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Wildlife consumption and conservation awareness in China: A long way to go


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An attitudinal survey on wildlife consumption and conservation awareness was conducted in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming and Nanning of China recently. Comparison with the results from a similar survey we did in 2004, after 8 years, the proportion of respondents who had consumed wildlife was dropped slightly from 31.3 % down to 29.6 %. It showed that the rates of wildlife consumed as food and as ingredients for traditional medicines in Guangzhou and Nanning ranked in the top. The consumptions in these two cities were mostly driven by utilitarian motivation, and mainly for food. Meanwhile, the rate of consumers taking wildlife as food was declining significantly in Beijing after 8 years. The results also showed that 52.7 % agreed that wildlife should not be consumed, which was significantly increased comparison with the survey result of 42.7 % in 2004. In addition, respondents agreed that wildlife could be used significantly decline from 42.8 to 34.8 %. It’s indicated that wildlife conservation awareness was raised in China in the past years. We also founded that consumers with higher income and higher educational background were having higher wildlife consumption rate. It suggested that to strengthen the law enforcement and to promote the public awareness were keys to reduce wildlife consumption in China.
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Wildlife consumption and conservation awareness
in China: a long way to go
Li Zhang Feng Yin
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 /
Published online: 6 May 2014
!Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014
Abstract An attitudinal survey on wildlife consumption and conservation awareness was
conducted in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming and Nanning of China recently.
Comparison with the results from a similar survey we did in 2004, after 8 years, the
proportion of respondents who had consumed wildlife was dropped slightly from 31.3 %
down to 29.6 %. It showed that the rates of wildlife consumed as food and as ingredients
for traditional medicines in Guangzhou and Nanning ranked in the top. The consumptions
in these two cities were mostly driven by utilitarian motivation, and mainly for food.
Meanwhile, the rate of consumers taking wildlife as food was declining significantly in
Beijing after 8 years. The results also showed that 52.7 % agreed that wildlife should not
be consumed, which was significantly increased comparison with the survey result of
42.7 % in 2004. In addition, respondents agreed that wildlife could be used significantly
decline from 42.8 to 34.8 %. It’s indicated that wildlife conservation awareness was raised
in China in the past years. We also founded that consumers with higher income and higher
educational background were having higher wildlife consumption rate. It suggested that to
strengthen the law enforcement and to promote the public awareness were keys to reduce
wildlife consumption in China.
Keywords Wildlife consumption !Conservation awareness !
Attitude changes !China
Communicated by David Hawksworth.
L. Zhang (&)!F. Yin
College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
F. Yin
China Wildlife Conservation Association, Beijing 100714, China
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DOI 10.1007/s10531-014-0708-4
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Throughout China’s history, wildlife has been viewed as an important source of food and
income. From a traditional Chinese perspective, as the same as many other countries,
wildlife are a resource to be exploited, not something to be protected for its intrinsic value
(Zhang et al. 2008). With the development of consumer economy, people’s demand for
wildlife products has grown substantially, and using wild animals as pets, medicine, health
care and food has even become a fashionable lifestyle pursued by some people (Zhou
1997; Morgan 2000; Wang et al. 2001; Nooren and Claridge 2001). The robust market
demand gives a huge drive to money-oriented smugglers. Wildlife trafficking, which
involves excessive capturing and non-sustainable utilization of wild species, poses a severe
threat to many endangered species. A large number of species are now on the verge of
extinction as a result of commercial development (Li and Li 1997). As a conservative
estimate, tens of millions of wild animals are shipped each year regionally and interna-
tionally destined to southern China for food or East and Southeast Asia for use in tradi-
tional medicine (World Wildlife Fund-United Kingdom 2001).
Wildlife trade in China is driven by a multitude of markets including: (1) Food, such as
snake, turtle and tortoise, most of which can be found in the market as live animals or animal
parts; (2) Medicine and tonic products, such as musk, tiger bone, bear bile, or deer antler, most
of which can be found as animal parts in the drug store or supermarket;(3) Crafts and souvenirs,
such as ivory and antelope skull, most of which can be found as animal parts in the craft store,
gift shop or open market; (4) Garments and decoration, such as tiger skin, crocodile skin, and
Tibetan antelope wool, most of which can be found as animal skins in the market orport; and (5)
Pets, like turtles, lizards, and blue peacocks, most of which can be found as live animals in the
market (Li and Zhang 2003; Zhang et al. 2008).
Over recent years, people’s demand for wildlife has grown in most of China’s devel-
oped cities, especially big cities in south China. Eating wildlife as food, purchasing ivory
or big cats’ pelt as crafts and souvenirs, and dressing animal furs have become a fash-
ionable lifestyle and symbol of elite status. The rapid increasing of wildlife consumption
and demands in country are key drives in declining wildlife population of endangered tiger,
elephant, pangolins and other species threatened by poaching and trafficking (Gratwicke
et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2010; Burn et al. 2011).
The research used a questionnaire survey of the publics’ present consumption situation and
protection awareness of wildlife in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou (the capital city of Guang-
dong Province), Kunming (the capital city of Yunnan Province), and Nanning (the capital city
of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region) respectively, for the purpose of launching custom-
ized campaign of reducing wildlife consumption. The questionnaire and sampling methodol-
ogy were the same to a survey we carried out in 2004 (Zhang et al. 2008). Tocompare the results
from these two surveys could provide us the changes and trends of wildlife consumption and
conservation awareness of general public in major cities in China, and we also expect that the
research results could provide valuable reference to make decisions for government and non-
government institutions, thereby, the disorderly consumer market could be well managed and
the illegal wildlife trafficking could be punished.
The study used a structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews in Beijing, Shanghai,
Guangzhou, Nanning and Kunming with at least 200 successful samples from each city.
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Adopt multi-stage random sampling to perform door-to-door interview (Coleman 1958).
Choose qualified interviewees strictly according to a selecting order of ‘‘city–district–
community-neighborhood committee-family-interviewee.’’ Interviewees (or respondents)
must be 18 years old or above. Interviewees have not participated in any kind of survey
within the last 6 months. Interviewees, family members, or close friends should not be
working or have worked for a conservation group, a market research institute, a market
research department of a corporation, or an advertisement design company, so that we
could secure the respondents from the survey can present general public’s opinion without
additional influences by certain group of expertise. The total sample size of the interview
was 1,065 individuals, including Beijing (N=205), Shanghai (N=211), Guangzhou
(N=215), Kunming (N=222) and Nanning (N=212).
Interview method
Face-to-face questionnaire. Horizon China (,
a professional survey company was contracted to conduct in-home interviews in this
project. Trained and experienced research interviewers read out the questionnaires to the
interviewees and filled out the answers to the questionnaires. Small gifts were distributed to
respondents for their participation in this survey research.
In the survey, four types of consumer behavior among Chinese urban residents were
addressed in the questionnaire: (1) Using wild animals as food, (2) Using medicine or tonic
products containing wildlife ingredients, (3) Wearing ornaments and garments made from
wildlife, and (4) Keeping wildlife as pets. Considering the frequency of these four types of
wildlife consumption might not be identical, we chose the past 12 months period to track
activities of consuming wildlife as food and medicine. We tracked back ornaments and
garments consumption, as well as keeping wildlife as pets in the past 24 months. Wildlife
we defined in this survey referred to those species listed in See Appendix Table 2.
Meanwhile, consumption motivation, consumption venue, consumed species, consumption
frequency, as well as the characteristics of consumer groups were also studied.
Zhang et al. (2008) defined ‘‘Pure Protection’’ (PP), ‘‘Conditional Utilization’’ (CU),
‘Pure Utilization’’ (PU) and ‘‘Vague’’ to assess the general attitudes towards wildlife
consumption in China through the questions such as ‘‘Should wildlife consumption be
allowed?’’ and ‘‘What kind of wildlife can be used for consumption?’’ in their survey in
2004. We also use these four categories in this survey to measure people’s attitudinal
changes after 8 years.
Data analysis
We used Crosstable Analysis, Pearson Chi square test (DF =1, Fisher’s exact test, two-
tailed), to compare the difference of percentages that respondents’ attitude toward the four
wildlife consumption categories between 2004 and 2012. The date weighted with valid
respondent numbers from different cities in each survey. Kruskall–Wallis test was used to
test the difference of the data among five cities, and Chi Square test was used to analyze the
difference of the consumption attitudes between respondent groups. The software IBM
SPSS 16.0 (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to conduct the analysis.
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Chinese urban residents’ wildlife consumption attitude
According to all 1,065 respondents from this survey, 561 people (52.7 %) agreed that
wildlife should not be consumed. The percentage was significantly increased comparison
with the survey result (42.7 %) in 2004 (Pearson Chi square test, v
=27.171, Fisher’s
exact two tailed P=0.000; see Table 1for details). 371 people (34.8 %) agreed that
wildlife could be used with some certain conditions. The result showed significantly
decline with that from the survey (42.8 %) in 2004. The percentage of people with vague
idea on wildlife consumption or refuse to answer question were significant reduced from
6.6 to 4.2 % (Table 1).
After 8 years, people from different cities showed different changes of their attitude
toward wildlife consumption. In Beijing, the percentage of respondents in the PP group
increased significantly from 48.6 % in 2004 to 88.3 % in 2012; the percentage of CU
declined significantly from 42.6 to 13.7 %; and the percentage of PU dropped significantly
from 4.3 to 0.5 %. In Shanghai and Kunming, both PP group increased significantly from
47.4 and 42.2 % in 2004, to 59.7 and 56.8 % in 2012; PU dropped from 5.7 and 3.7 % in
2004 to 0.5 and 0.5 % in 2012, but there were no significant difference. Although PP
percentage slightly increase from 22.7 to 30.2 % after 8 years, there were no significant
changes in all four cognition types of people’s consumption attitude in Guangzhou, where
had highest rate of CU (54.9 %) and PU (11.4 %), but lowest PP (22.7 %) among other
cities in this survey (See details in Table 1). Nanning was added in research as a major
wildlife trade path between Southeast Asian states and mainland China but it was absent in
the survey in 2004, so its data was not included in this analysis.
315 respondents (29.6 % of total 1,065) claimed they involved in at least one of the four
types of wildlife consumption in the past. It was slightly dropped compared to what we got
in 2004 (31.3 % of total 1,352), but there was no significant difference (Pearson Chi square
test, v
=0.821, Fisher’s exact two tailed P=0.374).
Wildlife consumed as food
Twenty-three species, including nine species listed in the ‘‘National List of Wildlife Under
Special Protection’’, were listed in our survey questionnaire as wildlife consumed for food
(See Appendix Table 2). The results showed that 286 of 1,065 respondents (26.9 %) had
previously consumed wildlife of given species; including 4.2 % of interviewees had eaten
the protected animal species. And 83.3 % of respondents in Guangzhou had eaten wildlife
in the past year that was significantly higher than those from the other four cities
(Kruskall–Wallis test, v
=116.87, df =4, P=0.00), followed by Nanning (53.3 %),
Kunming (21.6 %), Shanghai (14.2 %) and Beijing (4.9 %). The rate of consuming
wildlife as food in Beijing declined significantly from 19.1 % in 2004 to 4.9 % in 2012
(Pearson v
=22.297, Fisher’s exact P=0.000). But the rate was increased in Guangzhou
from 44.2 % to the current 83.3 % (Pearson v
=73.106, Fisher’s exact P=0.000).
There were no significant changes in Shanghai (Pearson v
=0.072, Fisher’s exact
P=0.818) and Kunming after 8 years (Pearson v
=0.811, Fisher’s exact P=0.436).
Of the species listed in See Appendix Table 2, wild quails (10.2 % of respondents) and
snakes (10.0 %) were most commonly consumed as food, followed by sparrows (6.3 %),
frogs (5.9 %) and ducks (5.2 %).
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Table 1 Analysis of Chinese urban residents’ attitude toward wildlife consumption in different cities
Cognition type Year Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Kunming Total
Number of
% Number of
% Number of
% Number of
% Number of
Pure Protection 2004 191 48.6 237 47.4 53 22.7 34 42.2 577 42.7
2012 181 88.3 126 59.7 65 30.2 126 56.8 561 52.7
Pearson Chi square test
(Fisher’s exact)
*** * ns * ***
Conditional Utilization 2004 167 42.6 196 39.3 128 54.9 38 47.8 578 42.8
2012 28 13.7 68 32.2 118 54.9 78 35.1 371 34.8
Pearson Chi Square test
(Fisher’s exact)
*** ns ns * ***
Pure utilization 2004 17 4.3 28 5.7 27 11.4 3 3.7 92 6.9
2012 1 0.5 1 0.5 20 9.3 1 0.5 62 5.8
Pearson Chi square test
(Fisher’s exact)
** * ns ns ns
Vague 2004 17 4.3 38 7.7 26 11.0 5 6.3 88 6.6
2012 3 1.5 5 2.4 19 8.8 11 5.0 45 4.2
Pearson Chi square test
(Fisher’s exact)
ns * ns ns *
Total 2004 393 500 233 79 1,335
2012 205 211 215 222 1,039
(1) The valid sample for this questionnaire was 1,039 (the total survey sample was 1,065 in this study); (2) Nanning was not in the survey in 2004 but added in this survey as a
major wildlife trade path between Southeast Asian states and mainland China, so the data was not included in this comparison. (3) Cross Table Pearson Chi square test
(Fisher’s exact) was used to compare data from the two surveys in 2004 and 2012, df =1
ns no significance
*** P\0.001, ** P\0.01, * P\0.05 (two-tailed)
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A comparison of gender, age, educational level, and income reveals that being young
(18–29 year-old, 36 %), higher educated (college and above, 42.5 %) and white-collar
(monthly salary above $650 USD, 39.5 %) were prominent characteristics of wildlife
consumers from five China cities in this survey (Fig. 1).
Average frequency of eating wildlife among five cities’ respondents was 2.7 times per
year. 51.3 % of respondents consumed wildlife as food for 1–2 times per year, 38.1 % of
respondents ate 3–5 times each year. On average, the ratio of respondents eating wild
animals in Beijing was low, but those consumers’ consumption frequency was high.
62.5 % of consumers in Beijing consumed wild animals for 3–5 times each year. Con-
sumption frequencies in Shanghai and Kunming were relatively low. Most consumers in
Shanghai, Kunming, and Guangzhou consumed wild animals 1–2 times each year; 48.8 %
of consumer respondents in Nanning ate wild animals more than five times each year.
Good taste (45.7 %), ‘‘for fun’’ (38.6 %) and better nutrition (34.7 %) were the top three
reasons for consumers eating wildlife. 26.3 % of wild animal eaters were passive con-
sumers consuming wildlife as food at social occasions but no for their taste or nutrition.
Wildlife consumed as ingredients for traditional medicines
This survey listed 18 species of wild animals and 4 species of wild plants. 9.6 % of
interviewees admitted they had previously consumed listed animals and plants as medicine
or health products at least once. Ratio of respondents who had never taken traditional
medicines or health products containing wild plants and wild animal parts was 90.4 %.
31.2 % of respondents in Guangzhou had used traditional medicines and health products
containing wild plants and animals as ingredients in the past year. This rate/proportion
reached 23.6 % in Nanning, and it was 12.5 % in Kunming. Consumption rate in Beijing
was 1.5 % and Shanghai was 2.8 %.
Fig. 1 A comparison of the percentage of wildlife consumers’ gender, age, educational level, and income
reveals that being young, with higher education and higher income were prominent characteristics of
wildlife consumers, Chi square test, df =1, two-tailed, ***P\0.001, **P\0.01, *P\0.05 (two-tailed),
ns no significance (N=315)
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For the consumer groups, compared with respondents with medium or low income and
educational degrees, people with high income and educational degrees had higher con-
sumption rate of wild animals and plants (Fig. 2). Consumers in elder age groups were less
likely to consume medicines and health products containing wild animals and plants as
ingredients, (22.1 % above 40 year-old, 35.2 % between 18 and 40 year-old).
Wildlife used for ornaments or clothing
20 kinds of ornaments and clothing were listed in the questionnaire (See Appendix
Table 2). Only 31 people (2.9 % of all respondents) admitted that they had used at least
one kind of the products during the past 2 years. Consumption rate for people with high
Fig. 2 High percentage of wildlife consumers were those with higher education and higher income groups
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educational level was higher than consumption rates for people with middle and low
educational levels. Similarly, the consumption rate tended to be higher for consumers with
high income (Fig. 2).
Among the 20 categories of animal ornaments and clothing, products made of coral, seal
pelt, ivory and otter skin were the top four categories most frequently consumed. Categories of
products tended to be more diversified for consumers with mid to high levels of education and
income. In addition, the average amount of wildlife products consumed as ornament or clothing
in the past 2 years was 2.05 times per person among those 31 consumer respondents; 73.9 % of
them purchased wildlife ornament or clothing once to twice per year, 21.5 % consumed 3–5
times a year, and 2.3 % consumed more than five times a year.
Wildlife kept as pets
3.9 % of respondents had kept wild animals among the 28 listed group species as pets in past
2 years. People who never kept wildlife as pet took up the percentage of 96.1 %. Chelonians
were the most popular pet. Chelonians and skilled birds were pet species popular in Beijing and
Shanghai, while people in Guangdong, Nanning and Kunming kept more species as pet. Wild
birds were particularly favorable in Kunming. The rate of raising wild animals in Nanning
(12.3 %) was prominently higher than those of other 4 cities (4.2 % on average).
On average, each pet keeper had 1.95 pets in the past 2 years. 80.2 % of those pet
keepers raised 1–2 pets at home, and 2.1 % of them raised more than five wildlife pets. For
residents who kept wild animals in the past 2 years, pet market (51.8 %) was the primary
resource to get a pet, followed by gifts or adoption (30.9 %). The third most popular
approach was purchasing from less regulated mobile stalls (21.7 %).
Raising wild animals could bring fun and joy to one’s life was the major reason that consumers
kept wildlife as pets (56.2 %); the next reason was to admire the animals’ special features
(41.1 %); and 11.2 % of wild animal keepers considered raising them as a symbol of fashion.
Consumption frequency
We referred to people directly involved in eating, using, wearing, or raising wild animals
as ‘‘actual consumers.’’ 315 respondents of the survey, or 29.6 % of the total respondents,
were involved in at least one of the mentioned consumption behaviors/means. We used
‘frequency of consumption’’ as guideline to classify consumers into degrees of con-
sumption. In this survey, there were 303 out of 315 interviewees who provided valid
answers to the question of consumption frequency.
We classified each kind of wildlife consumption behavior (into different categories) and
assigned them with numeric values. Consumption of once to twice a year received one
point, three to five times a year earned two points, over five times a year got three points, so
that the total numeric value of an actual consumer reflected his or her consumption
behavior. Consumers ended up with a score ranging from 1 to 12. We classified 303 valid
samples into the following categories: (A) respondents with 1–2 points were light con-
sumers; (B) 3–4 points were mild consumers; and (C) five points and above were heavy
consumers. Among the 303 actual consumers, about 60 % (63.7 %) were light consumers,
followed by 27.5 % mild consumers and 8.8 % heavy consumers.
For those respondents refused to consume wild animal mainly for their wildlife pro-
tection awareness (46.6 %). Health and infectious disease concerns (29.0 %), and lack of
access (13.9 %) were also significant factors that lead people did not consume wildlife
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Over recent years, people’s demand for wildlife had grown in most of China’s developed
cities, especially big cities in south China. Eating wildlife as food, purchasing ivory or big
cats’ pelt as crafts and souvenirs, and dressing animal furs had become a fashionable
lifestyle and symbol of elite status. The rapid increasing of wildlife consumption and
demands in country, which became the key driver to the declining of wildlife population of
endangered Asian big cats (Dinerstein et al. 2007; Gratwicke et al. 2008), African ele-
phants (Burn et al. 2011; Maisels et al. 2013), pangolins (Srikosamatara et al. 1992; Zhang
et al. 2010) and other species threatened by illegal killing and trafficking.
In our previous research conducted in 2004, the percentage of respondents who had
consumed wildlife was 31.1 % (Zhang et al. 2008). Now after 8 years, the proportion
declined to 29.6 %, but there was no significant reduction of wildlife consumption in the
country (Pearson Chi square test, v
=0.067, df =1, Fisher’s exact P=0.796). This
result indicated that the size of wildlife consumption group was not yet under control, and
the problem of wildlife consumption in China was still worrying.
The consumption rate of Guangzhou ranked on the top among five cities in this survey. In
addition, the species consumed were being diversified and consumption of wildlife was
becoming more common in Guangzhou and Nanning. The two cities’ consumption was driven
mostly by utilitarian motivation, and the main consumption was eating wildlife as food.
Wildlife consumers tended to be younger in age. Consumers with higher income and higher
educational background had higher wildlife consumption rates, and formed the main consumer
group of wild animals.They preferred ‘‘selective protection’’, ‘‘protecting according to the law’
and ‘‘protection of only purely wild animals’’ in terms of their consumption attitude.
Compared to the situation in 2004, the rate of consumers consuming wildlife as food in
Beijing and Shanghai was conspicuously declining. Beijing’s wildlife consumption rated in
all four means of consumption was the lowest among the five cities. Residents of Beijing
and Shanghai showed significantly stronger support to wildlife protection through ‘‘pro-
tecting all wildlife’’ (or ‘‘complete protection of wildlife’’) and refraining from eating,
using, or keeping wildlife as pets (Table 1). These encouraging findings could due to the
successful and continuous public awareness education campaigns led by various govern-
mental agencies and civil society during the Beijing Olympics in 2008 and the Shanghai
World Expo in 2010.
Although ‘‘protection of all wildlife’’ was still agreed on by the majority, the rate of
people agreeing with ‘‘selective protection’’ was rising and becoming the top protection
ideology of the actual wildlife consumer group. ‘‘Protection according to law’’ was agreed
upon among types of selective protection. However, the actual consumers had very limited
knowledge of related laws, so consumption of legally protected wildlife still existed. The
gap between protection attitude and actual consumption behavior needed to be solved/
diminished by spreading legal knowledge.
Acknowledgments We greatly appreciated the financial support from Freeland Foundation to Conser-
vation International, which was a sub-grant from USAID funded Asia Regional Response to Endangered
Species Trafficking (ARREST) program. We thanked to the Horizon Key Research and its staff who took
the field survey in five cities. We were grateful to Miss Jia Qi, Miss Siwaporn Tee, Mr. Kun Tian and Miss
Rachel Lee for their comments on the survey report and this manuscript.
See Table 2.
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Table 2 Species listed in the questionnaire to question the consumption of wildlife products as food, traditional medicines, ornaments or clothing, and kept as pets
Consumed as food Consumed as medicine Consumed for ornaments or clothing Kept as pets
Shark (general shark species)
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser
Giant salamander (Andrias
davidianus) II
Frogs (general frog species)
Snakes (general snake species)
Chelonians (general turtle
Yangtze alligator (Aligator
Monitor lizards (Varanus)I
Wild duck (general duck
Turtle dove (Streptopelia
Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
Common quail (Coturnix
Ostrich (Struthio camelus)
Sparrows (Passer,Emberiza)
Bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis)
Hare (Lepus)
Mongolian gazelle (Procapra
gutturosa) II
Wild boar (Sus scrofa)
Roe deer (Capreolus pygargus)
Sika deer (Cervus nippon)I
Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus)
II Pangolin (Manis) II
Masked palm civet (Paguma
Seahorse (all seahorse species in
Toad venom (Bufo gargarizans)
Snake gall (wild snake species in
Snake oil (wild snake species in general)
Giant gecko (Gekko gecko) II Turtle
shell (turtle species in general)
Rhino horn (Dicerorhinus)I
Antelope horn (Saiga tatarica)I
Musk (Noschus)I
Deer penis (Cervus)
Deer blood (Cervus)
Pilose antler (Cervus)
Pangolin scales (Manis) II
Bear gall (Ursus) II
Tiger bone (Panthera tigris) I Leopard
bone (Panthera)I
Fur seal oil (Arctocephalus)
Elephant skin (Elephas maximus)I
Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis)I
Lignum Santali Albi (Santalum album)
Caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis)
Dendrobium (Dendrobium) I or II
Coral (Coral species in general)
Specimen of butterfly (species unknown)
Specimen of peacock feather (Pavo)
Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) II
Python skin (Python molurus) I Crocodile skin
(species unknown)
Ivory (loxodonta or Elephas maximus)I
Specimen of argali’s head (Ovis ammon) II
Shahtoosh (Pantholops hodgsoni)I
Sika deer skin (Cervus nippon)I
Muntjac skin (Muntiacus)
Specimen of deer antler (species unknown)
Specimen of rhino horn (Dicerorhinus)I
Fur of seal (species unknown)
Fur of marten (Martes)
Fur of fax (species unknown)
Fur of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides)
Otter skin (Lutra or Aonyx) II
Lynx skin (Felis lynx) II
Tiger skin (Panthera tigris)I
Salamanders (species in common trade)
Lizards (species in common trade)
Chelonian (species in common trade) I and II
Red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)
Ornamental pigeons (Columba)
Oriental Dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis)
Asian Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradise)
Blue-and-white Flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana)
Red-billed Blue Magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha)
Indian pitta (Pitta brachyuran)
Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicas)
Parrot (Agapornis,Psittacula, and Cacatua)
Crested mynah (Acridotheres cristatellus)
Hill mynah (Gracula religiosa) Red-breasted parakeet
(Psittacula alexandri) II
Japanese Grosbeak (Eophona personata)
Siberian Blue Robin (Luscinia cyane)
White-rumped Munia (Lonchura striata)
Vinous-throated Parrotbill (Paradoxornis webbianus)
Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) Pallas’s Leaf Warbler
(Phylloscopus proregulus)
Siberian Rubythroat (Luscinia calliope)
Cettia spp.
Hawks and owls (species in common trade) I or II Macaques
(Macaca) II Loris (Loris or Nycticebus)I
Ifirst class protected species, II second class protected species (China Wildlife Protection Law)
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... Yet again, knowledge regarding patterns, levels, and drivers of pangolin trade in China is little-studied (Zhang & Yin 2014;Yin et al. 2015). The following sections will provide a general overview of existing knowledge of pangolin trade and conservation in China. ...
... Firstly, the application of social science disciplines to conservation needs to be greatly strengthened, particularly in China. Although several conservation research projects have used social science methods and theories, the numbers are few compared with: (i) the wide geographic range of China; (ii) the great number of species of conservation concern; (iii) the diverse cultural and social characteristics within this country; and (iv) the numbers of studies that have only used natural science approaches (Zhang, Hua & Sun 2008;Dutton, Hepburn & Macdonald 2011;Zhang & Yin 2014;Nash, Wong & Turvey 2016;Pan et al. 2016;Turvey et al. 2017). This study highlighted the lack of social science evidence in existing conservation practices and the need for evidence-based and theory-informed interventions. ...
... Thus, income level might be more of a deterministic factor in a less-developed province such as Hainan than in Henan.Moreover, significantly more pangolin meat consumers were identified from Hainan than Henan Province(Figure 4.8). From a price perspective, having one pangolin dish is more expensive than having one prescription containing pangolin products(Drury 2009a;Zhang & Yin 2014;Sandalj, Treydte & Ziegler 2016;Xu et al. 2016). This could also contribute to the observed different factors in the two provinces. ...
The demand for wildlife products around the world is growing rapidly according to various researches. As a result, trade in, and consumption of, wildlife products has become a major threat to global biodiversity. Pangolins are currently recognised as one of the most trafficked mammalian taxa globally, due to the high international and local demand for their products. Many recognize China as one of the biggest markets for pangolin products. Thus, its role in tackling illegal pangolin trade is a crucial responsibility for China globally. However, pangolin trade and markets in China have been little investigated in any holistic and in-depth way. My study uses social science approaches and aims to provide insights on pangolin trade and markets in China to help suggesting more effective conservation interventions. Literature, regulations, and seven online trade platforms related to pangolin trade and conservation were searched and relevant data were collected to provide background knowledge of current pangolin trade and markets in China. Fieldwork was conducted in the two Chinese provinces of Henan and Hainan from Sept 2016 to Apr 2017. Questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews, in-depth discussions with stakeholders along the pangolin trading chain were the main social science methods used in this research. Market Reduction Approaches (Schneider 2008) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen 1991) were used as theoretical frameworks to design the research questions. One pangolin hunter, 131 individual villagers, four villager groups (four to ten people per group), 34 reserve workers, two pangolin meat dealers, four pangolin meat consumers, five restaurant owners, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in 41 hospitals, sellers in 134 pharmaceutical shops, two TCM wholesalers, and 2168 members of the general public were interviewed or surveyed in this study. Results show that illegal pangolin trade is widespread in the two study provinces of mainland China, especially in TCM markets, which were active both online and offline. The wild pangolin populations on Hainan Island still face threats from poaching and local demand for wildmeat. The main contributors to the widespread illegal trade were the lack of adequate law enforcement; poor awareness of trade related regulations among public and some key stakeholders; and the absence of certain key stakeholders in pangolin conservation process, such as the TCM community. Through this study, I suggest enforcement could be strengthened through increasing public participation in the process, in ways of reporting illicit trade and products. This requires enhancing public knowledge and awareness on pangolin trade and related regulations. On the other hand, to deal with the lack of representation of TCM community in pangolin conservation, their unique function and role in the overall conservation blueprint needs to be highlighted and targeted interventions are needed. In summary, achieving effective pangolin conservation in China needs close collaboration between all key stakeholders to correspondingly address the multiple types of demand on pangolin products. Methodology and insights from this study can also contribute to helping conservation in China or globally, and not only for pangolins, but for other threatened species as well.
... For the 26.7% of participants in 2020 who did change their attitudes towards pangolin consumption from five years ago, conservation concerns for pangolins were considered the most prominent factor for their more negative attitudes toward consumption. When it comes to wildlife consumption, raising conservation awareness remains one of the most recommended solutions to demand reduction (Lee et al., 2009;Liu et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2008Zhang et al., , 2014. On the contrary, Moorhouse et al. (2017) found that in the case of exotic pets, conservation impacts did not influence consumer choices, while legality and zoonotic risk did. ...
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Pangolins have recently received significant media attention globally as the trade for their scales and meat is driving many species closer to extinction. As a result of this, there have been increased legal regulations placed on pangolin trade in recent years. The suggestion that pangolins may have been involved in the transmission of COVID-19 further brought the issues of pangolin consumption to the fore in 2020. However, we have little understanding of the attitudes of the general public towards pangolin consumption pre- or post the outbreak of COVID-19. We conducted surveys in Hong Kong, a critical transit hub in the trafficking routes for pangolins, in 2015 (n = 1037) and 2020 (n = 1028) to determine general attitudes towards pangolin consumption in the city, and whether these attitudes changed since the onset of COVID-19. We found low reported rates of pangolin consumption (< 1% of respondents) in both surveys, and most of the respondents who professed to eating pangolins were aged above 50. Perceptions of how trends in pangolin consumption are changing were consistent between 2015 and 2020, with 55% of the public in 2015 and 57% in 2020 believing that consumption has declined over time. In 2020, respondents cited conservation (endangered status of pangolins) and health concerns (risk of disease transmission) as the two primary reasons (> 50%) for declining attitudes toward consumption. Overall, COVID-19 does not, specifically, appear to be associated with changed perceptions of pangolin consumption in Hong Kong: > 75% of respondents stated that there is no relationship between pangolins and COVID-19, or were unsure about any such connection. Only 1% mentioned an awareness of the illegality of pangolin consumption as a reason for not consuming them. As such, our results challenge simple narratives regarding the impact of COVID-19 on pangolin consumption. We suggest that future demand reduction efforts could emphasize the conservation impact and health risks of consuming pangolins, and specifically focus on the older generations. As pangolins continue to be trafficked and threatened with extinction, further research into the perceptions and attitudes of consumers of these products is needed to inform targeted and effective interventions.
... Although many of the species used in traditional medicine are not threatened, in some occasions products can come from endangered species (Zhang and Yin, 2014), such as rhinoceros horn (Biggs et al., 2013), caterpillar fungi (Hopping et al., 2018), or plants like the orchid Gastrodia elata (Subedi et al., 2013). When carried out unsustainably, the use of wildlife in traditional medicine, whether used legally or illegally, can threaten wild populations (Moorhouse et al., 2020). ...
The trade in a wildlife species is driven by a unique combination of economic, cultural, and societal motivations, which fluctuate over time and space. Although the wildlife trade is vital for the livelihood of millions of people worldwide, it can bring serious consequences for the environment, economy, and human health when it is not well managed or regulated. In addition, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, spread of invasive alien species, and zoonoses and other diseases can be connected to the wildlife trade in its illegal or unsustainable form. Here, we present some purposes and drivers of the trade, the actors and legislation involved, and some trends and patterns of one of the most relevant challenges in conservation.
... Wildlife has been hunted and traded for centuries locally and internationally for consumption, ornamentation, clothing, and medicine. Despite substantial investment in wildlife conservation, illegal trading maintains substantial pressure on natural populations (Zhang and Yin, 2014;Van Roon et al., 2019;Xu et al., 2020). More recently, the Internet has created a new landscape of online illegal trading which amplifies the outreach, facilitates the trading process, and increases transactions nationally and internationally (Sung and Fong, 2018;Wong et al., 2020). ...
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Anthropogenic wildlife exploitation threatens biodiversity worldwide. With the emergence of online trading which facilitates the physical movement of wildlife across countries and continents, wildlife conservation is more challenging than ever. One form of wildlife exploitation involves no physical movement of organisms, presenting new challenges. It consists of hunting and fishing “experiments” for monetized online entertainment. Here we analyze >200 online videos of these so-called experiments in the world's largest video platform (YouTube). These videos generated about half a billion views between 2019 and 2020. The number of target species (including threatened animals), videos, and views increased rapidly during this period. The material used in these experiments raises serious ethical questions about animal welfare and the normalization of violence to animals on the Internet. The emergence of this phenomenon highlights the need for online restriction of this type of content to limit the spread of animal cruelty and the damage to global biodiversity. It also sheds light on some conservation gaps in the virtual sphere of the Internet which offers biodiversity-related business models that has the potential to spread globally.
... Recent evidence suggests that low involvement of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) community and informal stakeholders' participation in pangolin conservation advocacy are the key factors facilitating the illegal trade. Also, poverty and lack of public awareness of wildlife trade among the locals has been highlighted as a driver of the illegal wildlife trade (Zhang and Yin 2014;Yin et al. 2015;Wong 2019;van Uhm and Wong 2019). However, although many illegal pangolins scale seizure reports coming into China originated from Africa, cross-border seizure reports of live pangolins and frozen pangolin meat are predominantly from Southeast Asia. ...
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Wildlife trafficking poses a major threat to global biodiversity. Species such as pangolins are particularly vulnerable and trade continues almost unabated despite numerous interventions aimed at eradicating illegal wildlife trade. Despite restrictions on the pangolin trade, thousands of pangolins continue to be intercepted annually. We focused on China because of the recent delisting of pangolins from the Chinese pharmacopeia, and their removal from healthcare insurance, despite deeply ingrained traditions of having pangolins for ethno-medicinal use. We collated pangolin interception data from public online media seizure reports to characterize the pangolin trade within China, and found that a total of 326 independent seizures equivalent to 143,130 pangolins (31,676 individuals and 222,908 kg of scale) were reported in 26 provinces. Pangolin domestic seizures are greatest in the southern cities of Dehong, Fangchenggang, and Guangzhou. Also, we found 17 countries within the global pangolins range which were the major source of the pangolin shipments to China. The number of arrests and convictions was much lower than the number of pangolin incidents reported. Our results show a significant increase in the volume of scales and number of live pangolin seizures after amended endangered species law came into effect in 2018, and recorded the highest number of individual pangolin interceptions. China has shown increasing wildlife seizures over time, owing partly to emergent trends in the international wildlife trade as well as increasing global demand for ethnomedicine. The future eradication of illegal wildlife trade in China is dependent not only on stringent border control and offender prosecution but also the; removal of other threatened species from the pharmacopeia and healthcare insurance which includes wildlife derivatives. Furthermore, our work highlights importance of current policy intervention to combat the pangolin trade within China, and the need for further interventions both within China and in export countries.
... Moreover, drawing from our insight, future design of behavior change strategies should encourage social engagement, where it is essential to increase selfefficacy about how to act and strengthen the social support Notably, we observed that the surge in law enforcement operations in late 2012 appeared to coincide with China's commitment to the 'Ecological Civilization' ideology first proposed in November 2012 (Xiao and Zhao 2017). Meanwhile, many efforts have been carried out to mainstream biodiversity conservation and improve public conservation awareness in China (Zhang and Yin 2014;Olmedo et al. 2020). As such, it would be important to further explore in-depth the interaction between enforcement and social impacts. ...
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Illegal wildlife trade enforcement is a cornerstone conservation strategy worldwide, yet we have a limited understanding on its social impacts. Using Chinese online wildlife seizure news (2003–2018), we evaluated the interactions among enforcement operations, news frequency, and social engagement (i.e., whistle-blowing) frequency. Our results showed that intensive enforcement operations, which commenced after 2012, have social impacts by increasing the frequency of all seizure news significantly by 28% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 5%, 51%] and those via whistle-blowing by 24% [95% CI: 2%, 45%], when compared to counterfactual models where possible confounding factors were accounted for. Furthermore, we revealed the potential interaction between enforcement seizure news with and without social engagement, and the consequential social feedback process. Of the species identified from ‘whistle-blowing’ news, up to 28% are considered as high conservation priorities. Overall, we expanded our understanding of the enforcement impacts to social dimensions, which could contribute to improving the cost-effectiveness of such conservation efforts.
Demand for Saiga Antelope Saiga tatarica horn products in Southeast Asia, due to their perceived medicinal value, has drastically impacted the conservation of this species. At the same time, poor understanding of the dynamics of this trade in parts of Southeast Asia continues to impede regulation and conservation efforts. Here we examine the trade of Saiga horn products in Thailand through a rapid physical and online market survey, and via an analysis of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade data. We found an active local trade in Saiga horn products in Thailand, with both physical market surveys and online surveys showing predominantly two forms of Saiga horn products in the market, i.e., cooling water and horn shavings (mostly sold as pre-packaged boiling kits). These products are commercially marketed as staple household medicines. Greater scrutiny, monitoring and research is urgently needed to understand how the use of Saiga horn is being regulated in Thailand including the number of licensed traders, potential stockpiles and management of these. Traditional medicine outlets and online sales of commercial Saiga horn products also requires attention. As a non-native species, the Saiga Antelope is not protected in Thailand which makes it difficult for enforcement authorities to prevent illegal trade of Saiga horn products within the country. Thailand is currently revising its wildlife laws with the intention of addressing the protection of non-native and CITES-listed species. Considering the widespread use of Saiga horn in Thailand, we recommend that Saiga Antelope be included in the revised species protection lists to enable enforcement action against trade in illegally sourced Saiga horn products.
Game meat can be considered an alternative to traditional meats and is growing steadily. Previous literature has not investigated why consumers choose or buy game meats. The study draws on the theory of Consumer Choice Value and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The moderating influence of food neophobia/neophiliac behaviour is also examined. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling, cluster-analysis, and multigroup analysis. Regarding consumer's choice value, epistemic and social value were found significant. TPB shows that perceived behavioural control was non-significant and to some extent, consumers with food neophobia/neophiliac behaviour moderated the purchase behaviour. Consumer's perceived well-being mediates the relationship between intention and purchase behaviour. It contributes to the breadth of the current theoretical-framework and provides useful insights for retailers and researchers.
Wet markets sell fresh food and are a global phenomenon. They are important for food security in many regions worldwide but have come under scrutiny due to their potential role in the emergence of infectious diseases. The sale of live wildlife has been highlighted as a particular risk, and the World Health Organisation has called for the banning of live, wild-caught mammalian species in markets unless risk assessment and effective regulations are in place. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a global scoping review of peer-reviewed information about the sale of live, terrestrial wildlife in markets that are likely to sell fresh food, and collated data about the characteristics of such markets, activities involving live wildlife, the species sold, their purpose, and animal, human, and environmental health risks that were identified. Of the 56 peer-reviewed records within scope, only 25% (n = 14) focussed on disease risks; the rest focused on the impact of wildlife sale on conservation. Although there were some global patterns (for example, the types of markets and purpose of sale of wildlife), there was wide diversity and huge epistemic uncertainty in all aspects associated with live, terrestrial wildlife sale in markets such that the feasibility of accurate assessment of the risk of emerging infectious disease associated with live wildlife trade in markets is currently limited. Given the value of both wet markets and wildlife trade and the need to support food affordability and accessibility, conservation, public health, and the social and economic aspects of livelihoods of often vulnerable people, there are major information gaps that need to be addressed to develop evidence-based policy in this environment. This review identifies these gaps and provides a foundation from which information for risk assessments can be collected.
Since illegal wildlife trade poses challenges to biodiversity and public security, improving people’s wildlife conservation through environmental education has become an important issue. This study analyzes the intervention effect of labeling in wildlife conservation education and explores the underlying mechanism by targeting adolescents. Specifically, it is found that 1) the labeling in wildlife conservation education can improve teenagers’ willingness to protect wildlife; 2) the environmental self-identity is highly correlated with wildlife conservation.
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Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.
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African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.
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Commercial trade in wildlife is the major cause of species endangerment and a main threat to animal welfare in China and its neighboring countries. Driven by consumptive use for food and traditional medicine, the large volume of both legal and illegal trade in wildlife has caused great destruction to ecosystems and pushed many species to the brink of extinction. Data gathered from trading hubs at ports, boundary markets, city markets and stores, indicates the large amount of wildlife traded in the region of Guangxi, Yunnan and Qinghai provinces, a direct result of the numerous wildlife markets available. In a survey distributed in various trading places, while about half of the respondents agreed that wildlife should be protected, 60% of them had consumed wildlife at some point in the last 2years. The results also indicated that law and regulation on wildlife trade control is insufficient. Wildlife trade controls are very limited because of bias on the utilization of wildlife as a natural resource to be exploited by the government agencies. The survey also shows that the current situation of wildlife consumption in key cities in China is serious, especially the consumption for food. The main consumption groups in China are male and young people with high education levels and good incomes. The key in public awareness publicity and education is to give them more information on the negative impacts of wildlife consumption and knowledge of protection.
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Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10(th) Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.
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Precipitous declines in Africa's native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km² Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (-76%) than those in West Africa (-33%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (∼900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa's northern savannas.
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A heated debate has recently emerged between tiger farmers and conservationists about the potential consequences of lifting the ban on trade in farmed tiger products in China. This debate has caused unfounded speculation about the extent of the potential market for tiger products. To fill this knowledge gap, we surveyed 1880 residents from a total of six Chinese cities to understand Urban Chinese tiger consumption behavior, knowledge of trade issues and attitudes towards tiger conservation. We found that 43% of respondents had consumed some product alleged to contain tiger parts. Within this user-group, 71% said that they preferred wild products over farmed ones. The two predominant products used were tiger bone plasters (38%) and tiger bone wine (6.4%). 88% of respondents knew that it was illegal to buy or sell tiger products, and 93% agreed that a ban in trade of tiger parts was necessary to conserve wild tigers. These results indicate that while Urban Chinese people are generally supportive of tiger conservation, there is a huge residual demand for tiger products that could resurge if the ban on trade in tiger parts is lifted in China. We suspect that the current supply of the market is predominantly met by fakes or substitutes branded as tiger medicines, but not listing tiger as an ingredient. We suggest that the Traditional Chinese Medicine community should consider re-branding these products as bone-healing medicines in order to reduce the residual demand for real tiger parts over the long-term. The lifting of the current ban on trade in farmed tiger parts may cause a surge in demand for wild tiger parts that consumers say are better. Because of the low input costs associated with poaching, wild-sourced parts would consistently undercut the prices of farmed tigers that could easily be laundered on a legal market. We therefore recommend that the Chinese authorities maintain the ban on trade in tiger parts, and work to improve the enforcement of the existing ban.
Survey research methods have often led to the neglect of social structure and of the relations among individuals. On the other hand, survey methods are highly efficient in bringing in a large volume of data—amenable to statistical treatment—at a relatively low cost in time and effort. Can the student of social structure enjoy the advantages of the survey without neglecting the relationships which make up that structure? In other words, can he use a method which ordinarily treats each individual as an isolated unit in order to study social structure?
Attitudes toward consumption and conservation of tigers in China Survey of cross-border trade in live wildlife between China and Vietnam
  • B J Mills
  • A Dutton
  • G Gabriel
  • B Long
  • Wright G B Seidensticker
  • Wang Y Zhang
B, Mills J, Dutton A, Gabriel G, Long B, Seidensticker G, Wright B, Wang Y, Zhang L (2008) Attitudes toward consumption and conservation of tigers in China. PLoS ONE 3(7):e2544 Li Y, Li D (1997) Survey of cross-border trade in live wildlife between China and Vietnam. Prot China's Biodivers 1:159–175
Guide book on wildlife import and export management Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa Chinese medicine raising wildlife concerns. Reuters News Agency
  • C Zhang
  • F Maisels
  • Blake S S Strindberg
  • Wittemyer
C, Zhang L (2003) Guide book on wildlife import and export management. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing Maisels F, Strindberg S, Blake S, Wittemyer G et al (2013) Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 8(3):e59469 Morgan D (2000) Chinese medicine raising wildlife concerns. Reuters News Agency. Available from http:// Accessed 17 Dec 2000