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Chemical Composition of Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil from Monarda citriodora Flowers

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Abstract

The essential oil (yield 1.46%, w/w) of Monarda citriodora flowers obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC-MS, Totally 30 constituents were detected. 26 compounds representing 97.23% were identified, of which thymol (44.599%), 1,8-cineole (23.613%), α-phellandrene (4.815%) and β-cymene (4.019%) were major compounds. Thus, the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant portions of the oil. Antibacterial ability of Monarda citriodora essential oil was tested by disc agar diffusion against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylicoccus albus. Antibacterial properties were compared to penicillin. Higher antibacterial activity was observed.

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... Also, this plant is used as febrifuge, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, carminative, sedative, diuretic, and stimulant [2][3]. The plant has also antiseptic, anti-oxidant and antifungal properties [4][5][6][7]. ...
... Thymol compound is a main constituent of the essential oil in M. citriodora plant. It has antiseptic, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties and is used in modern commercial mouthwash formulations [4,5,7]. Also, M. citriodora oil is a preservative for the free radical-mediated deterioration of lipid-rich in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals [6] and anticancer effect [9]. ...
... Also, in this respect, thymol, 1,8-cineole, α-phellandrene and p-cymene were recorded at 44.599, 23.613, 4.815, and 4.019%, respectively [7]. ...
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Introduction: Monarda citriodora L. plant belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is a medicinal and aromatic plant, an annual herb, one of important sources of thymol compound. This plant has various purposes such as medicinal properties, food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals industry, a powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Objective: There is an ongoing need to find safe, natural sources of plant nutrients. Moringa leaves and pomegranate peels extracts are being used as a secure source of natural nutrients, and natural growth regulators on the growth and productivity of plants. Applying these bio stimulants helps avoid the excessive use of industrial materials in agriculture. So, this experiment was carried out to determine the effect of both moringa leaves extract, and pomegranate peels extract as a bio regulator on the productivity of M. citriodora plant. Methods: This experiment was carried out during two seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) at the Experimental Station of Adlya Farm, Sekem Company, ElSharkia Governorate, Egypt, to study the influence of some natural extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels on growth, yield as well as some chemical constituents of the dry herbs, such as total carbohydrate, total flavonoids compounds, total phenolic content, NPK content and essential oil contents and its components and determination of free radical scavenging activity of M. citriodora L. plant. Results: Both extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels positively affected growth, yield, and chemical constituents compared to untreated plants. Moringa leaves extract had more effect compared with pomegranate peels extract. The main essential oil constituents were thymol, p -cymene, and carvacrol compounds. Conclusion: The application of bio-stimulants of moringa leaves extract (MLE) and pomegranate peels extract (PPE) positively affect the growth and production of M. citriodora plant.
... Essential oils of Monarda species have been reported to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes, leading to differentiation into the following chemotypes: thymol, carvacrol, borneol, and geraniol [10]. A literature survey regarding biological activities of the Monarda species essential oils and their major compounds, based on references [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29], is summarized in Table 1. Table 1. ...
... Antilipase Carvacrol [7] Antibacterial Thymol, p-cymene, limonene, carvacrol [24] Fungicidal Thymol [22] M. citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. ...
... Antimicrobial Essential oil, hydrolate [23] Antibacterial Thymol, 1,8-cineole, α-phellandrene, p-cymene [24] Antifungal β-Caryophyllene, citral, limonene, cis-verbenol [25] Anticancer (in vitro) Essential oil, thymol [26] M. citriodora var. citriodora Cerv. ...
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Little is known about the pharmacological activity of Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils. To address this issue, we isolated essential oils from the flowers and leaves of M. fistulosa and analyzed their chemical composition. We also analyzed the pharmacological effects of M. fistulosa essential oils on transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activity, as these channels are known targets of various essential oil constituents. Flower (MEOFl) and leaf (MEOLv) essential oils were comprised mainly of monoterpenes (43.1% and 21.1%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (54.8% and 77.7%), respectively, with a high abundance of monoterpene hydrocarbons, including p-cymene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinene, and α-thujene. Major oxygenated monoterpenes of MEOFl and MEOLv included carvacrol and thymol. Both MEOFl and MEOLv stimulated a transient increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in TRPA1 but not in TRPV1 or TRPV4-transfected cells, with MEOLv being much more effective than MEOFl. Furthermore, the pure monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol, and β-myrcene activated TRPA1 but not the TRPV1 or TRPV4 channels, suggesting that these compounds represented the TRPA1-activating components of M. fistulosa essential oils. The transient increase in [Ca2+]i induced by MEOFl/MEOLv, carvacrol, β-myrcene, and thymol in TRPA1-transfected cells was blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Although carvacrol and thymol have been reported previously to activate the TRPA1 channels, this is the first report to show that β-myrcene is also a TRPA1 channel agonist. Finally, molecular modeling studies showed a substantial similarity between the docking poses of carvacrol, thymol, and β-myrcene in the binding site of human TRPA1. Thus, our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the therapeutic properties of these essential oils, laying the foundation for prospective pharmacological studies involving TRP ion channels.
... Essential oil of Monarda citriodora L., has antiseptic properties and is now used in many of pharmaceutical industries and modern commercial mouthwash formulations [3,9,10]. Also, essential oil of Monarda citriodora L. has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties, antioxidant activity, and against various human pathogens [2,3,9,11]. ...
... Essential oil of Monarda citriodora L., has antiseptic properties and is now used in many of pharmaceutical industries and modern commercial mouthwash formulations [3,9,10]. Also, essential oil of Monarda citriodora L. has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties, antioxidant activity, and against various human pathogens [2,3,9,11]. Also, It is clear that M. citriodora var. ...
... Its use as febrifuge, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, carminative, sedative, diuretic and stimulant has also been reported [16]. The plant also has antiseptic, anti-oxidant and antifungal properties [19][20][21][22]. Major component of its essential oil, thymol, is now-a-days used in modern commercial mouthwash formulations [20,22,23]. ...
... The plant also has antiseptic, anti-oxidant and antifungal properties [19][20][21][22]. Major component of its essential oil, thymol, is now-a-days used in modern commercial mouthwash formulations [20,22,23]. Recently its essential oil is found to have anticancer property targeting PI3K pathway [24]. ...
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Background Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of the Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae). Anticancer and antimicrobial potential of isolated endophytes have also been investigated. Results A total of twenty eight fungal endophytes belonging to 11 different genera were isolated from this plant. All the endophytic fungi belonged to the Ascomycota phylum. The leaves were immensely rich in fungal species, while roots showed the highest tissue specific fungal dominance. Out of 28 fungal species, 72% endophytic extracts were found cytotoxic against one or more human cancer cell lines. The most prominent anticancer activity (IC50 value <10 μg/mL) was shown by MC-14 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-18 L (Aspergillus fumigatus), MC-24 L (Cladosporium tenuissimum), MC-25 L (Fusarium sp.), MC-26 F (F. oxysporum) extracts. 75% of the extracts showed antimicrobial activities in agar disc-diffusion assay and 27% in the tube dilution method (MIC <100 μg/mL) respectively against the tested pathogens. Extracts of MC-14 L (F. oxysporum) and MC-18 L (A. fumigatus) displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Conclusions These results indicated that M. citriodora harbors a rich fungal endophytic community with anticancer and antimicrobial activities. The isolated endophyte MC-24 L (C. tenuissimum) has the potential to be a source of novel cytotoxic/antimicrobial compounds. This is the first report of diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from M. citriodora. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-017-0961-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Summarizing, the results showed that Monarda EOs obtained from the leaves in the flowering phase strongly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but was less effective against Gram-negative bacteria. Literature data showed that M. citriodora EO has a strong antibacterial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and S. albus (Lu et al., 2011) as well antifungal activity against 15 fungal species (Bishop and Thornton, 1997). M. didyma EO strongly inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. fluorescens, S. typhimurium and C. albicans, while weak antibacterial activity was observed against L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa (Ghabraie et al., 2016;Wróblewska et al., 2019). ...
... citriodora flowers growing in the United Kingdom [Collins et al. 1994] were thymol (61.77%), γ-terpinene (13.30%) and p-cymene (4.19%). The volatile oil from flowers of M. citriodora cultivated in China [Lu et al. 2011] contained mainly thymol (44.59%), 1,8-cineole (23.61%), α-phellandrene (4.81%), m-cymene (4.01%) and carvacrol (3.21%). Pathania et al. [2013] reported thymol (82%), carvacrol (4.82%), β-myrcene (3.45%), terpinene-4-ol (2.78%) and p-cymene (1.53%) as the major constituents of flower oil of M. citriodora Cerv. ...
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In this study the quantity of the main nutritional and bioactive compounds, as well as the antioxidant activ- ity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods) and essential oil composition of Monarda fistulosa L. and Monarda citriodora subsp. austromontana Cerv. ex Lag. ‘Bees’ Favourite’ flowers were investigated. The field ex- periment was carried out for three years (2014–2016) and the laboratory analyses in the years 2015–2016. The obtained results showed that M. citriodora flowers were characterized by a dry matter (22.42%), total ash (1.86% FW), crude fibre (4.89% FW), sucrose (0.31% FW), total flavonoids (0.795% DW) and antioxidant activity in FRAP test (7.96 mg TE g–1 FW), while M. fistulosa showed the highest values of total sugars/titrat- able acidity ratio (4.05), antioxidant activity in DPPH test (7.35 mg TE g–1 FW) and contents of reducing sugars (1.46% FW), total chlorophyll (401.10 μg g–1 FW), chlorophyll a (271.74 μg g–1 FW) and b (92.07 μg g–1 FW), L-ascorbic acid (48.99 mg 100 g–1 FW) and total polyphenols (7.64 mg GAE g–1 FW). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds of M. fistulosa oil were carvacrol (28.16 and 23.66% in 2015, and 2016, respectively), p-cymene (20.10 and 17.94%), thymoquinone (12.60 and 16.30%) and γ-terpinene (8.72 and 4.07%), whereas linalool (34.86 and 26.96%), thymol (17.83 and 37.34%), β-thujene (6.12 and 2.00%) and camphene (5.80 and 5.64%) were the major constituents of M. citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. ssp. austromontana ‘Bees’ Favourite’ oil.
... This scent makes it deer resistant and if you rub leaves on skin it make a fair insect repellent also. The essential oil from Monarda citriodora flowers have medicinal properties as antibacterial activity (Lu Zhan-gou et al, 2011) [10] , and suitability perfuming and flavoring of food industries. Due to high demand of its essential oil, there has been increasing interest in the cultivation of this plant for commercial production. ...
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Monarda citriodora Cer. ex Lag. grows wild in the rocky upland prairies and pastures of the south eastern tall grass Missouri and ranges from Texas and Mexico North. It is an aromatic annual herb and is one of the important sources of Thymol. The crop has been domesticated by our Institute not only in subtropical but also in temperate region in Jammu and Kashmir. Growth, Yield and yield attributes performance under varying levels of nitrogen were examined in a field experiment. Forty five day-old plants were supplied with varying levels of N, i.e. 0, 30, 60, 90,120 and 150kg N/ha in soil. Maximum biomass was recorded at 90 Nitrogen kg/ha (T4) but at par with 120 and 150Nkg/ha. Herbage yield was increase 14.40, 16.73 and 27.95 percent higher with 30, 60 and 90kg N/ha., respectively, over 0 kg N/ha. Significantly influenced the total number tillers/plant and branches at 60 DAT, pre-flowering and 50% flowering highest in T4 (90kgN/ha) treatment. Nitrogen levels significantly influenced the plant height at 60 DAT, pre-flowering and 50% flowering. Significantly the highest plant height (40, 63 and 79 cm) was recorded by T4 (90kgN/ha.) treatment but at par with T3 (60kgN/ha.). Nitrogen levels 90kg/ha. is best suitable for commercial cultivation and higher yield.
... It is used as a flavouring agent in the food industry [18]. The chemical composition of M. citriodora essential oil extracted from leaves, flowers and dried material has been studied [19][20][21][22]. Its essential oil contains the antiseptic compound thymol and the insect-repellent citronellol. ...
Article
An endophytic fungus, MC_25L, has been isolated from the leaves of MonardacitriodoraCerv. ex Lag., a medicinal and aromatic herb from the northwestern Himalayas. It produces a fruity fragrance while growing on potato dextrose agar, suggesting that it is producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The endophyte inhibited the growth of plant pathogens such asSclerotiniasp. and Aspergillusflavus by virtue of VOCs. Identification of MC_25L based on morphological and microscopic features, as well as ITS-based rDNA sequence analysis, revealed that it is a Fusariumsp. GC-MS analysis revealed that this endophyte produces a unique array of VOCs, in particular hexanal, p-fluoroanisole, pentafluoropropionic acid 2-ethylhexyl, (5E)-5-ethyl-2-methyl-5-hepten-3-one, 2-butyl-2-hexanol, (7E)-2-methyl-7-hexadecene and acoradiene. Three major compounds were hexanal, (5E)-5-ethyl-2-methyl-5-hepten-3-one and acoradiene, and they account for around 84.57 % of the total VOCs. Moreover, of interest was the presence of hexanal, which has applications in the food and cosmetic industries, as well as in mycofumigation. This is the first report of a fungal endophyte producing the industrially important plant-like VOC hexanal. Hexanal is also active biologically. Thus this study indicates that Fusariumsp. (MC_25L) is a potential candidate for the up-scaling of hexanal.
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Lemon beebalm (Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag.) is a well-known source of thymol and other active ingredients with recognised antimicrobial properties. However, no previous research investigated the chemical variability of M. citriodora organs during plant phenology. In this paper, above-ground organs of lemon beebalm harvested during three phenological stages were studied for the content and composition of essential oil (EO) and phenolic compounds as well as antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The EO content in leaves and inflorescences during the full flowering stage was 3.34% and 3.83%, respectively. The phenological stage of plants mainly influenced the content and chemical composition of EO in leaves. The main component of the EOs both from leaves and inflorescences was thymol (52.63-61.83%). The EOs from these organs collected at the full flowering stage inhibited the growth of all the tested microbial strains at the concentration range 0.156-0.625 µL × mL⁻¹. Plant organs differed in the content of total phenolics, flavonoids, and individual phenolic compounds. The effect of phenological stage on these contents was more pronounced in leaves and stems than in inflorescences. Total flavonoid content in stems and inflorescences was higher than in leaves. Leaves harvested during vegetative stage were characterised by the highest level of linarin, a flavone glycoside (80.66 mg × 100 g⁻¹ of dry raw material). All the tested parts of plants were found to be rich in rosmarinic acid, in particular inflorescences (507.41 mg × 100 g⁻¹). The identified high antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the studied EOs and extracts can be explained by the high content of thymol in EO and rosmarinic acid in the aerial parts of plants.
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In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil from Monarda citriodora (MCEO) with possible mode of action was evaluated against A. flavus (AF-LHP-SH1) and 15 other storage molds for controlling postharvest deterioration of stored functional food samples. The chemical profiling of MCEO as done through GC–MS analysis revealed caryophyllene (19.15%) as the major component. The MCEO showed broad spectrum fungitoxicity and completely inhibited the growth of all tested molds and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by AF-LHP-SH1 at 1.40 and 1.20 µL/mL, respectively. Plasma membrane damage and methylglyoxal inhibition was confirmed as the possible antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic mode of action of MCEO. MCEO exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity with IC50 value 2.24 μL/mL as determined through DPPH assay and did not cause adverse effect on seed germination. In addition, the MCEO was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticle, characterized (SEM, FTIR, XRD) and assessed for their potential against inhibition of growth and AFB1 production. MCEO after encapsulation exhibited enhanced efficacy inhibiting fungal growth and AFB1 production by AF-LHP-SH1 at 0.6 and 0.5 µL/mL, respectively. Encapsulated MCEO may be recommended as novel preservative to extend the shelf life of stored functional food samples.
Article
Context: The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study. Objective: The isolation of endophytic fungi from M. citriodora and assessing their biocontrol potential. Material and methods: The isolated endophytes were characterized using ITS-5.8 S rDNA sequencing. Their biocontrol potential was assessed using different antagonistic assays against major plant pathogens. Results: Twenty-eight endophytes representing 11 genera were isolated, of which, around 82% endophytes showed biocontrol potential against plant pathogens. MC-2 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-22 F (F. oxysporum) and MC-25 F (F. redolens) displayed significant antagonistic activity against all the tested pathogens. Interestingly, MC-10 L (Muscodor yucatanensis) completely inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sp., Colletotrichum capsici, Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in dual culture assay, whereas MC-8 L (A. oryzae) and MC-9 L (Penicillium commune) completely inhibited the growth of the Sclerotinia sp. in fumigation assay. Conclusions: Endophytes MC-2 L, MC-14 F, MC-22 F and MC-25 F could effectively be used to control broad range of phytopathogens, while MC-10 L, MC-8 L and MC-9 L could be used to control specific pathogens. Secondly, endophytes showing varying degrees of antagonism in different assays represented the chemo-diversity not only as promising biocontrol agents but also as a resource of defensive and bioactive metabolites.
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In recent years, antimicrobial packaging has attracted much attention from the food industry thanks to the increase in consumer demand for minimally processed and preservative-free products. Use of antimicrobial substances based on essential oils is of great importance and can control the microbial population and target specific microorganisms to provide higher safety and quality products. The main objective of this review is to provide a state of the art about the shelf life of foodstuffs, the historic of packaging and a literature review about the different types of packaging concepts. This review provides several types of antimicrobial packaging and especially the incorporation of essential oils in packaging with discussion on the use of essential oils, their general properties with respect to the mechanism of action, effectiveness and the effects on foods. Then, the packaging-food interactions i.e. permeation, migration and sorption in the case of essential oils will be described. Finally, the present work is also dedicated to the legal aspects introduced by several countries considering the global market of active packaging applied in food sector. Industrial Relevance : Active packaging is a new approach for preserving food quality and extending food shelf life. Antimicrobial packaging is a type of active packaging which is a real benefit for food packaging industries. Several types of antimicrobial agents are available. This review makes a state of art and offers a summary of the wide variety of antimicrobial packaging containing essential oils and their derivatives. This paper also describes a broad range of essential oils, as well as their active packaging-food interactions.
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We have isolated an essential oil from Monarda citriodora (MC)and characterized its 22 chemical constituents with thymol (82%), carvacrol (4.82%), β-myrcene (3.45%), terpinen-4-ol (2.78%) and p-cymene (1.53%) representing the major constituents. We have reported for the first time the chemotherapeutic potential of MC in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells by means of apoptosis and disruption of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascade. MC and its major constituent, thymol, inhibit the cell proliferation in different types of cancer cell lines like HL-60, MCF-7, PC-3, A-549 and MDAMB-231. MC was found to be more cytotoxic than thymol in HL-60 cells with an IC50 value of 22μg/ml versus 45 μg/ml for thymol. Both MC and thymol induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, which is evident by Hoechst staining, cell cycle analysis and immuno-expression of Bcl-xL, caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP-1 cleavage. Both induce apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways that were confirmed by enhanced expression of death receptors (TNF-R1, Fas), caspase-9, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and regression of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Interestingly, both MC and thymol inhibit the downstream and upstream signaling of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The degree of apoptosis induction and disruption of the PI3K signaling cascade by MC was significantly higher when compared to thymol.
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As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and M. fistulosa L. essential oils showed potent repellents with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm2, respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.039 ± 0.014 mg/cm2). Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of essential oils of both Monarda species was performed to identify the active repellent compounds and isolated pure compounds were individually tested for repellency. Of the isolated compounds, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol methyl ether were found to be the repellent compounds with MEDs in the range of 0.013-0.063 mg/cm2. Active repellent compounds were also tested for larvicidal activity against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Thymol was the best larvicide among the tested individual compounds (LD50 of 13.9 ppm). None of the individual compounds showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cells; however, the essential oils were toxic to all cell lines.
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In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils from Monarda citriodora and Melaleuca alternifolia was evaluated on 15 common post-harvest pathogens of a variety of crops. Both oils exhibited a high level of antifungal activity both by direct contact and in the vapor phase. Oil from Monarda citriodora was generally more active than that from Melaleuca alternifolia, particularly against more rapidly growing fungal species.
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Essential oils were extracted from four different varieties of lemon-scented plants utilizing supercritical fluid extraction. The plants used included: lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), lemon bergamot (Monarda citriodora), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus). Extracts from three plants of each species were analysed using gas chromatography and confirmed with GC–MS. The compounds identified for each plant species were: lemon balm (citronellal, neral, geranial, neral acetate, caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide), lemon bergamont (thymol, thymol methylester, and α -terpine), lemon eucalyptus (citronellal, neral, caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide), and lemongrass (neral, geranial, and caryophyllene). Supercritical fluid extractions were performed at three pressures (13,790, 27,580, and 41,370 kPa) and two extraction temperatures (40 and 60 °C). The results indicated that the mass percent extracted increased with increasing temperature and pressure, as was the ratio of the compounds in the different samples. The effect of particle size reduction on the extraction yield was also investigated. The extraction yield did not increase due to the increase in surface area as would be expected, but decreased. This has been attributed to the fact that the compounds of interest are extremely volatile and were lost to the atmosphere during the grinding process.
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Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis were screened for antioxidative properties in a lipid-rich matrix as quantified by spectrophotometry using iron (II) sulphate and 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as sources of primordial free radicals. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of M. fragrans, O. vulgare, Pelargonium sp. and T. zygis were screened against 25 different genera of bacteria selected for their agricultural, economic and health significance. The oils demonstrated a range of bioactive properties, with the oils rich in phenolic monoterpenes (M. citriodora and T. zygis) being particularly active in both antioxidant and antibacterial test systems.
Antibacterial activity of Coriander stem and leaves
  • Zhou Lingxiao
  • Yang Ronghua
  • Yue Fuhao