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A new species (Orobanche loscosii), a prioritary name for O. icterica (O. leptantha) and a new member of the Spanish flora (O. elatior).

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  • Grupo botánico cantábrico (GBC), Liérganes, Spain

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In the light of recent research that has synonymized the parasites of Echinops described from France and Serbia to Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz (a dis-tinct southeastern European species, mainly parasitic on Centaurea and often con-founded with O. elatior Sutton), we reassess the taxonomic status of the Echinops para-site from the Ebro basin and conclude that it must be described as a new species. By the way, we demonstrate that O. leptantha Pomel is a prioritary name for the species for which Pau coined the binomen O. icterica, a vicariant of O. elatior widespread in Spain, and we confirm the existence of the true O. elatior in Spain
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Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN 1138/5952
89
A NEW SPECIES (OROBANCHE LOSCOSII), A PRIORITARY
NAME FOR O. ICTERICA (O. LEPTANTHA) AND A NEW
MEMBER OF THE SPANISH FLORA (O. ELATIOR)
Luis CARLÓN*, Manuel LAÍNZ**, Gonzalo MORENO MORAL*** & Óscar
SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA****
* Jardín Botánico Atlántico. Avenida del Jardín Botánico, 2230. E-33394 Cabueñes,
Gijón (Asturias) Spain. e-mail: lcarlon@hotmail.com
** Avda. Hnos. Felgueroso, 25. E-33205 Gijón (Asturias) Spain. e-mail:
lainz@colegioinmaculada.es
*** Santa Clara, 9-1º dcha. E-39001 Santander (Cantabria) Spain.
**** E-39722 Liérganes (Cantabria) Spain. e-mail: c.sanchez.001@recol.es
SUMMARY: In the light of recent research that has synonymized the parasites of
Echinops described from France and Serbia to Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz (a dis-
tinct southeastern European species, mainly parasitic on Centaurea and often con-
founded with O. elatior Sutton), we reassess the taxonomic status of the Echinops para-
site from the Ebro basin and conclude that it must be described as a new species. By the
way, we demonstrate that O. leptantha Pomel is a prioritary name for the species for
which Pau coined the binomen O. icterica, a vicariant of O. elatior widespread in
Spain, and we confirm the existence of the true O. elatior in Spain. Key words: Oro-
banche, Echinops, Centaurea, taxonomy, new species, prioritary name, Ebro basin, Ibe-
rian Peninsula, northern Africa.
RESUMEN: A la luz de recientes investigaciones que han sinonimizado a Oroban-
che kochii F.W. Schultz (una bien caracterizada especie de la mitad sureste europea
principalmente parásita de Centaurea y frecuentemente confundida con O. elatior Sut-
ton) las plantas parásitas de Echinops que se habían descrito de Francia y Serbia, recon-
sideramos el status taxonómico de la parásita de Echinops del valle del Ebro y con-
cluimos que es preciso describirla como especie nueva. De paso, probamos que O. lep-
tantha Pomel es un nombre prioritario para la especie para la que Pau acuñó el binomen
O. icterica, vicariante de O. elatior muy extendida en España, y confirmamos la exis-
tencia de la propia O. elatior en España. Palabras clave: Orobanche, Echinops, Cen-
taurea, taxonomía, especie nueva, nombre prioritario, depresión del Ebro, Península
Ibérica, norte de África.
A recent and documented paper by
ZÁZVORKA (2010) soundly establishes
the existence in Central Europe of two
Centaurea parasites within Orobanche s.
str. The plant described as Orobanche
kochii by F. W. Schultz is there proven to
be the same we found in southern France
and whose singularity we had already
recognised by labelling it as “elatior s.l.”
in a phylogenetic survey that supports the
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specific rank that Zázvorka’s morpholo-
gical approach warrants for the by him
vindicated taxon (CARLÓN & al., 2008:
13, 15).
In the same paper, Zázvorka considers
that the names so far coined for Echinops
parasites (Orobanche ritro Grenier [from
France] and O. echinopis Pančić [from
Serbia]) are synonyms of kochii, whilst
the Spanish Echinops ritro parasite we
have dealed with (CARLÓN & al., 2003:
31-32, 40) is far from being an elatior
relative but rather belongs in the grex
Minores. This subset of statements makes
us almost duty bound to reassess the
status of the Spanish Echinops parasite.
By the way, several amendments and
additions to the diagnosis, synonymy and
chorology of kochii will be provided, a
prioritary name for the most widespread
member of the elatior group in Spain
restored and the occurrence in Spain of
the true O. elatior confirmed.
Like LOSCOS (1878-1880: 125) and
WILLKOMM (1893: 188), when we first
encountered an Echinops parasite in the
Ebro basin we supposed it to be referable
to the aforementioned O. ritro. In order to
verify this suspicion, up to three attempts
to study in vivo and photograph Grenier’s
plant in its locus classicus (“environs de
Gap, en allant à Rabou et à la Grangette”)
were made, any of them being successful.
However, the study of dried specimens
and photos of Echinops parasites taken in
several more or less nearby French lo-
calities (let’s express our gratitude to
Henri Michaud, Yves Morvant and
Daniel Pavon) allows us to agree with
Zázvorka when he considers the alluded
ritro to be different from the Spanish
plant and actually a mere synonym of
kochii, both plants sharing unique dor-
sally straight flowers, with a flattened
adaxial surface and with big, divergent,
spathulate, concave lower-lip lobes and
patent, wide upper-lip lobes. But as the
French Echinops parasite is usually bright
yellow, a feature that ZÁZVORKA (2010:
81-82) explicitly excludes from kochii,
this synonymization appears somewhat
contradictory. Yellowish plants with the
morphology of kochii can actually be
seen throughout the area of the species,
so we consider that it would be better to
reduce the diagnostic value of the color of
the plants (particularly superfluous when
so clearly different species are concer-
ned), adding in exchange to the list of
diagnostic features those morphological
details of the corolla that we have just
mentioned. In France, from where also
the plant parasitic on Centaurea was
described from the vicinity of Fréjus
(Dép. Var) under the infraspecific name
Orobanche elatior var. forojuliensis Coss.,
Notes Pl. Crit.: 8 (1849), O. kochii is
found not only in Hautes-Alpes but in se-
veral other southeastern French depart-
ments and is often parasitic on Centaurea
aspera, which should thus be incorpo-
rated to the list of hosts provided by ZÁ-
ZVORKA (2010: 83). Likewise, the des-
cription and the very clear drawing of
Orobanche elatior var. tommassinii Rchb.
fil., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 118 [t. 216,
f. I, 2-4] (1862), described from the islet
of Pergarsnik [Pregaznik], near the island
of Zeča (Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Croatia),
don’t cast any doubts about its taxonomic
identity with O. kochii, a species already
known from Croatia (ZÁZVORKA, 2010:
116).
Our discrepancies with Zázvorka arise
only when he not only categorically de-
nies that the Spanish plant may be con-
sidered akin to the other European Echi-
nops parasites but considers it a genuine
member of the Minores. Three of his five
morphological arguments can be refuted:
a) the flowers are particularly short in the
population of the road to Fuendetodos,
but in other colonies lengths above 20
mm are usual and we have measured flo-
wers of up to 24 mm; b) the corolla of the
Spanish plants are rather variable in co-
L. CARLÓN, M. LAÍNZ, G. MORENO MORAL & Ó. SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
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lor, and may lack any purplish tone and
appear yellowish; c) the shape of the co-
rolla differs from that of kochii in the lack
of a distinct straight segment in the dorsal
line, but shows patent upper lip lobes and
wide, spathulate, divergent lower lip lo-
bes clearly reminding those of kochii and
substantially different to all of the Mino-
res.
Therefore, the long and profoundly bi-
dentate calyx segments (particularly fili-
form at the tip in the population of the
road to Fuendetodos, but not so different
from kochii in other populations) and the
never deep yellow but usually olive
brown stigma remain as the two main
traits among those mentioned by Zázvor-
ka not only distinguishing the Spanish
plants from their putative European rela-
tives but justifying to some extent the
alleged affinity with the Minores, also
suggested by the much less marked con-
cavity of the middle lower lip lobe of the
corolla compared to kochii. Actually,
these characters are far from being spe-
cific enough to unambiguously relate this
plant to the Minores, something other-
wise rejected by the available molecular
data (CARLÓN & al., 2008: 13), so we
still feel that the Spanish plant is narrow-
ly related to other European Echinops pa-
rasites. Nonetheless, its spatial and tem-
poral variability, despite the few number
of known populations and the relatively
short distance between them, and its mo-
lecular similarity with an outlier acces-
sion of the sympatric and also very varia-
ble O. santolinae might be the trace of
current or past hybridisation events bet-
ween distantly related Composite parasi-
tes, turning Zázvorka’s perception of mor-
phological echoes of the phylogeneti-
cally supported grex Minores in the plants
from the road to Fuendetodos into a sug-
gestive conjecture.
We trust that the photos here pub-
lished will dissipate any doubts about the
occurrence in the Ebro basin of plants
clearly related to kochii. Even if further
research ratifies that hybridisation has
played a role in their make-up, the truth is
that there are ecologically well circum-
scribed populations with a variable but
unique arrangement of characters that
prevents their assimilation to any of the
so far described taxa. Thus we decide to
lump them together in a new species,
with an eponym honouring the illustrious
Aragonian botanist Francisco Loscos,
who first recorded the plant, correctly
determined its host and suggested a well-
targeted taxonomic adscription for it.
Orobanche loscosii L. Carlón, M. Laínz,
G. Moreno Moral & Ó. Sánchez Pedra-
ja, sp. nov.
= Orobanche ritro sensu Loscos, Tratado Pl.
Aragón 2: 125 (1878-1880) et auct. hisp., non
O. ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2:
635 (1853)
= Orobanche major var. ritro sensu Willk., non
O. major var. ritro (Gren.) Willk., Suppl. Prodr.
Fl. Hispan.: 188 (1893)
DIAGNOSIS. A sympatrica O. lep-
tantha Pomel (= O. icterica Pau, vide in-
ferius!) differt species nova nostra foliis
potius brevioribus et latioribus, bracteis
plerumque flores non superantibus, caly-
ce conspicuo (longitudine, saltem 60%
longitudinis corollae attingenti), lobis in-
ferioris labii corollini quadrangulatis mul-
toque magis divergentibus, stigmate oli-
vaceo-brunneo nec saturate flavo atque
staminibus (tam adaxialibus quam aba-
xialibus) inferius corollae insertis; ab O.
elatior Sutton differt praecipue floribus
minus patentibus, stigmate non flavo at-
que staminibus inferius corollae insertis;
ab O. kochii F.W. Schultz, floribus regu-
latim curvatis (dorsali recto intervallo ca-
rentibus), stigmate non flavo atque item
staminibus inferius corollae insertis; ab
omnibus denique speciebus gregis Mino-
res aperte differt caule valido labioque
inferiore corollino cruciformi (ratione lo-
borum eius, multo magis divergentium).
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Fig. 1. Orobanche loscosii, sp. nov. (Sánchez Pedraja del.) coram holotypo: a) habit; b) corolla,
frontal view; c) corolla, lateral view; d) opened corolla showing stamens; e) calyx segments and
bract; f) pistil and stigma (the latter seen from different angles).
L. CARLÓN, M. LAÍNZ, G. MORENO MORAL & Ó. SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
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Orobanche loscosii differs from the
sympatric O. leptantha Pomel (= O. icterica
Pau, see below) in its rather shorter and wider
leaves, in its bracts generally not exceeding
the flowers, in its long and conspicuous calyx
(its length being at least 60 % of that of the
corolla), in its quadrangulate and much more
divergent lower lip lobes, in its olive-brown
instead of deep yellow stigma and in its
stamens, both adaxial and abaxial, inserted at
a relatively short distance from the base of the
corolla. From O. elatior Sutton, mainly in its
less patent flowers, in its not yellow stigma
and in its lowly inserted stamens. From O.
kochii F.W. Schultz, in its regularly curved
flowers, with no straight segment dorsally,
and also in its not yellow stigma and its lowly
inserted stamens. From all of the species in
the group Minores, it openly differs in the
stouter stem and in the cruciform lower lip of
the corolla, its lobes being much more
divergent.
DESCRIPTION. Stem (17)26-47
(52) × (0,4)0,55-1,0(1,3) cm, usually
stout, simple, ± yellowish cream in color
(purple-tinged to some extent in the
inflorescence), thoroughly covered with
glanduliferous hairs (somewhat denser
upwards). Leaves (10)11,5-22(24) × (3)
4-6 mm, triangular-lanceolate. Inflores-
cence (6)10,4-22,5(31) × (3,2)3,4-4,5(5)
cm, mostly shorter than the rest of the
stem [ratio length infl. / length stem =
(0,29)0,33-0,50(0,60)] and oblong [ratio
width infl. / length infl.= (0,16)0,21-0,53
(0,60)], dense, multiflorous [(13)29-69
flowers]; bracts (13)14-20(25) × (3,0)4-5
(6,5) mm, lanceolated, equalling or scar-
cely exceeding the corolla [ratio length
corolla / length bract = 0,68-1,04], ±
creamy yellow in color to the base, the
rest pinkish, chestnut brown when dry,
densely covered with glanduliferous hairs
(yellowish gland). Calyx (9)11-16(18) ×
(3,1)5-6 (8) mm, with segments ± conni-
vents in their abaxial side, usually biden-
tate, the pink-purplish hue and the yellow
gland-bearing hairs being more abundant
in the upper 2/3 and particularly in the
teeth [(4)6,7-9(10) mm], which are une-
qual, narrowly lanceolate, longly acumi-
nated, usually longer than the tube [ratio
calyx teeth /calyx tube = (0,88)0,98-1,33]
and with the middle nerve distinctly dark.
Corolla (16,8)18-24 mm, not much lon-
ger than the calyx [ratio calyx / corolla =
(0,49)0,53-0,77(0,80)], erecto-patent (for-
ming an angle of 35-50º with the axis of
the inflorescence), campanulated or wide-
ly tubular, creamy yellow in color, with ±
purplish veins and the outer surface den-
sely covered with translucid yellow-gland
bearing hairs which are particularly abun-
dant in the upper side; upper lip bilobate,
shallowly divided, with lobes ± erect or
somewhat retrorse at anthesis, ± quadran-
gulate in contour and with undulated ±
crenate margins; lower lip trilobate, with
deflexed and very divergent lobes (the
middle one somewhat larger), ± quadran-
gulate in contour and with undulated ±
crenate margins. Filaments 7,6-11,95
mm, the abaxial insered at (1,2)1,7-3(4)
mm from the base and the adaxial at (2)
2,4-3,5(4,5) mm, densely covered with
translucid, non-glanduliferous, relatively
long hairs in the lower half and with shor-
ter if any hair towards the apex, creamy
throughout but with a yellowish hue in
the base. Anthers 1,52-2,2 × 0,8-1,2 mm
[beak of about 0,1-0,2 mm], creamy or
straw in color, glabrous with the excep-
tion of a few hairs in the basal half of the
sutures. Ovary glabrous, yellow throug-
hout or creamy towards the apex. Style ±
purplish, sometimes yellow in the base,
glabrous or with a few short glandulife-
rous hairs. Stigma bilobate, usually ± oli-
ve brown or purplish at anthesis. Fruit
9,2-11 × 4,4-5 mm, globose-ovoid, chest-
nut brown, glabrous. Seeds 0,4-0,48 ×
0,28-0,33 mm, from chestnut brown to
grey in color.
The only known host is Echinops ritro
L. subsp. ritro (Compositae), and its
known distribution range (fully covered
by the three provinces [Huesca, Teruel
and Zaragoza] constituting the autono-
mous region of Aragón) is characterized
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Fig. 2. Orobanche kochii, military maneuvers camp of Aglanet, pr. Orange (Vaucluse, France),
31TFJ4587, 50 m, beside Centaurea aspera in very dry and sunny sandy soils, L. Carlón, M.
Laínz, G. Gómez Casares, G. Moreno Moral MM0106/2003 & J. M. Tison, 28-V-2003 (herb.
Sánchez Pedraja 11371).
L. CARLÓN, M. LAÍNZ, G. MORENO MORAL & Ó. SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
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Fig. 3. Orobanche loscosii, sp. nov., pr. Marivella (Calatayud, Zaragoza, Spain), 30TXL1781, 600
m, beside Echinops ritro, G. Moreno Moral MM0074/2008, 5-VII-2008 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja
13190).
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Fig. 4. Distribution of Orobanche loscosii, sp. nov.
by a particularly warm, sunny and dry
Mediterranean climate due to the rain
shadow cast by the Pyrenees. Average
annual rainfall is between 300 and 450
mm, average daily maximum temperature
between 20 and 21ºC, average minimum
between 7 and 9ºC and the sun shines
between 2600 and 2700 hours per year.
Holotypus: Marivella, pr. Calatayud
(Huesca, SPA), 30TXL1781, 600 m, beside
Echinops ritro in Genista sp. scrub, in the
northern slope of a small valley, G. Moreno
Moral MM0074/2008, 5-VII-2008 (MA). Iso-
typi adsunt in JBAG-Laínz et in herb. Sánchez
Pedraja 13190.
Otras recolecciones: HUESCA: 31TBG
6743, Monzón, western slope of the vértice
Monzón, beside Echinops ritro, 340 m, 2-VI-
2007, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral
MM66/2007 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12888).
31TBG6452, Barbastro, above the Valpregona
ravine (pr. Torre Joaquina), beside Echinops
ritro in the gaps of a disturbed holm oak
forest, 360 m, 2-VI-2007, G. Gómez Casares
& G. Moreno Moral MM67/2007 (herb. Sán-
chez Pedraja 12889).
TERUEL: “Castelserás no rara sobre
Echinops 10 Jun. 1872 (Loscos)” (cf. LOS-
COS, 1878-1880 [1986]: 125[317], sub
“1.770. O. ritro Gr. Godr.”). “In Arag. austr.
(pr. Castelserás ad rad. Echinops ritro. Losc.
[Loscos])” [cf. WILLKOMM, 1893: 188, sub
Orobanche major var. ritro].
ZARAGOZA: “B. et C. Vicioso Herbar-
ium Aragonense / Calatayud-(España) / Oro-
banche caryophyllacea Sm / = (O. Galii
Vauch.) / In vineis / Calatayud [N 41° 21' 0''
W 1° 38' 0'', c. 564 m] 28-5-1910 / Leg. Vi-
cioso. C.” (MA 115042; rev. ut Orobanche
ritro Gren., Carlón, Moreno Moral & Sánchez
Pedraja, 2003). “A) "Caroli Pau - Herbarium
hispanicum" // B) "B. et C. Vicioso Herbarium
Aragonense" / nº 17 Calatayud (España) /
Orobanche / viñas de Marivella / Junio 1911 /
B. Vicioso” (MA 435793; rev. ut Orobanche
ritro Gren., Carlón, Moreno Moral & Sánchez
Pedraja, 2003). 30TXL7677, Fuendetodos,
Valdeamigo (road A-220, km 51), beside
Echinops ritro, 630 m, 30-V-2003, G. Gómez
Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM116/2003
(herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11381). 30TXL8076,
Almonacid de la Cuba, near the balsete Se-
garra (road A-220, km 54,500), parasitic on (!)
L. CARLÓN, M. LAÍNZ, G. MORENO MORAL & Ó. SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA
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Echinops ritro in the banks and ditches of the
road, 580 m, 30-V-2003, G. Gómez Casares
& G. Moreno Moral MM117/2003 (herb.
Sánchez Pedraja 11382); ibid., 26-V-2004, G.
Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral (obs.);
ibid., 23-VI-2004, G. Gómez Casares & G.
Moreno Moral (obs.). Ibid., 4-VI-2005, G.
Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral (obs.).
30TXL1881, Calatayud, Marivella (crossing
of the track leading to the Planas de Anchís
with the former N-II), beside Echinops ritro in
a stony slope, 620 m, 5-VI-2007, G. Gómez
Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM81/2007
(herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12908). 30TXL1781,
Calatayud, above Huérmeda (track leading
from Huérmeda to the Marivella plateau),
beside Echinops ritro in waysides, 600 m, 4-
VII-2008, G. Moreno Moral (obs.). 30TXL
1780, Calatayud, Marivella, beside Echinops
ritro in sunny embankments of ancient vine-
yards, 600 m, 5-VII-2008, G. Moreno Moral
(obs.).
Orobanche leptantha Pomel in Bull.
Soc. Climatol. Alger 11: 110 (1874)
= O. icterica Pau, Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 3: 5[-6]
(1889) [CARLÓN & al. (2010, on line)]
= O. major subsp. icterica (Pau) A. Pujadas in
Flora Montib. 11: 16 (1999)
= O. elatior subsp. icterica (Pau) A. Pujadas
in Flora Montib. 17: 11 (2001)
O. alba auct. hisp. [p.p. min.], non O. alba
Stephan ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 350 (1800)
[e.g. BOLÒS & VIGO (1996: 511)]
O. elatior auct., non O. elatior Sutton in
Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178, t. 17
(1798) [e.g. CHATER & WEBB (1972:
363); UHLICH & al. (1995: 137); FOLEY
(2001: 71); DOMINA & RAAB-STRAUBE
(2010)]
O. major auct., non O. major L., Sp. Pl.: 632
(1753), nom. rej. (e.g. BECK (1890: 172);
WILLKOMM (1893: 188); VICIOSO
(1911: 101); BECK (1930: 251); CADE-
VALL (1932: 296); GREUTER & al.
(1989: 260)
Lectotypus, hic designatus: MPU 004861
(leftmost, almost complete specimen beside
the label indicating MPU number).
It is not hard to notice that Pomel’s
description (later amplified by BATTAN-
DIER, 1890: 663]) matches the one publi-
shed by Pau 15 years later. In addition to
the common host that awaked our suspi-
cions, Algerian and Spanish plants share
stout stems, narrow leaves (“Squammes
lâches linéaires lancéolés”), characteristi-
cally long bracts exceeding the flowers
(“Bractées linéaires dépassant de beau-
coup les fleurs”) and forming an apical
tuft, pinkish flowers, yellow stigma and
filaments hairy in the base. Pomel’s ori-
ginal materials (MPU 004861) fully cor-
roborate this taxonomic unification,
which results even sounder if one consi-
ders that Spanish botanists have recently
found plants referable to icterica in Tuni-
sia (PUJADAS & al., 2007: 112) and that
icterica is well known along Spanish Me-
diterranean coasts in localities analogous
in every respect to the sea cliffs around
Oran from where leptantha was descri-
bed.
BECK (1890: 264; 1930: 303) sup-
posed as well that leptantha was akin to
elatior, the entire calyx segments he
suggested as potentially diagnostic being
in fact the most frequent condition in
icterica.
*Orobanche elatior Sutton
Spain/España. LÉRIDA: 31TCH2930,
Naut Aran, Solan de Salardú e Tredòs (pr.
Tredòs), parasitic on (!) Centaurea scabiosa
in a sunny meadow, 1450 m, 22-VI-2004, L.
Carlón, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno
Moral MM0163/2004 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja
11943); ibid., 16-VI-2005, L. Carlón, G.
Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM71
/2005 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12267); ibid.,
1400 m, 16-VI-2005, L. Carlón, G. Gómez
Casares & G. Moreno Moral (obs.)
So far we have established the occur-
rence in Spain of two species that in our
previous papers were subsumed into a
wide (CARLÓN & al., 2003: 30-32, 37-
39) or even narrow (CARLÓN & al.,
2005: 54-55) concept of O. elatior. The
plants by us cited as “O. major L. β Ri-
tro” correspond to the aforedescribed O.
loscosii, while almost the totality of those
Sobre Orobanche loscosii, sp. nova y O. elatior
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
98
Fig. 5. Orobanche leptantha, west from Loma Cabrera, pr. Segorbe (Castellón, Spain) –loc. class.
of O. icterica Pau–, 30SYK1211, 430 m, beside Centaurea aspera, G. Gómez Casares & G.
Moreno Moral MM0113/2004, 25-VI-2004 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11870).
L. CARLÓN, M. LAÍNZ, G. MORENO MORAL & Ó. SÁNCHEZ PEDRAJA
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
99
Fig. 6. Orobanche elatior, Solan de Salardú e Tredòs, pr. Tredòs (Naut Aran, Lérida, Spain),
31TCH2930, 1450 m, parasitic (!) on Centaurea scabiosa in a sunny meadow, L. Carlón, G.
Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0163/2004, 22-VI-2004 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11943).
Sobre Orobanche loscosii, sp. nova y O. elatior
Flora Montiberica 48: 89-101 (VI-2011). ISSN: 1138-5952
100
cited as “O. elatior s. l.” or simply asO.
elatior” are to be referred to O. leptantha,
widespread in the Eastern half of the
Iberian Peninsula (where it abounds in
markedly dry areas with annual precipi-
tations below 600 mm and, eluding the
wetter massifs, generally remains below
1000 m a.s.l.) and that we now consider
specifically recognisable by the above
cited traits and by the usually rounded
and convergent or overlapping lower lip
lobes despite being both morphologically
and sequence-wise very closely related to
elatior. The only exception is the plant
collected in the middle of the Pyrenees
near Tredòs (Val d’Aran, province of
Lérida), which is to be considered the
first definite, reliable Spanish record of
the true O. elatior. We seize the opportu-
nity to publish a photograph taken in this
locality, repeatedly visited by us these
last years. The plant is there parasitic on
Centaurea scabiosa and lives in sunny
meadows on a steep slope at over 1400 m
a.s.l. with precipitations evenly distrib-
uted throughout the year, amounting to
about 1000 mm and providing a thick and
long lasting snow cover in winter. In the
very same locality, other biogeographi-
cally significant species of Orobanche
like O. bartlingii, O. teucrii and O.
haenseleri are found.
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(Recibido el 2-V-2011)
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Soják (a name here lectotypified with a specimen in Boissier’s herbarium in G that must be reserved for a distinct parasite of Eryngium in the Middle East) nor that of «Orobanche persica (Beck) Beck ex Novopokr.». The geographical distribution of Ph. portoilicitana in the Iberian Peninsula is mapped. 7) Phelipanche resedarum, a genetically and morphologically distinct parasite of Reseda sp. pl. 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All the material cited in Beck’s protologue corresponds to a single species. Several described taxa («Phelypaea ramosa var. lucronensis Cámara Niño» and «Orobanche mariana A. Pujadas») are shown to be synonyms of Ph. rosmarina. A detailed photography of a dissected flower and two color photographic plates, one from the locus classicus in Portugal and the other from Northern Spain, are provided. 11) Phelipanche olbiensis (Coss.), comb. nova, morphologically and genetically similar to Ph. rosmarina, is lectotypified with a specimen from Cosson in P and the differential characters against the former are given. Its currently known geographical distribution is summarized, and one color photographic plate is provided. 12) Phelipanche lavandulacea subsp. trichocalyx (Webb), comb. et stat. nov., appears to be just a geographic race of the Mediterranean Ph. lavandulacea in the Canary Islands and is presented here with one color photographic plate. 13) Phelipanche lavandulaceoides, although sharing host and some morphological features with Ph. lavandulacea Rchb., differs substantially both genetically and morphologically from the latter and is therefore described as species nova, apparently endemic to inner Spain and particularly the Ebro basin, and is shown in one color photographic plate. 14) Phelipanche schultzii (Mutel) Pomel does occur in the Canary Islands (one color photographic plate), and in the Iberian Peninsula it is more widespread than recently acknowledged. For instance, it also occurs in Portugal, where it has been superfluously described as «Orobanche trichocalyx f. lusitanica Welw. ex J. A. Guim.» (name here lectotypified with a specimen in LISU). 15) We propose to consider Phelipanche purpurea (Jacq.) Soják as a single polytypic species with four well recognizable subspecies in the Western Palearctic. Ph. purpurea subsp. purpurea (tall plants with lax inflorescences of patent flowers, white corolla creases and lanceolate lower lip lobes) is parasitic on Achillea and Artemisia (Compositae) in somewhat ruderal places across western and central Europe and to SW Asia. Ph. purpurea subsp. bohemica (Čelak.) J. Zázvorka (tall plants with, among other features, dense spikes of erecto-patent flowers) is parasitic on Artemisia in steppic environments of central Europe, and is here cited for the first time for the Pyrenees and the Iberian Peninsula. Ph. purpurea subsp. millefolii (Rchb.), comb. et stat. nov. (shorter plants with uniformly colored corollae and rounded, apiculated lower lip lobes) grows on Achillea in not very ruderal places in western and Central Europe. Finally, Ph. purpurea subs. ballii (Maire), comb. et stat. nov. (taller plants with rounded not apiculated lower lip lobes) is the geographic race occurring in the Atlas Mountains (Morocco) as a parasite of Achillea ligustica and Cladanthus scariosus (Compositae). «Orobanche caerulea Vill.», a mere superfluous name for Ph. purpurea subsp. purpurea, is lectotypified in Villars’ herbarium in GRM. Four color photographic plates, two of them illustrating subsp. millefolii, other subsp. purpurea and the fourth one subsp. bohemica, are provided. 16) Molecular and morphological data firmly support the convenience of considering Boulardia F. W. Schultz a separate genus, Boulardia latisquama F. W. Schultz being thus the correct name for the so common Rosmarinus parasite. We include a figure with photographic details of flower morphology. 17) «O. amethystea var. maura Maire», «O. clementei C. Vicioso», «O. crenata var. brachysepala Maire» and «O. crenata f. alba Maire» are mere synonyms of the widespread synanthropic Orobanche crenata Forssk. 18) Orobanche santolinae Loscos & J. Pardo is a monotypic species, whose astonishing chromatic variability is appreciable in each single population. 19) The parasite of Artemisia alba described in 1885 from the Balkans as Orobanche serbica Beck & Petrovic is conspecific with the plant from the Alps and the Cantabrian Mountains described as O. ozanonis F. W. Schultz ex Beck validly published only in 1890. 20) Orobanche bartlingii Griseb. is reported as new for the French Pyrenees. 21) The Spanish populations of Orobanche lycoctoni Rhiner is sequence-wise identical to the one found in the Swiss Alps. The species has been already found in the French Alps, and it is likely that its known range will grow in the next future.
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We present various contributions about 21 taxa of Orobanche s. str. and Phelipanche. The two newly described species Phelipanche georgii-reuteri sp. nov. and Ph. inexspectata sp. nov. are, as far as we know, Iberian endemisms. The two very insufficiently known and often neglected species Orobanche grenieri F. W. Schultz and O. ozanonis F. W. Schultz ex Beck are recorded for the Iberian Peninsula for the first time. The latter species has been rediscovered in its locus classicus et unicus 139 years after its description, and has been additionally found in a second French locality. The distributional range of O. lycoctoni Rhiner, which is highly disjunct between the Picos de Europa and the eastern Swiss Alps, is in the Picos larger than initially thought. O. flava Mart. ex F. W. Schultz, which appears to be less akin to the precedent species than expected, does not reach the Pyrenees. An important clarification is provided on the taxonomic relationships between O. densiflora Salzm. ex Reut. and the presumed O. crinita var. occidentalis M. J. Y. Foley. The obligatory lectotypification of a neglected prioritary specific name leads to a new combination for the species known as Phelipanche tunetana (= Orobanche tunetana): Phelipanche reuteriana (Rchb. fil.) transl. nov. Huge and unexpected additions to the distributional range of Ph. portoilicitana (A. Pujadas & M. B. Crespo) transl. nov. are reported. Further chorological, taxonomical or photographical contributions are presented for Phelipanche nana (F. W. de Noë ex Reut.) Soják, Ph. lavandulacea (Rchb.) Pomel, Ph. schultzii (Mutel) Pomel, Ph. purpurea (Jacq.) Soják, Orobanche cernua L., O. crenata Forssk., O. alba Stephan ex Willd., O. picridis F. W. Schultz, O. artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin, O. haenseleri Reut. and O. elatior Sutton. In a final Appendix, an ITS analysis of 137 mainly Palearctic accessions gives support to some of our taxonomic viewpoints.
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The genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) in Andalusia. A botanical survey has been carried out in order to improve the knowledge of the genus Orobanche L. of the Flora of Andalusia, South of the Iberian Peninsula. With this aim, a critical review of the concerning bibliographical information and of the main territorial herbaria was accomplished. An identification key is provided. For each of the 31 taxa considered its detailed distribution in geographical units as well as its category UICN are given. The presence of taxa of important chorological interest such as O. ramosa, O. olbiensis, O. mariana, O. lavandulacea, O. schultzii, O. mutelii subsp. georgii-reuteri, O. purpurea, O. clausonis, O. rapum-genistae, O. gracilis subsp. deludens, O. haenseleri, O. alba, O. icterica, O. amethystea subsp. castellana, O. almerienses, O. santolinae is pointed out. Moreover, we consider that O. sanguinea, O. crinita, O. variegata, O. caryophyllaceae, O. lutea, O. reticulata and O. artemisiaecampestris are species not found in Andalusia and O. calendulae is a conflictive taxon to investigate. El género Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) en Andalucía. Se actualiza el conocimiento del género Orobanche L. para la Flora de Andalucía, sur de la Península Ibérica. La revisión se ha hecho mediante el análisis crítico de la información bibliográfica y de los principales herbarios relacionados con el territorio. Para facilitar la identificación de las diferentes especies aportamos una clave de determinación. Para los 31 taxones presentes aportamos su distribución detallada en unidades geográficas así como su categoría UICN. Resaltamos la presencia de taxones de marcado interés corológico, poco citados en todo el territorio, como O. ramosa, O. olbiensis, O. mariana, O. lavandulacea, O. schultzii, O. mutelii subsp. georgii-reuteri, O. purpurea, O. clausonis, O. rapumgenistae, O. gracilis subsp. deludens, O. haenseleri, O. alba, O. icterica, O. amethystea subsp. castellana, O. almeriensis, O. santolinae. Consideramos que especies como O. sanguinea, O. crinita, O. variegata, O. caryophyllaceae, O. lutea, O. reticulata y O. artemisiae-campestris no se encuentran en Andalucía y a O. calendulae como especie conflictiva a buscar.
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ZÁZVORKA J. 2010: Orobanche kochii and O. elatior (Orobanchaceae) in central Europe. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Biologicae (Brno) 95(2): 77–119. – A comparative study of a broomrape (Orobanche sp.) parasitic on Centaurea scabiosa, previously considered as a sole taxon, Orobanche elatior Sutton, revealed the existence of two distinct species in central Europe. The correct names for them proved to be Orobanche kochii F. W. Schultz and O. elatior Sutton. The name Orobanche kochii, and its synonym O. echinopis Panèiae, are lectotypified. The history and taxonomic contents of the related names O. echinopis Panèiae, O. fragrans W.D.J. Koch, O. ritro Grenier, O. stigmatodes Wimmer and others are briefly discussed. Morphological characterisations of both species, together with photographs, line drawings, and distribution maps based on herbarium specimens, are provided. An account of all revised herbarium specimens from the Czech Republic and nearby countries is given in the Appendix. Introduction In the course of studying the broomrapes for Kvìtena ÈR (Flora of the Czech Republic, ZÁZVORKA 2000), I came to address the taxonomic position of plants of two markedly diverse species, both parasitic on the same host, the greater knapweed Centaurea scabiosa. Previously, all material of broomrapes in central Europe that parasitize Centaurea scabiosa, had generally been considered as Orobanche elatior Sutton (cf. e.g. revealed that the plants parasitic on Centaurea scabiosa belong to two distinct and non-related species, correctly classified as Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz and O. elatior Sutton. O. kochii is more common and widely distributed in the Czech and Slovak Republics and in much of central Europe, with the distribution area shifting from central Europe towards eastern Europe and Asia. O. elatior is noticeably scarcer in central Europe; its distribution is confined to western and central Europe. The distribution areas of western O. elatior and eastern O. kochii overlap in central Europe.
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