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Rapport établi, sens construit, signification donnée (Sens et signification dans la recherche en formation et en sciences sociales)

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... Ricoeur lo ha llamado semántica de la acción 5 dando cuenta precisamente de la relación entre el lenguaje cotidiano y la acción humana. Está claro que ese sentido es siempre una construcción perso nal (Barbier, 2000) que articula necesariamente un tiempo pasado, su propio presente y diversas dimensiones de futuro (lo que haré en la próxima clase, qué propondré a los estudiantes el día de las pruebas, lo que imagino que compren derán/aprenderán/valorarán los estudiantes, lo que ya mismo me estoy dando cuenta de que tengo que cambiar o que por el contrario, me encanta). ...
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Este artículo propone presentar los modos en los cuales la práctica de la enseñanza de la historia es teorizada, desde fuera (por académicos fundamentalmente) y desde dentro (por los propios profesores). Cada una de estas formas de teorización apela a fundamentos distintos, así como evidencia fines diferentes para abocarse a ella. Me interesará la confrontación entre estos dos modos de teorización, en tanto ambos articulan de diferentes maneras la práctica (de la investigación o de la enseñanza) y la teoría (la de la práctica – de la investigación o de la enseñanza – o la relativa a distintos registros de lo real), lo cual implicará algunas reflexiones en torno los usos de algunos términos claves para el acercamiento a esta temática. La tesis del artículo apunta no a forzar la contradicción entre la teorización académica y la práctica sino por el contrario a sugerir un modo de pensar su complementariedad.
... Individual, social and professional identity (identities?) are finally the mother and father of action and thought about it, by means of 'sense construction' (Barbier's sens construit) and 'significance offer' (his offre de signification) (Barbier, 2000), concerning both with the individual and his/her teaching action. 2. Building some narrative groundwork about teaching practice . ...
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This paper deals with narrative as a main tool for understanding and researching teaching practice in a practical research mode. It is assumed that 'understanding practice' refers to teacher development as a real and broader background for teaching practice and therefore for teaching practical research. However, it is also assumed that 'reflective practice' is closely and uniquely linked to practical research (and so to practical problem awareness), being reflection the very principal methodological tool for teacher-researchers. Narrative is then introduced in this paper as a privileged way for a deep understanding of teaching practice because it turns teaching action intelligible. If we accept that teaching practice has a double-epistemological framework, the theoretical/mimetical saying (i.e. narratives) about anything related to teaching practice refers both to the practice epistemology and to the epistemology of the subject knowledge. Furthermore, the three-timed nature of teaching practice is approached as supporting different narrative deployments, meaning themselves better understanding for doing and for thinking in teaching practice and improvement. 1. Understanding, reflecting about and researching into teaching practice. Because educational circles had assumed for a long time that teachers do not think, and that the realm of thinking and understanding practice was only for experts and not teacher's business, then when someone dared to say that teachers think, educational sciences were shocked (most policymakers are still trying to be convinced about). The challenge is then, not to argue about teachers' own thinking, but to turn this fact into the improvement of teaching practice and not into a domain for outside experts. We are aware that this is a real risk. Just now, and for the last ten or fifteen years, ambiguity has characterised many educative speeches, where broadly employed polysemic terms impede better understandings of teaching practice. This paper intends to be a strictly semantic viewpoint concerned with principal key concepts in this matter.
... They reconstruct the thread of their own story, with the interviewer's help, regarding what makes meaning for them, without being focused on a particular facet of their own identity, i.e. gender. According to the semantic distinction proposed by Barbier (2000), their discourse is focused on the meaning for themselves ('sens' in French) more than on the meaning for other people ('signification' in French). Another study also underlines differences in results when informants have been questioned through either questionnaires or deep interview surveys (Aigner and Rohrmann 2012). ...
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This paper presents a study conducted in Federation Wallonia-Brussels to identify factors that motivate men to enrol in training programmes and work in a field where women are in majority, in a context in which few proactive measures are taken to overcome gender stereotypes. ‘Comprehensive interviews’ (Kaufmann 2007) conducted with male childcare ‘informants’ who had been working with children under the age of three for at least a year in subsidised childcare centres helped us to identify factors which seemed to influence their decision to enrol in and continue an initial training programme with a curriculum that is not gender-neutral, and then work in a profession that is almost exclusively female.
... Ce processus peut être décrit comme une pensée en continuelle transformation par le biais de la médiation du langage : langage d'autrui (les significations offertes) redit, repris, délibéré, mis à distance, reformulé, devenu sien. De l'offre de significations, on passe à la transformation par les apprenants, du sens proposé, à l'émergence d'un nouveau sens valable pour l'étudiant (Barbier, 2000). ...
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Résumé Le dispositif présenté, dans cet article, vise le développement de la capacité des futurs enseignants à produire des discours en « je », dans lesquels ils énoncent des savoirs professionnels issus des interactions avec leurs pairs et leurs formateurs. L’analyse qualitative des réflexions contenues dans les portfolios de 18 étudiants, accueillis en formation initiale, s’appuie sur une grille d’identification des indices de réflexivité. Les analyses de cas permettent aussi de comprendre les rapports entre les processus de l’énonciation personnelle et les dispositifs de formation initiale. Elles font apparaître la cohérence entre les préoccupations personnelles des étudiants et les apports externes venant des formateurs. Elles illustrent enfin les processus de transformation interne qui structurent et régulent l’action de ces étudiants.
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1. Une question vive 2. Une réponse située 3. Des contours-s d'objets donnés par les acteurs 4. Conditions épistémologiques 5. Conditions théoriques 6. Implications méthodologiques 7. Implications sociales 8. Un modèle d'action pour la recherche et un enjeu social
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Les relations entre formation et évaluation; perspectives de recherches. Mesure et évaluation en éducation, vol. 29 n°1, pp. MOTS CLÉS: Mesure, systémie, activité, situation, conceptions Faisant le bilan du colloque de l'ADMEE de 2000, il semble que les relations entre formation et évaluation sont distribuées par les chercheurs et les praticiens de l'évaluation en trois conceptualisations: le retour de la mesure, l'évaluation comme «aide» au formé, l'évaluation comme pratique signifiante située. Ces trois perspectives de recherches sont utiles et méritent attention. Elles débouchent sur la question de plus en plus urgente d'une formation des enseignants et des formateurs à une culture en évaluation comme lieu de productions de modèles divers et tous disponibles.
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