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Past, present and future of waste management in Korea

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Abstract

In the history of waste management in Korea, systematic and integrated management started in the middle of the 1980s with the establishment of the Waste Management Law. By enforcing several specialized, discrete acts under this basic law and imposing extended producer responsibility as well as a volume-based garbage rate system based on the concept of polluter payment, waste management has become more effective for both general household waste and industrial hazardous/massive waste. The management mainly involves not only a reduction in waste generation, but also appropriate treatment and maximum recycling of the waste. Recent policy trends have focused on converting wastes into resources, and these have led to the implementation of “waste to energy and resources” and a “sustainable and circulation society” in the present and future plans for waste management. A new law called “Promotion Law for Achieving a Resource Circulation Society” meant to replace the basic law and to create a platform of resource circulation, is currently under review. This law integrates all the existing laws and acts to utilize waste more efficiently as a resource, and it has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of wastes landfilled. Details of the history and background of previous waste management efforts, recent movements and current status, and future pathways for achieving a resource circulation society are introduced. This could promote the establishment of a zero waste society and also extend the life of waste landfill facilities in Korea.

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... Waste management in S. Korea has been advanced since the mid-1990s with the introduction of the volume base waste fee (VBWF) system that required households, businesses, and institutions to separate MSW into two streams (Park and Lah, 2015;Yang et al., 2015;Seo, 2013;AIEES, 2012;Park, 2009;Kim, 2008;Ahn et al., 2007;Ju, 2005;Cheong, 1995). Single stream recyclables and post-recycled/combustible wastes were placed in VBWF bags, which were purchased at supermarkets, groceries, and convenience stores. ...
... The S. Korean system provides an economic incentive for recycling rather than disposing materials in the VBWF bags, since the price of the VBWF bags increased by about US$0.15/bag since 2006, making the future development of WTE challenging (Park, 2009;Kim, 2008;Ahn et al., 2007;Cheong, 1995). There are a lot of studies associated with waste management and the legislative movements that lead to the advancements of sustainable waste management in S. Korea (Park et al., 2016;Park and Lah, 2015;Yang et al., 2015;Pariatamby and Tanaka, 2014;Seo, 2013;Son, 2012;Ryu, 2010;Park, 2009;Park, 2008;Kim, 2008;Ahn et al., 2007;Ju, 2005;Cheong, 1995). However, limited studies discuss the status and efficiency of the WTE facilities in S. Korea, and the drivers for the extensive use of WTE for district heating (Park et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2015;Ryu, 2010;Ahn et al., 2007). ...
... There are a lot of studies associated with waste management and the legislative movements that lead to the advancements of sustainable waste management in S. Korea (Park et al., 2016;Park and Lah, 2015;Yang et al., 2015;Pariatamby and Tanaka, 2014;Seo, 2013;Son, 2012;Ryu, 2010;Park, 2009;Park, 2008;Kim, 2008;Ahn et al., 2007;Ju, 2005;Cheong, 1995). However, limited studies discuss the status and efficiency of the WTE facilities in S. Korea, and the drivers for the extensive use of WTE for district heating (Park et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2015;Ryu, 2010;Ahn et al., 2007). The novelty of the work presented here, is that it presents for a first time the actual emissions of the WTE plants in S. Korea and indicates the importance of district heating recovery from WTE by evaluating the R1 performance of the operations with the use of primary data. ...
Article
This paper focuses on waste management and waste to energy (WTE) for district heating in S. Korea. The chemical formula for the materials disposed of in volume base waste fee (VBWF) bags that are processed in WTE plants was calculated as: C 6 H 9.9 O 2.3 , with a heat of formation of 27.6 MJ/kg. The average heating value for the 35 WTE plants was 9.7 MJ/kg, and the average amount of energy recovered was calculated at 1.5 MWh/ton waste processed. 22 of the 35 WTE plants comply with the limits of the R1 formula for energy recovery plants (R1 > 0.61), as introduced by the EU. It was estimated that 8% of the district heating demand is provided by WTE in S. Korea. WTE plants can contribute to about 0.6% to the total electricity demand of S. Korea and aid the efforts of the nation to phase out the dependence on fossil fuels. The average dioxin emissions of all WTE plants were 0.005 ng TEQ/Nm 3 (limit:0.1 ng TEQ/Nm 3), and most of the other pollutants examined indicated a tenfold to hundred-fold lower emissions than the national and the EU standards. S. Korea indicated an improved performance in sustainable waste management, with combined recycling/ composting and WTE rates of about 80%, as compared to the average of the EU-28 with 65%, and the US with 36.5%, even if the EU and the US had higher GDP/capita (PPP) than S. Korea.
... With persistent efforts for the last three decades, Korea's overall recycling rate for all wastes is as high as 80%, and the total generation of household waste per person is as little 1 kg/day. (Yang et al., 2015). The accomplishment of this success begins with the establishment of Environmental Protection Agency and the introduction of Environmental Protection Law in 1978 (Yang et al., 2015). ...
... (Yang et al., 2015). The accomplishment of this success begins with the establishment of Environmental Protection Agency and the introduction of Environmental Protection Law in 1978 (Yang et al., 2015). Consequently, the Waste Management Law was enacted in 1986 to integrate different waste management systems into one, and this laid the foundation of waste classification for further development. ...
... Currently, a series of amendments are made to actualize the 3Rs and waste separation for recycling. These amendments include Act on Resource Saving and Recycling Promotion (1992), Act on Waste Treatment Facilities Promotion and Support Surrounding Area (1995) and amendment of separating collection of recyclables (Yang et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose The key challenge that urban cities in most developing and transitional economies is confronting is municipal solid waste (MSW) management. Waste separation is a critical component to successful recycling management in terms of enhancing the quality of recyclables, reducing MSW and optimizing incineration. The urge to actualizing sustained waste separation behavior has been hindered by potential barriers. This study aims to examine the influences of external and internal stimuli of targeted households' waste separation intention in parts of China. Design/methodology/approach A multifactor framework predicting the process that leads to waste separation attitude and behavioral intention is proposed. SEM analysis is conducted in SmartPLS based on 371 survey questionnaires collected in Nanning city in China. Findings Policy regulation is the biggest determinant of attitude among external stimuli, while awareness of consequence has the strongest relationship with an attitude among internal stimuli. Facilitating conditions, subjective norms and moral norms are all significant predictors of attitude. As a result, increasing positive attitude leads to enhance waste separation lifestyle. Research limitations/implications This study adopts a cross-sectional design to investigate the waste separation intention of local households. Data collection is restricted to one point in time for every individual. A mixed method is recommended. Quantitative research can examine variables provided in existing literature with numerical analysis. Qualitative research might be helpful to identify other unknown factors. Also, the survey questionnaires employ a self-reported manner, and respondents might be overrating to avoid embarrassment. Practical implications Future research is recommended to engage observation at houses or at the waste-collecting points for actual waste separation behavior. Moreover, this study measures intention toward household waste separation, but whether this intention will eventually lead to waste separation behavior is not a guarantee. Future study is recommended to examine whether intention translates into actual waste separation behavior. Originality/value Emphasizing the importance of policy element as a direct influence toward attitude, this paper focuses on the waste separation attitude accumulated from external and internal stimuli, and, concurrently, waste separation behavioral intention is influenced by accumulated attitudes. The study provides relevant policy development information of three Asian countries to enhance their present and future policy directions for a sustainable household waste separation management process
... Il est en revanche difficile de résoudre les conflits d'espace, les plus déshérités habitant généralement aux seuls endroits où l'on peut installer une décharge. ([16] p. 19, [79]) En revanche la quantité de déchets alimentaires est très variable. Elle dépend beaucoup du PIB par habitant (Figure 26). ...
... ([34] pp. 105-112, [41], [51], [56], [62] p. 108, [67], [69], [79], [80], ([39], De nombreuses technologies sont expérimentées pour l'extraction et la purification des métaux contenus dans les DEEE (Tableau 16). Aucune ne résout à elle-seule tous les problèmes car les DEEE sont des objets complexes. ...
... If the quota is not complied with, a fine that the manufacturer needs to pay is greater than the fees used in implementing proper recycling for the manufacturer. In addition, a 4Rs policy, namely maximum reduction, reuse, recycling, and energy recovery, is implemented and practiced in an appropriate manner (Janga and Kim 2010;Yang et al. 2015). Although some efforts are made to recycle waste mobile phones, the recycling plant operation in Korea does not go on smoothly, because most of the waste mobile phones collected are exported or incinerated and land filled and Korea has not held satisfactory recycling technology coping with the EU standards. ...
... As a result, only 2.5% of waste mobile phones collected are recycled (Lee et al. 2007). Some integrated structural efforts, such as improving recycling industries and markets, setting a tax system on the waste land filled and creating zero landfill in Korea are their goals striving for in the future (Yang et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of waste mobile phones have already been generated and are being generated. Various countries around the world have all been positively exploring the way of recycling and reuse when facing such a large amount of waste mobile phones. In some countries, processing waste mobile phones has been forming a complete industrial chain, which can not only recycle waste mobile phones to reduce their negative influence on the environment but also turn waste into treasure to acquire economic benefits dramatically. However, the situation of recycling waste mobile phones in China is not going well. Waste mobile phones are not formally covered by existing regulations and policies for the waste electric and electronic equipment in China. In order to explore an appropriate system to recover waste mobile phones, the mobile phone production and the amount of waste mobile phones are introduced in this paper, and status of waste mobile phones recycling is described; then, the disposal technology of electronic waste that would be most likely to be used for processing of electronic waste in industrial applications in the near future is reviewed. Finally, rationalization proposals are put forward based on the current recovery status of waste mobile phones for the purpose of promoting the development of recycling waste mobile phones in developing countries with a special emphasis on China.
... Energies 2020, 13, 2081 2 of 16 48,934 tons of MSW per day [8]. Usually, this MSW carries an incredible amount of materials like plastic, paper, wood, metals, and glass which can be recycled easily and effectively by doing energy recovery [9]. ...
... A recent report from the World Bank shows that around 2.2 billion tons of MSW will be generated by the year 2025, which is almost twice the amount produced in 2010 [7]. In the case of South Korea, the total waste generation has steadily increased by about a factor of five over the last 30 years, from 77,000 tons/day to 375,000 tons/day [8]. Currently, South Korea is generating ...
Article
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Solid recovered fuel (SRF) residue, which is leftovers from the SRF manufacturing process, usually is discarded in landfill because of its low heating value and high ash and moisture content. However, it could be used as a fuel after mechanical and biological treatment. Gasification experiments were conducted on treated SRF residue (TSRFR) to assess the viability of syngas production. Efforts were also made to improve the gasification performance by adding low-cost natural minerals such as dolomite and lime as bed material, and by blending with biomass waste. In the case of additive mineral tests, dolomite showed better performance compared to lime, and in the case of biomass blends, a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR showed the best performance. Finally, as an appropriate condition, a combined experiment was conducted at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.2 using a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR as a feedstock and dolomite as the bed material. The highest dry gas yield (1.81 Nm3/kg), with the highest amount of syngas (56.72 vol%) and highest lower heating value (9.55 MJ/Nm3) was obtained in this condition. Furthermore, the highest cold gas efficiency (48.64%) and carbon conversion rate (98.87%), and the lowest residue yield (11.56%), tar (0.95 g/Nm3), and gas pollutants content was observed.
... In respect of laws and regulations, coercive pressure can influence the environmental behaviour of stakeholders concerned (Liu et al., 2010). In many circumstances, it is more probable that the level of environmental performance and effectiveness can be upgraded under coercive measures with normative environmental standards stipulated (Chen, 2016;Yang et al., 2014;Yoo, 2015). ...
... Achieving a resource-circulating society with a proven track record since 1995 was recognised as the policy outcome. In light of the endeavours of the South Korea government, the rate of waste disposed of in landfills gradually decreased (from 44.6% in 1995 to 9.6% in 2010) and the rate of waste recycling progressively increased (from 48.9% in 1995 to 82.7% in 2010 and further boosting to 86% in 2017) (Ministry of Environment, 2019;Yang et al., 2014). From the taxonomy of four policy cultures (Baark, 2001), it is demonstrated that South Korea maintains balancing development in bureaucratic, economic, academic, and civic policy cultures in the major MSW strategies formulation and related programmes implementation from 1990 (Table 3). ...
Article
From the chronological analytical review regarding municipal solid waste management (MSWM) and governance optimisation progress in Hong Kong since 2002, it is noted that the policy outcomes have seriously deviated from the original policy goals under the hitherto lack of effective development in bureaucratic and economic policy cultures in municipal solid waste (MSW) strategies formulation and related programmes implementation. The policy analysis specially stated that although the MSW recycling ratio (30%) is not particularly poor, the recovered percentage of plastics, glass and food waste in Hong Kong are extremely low. Based on the unfavourable outcomes and consequences for MSWM and governance in Hong Kong, a conclusion of negative correlation between the per capita MSW disposal rate and bureaucratic policy culture development, as well as positive correlation between recycling rate of low value items and economic policy culture development, can be made. With considering the key factors of benchmark indicators, socio-economic factors, driving force, and communication of MSW policy, conducive options and prospects are also developed for the attempt to provide insights to restructure MSWM and governance in Hong Kong in the next decade. First, the government can build up strategic innovation from a global benchmark case – MSWM and governance improvement from the South Korea case. Second, to create opportunities and conditions to develop high value biofuel from waste through flexible local environmental policies formulation and implementation. Third, shifting a front-line MSWM for governance structure reform.
... Progressively, the increasing concerns on environmental protection and circular economy have led to the advocation of compulsive front-end segregation efforts in waste management policies. For instance, some cities in European countries (Nie et al., 2018), South Korea (Yang et al., 2015), and China (Xiao et al., 2020a) instituted laws requiring residents to separate household wet waste from general waste. With waste segregation, wet waste can be recycled and treated using anaerobic fermentation and composting before being incinerated or landfilled (Nie et al., 2018). ...
Article
Due to rapid economic development and urbanisation, emerging megacities with dense populations have witnessed a significant increase in waste generation. Megacities face challenges in developing sustainable waste management systems. Considerable heterogeneity exists across megacities in management strategies. The two selected emerging megacities, Singapore (a city-state) and Shanghai, have similar developmental characteristics, but their waste management modes differ strikingly. This study assessed the two modes in terms of management strategies, environmental effects, economic costs, and social outcomes. Environmental footprint analysis and cost quantification were employed for the assessment based on public data. The research results would permit a deeper understanding of the long-term sustainability of each mode while considering the feasibility of implementation across different contexts. It was found that the waste management system in Singapore had a relatively lower environmental impact than Shanghai before Shanghai's new waste segregation and recycling policy in 2019. However, when the effect of fossil fuel substitution is taken into account, the environmental burden in Shanghai can be lowered more substantially than the one in Singapore. Although Shanghai had more economic burden for the waste segregation at source, it tended to implement the circular economy principles (e.g., reduce, reuse, and recycling) better and improve its sense of community significantly. Based on the practical experiences from the two representative megacities, suggestions for better waste management practices were provided for Singapore, Shanghai, and other emerging megacities with similar circumstances. In addition, challenges and opportunities related to household waste segregation and recycling were identified to guide future practices in emerging megacities.
... Colored materials made of PET and PVC, which are difficult to recycle, are going to be banned by the end of 2020 by Korean regulators [26] [27]. With the government and the private sector working together on environmental cooperation, this move is said to be welcomed by stakeholders and implemented through 4R practices in the near future [28]. ...
... The U.S. increases the recycling rate via providing subsidies to garbage incineration plants[17]. Korea increased its recycling rate by rewarding people who found garbage not appropriately tagged with address and name information, paying for brochures on garbage sorting and for environmental-friendly bags, and encouraging citizens to return shopping bags for money[18]. By 2010, the recycling rate of waste in Korea reached between 60 and 70%, far above the average level of developed countries[19]. ...
Article
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The rapid growth of household waste not only endangers the environment and people's health, but also limits social and economic development. The effective sorting and recycling of garbage can control this problem. Adopting a semi-quantitative case study method, our researchers investigated the effect of a bonus point system for refuse classification that improves the accuracy of refuse classification and the residents' environment awareness. In the system, residents will receive some gifts after sorting the garbage correctly. We also investigated the attitudes of residents and companies towards this novel system. Our researchers employed various methods to analyze garbage-sorting data, questionnaires completed by residents, and interview records. The results show that use of a bonus point system affects the management of domestic waste by improving the accuracy and enhancing the awareness of garbage sorting. Overall, residents support the system and benefit from it, which increases participation and consciousness of environmental protection. However, continuous publicity and coordination of various policies are required to promote the wide-range implementation and sustainable development of this system.
... Likewise, waste management is one of a traditional technology and a primary challenge in developing countries, as exemplified by the cases of Korea, India, and China, which are the fastest growing economies in view of the development of energy-intensive industries over the past several decades [4]. Diverse system and policy such as extended producer responsibility, volume-based waste fee and 3R (Reduce, reuse and recycle) have been implemented to mitigate the problems of waste generation and resource consumption accompanying economy growth [5,6]. However, the total amount of generated waste is still on the rise, in line with the increase of GDP, and a considerable fraction of this waste still ends up in landfills [7]. ...
Article
Herein, we have prepared a series of Cr-free Fe-Al-Cu catalysts by the homogeneous one-step co-precipitation method and examined their ability to promote the water gas shift (WGS) reaction and thus facilitate the production of hydrogen from waste-derived synthesis gas. The prepared catalysts are confirmed to possess γ-Fe2O3, which can be more easily transformed into Fe3O4 than α-Fe2O3. The surface area, Fe3O4 crystallite size, reducibility, and Cu dispersion of these catalysts significantly depend on the concentrations of metal precursor. The catalysts effectively promote the WGS reaction without facilitating undesirable side reactions, achieving efficient hydrogen production and high CO conversion. The characteristics of the best-performing sample are preserved when the production is scaled up by a factor of 40 and thus obtained large-scale Fe-Al-Cu catalyst exhibits excellent reducibility and high CO conversion. Both commercial Fe-Cr and large-scale Fe-Al-Cu catalysts achieve close-to-equilibrium CO conversions at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 3000 mL g−1 h−1, but the latter showed a higher conversion than the former at a GHSV of 40,057 mL g−1 h−1 owing to the promotional effect of Cu on the easier reducibility of Fe species and the formation of additional Cu active sites. Thus, we demonstrate the possibility of finding Cr-free alternatives and show that the reducibility, Fe3O4 crystallite size, and Cu dispersion of the best-performing catalyst could be maintained upon upscaling, which made this catalyst well suited for converting waste-derived synthesis gas into H2.
... Later followed by Singapore and Hong Kong, Korea early employed regulatory instruments to influence and modify households' and firms' behaviours towards sustainable usages. By enforcing several waste-related acts imposing a volume-based garbage rate system built on the concept of polluter payment, waste management has become more effective for both municipal and industrial waste (Yang et al., 2015). Third, in parallel to the adoption of public acts, the Korean government has strongly fostered national research in waste management-related technologies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to assess the causal relationship among innovation in environment-related technologies, per capita income, and three major waste disposal operations (landfill, recycling, and incineration) for Korea. A time-series analysis over the frequency domain (Breitung–Candelon Spectral Granger causality) is applied, followed by Artificial Neural Networks experiments over the 1985–2016 period. Empirical results highlight that economic growth is tightly linked both to the growth of recycled waste and to the increase of environment-related innovations. Findings also highlight that waste recycling operations can spur the level of economic activity.
... Energy generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) could be a promising option for Korea. Korea is currently generating 48,934 tons of MSW per day, which has increased by 5 times during the last 30 years [3]. MSW can be converted into an energy resource through various treatments. ...
Article
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Gaining energy independence by utilizing new and renewable energy resources has become imperative for Korea. Energy recovery from Korean municipal solid waste (MSW) could be a promising option to resolve the issue, as Korean MSW is highly recyclable due to its systematic separation, collection and volume-based waste disposal system. In this study, gasification experiments were conducted on Korean municipal waste-derived solid fuel (SRF) using a fixed bed reactor by varying the equivalence ratio (ER) to assess the viability of syngas production. Experiments were also conducted on coal and biomass under similar conditions to compare the experimental results, as the gasification applicability of coal and biomass are long-established. Experimental results showed that Korean SRF could be used to recover energy in form of syngas. In particular, 50.94% cold gas efficiency and 54.66% carbon conversion ratio with a lower heating value of 12.57 MJ/Nm 3 can be achieved by gasifying the SRF at 0.4 ER and 900 • C. However, compared to coal and biomass, the syngas efficiency of Korean SRF was less, which can be resolved by operating the gasification processes at high temperatures. If proper research and development activities are conducted on Korean SRF, it could be a good substitute for fossil fuels in the future.
... And various laws and acts have been enacted in waste management ascribed by such issues in history, since the waste management under legislation started from 1960s. And the biggest changes in management of waste are depending on the waste classification and application of effective systems in waste management [1]. Figure 1 was shown to the waste generation for last 30 years. ...
Conference Paper
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After the enforcement of Waste Management Law in Korea from 1987, a systematic waste management has been made. Since then major effective policies and strategies by the government were utilized to promote reduction and recycling of waste and to implement appropriate technologies for disposing waste in safe and permanent methods. In recent the waste becomes not a waste being disposed of but resources having values, so management policy is focusing on ‘waste to energy’ as one of renewable energy resources and the establishment of ‘sustainable and recirculating society’. By such practices for last 30 years in South Korea, the recycling rate has increased from under 10 % to 80 %, and the share of landfilling became less than 10 % in overall waste streams. Using the WARM code developed by US EPA, the greenhouse gas emissions by different practices of waste treatment were estimated for 30 years. Due to a significant increase of recycling rate, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission was achieved around 110,000 tons of CO2, from around 25,500 tons of generation to 85,000 tons of credit. The paper will present such changes in different waste streams by effective waste management efforts for last 30 years.
... In Korea, through the Resource Saving and Recycling Promotion Act 1992, households are required to comply with volume-based garbage rate system requirements. Using the concept of polluter pays, this system urges each household to buy designated garbage bags at a supermarket, and waste can only be discharged using the prepaid bags [74]. The successful implementation of this act motivated the expansion of legislation to cover industrial waste, including C&D waste and to make companies fully accountable for all the waste they produced [75]. ...
Article
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With the COVID-19 outbreak across the world, policymakers and authorities have realised that they cannot solve the emerging issues using conventional policies and practices. COVID-19 has severely affected many industries, including construction and demolition (C&D) waste management and C&D waste resource recovery sector. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and schemes alike are policy instruments that prevent waste generation and promote a circular economy in the construction industry. These schemes are long adopted in various countries for different waste streams. EPR policy development and implementation, particularly for C&D waste, is still at an early stage in Australia. This study aims to review the Australian regulatory environment and practice to identify barriers and enablers towards successful policy development and implementation of C&D waste-related EPR. This study is based on secondary data that are publicly available. The document analysis was conducted to identify the level of regulatory and other stakeholders support in Australia. Following three rounds of examination of sources and applying multiple selection criteria, 59 different sources were reviewed in total. The results showed that there is widespread support among different stakeholders to develop EPR and expand the existing regulation to other materials. The barriers were cost and time implications for EPR policy establishment and enforcement , diversity of stakeholders involved, construction product lifecycle, responsibility of manufacturers , complexity in implantation of EPR regulations, modification inbuilt facilities and health and safety issues. Recommendations are made to alleviate these challenges. The outcome of this study could serve as a guideline for designing effective EPR policies.
... 12 Möllers & Dewalt (2016); Krige (2019); Boudia & Jas (2016). 13 Barsalou & Picard (2018); Yang, Park, Park, & Seo (2015); Hecht (2020). See also the Discard Studies online hub (https://discardstudies.com). ...
Article
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This special issue stresses the importance of material culture in diplomatic studies of science and technology. In our studies, objects are considered powerful tokens of complexity in diplomatic encounters and of asymmetry in international relations. The contributors are committed to theorizing about the role of objects in diplomatic exchanges during the postwar period and, at the same time, the role of diplomacy in constituting the materiality of nuclear things. Our approach combines attention to the political and diplomatic nuclear history with recognition of the roles played by nuclear artifacts throughout the whole spectrum of diplomatic activities. On the whole, we argue that the material approach should be located at the center of the study of nuclear history and the diplomatic exchanges that made it possible.
... ZW was generally accepted as an integrated circular system that requires an industrial transformation. Relevant researches concentrated on (1) the formation of ZW society (Snyman and Vorster 2011); (2) the evaluation of ZW performance (Zaman 2014a); (3) the case study of ZW regional practices (Cole et al. 2014); (4) the promotion of ZW policies (Yang et al. 2014); (5) the development of ZW laws and regulations (Zaman 2014b). ...
Article
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Solid waste generation has been significantly accelerated by the rapid growth of economy and population worldwide. The traditional waste management focusing on waste utilization and disposal is unable to unravel the continuous depletion of finite natural resources. “Zero waste” as an integrated waste management method to promote waste reduction through a pack of strategies such as cleaner production and green consumption has emerged. Here, we systematically reviewed the researches on zero waste from a scientometric perspective, and visually unveiled the most productive countries, evolution process, main authors, major research areas, and documents of zero waste research domain. The results show that with increased publications, zero waste has become a multidisciplinary study area and food waste reduction is the biggest sub-network in zero waste research. The current research frontiers are mainly regarding “lean production,” “consumer behavior,” “productivity.” Accordingly, this study proposed a pathway for realizing zero waste cities with three lanes: (1) research and development, (2) management method, and (3) policy and implementation. The findings are also expected to be beneficial to latecomer researches in the waste management field.
... As Korean society achieved rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in the 1970s, waste became a social issue, but there was no proper waste management system. With the Waste Control Act in 1986, the waste management policies have been enacted and revised based on economic development and social changes (Yang et al. 2015). Figure 1 represents the flow of policies on waste management from the 1980s to the present. ...
Article
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Construction and demolition waste generated in the Republic of Korea accounts for about half of the annual waste. The generation of construction waste is expected to increase gradually due to obsolete structures and reconstructions that have reached the end of their service life. Considering the geographical characteristics of Korea, where the land area is small and about 70% of which is mountainous, landfilling of waste is absolutely limited. Therefore, resource circulation such as recycling of construction waste is an urgent and important task. This paper overviews the current status of construction waste generation, treatment, and the flow of government policies in Korea. Furthermore, the current status, limitations, and stakeholder efforts regarding recycling of recycled aggregate from construction waste were reviewed. Data used in this paper were mostly collected from government reports, construction waste regulations, and research papers. The results show that construction waste management systems have been enacted and revised in line with social needs, and each stakeholder is making an effort to use the construction waste practically. The findings can provide valuable examples for countries that lack construction waste management systems. Graphic abstract
... Like Japan, South Korea traditionally struggled with waste and shortage of landfills (Yang et al., 2015). The government has been taking numerous steps to solve these issues to adopt sustainable waste management and resource circulation methods (UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), 2017). ...
Article
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The global population is increasing, as is the demand for basic materials. At the same time, key resources are in short supply, and the extraction and use of raw materials have major environmental implications, for instance, increased CO2 emission. In a Circular Economy (CE), resources and products are divided, leased, reused, repaired, refurbished, and recycled, extending product life cycles, reducing waste, and generating additional value. Government entities in Japan and South Korea are designing and implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a CE and achieve carbon neutrality. The paper compares Japanese policies and actions with those of South Korea, identifies challenges and options for improvements in each country, and lessons that they can share. The paper reviews CE and low carbon policies in the two countries and compares how those, but also public interest and initiatives differ between them. It provides recommendations to address observed shortcomings and capture opportunities to connect CE and zero-carbon strategies. The article is expected to interest Japanese and South Korean policy-makers, companies, and academics.
... Like other countries, South Korea has experienced increasing industrial waste issues due to unprecedented rapid industrialisation, urbanisation, and economic growth. To address the waste problems, waste-related laws and regulations have been evolved timely focusing on safe treatment in the 1980s, prevention and recycling from the 1990s to the early 2000s, and resource circulation after the mid-2000s as shown in Figure 1 (MOE, 2020;Yang et al., 2015). Since the mid-2000s, policies related to resource circulation have been implemented to achieve 'Zero Waste' through waste circulation and minimising waste generation. ...
Article
The industrial hazardous waste (IHW) generation to meet consumption is steadily increasing, resulting in environmental, health, and social problems around the world. To address IHW at the source, it is critical to understand the generation characteristics and key drivers on industrial hazardous waste generation (IHWG). This study analysed the generation characteristics of IHW of South Korea from 2008 to 2018 by decoupling and index decomposition analysis using Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model. South Korea presented unstable decoupling of IHWG from economic growth, so more effective waste management regulations are needed to support a stable decoupling. One most critical finding was that the factors of industrial output and industrial characteristic of IHWG-to-energy were major driving factors influencing the increase of IHWG, whereas those of industrial structure and energy efficiency affect to the decrease of IHWG in most industries. In addition, the result clearly confirmed that the contribution of driving factors affecting the IHWG differs by industry. These results provide significant policy insights that the South Korean government needs institutional improvement and refinement of customised IHW management according to the characteristics of IHWG.
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O descarte inadequado de resíduos da construção civil (RCC) em locais públicos tem provocado diversos problemas de saneamento ambiental nos municípios brasileiros, principalmente naqueles onde a população urbana é mais concentrada. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho é investigar os principais locais de descarte de RCC espalhados pela área urbana do município de Campina Grande, Paraíba, por meio do Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG). O procedimento metodológico utilizado teve como base o software Google Earth Pro, que fornece a série temporal de imagens da região. As informações compreendem o período entre maio de 2018 e maio de 2019. Nesse período, foram identificados e comprovados 45 locais de descarte inadequado de RCC. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, constata-se que o descarte inadequado de RCC produz um passivo ambiental no tocante a água, solo e ar, bem como abriga vetores de doença, além de atrair o descarte de resíduo sólido urbano (RSU) para o local. Palavras-chave: Resíduo da Construção Civil. Sistema de Informação Geográfica. Descarte inadequado. Saneamento Ambiental. Passivo ambiental.
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Korea is moving toward a sustainable resource-circulating society to fight climate change and resource scarcity. To achieve this goal, the Framework Act on Resource Circulation (FRC) was enacted on May 29, 2016 and came into effect on January 1, 2018. This act not only acknowledges the importance of resource efficiency and the transition to a resource-circulating society, but also plays a significant role in the progress of important and relevant market and industry developments. This study primarily focuses on an analysis of the FRC. It aims to evaluate key concepts such as a resource-circulating society, circular resources, important provisions including major principles and allocation of responsibilities, and measures to be taken to promote resource circulation. In addition, it explores whether the FRC is sufficiently comprehensive and ambitious to contribute to the transition to a more resource-circulating society.
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Solid waste management (SWM) has always been an integral feature of every human society and has become a growing global concern as urban populations continue to grow as well as consumption patterns change. The health and environmental consequences of SWM are becoming increasingly urgent, particularly in developing countries. In this sense, sustainable and integrated solid waste management emerges as a solution to the growing global challenges of disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW). SWM is a cross-cutting issue that can be directly or indirectly linked to the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because it is an essential utility service. The three dimensions (or pillars) of sustainability are the environment, the economy, and society. Sustainable solid waste management (SWM) is a multifaceted issue with political, socioeconomic, institutional, and environmental components. It has become one of the most significant issues confronting urban spaces in developing countries as a result of exponential urban growth. Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) aims to optimize the management of solid waste from all waste-generating sectors, collection, transportation, and disposal while involving all stakeholders (waste generators, service providers, regulators, government, and community/neighborhoods).
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Concrete production and construction and demolition waste generation are some of the main contributors of constant carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. The main aim of this review is to present the status of construction and demolition waste generation around the world and subsequently provide a critical review of the recent studies conducted to improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete through different supplementary materials. Information from 40 countries within six continents have been collated, critically analysed with the central focus being on the current construction and demolition waste generation and different policies adopted by the relevant government bodies. The future goals and targets of each country are briefly discussed. The overall construction and demolition waste generation in 40 countries worldwide reached more than 3.0 billion tonnes annually until 2012 and this trend is increasing constantly. The developing countries including India and China need to develop comprehensive system to monitor and utilize their huge C&D waste and government level initiative is required for mass awareness. Recycled aggregates obtained through construction and demolition waste are of inferior quality and use of different pozzolanic materials are recommended by several researchers to enhance its properties. Furthermore, it was also suggested to use the recycled aggregates from 30 to 50% to achieve the strength equivalent to natural aggregate concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. More research is imperative in the area of unconventional supplementary materials in recycled aggregate concrete and full structural analysis on long term scale. The uncertainty of its quality and absence of proper standards hinder its way of common adoption in real-world applications. Therefore, further research is necessary to endorse this waste in the construction industry and develop proper standards for its use in low-risk structural applications.
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Waste management implies such an organization of an enterprise economic activity in which, at the lowest possible level of environmental pollution, an organization creates the prerequisites for efficient utilization, reuse and imparting additional useful properties to waste in order to obtain an additional economic effect. In the Samara region, significant financial resources are spent annually on waste disposal activities, which could be used to increase production efficiency in industry and agriculture. Only current costs of environmental protection from 2011 to 2016 increased from 7.3 to 10.3 billion rubles or by 41.0%. In addition to this, investments in fixed assets related to environmental protection amounted to 2.3 billion rubles in 2011, up to 5.9 billion rubles - in 2014. Among the various types of pollution, solid waste ranks second (about 30%). In the brewing industry, the main type of waste is brewery mash, formed from grain residues. To properly dispose of it, a large area for storing waste is required, and the possibility of use in the future as an organic fertilizer. All this requires significant capital and disposal costs. At the same time, the brewer can be used as a high-quality feed. The article proposes a waste management system that provides for the interaction of the beer industry enterprises with pig-breeding complexes. Activities include the use of brewery mash as a valuable feed for the replacement of concentrated feed. As a replacement result, daily gains increase by 5-7%.
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The law and institutional structure provide the basis for formulating a policy framework aimed at improving the future practice for solid waste management (SWM). SWM has recently become a worldwide concern for metropolitan environments, which could have a negative impact on the economy. The authors have reviewed many regulations, which applied in many countries like the US, Europe, Korea, and Japan. Related international standards and principles have also been reviewed at the federal, state, and local levels. This chapter covers the legislations based on the countries mentioned and also includes Malaysian legislations such as the Federal Constitution of 1957, the Act for Local government (Act 171) 1976, the Town and Country Planning Act (Act 127) 1976, the Act for the Environmental Quality (Act 127) 1974, the Act for Street, Drainage and Building Act (Act 133) 1974, and the Act for Solid Waste and Public Cleansing 2007. An overview of SWM implementation in Malaysia and the rest of the world will be given through this subject. The most recent (updated to 2020) US Federal Acts affecting solid and hazardous waste management are also covered in detail: the Solid Waste Disposal Act (1965), Resource Recovery Act (1970), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980), the Solid Waste Disposal Act Amendments (1980), the Used Oil Recycling Act (1980), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984); and some acts’ recent amendments up to 2020.
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The aim of this research was to explore the composition, contribution and arrangement of scientific disciplines, across the spectrum from, traditional waste management, to alternative, contemporary approaches, such as the zero waste and circular economy movements. The purpose of this research is to better address the challenge of waste by enhancing the understanding and future employment of interdisciplinary theory and practice. The first outcome of the review strategy employed in this research was to, illustrate a generic rubric of scientific disciplines and to highlight and discuss key disciplines most obviously connected to waste management. This graphic illustration was then overlain with the findings from systematically reviewing a diverse range of indicators and sources of insight and information on the disciplines and interdisciplinarity evident across the spectrum from waste to zero waste management approaches. The resulting final graphic illustrates the intense disciplinarity and hence, the significant interdisciplinary requirement of (zero) waste management. An observation emerging from this research is that, successfully managing the globalised complexity of waste issues and in this, addressing the challenges of climate change and sustainable development, requires cultivating synergy between multiple scientific and practical disciplines. The scope of this challenge increases with the adoption of more holistic, aspirational, countercultural approaches, such as zero waste. It is argued that, enhancing interdisciplinary training and collaboration in research, education and industry/community practice, will improve performance across the spectrum of worldviews, from waste to zero waste.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global emergency crisis and created waste management challenges worldwide. Such a critical point has changed solid waste (municipal and medical) management prospects and posed fact challenges to the health decision-makers and policy-makers to make decisions to ensure sustainable management of the environment. One of the most negative prospects of COVID-19 pandemic is the increased waste generation, especially plastic waste in developing and developed countries. This study systematically reviews the potential influences of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical and municipal waste, and discusses the corresponding measures and policies of solid waste management in several countries. The results show that the highest and lowest quality of final disposal is observed in Finland with 75% recycling and in India with 90% open dumping, respectively. In many countries, the medical waste showed an increase by 350–500%.The pandemic has brought particular problems to the disposal capacity of municipal waste and medical waste across the world. We think that this point of view study provides valuable data for scientists, policy makers, health decision-makers, consultants, medical staff, medical supplies, those working in public health sector, and field engineers responsible for solid waste management.
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An 8 ton/day solid refuse fuel gasification process with air oxidant was operated under various conditions to generate electricity. Solid refuse fuels with fluff type feedstock were fabricated from municipal solid wastes. The tested experimental conditions included feedstock charging rate into the gasifier, equivalence ratio, and oxygen enrichment; varying these conditions resulted in different gasification characteristics, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion ratio. Optimum conditions were a charging rate of 50 to 60% by volume (504.71 to 605.65 kg/Sm²) of feedstock in the gasifier, equivalence ratio of 0.21 to 0.33, and no oxygen enrichment. Average cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion ratio were 71.30% and 72.07%, respectively, at optimum conditions. Pollutants such as dust, tar, and gases, were analyzed at the outlet of the cleaning facility and gasifier, and their low concentrations in the producer gas were sufficient to allow for operation of the gas engine. The gasification process exhibited stable operation over 288 h, which included the facility check period. The average gasifier temperature was 825 °C, 17.14% by volume of producer gas was syngas, and gas engine power generation was 235 kWh during this period; power consumption of the entire system was 68 kWh. These results demonstrate that the gasification process for converting solid waste to energy can be operated at a commercial scale.
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Growing concerns about the circular economy and sustainable waste management for civil applications of non-hazardous mineral industrial waste have increased in recent years. Therefore, this study presents a trend analysis of industrial waste generation and treatment during the years of 2010–2020, and focused on promotion policies and regulatory measures for mandatory renewable resources from industrial sources in Taiwan, including reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material, water-quenched blast furnace slag, and ilmenite chlorination furnace slag. According to the official database of the online reported statistics during the period of 2010–2020, approximately three million metric tons per year of renewable resources were totally reused in civil engineering or related cement products, reflecting a balanced supply chain in the domestic market. Among these, water-quenched blast furnace slag accounted for about 90% (about 2.7 million metric tons) in Taiwan. Currently, the legislative framework of sustainable waste management in Taiwan is based on the Waste Management Act and the Resource Recycling Act, but there are some problems with them. In order to effectively reduce environmental loadings and conserve natural resources to mitigate climate change, some recommendations are addressed from different points of view.
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Since 2008, South Korea has operated the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system, which collects and recycles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Although the EPR recycled 305,050 tons of WEEE in 2017, approximately 62.5% remained in the informal sector, posing potential risks to the environment. This study is intended to provide information on consumer behavior regarding the discharge of WEEE and to analyze the causality between consumer beliefs and behavior, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model to establish strategies for maximizing the flow of WEEE through the formal sector. In accordance with the methodology, questionnaire data were collected from 2,000 respondents, who were selected through a stratified procedure, using computer-assisted telephone interviews to investigate their behavior related to the discharge of WEEE. According to the results, about 31.50% of the respondents had disposed of WEEE in 2017, and the most frequently discarded item was a refrigerator (35.08%). Local authorities (38.95%) and take back (37.30%) were the preferred means of discarding large- and mid-sized appliances. According to the TPB analysis, norm and control beliefs for discarding WEEE through the formal sector significantly affected behavioral intention (p≤0.001). Furthermore, controlbeliefs directly affected actual discharge behavior (B = 1.351, p≤0.001)and actual discharge routes (B = 0.846, p≤0.05). These results indicate that the TPB can provide political strategies for discarding WEEE through the formal sector based on the causality between consumer beliefs and actual consumer behavior.
Municipal solid waste management in Asia and the Pacific Islands
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