voorveld 2011;Bellman et al. 2014;Bellman et al. 2012). For all situations, or combinations of activities where multitasking was unrelated to soccer or involved receiving messages or reading Web content or tweets (as opposed to sending or posting), memory was found to be worse. ...
Article
Media multitasking, such as using handheld devices like smartphones and tablets while watching TV, has become prevalent, but its effect on the recall and recognition of advertising has been the subject of limited academic research. We contend that the context in which multitasking takes place affects consumer memory for advertising delivered via the primary activity (e.g., watching television). Specifically, we identify the importance of the degree of (a) congruence between the primary and second screen activity and (b) social accountability of second-screen activities. We test our typology empirically by examining the determinants of next-day recall and recognition for billboard advertisers (perimeter board advertisements) of a televised soccer match. In line with our theory, in most cases media multitasking leads to worse recall and recognition. However, in situations where there is congruence between primary- and second-screen activities, and secondary activities have a higher level of social accountability attached to them, advertising recall and recognition improves.
... Moreover, the study concluded that when comments increase by 8.5% amongst young people between the ages of 18 and 34 the rating improves 1% in television in the premiere episodes; and for the same rating with adults (aged between 35 and 49) their comments should increase by 14% on Twitter. This relationship, more intense amongst young people than amongst adults, was also found by Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, and Varan (2014), who conclude that digital natives (under 30 years old) tend to alternate between television, tablets, smartphones and printed press 27 times an hour, while non-natives (between 35 and 55) alternate a maximum of 17 times an hour. Orban, Nagy, Kjarval, and Sanchez (2014) found that 85% of active Twitter users tweet about television during prime time, and amongst this group, one-third admitted to changing channels after seeing comments in the social network. ...
... We have observed that the tabloid talk shows, the TV news magazines and the reality shows are the most tweeted programs and these three genres make up more than half of the most tweeted contents with 21%, 18% and 12.4% respectively. Therefore we are of the same opinion as Bellman et al. (2014) and Harrington et al. (2013), that these are the most successful contents because they create a perfect common space to have virtual conversations due to interest of the subject matter that they develop. We were not surprised by the importance of contents related to sporting events with 20.6% and, mainly, soccer matches (11.3%). ...
Article
Full-text available
En este artículo analizaremos los programas de televisión más comentados y emitidos en España basándonos en el número de usuarios de Twitter (y no en el número de comentarios). Planteamos dos objetivos: saber qué pro gramas de televisión son los más tuiteados según su género y su franja ho raria; y observar si los programas de televisión más vistos son también los más tuiteados. Para ello, utilizaremos una metodología cuantitativa basada en la correlación de Spearman y el coeficiente de Kappa a partir de los da tos obtenidos durante 30 días (150 observaciones). Los datos nos permiten concluir que los programas más tuiteados son los talk shows y los magaci nes informativos, los reality shows y los eventos deportivos; y que el 63,3 % de los programas más tuiteados son emitidos entre las 8:30 p.m. y las 12 a.m. También hemos detectado que si un programa de televisión está cla sificado en el primer lugar como el más visto ese día o en su franja, tiene más probabilidades que el resto de estar entre los cinco más comentados en Twitter. Creemos que los resultados hallados en España pueden aplicar se a otros países y mercados audiovisuales.
... Despite numerous investigations, however, there is no consensus on whether media multitasking is effective or not. Some studies show that it is related to poorer performance (e.g., Ophir et al., 2009;Oviedo et al., 2015;Kazakova et al., 2016;Bellman et al., 2017); however, according to other reports the opposite seems to be the case (e.g., Adler and Benbunan-Fich, 2012;Lui and Wong, 2012), and yet others show no significant relationship at all (e.g., Law and Stock, 2017). ...
... For instance, media multitasking has been associated with lower performance on task-switching and working memory tasks (Ophir et al., 2009), and poorer processing of advertisements and their impaired message recall and recognition. Worse performance was also observed in such simultaneous activities as watching TV episodes and engaging in Facebook activities (Oviedo et al., 2015), or reading online articles and listening to a podcast (Srivastava, 2013), social TV viewing (Bellman et al., 2017), watching TV advertisements and solving anagrams , watching TV advertisements and website advertisements (Kazakova et al., 2016) [see Garaus (2019), for an overview]. Similar results have been found in classic studies on multitasking, where the usual finding is that performing several activities at the same time (or frequently switching between them) leads to more errors, distraction, interference, and lost time as compared to a situation in which these activities are performed one at a time [see Pashler (1994), Monsell (2003), Courage et al. (2015), for overviews]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the digital world of today, multitasking with media is inevitable. Research shows, for instance, that American youths spend on average 7.5 h every day with media, and 29% of that time is spent processing different forms of media simultaneously (Uncapher et al., 2017). Despite numerous studies, however, there is no consensus on whether media multitasking is effective or not. In the current paper, we review existing literature and propose that in order to ascertain whether media multitasking is effective, it is important to determine (1) which goal/s are used as a reference point (e.g., acquiring new knowledge, obtaining the highest number of points in a task, being active on social media); (2) whether a person's intentions and subjective feelings or objective performance are considered (e.g., simultaneous media use might feel productive, yet objective performance might deteriorate); and finally (3) whether the short-or long-term consequences of media multitasking are considered (e.g., media multitasking might help attain one's present goals yet be conducive to a cognitive strategy that leads to lesser attentional shielding of goals). Depending on these differentiations, media multitasking can be seen as both a strategic behavior undertaken to accomplish one's goals and as a self-regulatory failure. The article integrates various findings from the areas of cognitive psychology, psychology of motivation, and human-computer interaction.
... So far, studies on the effectiveness of advertising in the social TV environment are very limited due to the novelty of the phenomenon, and most are linked to case studies. Worth highlighting in the field of academia is the recent study by Bellman Robinson, Wooley & Varan (2014), on social TV's positive and negative effects on TV advertising. Using a laboratory controlled experiment with 282 participants they attempted to provide evidence on the relationship of social TV on the effectiveness of television advertising. ...
... They reached the conclusion that one possible negative effect was the fact that "when social TV is viewed live, the messages seen by viewers are not all under the control of the advertising brand. While an ad is playing on the TV, social TV viewers could be reading negative comments about the ad via social media" (Bellman et al., 2014: 3); on the other hand, they highlighted a positive effect: "but it is also very likely that social TV creates a more receptive environment for TV advertising" (Bellman et al., 2014: 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile device advertising is a rapidly growing market due to the penetration of mobile devices in Spanish society. Advertising communication in this digital ecosystem continually poses new challenges. One of these - the subject of this proposal - is the link-up between mobile advertising with social TV. It opens up new possibilities for the development of advertising strategies on mobile devices.The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by the Spanish advertising industry with the recent introduction of Social TV. Spain has one of the most developed Social TV sectors in Europe. It will provide a global overview of this new reality and uncover the new possibilities and main challenges for the development of advertising strategies for mobile devices. To this end we propose an examination of the perception of two of Spain’s major broadcasting empires, Atresmedia and Mediaset España, of this phenomenon.
... The simplicity of Twitter use and its encouragement of interaction among users through the use of hashtags are considered the main reasons for using Twitter to comment simultaneously while watching something on-screen (Saavedra Llamas, Rodríguez Fernández, & Barón Dulce, 2015). Some authors argue that commenting on a programme on Twitter or any other social media site adds enjoyment to the consumption of television (Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2014). Taking the BBC programme Question Time as an example, those who comment actively on Twitter have been referred to as viewertariat due to their simultaneous reviews (Anstead & O'Loughlin, 2011). ...
Article
Social networks have altered how viewers watch television and consume information. This new context has obliged broadcasters to adapt their practices to reach viewers in all platforms. In this article, we focus on how the evening news programmes from the general-interest DTT channels in the five main European markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) appeal to their social audience. This concept, although ambiguous, refers to the activity of viewers on social networks in relation to the contents broadcast by the television industry in its multiple forms. We analyse both the screen strategies and their activity on their official Twitter accounts. Although the evening news is the anchor of the prime time and one of the main assets to instil the channels with prestige and influence, the conclusions point to a certain neglect of the social audience from the industry in these key programmes. But mostly, our research reveals how the specificities of the format and the nature of the content distinguish the evening news from other live TV shows. Copyright © 2018 (Matilde Delgado, Celina Navarro, Nuria Garcia-Muñoz, Pau LLuís, Elisa Paz).
... Este comportamento está se tornando o padrão em pessoas de todas as idades (Voorveld & Goot, 2013) e parece ter o poder de afetar a efetividade de mensagens publicitárias. Estudos sugerem que realizar mais de uma atividade ao mesmo tempo diminui a lembrança e reconhecimento do conteúdo exibido (Angell, Gorton, Sauer, Bottomley, & White, 2016;Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2014;Bellman, Rossiter, Schweda, & Varan, 2012;Brasel & Gips, 2011;Voorveld, 2011). Por exemplo, ler jornal enquanto o televisor está ligado diminui a lembrança e compreensão das informações (Armstrong & Chung, 2000) e o mero ato de analisar fotografias com o rádio ligado reduz as respostas favoráveis dos indivíduos em relação a um comercial veiculado durante a tarefa (Bolls & Muehling, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: Direcionar novos estudos de fluncia de processamento no contexto relativamente novo da multitarefa de mdia, comportamento que tem se tornado popular nos ltimos anos. Mtodo: Reviso da vasta literatura de fluncia de processamento, fluncia perceptual e fluncia conceitual, incluindo seus diversos efeitos, diferentes contextos comportamentais e as teorias que explicam o fenmeno. Realizou-se tambm uma breve reviso sobre a recente literatura da multitarefa e multitarefa de mdia. Originalidade/Relevncia: Estmulos fluentes possuem vrios efeitos positivos no consumidor em relao a estmulos no fluentes, contudo, todos os estudos de fluncia at agora consideraram indivduos focados em uma atividade durante a exposio ao estmulo, o que no representa grande parte do comportamento habitual dos indivduos que costumam se engajar em mais de uma atividade ao mesmo tempo, principalmente ao consumir uma mdia. Este trabalho destaca este gap e fornece direes para futuros trabalhos. Resultados: A partir da reviso da literatura, este artigo oferece proposies de estudo e um modelo conceitual que podem orientar futuras pesquisas sobre fluncia de processamento (perceptual e conceitual) em situaes em que o consumidor desempenha mais de uma atividade ao mesmo tempo. Contribuies tericas / metodolgicas: Este artigo contribui para a melhor compreenso dos efeitos de exposies a estmulos a partir do melhor entendimento dos efeitos da fluncia perceptual e conceitual e como esses efeitos podem ser afetados pelo comportamento multitarefa de mdia.
... That is, although a certain level of social interaction is appreciated, too many comments may be distracting and decrease satisfaction with the social TV experience. For instance, some researchers found that watching ads in social TV with user comments distracted viewers from adprocessing (Bellman et al., 2017). Due to the lack of previous research in this regard, we propose the following research question: ...
Article
Full-text available
As a combination of television viewing and social media use, social TV epitomizes the intersection of mass communication and interpersonal communication. However, it remains unknown how such a novel format of media experience influences the agenda-setting effects. A lab experiment ( N = 120) examined (a) how user-to-user interactions in social TV (i.e. real-time comments from virtual co-viewers) affect the agenda-setting process and (b) how such effect is moderated by different interface types (e.g. all-in-one screen vs a second screen). Results suggest that participants who watched a news clip that featured many (vs few) comments from virtual co-viewers perceived the issue to be more important, but such effect was at work only when user comments were viewed on the second screen. In addition, exposure to many (vs few) comments decreased participants’ satisfaction with social TV and their intention to use social TV in the future.
... This research assesses the influence of ad interactivity on emotions through facial recognition and EDA; 360-degree videos evoked more positive emotions, such as joy and surprise, than did traditional ads. As previously discussed, it is expected that greater interactivity will lead to more positive emotions (Rossiter and Bellman, 2005;Bellman et al., 2017). Our results also showed that the participants experienced joy and surprise for longer with the 360-degree ads. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares cognitive and emotional responses to 360-degree vs. static (2D) videos in terms of visual attention, brand recognition, engagement of the prefrontal cortex, and emotions. Hypotheses are proposed based on the interactivity literature, cognitive overload, advertising response model and motivation, opportunity, and ability theoretical frameworks, and tested using neurophysiological tools: electroencephalography, eye-tracking, electrodermal activity, and facial coding. The results revealed that gaze view depends on ad content, visual attention paid being lower in 360-degree FMCG ads than in 2D ads. Brand logo recognition is lower in 360-degree ads than in 2D video ads. Overall, 360-degree ads for durable products increase positive emotions, which carries the risk of non-exposure to some of the ad content. In testing four ads for durable goods and fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) this research explains the mechanism through which 360-degree video ads outperform standard versions.
... Through this, advertising has essentially reduced many people to the role of irrational consumers. Bellman et al. (2014) contend that advertising has contributed to the emergence of social TV, which entails the use of different communication devices and applications to connect with others. These researchers contend that marketing and advertising have both positive and negative impacts on individuals and the general society. ...
Article
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Marketing is used by business organizations to promote the beneficial attributes of their product and services. The increased focus on promoting ethical and socially responsible business practices has contributed to the emergence of socially responsible marketing. This study explores this concept and how it promotes good/positive social and cultural norms. The research demonstrates how businesses are forced to practice socially responsible marketing though its impact on TV viewership and household conflict remains unknown. A qualitative descriptive study is carried out to examine the effect of socially responsible marketing on TV viewership and household conflict. Data was collected from a sample of 15 marketing experts using a self-administered question and analyzed through thematic analysis. The study found no significant link between socially responsible marketing and TV viewership. Additionally, this research found that socially responsible marketing reduces household conflict. These findings are supported by the Uses and Gratification Theory, Functionalist Theory, and Conflict Theory.
... On the other hand, when comparing a media multitasking situation with a single tasking situation, there is evidence that media multitasking negatively affects brand attitude (Bellman et al. 2017) due to reduced brand recognition (Segijn 2017;Segijn et al. 2017) and/or by limited attention . Compared to a single screening of an advertisement, brand attitude formation was lower in both a related and unrelated multiscreening situation, with the negative effect being stronger for the unrelated version . ...
Article
Despite the knowledge that women engage more frequently in multitasking than men when using media devices, no study has explored how multitasking impacts the brand attitude of this target audience. The investigation of gender effects in the context of media multitasking would not only provide a better understanding of the individual elements which influence brand attitude in media multitasking situations but would also guide marketers in their targeting strategies. Likewise, the investigation of the role of advertising appeals follows the current call to concentrate on the role of advertising in media multitasking situations. To address these research gaps, the current research conducted two experimental studies to offer a new perspective on the impact of gender differences in processing styles (heuristic vs systematic processing) and their interaction with different advertising appeals (rational vs emotional appeals) on brand attitude in media single and multitasking. Study 1 employs an online experiment (gender × viewing situation × advertising appeal). Results demonstrate that media multitasking negatively affects brand attitude, and that women have a lower brand attitude in a media multitasking situation compared to a single tasking situation, while emotional advertisements neither strengthen nor attenuate the negative impact of media multitasking on brand attitude. Study 2 employs a more controlled online experiment (gender × viewing situation × advertising appeal) with a different product category. The results reveal a moderating effect on the influence of media multitasking on brand attitude, as mediated through attention toward the ad. Hence, attention toward the ad has been identified as underlying mechanism.
... First, this study proposes a model that predicts intention to engage in social TV. Scarce research regarding social TV exists, and prior studies analyzed social TV engagement per se or social TV's influence on advertising effectiveness (e.g., Bellman, et al., 2017). The present study progressed one step further by investigating how social TV engagement is boosted. ...
Article
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This study aimed to identify factors that influence intention to engage in social TV. To that end, this study developed and tested a conceptual model that integrates content–, interpersonal–, and medium–relational factors. A survey of 275 college students in the United States suggests that individuals’ relationships with their contacts on an SNS, relationships with the SNS, affinity for viewing television programs, and preferences for certain types of television program genres predict engagement in social TV.
... We suggest that future studies also measure the viewing duration of the video content because it is possible that the strength of the activated goal, the emotional approach tendency, or the interaction of those two variables may have influenced the amount of time spent fulfilling the goal of watching the video. In addition, previous research has documented the differential impacts of pre-roll and midroll ads (Bellman et al. 2017). If an ad interrupts during the video (i.e., midroll ads), the goal could be half realized. ...
Article
Using an experimental tool that tracks viewers’ real-time ad-skipping behavior, the current research tested when and why a highly arousing emotional appeal ad that induces a set of complex discrete emotions can reduce the ad-skipping rate on social media platforms such as YouTube. Across three experiments, we showed the following results. First, the ad-skipping rate of emotional appeal ads was lower among consumers who had the goal of watching emotional (versus informational) videos. Second, ad-elicited empathy mediated this effect. Third, the effects of the emotional appeal ad on ad-skipping behaviors were contingent upon consumers’ predisposition to approach emotional experiences. Among consumers who were seeking emotional experiences, higher levels of empathy resulted in lower adskipping rates and longer ad-viewing duration when the emotional appeal of the ad matched with the emotional goal of video watching; in contrast, among consumers who were not seeking emotional experiences, the opposite effect was found.
... Because advertising is the act of an explicit advertiser unilaterally communicating through the media to change the recipient's attitude toward the advertisement, advertisements are broadly used for purposes in both public and private interests [2][3][4][5][6]. Advertising has been considered one of the most effective and influential activities for corporates to maximize its sales today [7][8][9][10]. Building adequate advertising strategies would be one of the fundamental movements of corporations as a sustainable marketing tactic. ...
Article
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Advertising copies have been considered as a fundamental strategy for firms to continue sustainable marketing strategies. In order to provide the advancement of previous research and practical implication to marketers in the field for sustainable marketing strategy, this research tried to reveal the role of emotional and rational appeals as well as hidden heterogeneity of consumers in the appeal–value–trust–satisfaction–WOM framework. By applying the PLS-SEM and PLS-POS approach to 230 valid questionnaire samples, we could discover the role of appeals in the framework as well as three types of unobserved heterogeneity among the respondents. Both emotional and rational appeals had significant influences on the value–satisfaction–trust–WOM context. In addition, for hidden consumer traits in advertising copies, we revealed three types of consumer groups: Type 1, the consumer group with a rational orientation (n = 68); Type 2, the group with an emotional orientation (n = 74) and Type 3, the group with a utilitarian orientation. This research provided contributions by offering some insight into ways to establish sustainable marketing strategies in advertisements and to address unobserved heterogeneity consumers in advertising copy appeals.
... The simplicity of Twitter use and its encouragement of interaction among users through the use of hashtags are considered the main reasons for using Twitter to comment simultaneously while watching something on-screen (Saavedra Llamas, Rodríguez Fernández, & Barón Dulce, 2015). Some authors argue that commenting on a programme on Twitter or any other social media site adds enjoyment to the consumption of television (Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2014). Taking the BBC programme Question Time as an example, those who comment actively on Twitter have been referred to as viewertariat due to their simultaneous reviews (Anstead & O'Loughlin, 2011). ...
... This is why the concept of television advertising is recurrently evolving and trying to approach the target audience carefully so as to increase effectiveness of advertising even among those populations that do not spend much time watching TV. The value of modern television advertisements is mostly aimed at allowing companies to target older people who are used to watching television as compared to going through Facebook or Instagram feed (Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2017). As an advertising tool, television should be used cautiously so as to let the company reach as many target customers as possible because younger populations might consider their control over viewership to be one of the key advantages linked to online interaction with advertising. ...
Article
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This paper gives a look to the television medium as an advertising tool. The effects of television to the advertising industry within media and the story of television and advertising from the past. The paper gives a special interest to the advantages and disadvantages of TV advertising and explore this from industrial and academic perspective. In the conclusion part the paper there are some opinions for the future of television advertising. İt underlines that television advertising will carry on being strong in media with the changes in technology. The screens will never end and with the digitalization of television advertising will remain in this medium but will only change a shape and structure.
... For example, a TV viewer might send a tweet about a commercial for a variety of reasons, besides the creativity of the commercial (e.g., they may be heavy users of Twitter). In a study of "social TV", that is, sending messages about the TV content you're watching, we manipulated ad creativity, but our participants were free to self-select whether or not they sent messages about the ads (Bellman, Robinson, Wooley, & Varan, 2017). After controlling for self-selection using regression, we found that ad creativity significantly increased ad-related messaging. ...
Chapter
Well-designed experiments provide the best possible data for showing that one variable causes another variable. Causative explanations are the building blocks of theory in communication research and science generally. Experimental design is what researchers do before carrying out an experiment. This entry describes the differences between the two basic kinds of experimental design, between-groups designs and within-participants designs. It provides guidelines for choosing between these two types of designs, or for using both in a mixed design. To make a strong case for causation, a well-designed experiment has to rule out alternative plausible explanations for the experiment's results that threaten its internal or external validity. Finally, this entry discusses how new methods allow communication researchers to carry out experiments with high levels of control outside the unnatural environment of a lab. These discussions are illustrated with examples of real-life experiments conducted in a busy media research lab.
... As TV has become connected to the Internet, and the TV platform has developed to accommodate a variety of applications, it is increasingly becoming an active and interactive medium and the experience of TV viewers is also changing. The key features of interactive TV are, however, focused on new business opportunities (Bellman et al. 2017;Lekakos et al. 2001) or its functional aspects (Morris and Smith-Chaigneau 2012;O'Sullivan et al. 2004), rather than investigating TV viewer's entertainment needs (Chorianopoulos and Spinellis 2004;Livaditi et al. 2003). This diverse function and active usage strengthened by industrial developments obviously differentiates interactive TV from the previous non-interactive TVs (hereinafter "legacy TV"). ...
Article
This study was designed to examine how to form well-being perception in the senior tourism industry. More specifically, this study proposed (1) the casual relationships between four dimensions of the experience economy (i.e. education, entertainment, esthetics, and escapism) and well-being perception, (2) the effects of well-being perception on consumer attitudes toward a brand, brand attachment, and brand loyalty, and (3) the moderating role of advertising effectiveness. Data were collected from 323 senior tourists in Korea. The results showed that all of the four dimensions have a positive influence on well-being perception, which in turn positively affects outcome variables. Lastly, this study found that advertising effectiveness has an important moderating function in the relationship between education and well-being perception.
Conference Paper
Multiscreening has become part of people’s daily routines. Simultaneously, it has received increased attention by adverting scholars. In order to advance the field of multiscreening and advertising, and to provide practical guidelines for practitioners, the current study synthesizes the results of previous research in a meta-analysis. The results showed an overall negative effect of multiscreening on cognitive advertising outcomes and no significant effect of multiscreening on affective outcomes. Moderators were sought in media, advertising, and research related factors. All three types of factors were found to be moderators of both cognitive and affective advertising outcomes.
Chapter
Social media data has already established itself as an important data source for researchers working in a number of different domains. It has also attracted the attention of archiving institutions, many of which have already extended their crawling processes to capture at least some forms of social media data. However, far too little attention has been paid to providing access to this data, which has generally been collected using application programming interfaces (APIs). There is a growing need to contextualize the data gathered from APIs, so that researchers can make informed decisions about how to analyse it, and to develop efficient ways of providing access to it. This chapter will discuss one possible means of providing enhanced access: a new interface developed at the Institut national de l’audiovisuel (INA) that links Twitter and television archives to recreate the phenomenon of the “second screen”, or more precisely the experience of “social television”. The phrase “second screen” describes the increasingly ubiquitous activity of using a second computing device (commonly a mobile phone or tablet) while watching television. If the second device is used to comment on, like or retweet television-related content via social media, this results in the so-called social television. The analysis of this activity, and this data, offers a promising new avenue of research for scholars, especially those based on digital humanities. To the best of our knowledge, the work that will be discussed here is the first attempt at considering how best to recreate the experience of “social television” using archived data.
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Little research has examined the use of social media as people watch live sporting telecasts— an activity that has been referred to as the second screen phenomenon. The paper proposes and tests a second screen consumer engagement model that captures the actions of Facebook users (N=299) while watching a live sport telecast. Findings highlight the direct and indirect effect of social camaraderie, subjective norm, fan emotion and purposive needs on sport consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intention. The behavioral intention of consumers when using Facebook as a second screen was associated with the increased likelihood of using the platform to purchase team products, make recommendations and investigate sponsors. The proposed model contributes to the emerging literature highlighting the increasing importance of social media as an interactive support channel when people watch live telecasts. The findings have practical implications for managers by providing insights and understanding of consumers when watching telecast sport. Although tested with Thai English Premier League fans, the findings will have relevance across different sports and other business sectors.
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Purpose This study aims to examine entertainment TV shows' social media accounts to theoretically and practically explore the relationship between social media engagement and the performance (represented by ratings) of such shows. Design/methodology/approach By using the data of a popular TV show in the USA, The Voice, the present study examined the messages on the Facebook fan page of the show and how these messages correlated with the ratings of the show. Social media usage data in the course of three seasons (Seasons 10–12, 82 episodes in total) were collected from Facebook ( N = 1,192,722 messages). Both regression and sentiment analysis were performed. Findings Overall, the findings revealed positive relationships of TV show ratings with both passive social media engagement (Facebook likes) and the number of official posts. However, active social media engagement was not positively related to show ratings. Originality/value By enhancing understanding of audience engagement with social media, our research extends knowledge related to the nature and development of viewer involvement with entertainment across different media platforms. Our results also help clarify how interpersonal communication (social media comments) and mass communication (TV programs) intersect. Practically, the findings could be applied to improve the interaction of TV audiences with show content, provide insights into the future of social TV development and inform decision-making amongst TV industry professionals.
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This chapter predominately looks at user participation beyond access, and towards inclusive facilitation: a role suitable for cultural intermediation. The global screen industries have been experimenting with user participation for several years, based on broad cultural goals, which has also ignited broader media debates. The public service media (PSM) remit requires the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) to provide for minorities whilst fostering national culture and the public sphere. The remit of PSM and its impact on national and cultural policy, as scholars argue, is the reason for the significance of this burgeoning field, where PSM are positioned as cultural facilitating institutions: they provide the cultural voice of geographical region for both its citizens and as an exported cultural product. PSM’s role as a cultural institution is crucial within the field of comedy television. Social media platforms and projects, specifically ‘social TV’, have enabled greater participation in ABC content consumption and creation; they provide opportunities for social participation in collaborative cultural production. However, this chapter argues that instead of deconstructing boundaries, social media platforms may, in fact, reconstruct participation barriers within the co-creative production processes. This chapter documents the ABC co-creation between Twitter users and the #7DaysLater television programme, which is a narrative-based comedy programme that engaged its audience through social media to produce its weekly programme. The chapter argues why the ABC should engage in social media platforms to collaboratively produce content, with #7DaysLater providing an innovative example, but suggests skilled cultural intermediaries with experience in community facilitation should carry out the process. This chapter describes how cultural intermediation is the process of public service media organizations engaging digital influencers across social media to support authentic participation amongst a broader group of citizens.
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This study investigates the causal relationship between antecedents and consequences of social television viewing combining the television screen and concurrent use of a mobile, “second screen” media platform. The results indicate that social television viewing is a complex process driven by the viewers’ program affinity, motives, interpersonal interaction, and the perceived media characteristics of alternative platforms. The social television viewing behavior also has a positive influence on loyalty to television programs, time-shifted viewing, and product purchase intention. The implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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This chapter discusses ways of rethinking and reconfiguring advertising models and tools, in order to explore all the potential of mobile devices. The chapter presents a literature review on perceptions and opportunities related to mobile devices and advertising, focusing themes such as branded content, branded apps, advergames, second screening and m-commerce. It also presents results from an exploratory qualitative study conducted in Portugal on perceptions about mobile devices and advertising, based on 4 focus groups with users of mobile devices aged between 18 and 35 years old. The empirical results show that users have negative perceptions and attitudes towards traditional advertising models, such as banners, pop-ups and pre-videos on YouTube. On the contrary, they use some branded apps and value both engagement and community building and providing useful services and information. Thus, opportunities, possibilities, preferences and dislikes were discussed.
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This chapter discusses ways of rethinking and reconfiguring advertising models and tools, in order to explore all the potential of mobile devices. The chapter presents a literature review on perceptions and opportunities related to mobile devices and advertising, focusing themes such as branded content, branded apps, advergames, second screening and m-commerce. It also presents results from an exploratory qualitative study conducted in Portugal on perceptions about mobile devices and advertising, based on 4 focus groups with users of mobile devices aged between 18 and 35 years old. The empirical results show that users have negative perceptions and attitudes towards traditional advertising models, such as banners, pop-ups and pre-videos on YouTube. On the contrary, they use some branded apps and value both engagement and community building and providing useful services and information. Thus, opportunities, possibilities, preferences and dislikes were discussed.
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These days, many individuals engage in a unique form of TV viewing that includes a simultaneous act of watching television content and talking about it with others in a mediated environment. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as social TV viewing. Responding to the popularity of this form of TV viewing behavior, the present study examines the individual differences of the social TV viewing experience, particularly with regard to different communication platforms (e.g. private vs. public). Based on the data collected from an online survey, primary findings indicate that extroverted and lonely individuals have different social TV viewing experiences such as preferences for a particular type of platforms for social TV viewing. Further, social presence plays an important role in the understanding of social TV enjoyment in private and public platforms.
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Recent years have seen an increasing trend among consumers toward using two or more media simultaneously, a phenomenon known as media multitasking. The majority of the extant literature agrees that media multitasking has detrimental effects on advertising effectiveness. However, opportunities exist for reducing these negative effects or even creating effects favorable to advertising outcomes. Nevertheless, the literature on media multitasking during advertising exposure is highly fragmented and findings are inconclusive. This literature review synthesizes the extant studies on message processing in media multitasking situations. It develops a comprehensive conceptual framework on the effects of media multitasking on advertising effectiveness, with particular attention to mediating processes and moderating variables. The conceptual model explains the circumstances under which individuals devote voluntary or involuntary attention to advertisements during media multitasking, advances knowledge on the role of different sensory modalities, and reveals how the two types of information processing complement each other during simultaneous media usage.
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Technological developments and the rise of mobile devices have made it possible to deliver personalized messages to consumers based on their concurrent media usages in real time; this is known as synced advertising. Synced advertising is argued to be an effective personalized advertising strategy in a multi-media environment that will result in more positive brand attitudes compared to those arising from exposure to non-synced advertising. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of synced advertising on brand attitudes. An online experiment (N = 119) and a lab experiment (N = 107) showed that synced advertising resulted in more positive brand attitudes than when users had no exposure to the brand. However, we did not find any differences in brand attitudes depending on having a tablet ad shown before, simultaneous to, or after a TV commercial for the same brand. Thus, the results show that synchronizing ads with a short delay is as effective as synchronizing ads in real time.
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Given that one of the central elements in marketing spending is advertising, this study aims at analysing how the advertising planning process is influenced by the types of responses expected from the audience, the measurement methods used to assess advertising effectiveness and the expected results. This study was empirical and exploratory based on the application of a cross-sectional survey to 150 marketing managers of medium and large-sized companies in Colombia. The results show if organisations measure the level of compliance with the goals established in terms of IMC, they will make better decisions and allocate marketing budgets consistent with their objectives, resources and capabilities. As the results of the present study indicate, organisations can experience weaknesses in implementing measurement methods that guarantee the proper calculation of organisational results concerning advertising investment
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of program-induced engagement on the amount of media multitasking (MM) and its subsequent impact on ad memory. It explored how brand familiarity attenuates or aggravates the detrimental effects of MM on cognitive evaluation of ads. Two lab-based experiments were conducted. The findings of the experiment were three-fold. First, the findings indicate that when the programs were affectively engaging, programs with a high level of cognitive engagement led to a lower level of overall media multitasking than programs with a low level of cognitive engagement. This occurred not only during the programs, but also during the commercial breaks. Second, the findings indicate that even in the same media multitasking situation, people who watched a program with high cognitive engagement reported a higher level of ad memory than people who watched a program with low cognitive engagement suggesting an attention spillover effect. Third, the findings suggest the possible moderating role of brand familiarity. Brands with a high level of familiarity seem to have reduced the memory deficit effect of media multitasking.
Chapter
This chapter discusses ways of rethinking and reconfiguring advertising models and tools, in order to explore all the potential of mobile devices. The chapter presents a literature review on perceptions and opportunities related to mobile devices and advertising, focusing themes such as branded content, branded apps, advergames, second screening and m-commerce. It also presents results from an exploratory qualitative study conducted in Portugal on perceptions about mobile devices and advertising, based on 4 focus groups with users of mobile devices aged between 18 and 35 years old. The empirical results show that users have negative perceptions and attitudes towards traditional advertising models, such as banners, pop-ups and pre-videos on YouTube. On the contrary, they use some branded apps and value both engagement and community building and providing useful services and information. Thus, opportunities, possibilities, preferences and dislikes were discussed.
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Multiscreening refers to consumers' simultaneous usage of multiple screen-based devices. Prior research has shown that simultaneous multiscreening distracts consumers and hinders cognitive processing. In this paper, we evaluate whether and how simultaneous multiscreening can harm advertising effectiveness. Moreover, we test under which conditions an additional mobile advertising impression can moderate the effect of multiscreening on advertising effectiveness. We test the impact of multiscreening via different screen-based devices in two experiments. We find that multiscreening decreases advertising effectiveness and show that an additional mobile advertising impression of the same brand can attenuate the effect, but only when the additional mobile advertisement does not lead to high levels of distraction from the desktop advertisement.
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Considerable research suggests that advertising executional cues can influence communication effectiveness. Related research indicates that communication effectiveness is in part driven by consumers’ motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) to process brand information from an ad. However, little research has explicitly linked executional cues to communication effectiveness via their impact on MOA and levels of processing. The authors present a framework that explicitly provides such a linkage. The framework highlights the mediational role of MOA in the relationships among executional cues and communication outcomes. It also provides a theoretical account that links apparently disparate cues to their common effects on motivation, opportunity, or ability. The framework is complemented by a critical review of current measures of MOA and proposed measures based on the review. Research issues raised by the framework and the proposed measures are discussed.
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The results of an experiment examining the use of attitude toward the ad and brand-related beliefs in brand attitude formation under two different processing "sets"-brand evaluation and nonbrand evaluation-are reported. Findings suggest that attitude toward the advertisement affects attitude toward the advertised brand as much under a brand evaluation set as under a nonbrand evaluation set.
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Using fMRI and self-reports, we explore the relationship between ad-elicited emotional arousal and memory for the ad, as well as the mechanisms involved in this relationship. A broad conceptual framework proposes three routes for emotional memory: attention, elaboration, and social cognition. Our exploratory study examines the association between ad-elicited emotional arousal and predetermined ad memorability, as a proxy for memory for the ad. Results reveal greater amygdala activation in memorable (versus unmemorable) ads, reinforcing the association between ad-elicited emotional arousal and memory for the ad. Amygdala activation was accompanied by activation in the brain region termed the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which is involved in social cognition. These results are indicative of a sociocognitive emotional memory process, which has been neglected in past research. Future research directions are discussed.
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The predictions of growing consumer power in the digital age that predated the turn of the century were fueled by the rise of the Internet, then reignited by social media. This article explores the intersection of consumer behavior and digital media by clearly defining consumer power and empowerment in Internet and social media contexts and by presenting a theoretical framework of four distinct consumer power sources: demand-, information-, network-, and crowd-based power. Furthermore, we highlight technology's evolutionary role in the development of these power sources and discuss the nature of shifts in power from marketers to consumers in terms of each source. The framework organizes prior marketing literature on Internet-enabled consumer empowerment and highlights gaps in current research. Specific research questions are elaborated for each source of power outlining the agenda for future research areas.
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The results of an experiment examining the use of attitude toward the ad and brand-related beliefs in brand attitude formation under two different processing “sets”—brand evaluation and nonbrand evaluation—are reported. Findings suggest that attitude toward the advertisement affects attitude toward the advertised brand as much under a brand evaluation set as under a nonbrand evaluation set.
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The authors examine the predictors of ad avoidance in four media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. A national survey of 946 adults found that ad avoidance is most prevalent for television and magazines. The predictor variables were demographic characteristics, media-related variables, attitudes toward advertising in each medium, and communication problems related to advertising. Ad perceptions were the strongest predictors of ad avoidance and were best in differentiating print from broadcast media. The results indicate that age and income were the best demographic predictors across media. Breadth of media use was an important broadcast media predictor. Among the communication problems considered, search hinderance had the greatest effect on ad avoidance.
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In the present study – a naturalistic laboratory experiment – coviewing of TV commercials reduced their effectiveness (delayed proven ad recall) from 63%, obtained by single viewers, to 43%, for both coviewers. During coviewing, the ‘mere presence of another’ apparently distracts each coviewer's attention from the screen. The reduction in TV ads' effectiveness due to coviewing is equivalent to the loss from channel-change zapping, which reduces ad recall to 45%. More deleterious but less prevalent modes of digital video recorder-enabled ad avoidance are skip-button zapping, which reduces recall to 35%, and moderately fast zipping ( × 8 fast forward), which reduces ad effectiveness almost entirely, leaving only 6% recall. This study concludes with some practical suggestions for improving the effectiveness of TV commercials seen by a coviewing audience.
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Four recent scales of consumer involvement are compared. These scales are first scrutinized, and, where necessary, modified, on a priori grounds. The modified scales are then empirically compared in terms of unidimensionality, convergent and discriminant validity, and nomological validity. On these criteria, the pruned and modified version of each of the four scales is found satisfactory. However, some unique features of each, which are discussed as trade-offs that marketing researchers would have to consider in their choice of a scale to measure this important consumer behavior construct. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This paper presents an information-processing model that is directly applicable to the investigation of how mediated messages are processed. It applies the model to the case of television viewing to demonstrate its applicability. It provides a measure for each part of the model. It presents evidence that supports the model in the television-viewing situation. Finally, it demonstrates how the model may be used to further research and understanding in well-known theoretical traditions. This model is not meant to stand in opposition to any of these theories but, rather, should work well with them by providing hypothesized mechanisms that may underlie well-known effects. This model should prove useful both to researchers and, eventually, to message producers. To the extent that we can better understand how the content and structure of messages interact with a viewer's information-processing system to determine which parts and how much of a communication message is remembered, we will make great strides in understanding how people communicate.
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Click-through rates are still the de facto measure of Internet advertising effectiveness. Unfortunately, click-through rates have plummeted. This decline prompts two critical questions: (1) Why do banner ads seem to be ineffective and (2) what can advertisers do to improve their effectiveness? To address these questions, we utilized an eye-tracking device to investigate online surfers' attention to online advertising. Then we conducted a large-scale survey of Internet users' recall, recognition, and awareness of banner advertising. Our research suggests that the reason why click-through rates are low is that surfers actually avoid looking at banner ads during their online activities. This implies that the larger part of a surfer's processing of banners will probably be done at the pre-attentive level. If such is the case, click-through rate is an ineffective measure of banner ad performance. Our research also shows that banner ads do have an impact on traditional memory-based measure of effectiveness. Thus, we claim that advertisers should rely more on traditional brand equity measures such as brand awareness and advertising recall. Using such measures, we show that repetition affects unaided advertising recall, brand recognition, and brand awareness and that a banner's message influences both aided advertising recall and brand recognition.
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Our study investigates the overall effects of in-store displays (ISD) on category sales and brand market share in an online shopping context, and compares the differences in effectiveness between ISD types. Using data from an online grocer, we examine three online ISD types that match with traditional ones: first screen (entrance), banner (end-of-aisle) and shelf tag (in-aisle) displays. Empirical results for 10 categories confirm that online ISD may substantially increase brand market share and to a lesser extent, category sales. Our results also demonstrate that not all types are equally effective. First screen displays clearly have the strongest effect on market share: they benefit from their placement on the ‘entrance’ location, central on-screen position and direct purchase link. While they only feature 1 SKU, banner displays typically feature all SKUs of a brand, yet, are placed on border-screen positions on traveling-zone pages without a direct purchase link. Based on our results, the advantage of banner displays does not weigh up against the advantages of first screen displays in most cases. Shelf tags, finally, may be very useful in attracting attention to interesting promotions, but appear to have no or at most a limited effect on their own.
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The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. 100 cigarette smokers aged 18-25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a 10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=6.73, 95% CI=1.00, 45.25, comparing the top to bottom 5th percentiles of exposure). Level of nicotine dependence (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.27, 2.32 per point on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale); contemplation (OR=9.07, 95% CI=1.71, 47.99) and precontemplation (OR=7.30, 95% CI=1.39, 38.36) stages of change; and impulsivity (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03, 1.43) were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking.
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Advertising research has focused exclusively on the solitary subject at the expense of understanding the role that advertising plays within the social contexts of group interaction. We develop a number of explanations for this omission before describing the results of an ethnographic study of advertising's contribution to the everyday interactions of adolescent informants at a number of English high schools. The study reveals a series of new, socially related advertising-audience behaviors. Specifically, advertising meanings are shown to possess social uses relating to textual experience, interpretation, evaluation, ritual use, and metaphor. The theoretical and managerial implications of these social uses are then discussed. Copyright 1999 by the University of Chicago.
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In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfully cope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine their product attitudes and attitudes toward the marketers themselves. We also explain how this model relates to prior research on consumer behavior and persuasion and what it suggests about the future conduct of consumer research. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
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The development of a scale for measuring consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is described. Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is hypothesized as a general trait that varies across individuals and is related to other individual traits and characteristics (McGuire 1968). The construct is defined as the need to identify with or enhance one's image in the opinion of significant others through the acquisition and use of products and brands, the willingness to conform to the expectations of others regarding purchase decisions, and/or the tendency to learn about products and services by observing others or seeking information from others. A series of studies provides evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of a two-dimensional scale.
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Relative to a sad TV program, a happy program induced: (1) a happier mood as viewers watched both program and commercials, (2) greater perceived commercial effectiveness, (3) more affectively positive cognitive responses, and (4) to some extent, better recall. A main effect for commercial type was also noted, with emotional commercials leading to generally more positive reactions than informational commercials. A significant program-by-commercial interaction was obtained for the viewer's mood during the commercial, with the program effect greater for those viewing emotional commercials than for those viewing informational commercials.