Article

The effect of a single bout of exercise on energy and fatigue states: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background: Studies examining acute exercise effects on energy and fatigue levels have not been quantitatively summarized. Purpose: To estimate the population effects of a single bout of exercise on energy and fatigue states and examine potential moderators. Methods: Google Scholar and MEDLINE were searched systematically for published studies that measured changes in energy and fatigue after acute exercise. Meta-analytic techniques were used to analyze 58 energy effects and 58 fatigue effects from the same 16 studies involving 678 participants. Most studies involved 21–40 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic-type exercise. Result: The homogeneous mean effect for energy was Δ = 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39, 0.56). The heterogeneous mean effect for fatigue was Δ = 0.03 (95% CI = −0.08, 0.13). The fatigue effect was moderated by a three-way interaction between change in feelings of energy, exercise intensity, and exercise duration. Conclusion: Acute exercise enhances feelings of energy. Decreases in fatigue occur only when post-exercise increases in energy are at least moderately large after low-to-moderate intensity exercise lasting longer than 20 minutes. Future research should focus on short-duration (40 minutes) exercise in non-student groups.

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... While Boolani and colleagues 24 found that 6 minutes of exercise increase feelings of energy and decrease feelings of fatigue, a meta-analysis by Loy and colleagues 8 reports that decreases in feelings of fatigue with a single session of exercise are moderated by feelings of energy, exercise intensity, and duration. They report that feelings of fatigue decreased when there was at least a moderately large increase in feelings of energy after low-to moderate-intensity exercise lasting longer than 20 minutes. ...
... They report that feelings of fatigue decreased when there was at least a moderately large increase in feelings of energy after low-to moderate-intensity exercise lasting longer than 20 minutes. 8 Interestingly, Ward-Ritacco and colleagues 26 reported that although resistance training in women who were pregnant resulted in increased feelings of mental and physical energy after all sessions, feelings of mental and physical fatigue decreased in 79% to 88% of the sessions. Their findings suggest that there may be times when exercise increases feelings of fatigue. ...
... Aquatic equipment varied by session and incorporated aerobic steps, hand buoys, arm floats, buoyancy belts, noodles, boards, and drag gloves. Participants were educated on the Borg RPE scale (score [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20], which was also posted on pool walls for reference; they were asked to choose exercise modifications to maintain an exertion of 11 to 13 ("fairly light" to "somewhat hard") corresponding to moderate intensity per the ACSM. ...
... Evidence supports the positive effects of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on mood states. 1,2,3,4 However, non-traditional exercise modalities such as yoga, tai chi, and Pilates remain understudied. Pilates, a mind/body exercise method focused on core stability and muscle control, 5 has improved flexibility, abdominal endurance, muscular endurance, 6 balance, 7 posture and blood pressure, 8 and chronic low back pain. ...
... 40 Reduced fatigue and enhanced feelings of energy following acute exercise result in improved quality of life. 4 In this study, the magnitude of improvement in feelings of energy (d = 0.22) was lower than the mean effect (Δ = 0.47) from 16 studies of acute aerobic exercise, where almost twothirds of the sample were students. 4 In contrast, the magnitude of the effect for fatigue following acute Pilates (d = 0.51) was considerably larger than the mean effect (Δ = 0.03) previously reported for fatigue. ...
... 4 In this study, the magnitude of improvement in feelings of energy (d = 0.22) was lower than the mean effect (Δ = 0.47) from 16 studies of acute aerobic exercise, where almost twothirds of the sample were students. 4 In contrast, the magnitude of the effect for fatigue following acute Pilates (d = 0.51) was considerably larger than the mean effect (Δ = 0.03) previously reported for fatigue. 4 These differences could be in response to participants being less energised but less fatigued by the light-to-moderate intensity required during Pilates' floor-based routine, 4 in comparison to an aerobic exercise stimulus. ...
Article
Background: Evidence supports positive effects of acute exercise on mood states. Non-traditional exercise modalities, including Pilates, remain understudied, particularly among males. This study examined mood state responses to a single Pilates bout among young adult males, and explored if responses differed according to analogue Generalized Anxiety Disorder (AGAD) or depression status, or physical activity level. Methods: Eighty-seven young adult males completed 30-min of mat-based Pilates. Outcomes included state anxiety, worry, feelings of tension, depressed mood, anger, energy and fatigue, and total mood disturbance (TMD). Paired samples t-tests compared pre- and post-session means within the group; magnitude of change was quantified with standardized mean differences. Two condition X two time repeated measures ANOVA examined outcome differences according to AGAD and depression status, and physical activity level. Results: Acute Pilates significantly reduced state anxiety, feelings of fatigue, and TMD, and significantly increased feelings of energy (allp ≤ 0.007). Small-to-moderate effect sizes were found for state anxiety, feelings of energy and fatigue, and TMD (all d = 0.22-0.51). Pilates resulted in significant improvements in state anxiety, feelings of fatigue and energy, and TMD among participants with AGAD (n = 28) (all d = 0.10-0.32, p < 0.007) and depressed (n=41) participants (all d = 0.01-0.19, p < 0.008). Conclusions: Notwithstanding potential limitations, including the absence of a control group and a lack of follow-up beyond immediate effects, this is the first report to support potential positive mood state responses to an acute bout of Pilates among young adult males. Findings varied based on analogue GAD and depression statuses, and physical activity level.
... The ability to converse during exercise has been shown to match low intensity exercise (Persinger, Foster, Gibson, Fater & Porcari, 2004). Low intensity was chosen because this intensity is preferable for lowering fatigue (Loy, O'Connor & Dishman, 2013;Puetz, Flowers & O'Connor, 2008), and because it reduces the risk of injuries (Hreljac, 2004). In addition, participants were advised to keep at least one day of rest (i.e. ...
... Hypothesis 4c: participants who psychologically detach from work during their weekly running sessions show a larger improvement in weekly well-being than participants who cannot psychologically detach from work during these sessions For the experience of effort, it is difficult to formulate a hypothesis. Although exercise is an effortful activity in nature, research suggest that a too high intensity of exercise could lead to unbeneficial outcomes in well-being (Loy, O'Connor & Dishman, 2013). We will therefore investigate the experience of effort in relation to the weekly well-being outcomes in a more exploratory way. ...
... The exercise intervention will take six consecutive weeks and comprises of low intensity running, meaning that participants should be able to talk while running (Persinger, Foster, Gibson, Fater & Porcari, 2004). This intensity is chosen, because research has indicated that a low intensity is effective in reducing fatigue (Loy, O'Connor & Dishman, 2013) and to reduce the risk of injuries (Woods, Bishop & Jones, 2007). Furthermore, the prospect of high intensity exercise may hamper participants' motivation to engage in or maintain exercise (Brewer, Manos, McDevitt, Cornelius & Van Raalte, 2000), especially when participants are already fatigued. ...
... Some studies across various disciplines have measured energy and fatigue using separate unipolar scales and found differences in energy, but not fatigue. Sedentary behaviors (e.g., sitting at desks, watching television) have a stronger tendency to decrease energy than increase fatigue-for example, participation in sedentary comparison conditions (e.g., quiet sitting, reading) in exercise studies has been found to reduce energy but not change fatigue (37,38). Similarly, completing computerized cognitive tasks while sedentary has a greater effect on reducing energy than on increasing fatigue (39). ...
... People meeting U.S. government recommendations for physical activity report greater energy, independent of their sedentary time (41). A meta-analysis of 16 acute exercise studies found that vigorous intensity exercise increases energy but does not decrease fatigue (37). Another study found that moderate-intensity acute exercise increases energy, which was partially mediated by changes in brain posterior theta activity, but no effect was found on fatigue (42). ...
... Moderate intensity exercise can also increase energy, decrease fatigue, and reduce depressive symptoms (94). Exercise has numerous mechanisms of action in the central nervous system that could plausibly impact energy, fatigue, and depression (37,95). It is not currently known how exercise induces each of these changes, and there may be multiple mechanism(s) underlying the effects on energy, fatigue, and depression. ...
Article
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20–45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as “a lack of energy” thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum. In this paper, we hypothesize that energy and fatigue are distinct perceptual states, should be measured using separate unipolar scales, have different mechanisms, and deficits should be treated using tailored therapies. Energy and fatigue independence has been found in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis studies. Experiments in various fields, including behavioral pharmacology and exercise science, often find changes in energy and not fatigue, or vice versa. If the hypothesis that energy and fatigue are independent is correct, there are likely different mechanisms that drive energy and fatigue changes. Energy could be increased by elevated dopamine and norepinephrine transmission and binding. Fatigue could be increased by elevated brain serotonin and inflammatory cytokines and reduced histamine binding. The hypothesis could be tested by an experiment that attempts to produce simultaneously high ratings of energy and fatigue (such as with two drugs using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design), which would offer strong evidence against the common viewpoint of a bipolar continuum. If the hypothesis is correct, prior literature using bipolar instruments will be limited, and research on the prevalence, mechanisms, and treatment of low energy and elevated fatigue as separate conditions will be needed. In the immediate future, measuring both energy and fatigue using unipolar measurement tools may improve our understanding of these states and improve therapeutic outcomes.
... There are over 250 instruments that measure fatigue [7], many assuming energy and fatigue as bipolar ends of the same continuum [8][9][10][11][12][13][14], while others treat them as two separate unipolar moods [9,[15][16][17][18]. Studies that have measured changes in both energy and fatigue have shown that certain interventions impact energy only, while others impact fatigue only [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. For example, engaging in low-to-moderate intensity physical activity almost invariably increases feelings of energy but has much less effect on reducing fatigue [19]. ...
... Studies that have measured changes in both energy and fatigue have shown that certain interventions impact energy only, while others impact fatigue only [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. For example, engaging in low-to-moderate intensity physical activity almost invariably increases feelings of energy but has much less effect on reducing fatigue [19]. Moreover, a meta-analysis examining recovery from work-related mental effort found that psychological detachment from work was negatively related to fatigue while feelings of control and mastery after work were positively related to vigor [31]. ...
... Certain micronutrients, such as caffeine, cause similar sized changes in energy and fatigue [21,[34][35][36]. Acute bouts of exercise and adoption of regular physical activity by sedentary groups result in larger increases in energy than decreases in fatigue [19,20,37] . In addition, when regular exercisers reduce their physical activity levels for five days, decreased energy is greater than increased feelings of fatigue [38]. ...
Article
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Background: Studies examining energy and fatigue as a bipolar mood have focused on a single variable, usually fatigue, when studying these moods. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting feelings of energy and fatigue separately while simultaneously examining multiple domains related to these mood states in graduate health sciences students. Method: Seventy-seven participants were recruited from a Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy program at a small school in Northern New York. Participants completed a series of surveys to measure mood, diet, mental work load intensity on school days and non-school days, and physical activity. Participants also completed the Trail-making Test Part B task on an iPad and their Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and muscle oxygen consumption mVO2 was measured. A backwards linear regression was used to determine the relationship between energy, fatigue and multiple variables. Results: The predictor variables accounted for 46.1% and 22.7% of the variance in fatigue and energy, respectively. More fatigue was associated with worse sleep quality, more time spent sitting and higher perceived intensity of mental workload on non-school days. More energy was associated with better sleep quality, higher muscle oxygen saturation, lower RMR, and faster psychomotor performance. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that energy and fatigue are separate, yet overlapping constructs that are predicted with different accuracy by different variables. Our results indicate that small lifestyle changes may be necessary to improve feelings of fatigue but comprehensive interventions may be necessary to improve feelings of energy and fatigue.
... Although chronic exercise is proven to effectively improve moods, 16 , 17 it is also important to examine how acute mood states change with acute bouts of physical activity. Studies have reported that acute exercise improves cognitive task performance 18 , 19 and energy [20][21][22] and reduces fatigue, 22 anxiety, 23 and depression. 24 A meta-analysis by Arent et al 15 concluded that self-selected, acute exercises lasting greater than 35 minutes substantially improve positive moods and attenuate negative mood states among older adults. ...
... While exercise at different intensities (low, moderate, or high) were reported to elicit a positive effect on mood in the context of specifi c experimental setup, 26 , 27 current thought is that high-intensity exercise is required to induce the changes in mood within a short duration. 21 Moreover, in these studies, the intensity of exercise was predetermined rather than based on individual preference. We were interested in studying the effects of acute cognitive task performance on mood, postural control, and gait, as well as determine whether a psychostimulant drink (cocoa) would attenuate the effects of acute cognitive task performance. ...
... Research Report specifi cally how the pace of a brief bout of walking infl uences mood states and motivation to perform physical tasks. While prior work has demonstrated the benefi t of physical activity of greater than 15 minutes, 21 we examined the impact of a shorter activity duration (6 minutes) in the form of self-paced walking. Our results indicate that a brief walking activity as short as 6 minutes is suffi cient to signifi cantly improve the feelings of POMS Fatigue, POMS Energy (vigor), POMS Tension, POMS Confusion, State Physical Energy, State Mental Fatigue, and motivation to perform physical tasks. ...
Article
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Background and purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine (1) differences in mood and motivation among older adults after the completion of 6 minutes of self-paced walking (6MW) and (2) the relationship between pace and magnitude of mood change. Methods: Eleven participants completed 3 days of testing where energy, fatigue, tension, depression, confusion, mental and physical energy, and motivation to perform mental tasks were measured before and after the 6MW. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in mood and motivation, and a bivariate Pearson correlation was used to determine relationships between pace and magnitude of changes in mood. Results: Faster pace was associated with significant improvements (P < .05) in fatigue, energy, tension, confusion, total mood disturbance, state mental fatigue, and state physical energy. A significant relationship was noted between pace and changes in energy, fatigue, state mental and physical energy, and fatigue in the expected direction. Discussion: Results indicate that mood is influenced by pace of the activity. Findings suggest that even 6 minutes of physical activity can improve moods, which may impact how physical therapists approach prescribing exercise to older adults.
... Profile of Mood Survey) significant evidence suggests that they are two distinct moods (12). Studies that have measured changes in both energy and fatigue have shown that certain interventions impact energy only while others impact fatigue only, suggesting that these two mood states are invariably distinct (23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34). For example, a meta-analysis noted that low-to-moderate physical activity increases feelings of energy, but has a much smaller effect on reducing feelings of fatigue (23). ...
... Studies that have measured changes in both energy and fatigue have shown that certain interventions impact energy only while others impact fatigue only, suggesting that these two mood states are invariably distinct (23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34). For example, a meta-analysis noted that low-to-moderate physical activity increases feelings of energy, but has a much smaller effect on reducing feelings of fatigue (23). Another meta-analysis that examined recovery from mental effort noted that psychological detachment from work was negatively related to feelings of fatigue, while control and mastery after work positively impacted feelings of energy (35). ...
... The left end (score of 0) indicated "No motivation" while the right end (score of 100) indicated "highest feelings of motivation imaginable." (23,24,65) for both. ...
Chapter
Fatigue is a common and poorly understood problem that impacts approximately 45% of the United States (US) population. Fatigue has also been associated with fatigue-related driving accidents, school absences, decline in school performance and negative health outcomes. Fatigue has been linked to many diseases and is consistently underreported in medical care. Despite these high financial and societal costs, fatigue is a poorly understood problem and there is no consensus on how to measure fatigue. Proteomics is one of the most unbiased approach to measure differences in the protein levels from various biological fluids in two conditions, i.e. before and after mental exercise, aka fatigue. There are, however, challenges associated with such analyses: proteomics experiments are usually expensive and time consuming and also require a large number of participants. Here, we performed a proteomics experiment of three (pre- and post-fatigue) samples and also three matched controls (pre- and post-non-fatigue). We found no particular protein that has significant changes in fatigue sample upon treatment. We did note a potential association between changes in mental energy and Annexin A1. However, the study has value simply because it is an extra study in the field of fatigue, but also allows other to correlate our results with their results.
... Another potential benefit of acute exercise is positive mood changes. Findings from meta-analyses and systematic reviews suggest that both clinical and non-clinical samples can benefit from a single bout of exercise (Yeung, 1996;Reed and Ones, 2006;Loy et al., 2013;Basso and Suzuki, 2017). Whereas low and moderate intensity exercise has generally been associated with positive mood changes (Reed and Ones, 2006;Hogan et al., 2013;Loy et al., 2013;Legrand et al., 2018), findings are mixed related to high-intensity exercise (Ekkekakis et al., 2013). ...
... Findings from meta-analyses and systematic reviews suggest that both clinical and non-clinical samples can benefit from a single bout of exercise (Yeung, 1996;Reed and Ones, 2006;Loy et al., 2013;Basso and Suzuki, 2017). Whereas low and moderate intensity exercise has generally been associated with positive mood changes (Reed and Ones, 2006;Hogan et al., 2013;Loy et al., 2013;Legrand et al., 2018), findings are mixed related to high-intensity exercise (Ekkekakis et al., 2013). Exercise duration has also been suggested to influence the direction and extent of the effects of acute exercise on mood changes (Berger et al., 2016). ...
... Exercise duration has also been suggested to influence the direction and extent of the effects of acute exercise on mood changes (Berger et al., 2016). Although some studies suggest that exercise duration of 7-60 min can improve mood states (Reed and Ones, 2006), most previous studies investigated the effects of 20-to 40-min exercise sessions on mood changes (Loy et al., 2013;Berger et al., 2016). Less is known about the effects of shorter exercise duration (e.g., <10 min; Loy et al., 2013;Berger et al., 2016). ...
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Objective Previous studies focused on the benefits of acute exercise on cognition and mood have mostly used specialized laboratory-based equipment, thus little is known about how such protocols generalize to naturalistic settings. Stair climbing is a simple and readily accessible means of exercise that can be performed in naturalistic settings (e.g., at home or at the workplace). In the present study we examined the effects of stair-climbing intervals on subsequent cognitive performance and mood in healthy young adults.Method Thirty-two undergraduate students (Mage = 19.4 years, SD = 1.3; 21 females) completed a controlled randomized crossover trial with session order counterbalanced across participants. Participants visited the lab on two occasions, one week apart, and completed one control session (no exercise) and one stair-climbing session (3 × 1 min stair-climbing intervals) with cognitive performance and mood assessed at the end of each session.ResultsRepeated measures ANCOVA revealed that males (Hedges’ gav = 0.45) showed better switching performance following the stair climbing but females (Hedges’ gav < 0.03) did not. Participants felt more energetic (Hedges’ gav = 1.05), less tense (Hedges’ gav = 0.61), and less tired (Hedges’ gav = 0.43) following the stair climbing. In addition, higher exercise intensity during the stair climbing predicted better subsequent switching performance and higher energetic ratings.Conclusion These findings indicate that short bouts of stair climbing in a naturalistic setting can induce cognitive benefits for more challenging tasks, albeit only in males, indicating a sex-specific effect. Short bouts of stair climbing can be a practical approach to increase feelings of energy in daily life.
... The subjective experiences immediately after a single exercise session on energy and fatigue have been studied in non-cancer populations. Loy et al. performed a metaanalysis and found consistent evidence for the effects on energy, whereas effects on fatigue were inconclusive [9]. Hoffman & Hoffman studied the effect of a single session of exercise in the general population, and found improved vigour and decreased fatigue in exercisers but not in non-exercisers [10]. ...
... Twenty-six participants performed a home-based endurance training session during the first week (mean number of days 2.4 ± 1.4) after chemotherapy. The perceived exertion on Borg's RPE-scale [6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20] ...
... Energy was higher immediately after the training than it was before the session. We have not found any other study that measured energy immediately after a session of training in women with breast cancer during chemotherapy, but our results are similar to findings in noncancer populations [9]. Most of the 16 studies in Loy et al.'s meta-analysis included healthy students, but four of them included participants with health concerns such as depressive disorder, persistent fatigue or bulimia nervosa. ...
Article
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Background: To measure changes in four common chemotherapy related side-effects (low energy, stress, nausea and pain) immediately after a single exercise session within the first week after treatment. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with chemotherapy-treated breast cancer, participating in a multi-centre randomised controlled study, the Physical Training and Cancer study (Phys-Can) were included in this sub-study. The Phys-Can intervention included endurance and resistance training. Before and after a single training session (endurance or resistance) within the first week of chemotherapy, energy and stress were measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire during Leisure Time, and nausea and pain were assessed using a Visual Analog Scale 0-10. Paired t-tests were performed to analyse the changes, and linear regression was used to analyse associations with potential predictors. Results: Thirty-eight participants performed 26 endurance training sessions and 31 resistance training sessions in the first week after chemotherapy. Energy and nausea improved significantly after endurance training, and energy, stress and nausea improved significantly after resistance training. Energy increased (p = 0.03 and 0.001) and nausea decreased (p = 0.006 and 0.034) immediately after a single session of endurance or resistance training, and stress decreased (p = 0.014) after resistance exercise. Conclusions: Both endurance and resistance training were followed by an immediate improvement of common chemotherapy-related side-effects in patients with breast cancer. Patients should be encouraged to exercise even if they suffer from fatigue or nausea during chemotherapy. Trial registration: NCT02473003, June 16, 2015.
... Regarding PA, greater improvements in energy/fatigue have been observed among surgery patients with higher moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) levels across several samples [16][17][18][19], and a recent study of Rouxen-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients showed greater MVPA related to better mental health-related quality of life, which included ratings of energy/fatigue, independent of %TWL [20]. Additionally, the broader PA literature shows positive effects of MVPA on energy/fatigue [21][22][23][24]. Evaluating the associations of day-to-day perceived energy/fatigue with both %TWL and daily MVPA among bariatric surgery patients can help to elucidate the extent to which reductions in excess weight versus lifestyle factors like MVPA relate to changes in energy/fatigue. ...
... ***p < .001; ± Entered as fixed and random effect in the model, with slope and intercept uncorrelated to facilitate convergence; ¥ Non-White is reference; ϕMale is reference; ^Time-varying covariate; ICC null model = 0.61 [20], as well as experimental work from the exercise literature showing that bouts of exercise improve energy but not fatigue [22]. While we cannot draw causal conclusions given our study's design, MVPA could potentially provide a boost in energy and attentiveness, as demonstrated in prior work [22,40]. ...
... ± Entered as fixed and random effect in the model, with slope and intercept uncorrelated to facilitate convergence; ¥ Non-White is reference; ϕMale is reference; ^Time-varying covariate; ICC null model = 0.61 [20], as well as experimental work from the exercise literature showing that bouts of exercise improve energy but not fatigue [22]. While we cannot draw causal conclusions given our study's design, MVPA could potentially provide a boost in energy and attentiveness, as demonstrated in prior work [22,40]. If confirmed in future research, stronger effects of MVPA on energy and attentiveness than fatigue may be at least partially due to biological mechanisms; for example, exercise triggers an increase in dopamine [41], and dopamine affects cognitive functioning [41] and appears to influence energy more strongly than fatigue [37]. ...
Article
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PurposeEnergy and fatigue are thought to improve after bariatric surgery. Such improvements could be related to weight loss and/or increased engagement in day-to-day health behaviors, such as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate several aspects of energy/fatigue in real-time in patients’ natural environment during the first year after surgery and assessed the associations of percent total weight loss (%TWL) and daily MVPA with daily energy/fatigue levels.Methods Patients (n = 71) undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy rated their energy, alertness and attentiveness (averaged to create an “attentiveness” rating), and tiredness and sleepiness (averaged to create a “fatigue” rating) via smartphone-based EMA at 4 semi-random times daily for 10 days at pre-surgery and 3-, 6-, and 12 months post-surgery. Daily MVPA minutes were assessed via accelerometry. Weight was measured in clinic.ResultsEnergy ratings initially increased from pre- to post-surgery, before leveling off/decreasing by 12 months (p < 0.001). Attentiveness and fatigue ratings did not change over time. %TWL was unrelated to any ratings, while MVPA related to both energy and attentiveness but not fatigue. Participants reported more energy on days with more total MVPA min (p = 0.03) and greater attentiveness on days with more total (p < 0.001) and bouted (p = 0.02) MVPA.Conclusions While more research is needed to confirm causality, results suggest that greater daily MVPA is associated with increased daily energy and attentiveness among bariatric surgery patients, independent of %TWL. Findings add to growing evidence of MVPA’s potential benefits beyond energy expenditure in the context of bariatric surgery.Graphical abstract
... Feelings of vigor and energy represent a specific affect/mood state in the high-arousal positive (HAP) affective quadrant from the circumplex model (Yik, Russell, & Barrett, 1999). It consistently has been noted that short-duration acute exercise (15-40 min) performed at a "light" (50%-63% MHR) to "moderate" (64%-76% MHR) intensity enhances feelings of energy (for review, see Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013). ...
... Significant gains in levels of felt energy were observed from preto post-intervention in the exercise training group. The magnitude of improvement was moderate-sized (d = 0.45), which is consistent with previously reported effects of acute exercise on mood states (including feelings of energy) among healthy adults (Loy et al., 2013;McDowell, Campbell, & Herring, 2016). On the contrary, feelings of energy were found to decrease dramatically pre-to post-intervention in the relaxation/concentration group (d = −1.66). ...
... Though not statistically significant, small magnitude improvements were found for worry, worry engagement, and feelings of fatigue. The magnitude of these improvements is consistent with previously reported responses to acute exercise among otherwise healthy adults (9,12,27), people with multiple sclerosis (28), low-income adults with elevated depressive symptoms (29), and adult women diagnosed with major depressive disorder (30). Though not significantly different, the magnitude of exercise-induced changes in worry, worry engagement, and absence of worry was larger among women than men. ...
... Given that low energy is a prevalent associated symptom of GAD that may contribute to negative outcomes like lower health-related quality of life (3), automobile accidents (31), and reduced achievement and productivity (32), the large, significant improvements in feelings of energy found here may be statistically and clinically meaningful. The magnitude of improvement in feelings of energy is consistent with previous reports ofmoderate-to-large improvements in feelings of energy after acute exercise and exercise training among otherwise healthy adults (9,27), young women with persistent fatigue (33), and young women with analogue (5) and clinical GAD (4). Though debates continue regarding interpretations of clinical meaningfulness, based on the suggested minimal important difference of 0.5 standard deviation (34), the 1.09 standard deviation improvement in feelings of energy here may represent a clinically meaningful finding. ...
Article
Recent findings support positive effects of acute aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with subclinical, or analogue, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, exercise effects among young adult men with analogue GAD are unstudied. Purpose: This study replicated initial findings of positive effects of acute vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with analogue GAD, examined responses among young adult men with analogue GAD, and explored sex-related differences and moderation by physical activity level, trait anxiety, depression, and poor sleep status. Methods: Thirty-five young adults (21.4 ± 2.3 yr; 19 males; 16 females) with Penn State Worry Questionnaire scores ≥45 (60 ± 8) completed two counterbalanced 30-min conditions: treadmill running at ~71.2% ± 0.04% HR reserve and seated quiet rest. Outcomes included worry, worry engagement, absence of worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue. Results: No outcome or moderator differed at baseline between sexes. Exercise significantly improved state anxiety (P < 0.04; d = 0.27) and feelings of energy (P < 0.001; d = 1.09). Small nonsignificant improvements were found for worry (d = 0.22), worry engagement (d = 0.18), and feelings of fatigue (d = 0.21). The magnitude of improvements in worry, worry engagement, absence of worry, and feelings of energy were stronger among females. Significant large, potentially clinically meaningful increases in feelings of energy were found among women (d = 1.35) and men (d = 0.92). A nonsignificant, but potentially clinically meaningful, moderate reduction in worry (d = 0.53) was found among women. High-trait anxiety and poor sleep quality were supported as moderators. Conclusions: Findings replicated positive effects of acute aerobic exercise among young adult women with analogue GAD, and extended to support for positive effects among young adult men with analogue GAD.
... However, the primary limitation of these studies [12][13][14][15][16] is that fatigue was measured as a perception of effort through using a Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. While many researchers use RPE as a measure of fatigue, exercise studies suggest that this scale may not be a good measure of subjective perceptions of fatigue [17][18][19][20][21]. ...
... A stratified K-fold with four strata was also used, but the R 2 was not very different. Taken together, the low MAE suggests that gait may be a good predictor of fatigue and energy [54]; however, the low R 2 in the K-fold models may be explained by the fact that there was a large variation in the data (scores ranging from 0 to 20), and a small sample size (n = 126), and thus the K-fold cross-validation reduced the R 2 . However, when examining bootstrapped models, the higher R 2 suggest that gait might help us identify feelings of energy and fatigue in larger samples, where K-fold cross-validation would result in higher values of R 2 . ...
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The objective of this study was to use machine learning to identify feelings of energy and fatigue using single-task walking gait. Participants (n = 126) were recruited from a university community and completed a single protocol where current feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the Profile of Moods Survey-Short Form approximately 2 min prior to participants completing a two-minute walk around a 6 m track wearing APDM mobility monitors. Gait parameters for upper and lower extremity, neck, lumbar and trunk movement were collected. Gradient boosting classifiers were the most accurate classifiers for both feelings of energy (74.3%) and fatigue (74.2%) and Random Forest Regressors were the most accurate regressors for both energy (0.005) and fatigue (0.007). ANCOVA analyses of gait parameters comparing individuals who were high or low energy or fatigue suggest that individuals who are low energy have significantly greater errors in walking gait compared to those who are high energy. Individuals who are high fatigue have more symmetrical gait patterns and have trouble turning when compared to their low fatigue counterparts. Furthermore, these findings support the need to assess energy and fatigue as two distinct unipolar moods as the signals used by the algorithms were unique to each mood.
... Prior work has suggested caffeine may improve accuracy in cognitive tasks via increased alertness 34 and modulation of neuronal activity in regions associated with attention 35 . When considering acute aerobic exercise it has been proposed that exercise selectively affects the activation and allocation of attentional resources 4,36 . Thus, the improved WM accuracy that was observed may be in part due to increased general arousal. ...
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ exercise demonstrates some utility in reducing caffeine withdrawal symptoms, which is a novel finding, as well as provides further evidence that a single-bout of aerobic exercise improves "alertness", "feelings of energy", and mood 36,37 . In addition, our findings are consistent with work conducted in the exercise and tobacco withdrawal literature, which showed acute aerobic exercise successfully reduced withdrawal symptoms such as stress, difficulty concentrating, tension, restlessness, depression, and irritability 22 . ...
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Studies show that a single bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits. However, many individuals use psychoactive substances such as caffeine to enhance cognitive performance. The effects of acute exercise in comparison to caffeine on cognition remain unknown. Furthermore, caffeine use is associated with withdrawal symptoms upon cessation. Whether acute exercise can reduce withdrawal symptoms also remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise to caffeine on working memory (WM) and caffeine withdrawal symptoms (CWS). In Phase I, non-caffeine (n = 29) and caffeine consumers (n = 30) completed a WM assessment, followed by acute exercise and caffeine. In Phase II, caffeine consumers (n = 25) from Phase I underwent the WM assessment and reported CWS following a 12-hour deprivation period. Acute moderate intensity aerobic exercise and caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) significantly improved WM accuracy and reduced CWS comparably. WM performance was not reduced following caffeine deprivation.
... The primary finding of the current investigation was that, compared to a sedentary attention-control condition, an acute bout of aerobic exercise significantly improved feelings of energy among adults with depressive symptoms. The moderate-to-large magnitude improvements in feelings of energy reported here are consistent with both previously documented effects of acute exercise on feelings of energy among primarily healthy adults (Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013;McDowell, Campbell, & Herring, 2016), young women with persistent fatigue (Herring & O'Connor, 2009), and people with Multiple Sclerosis (Ensari, Sandroff, & Motl, 2016). ...
... These findings are consistent with previous reports among people with depression Table 1 Means, standard deviations, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results for feelings of energy (POMS-V) and feelings of fatigue (POMS-F) as a function of condition and time of assessment. showing that after acute exercise of moderate intensity, feelings of energy were increased whereas feelings of fatigue remained unchanged (Bartholomew et al., 2005;Frühauf et al., 2016), and recent meta-analytic evidence by Loy et al. (2013) that showed a mediumsized effect of acute exercise on feelings of energy (D ¼ 0.47) among healthy adults, but a null effect for feelings of fatigue (D ¼ 0.03). Future research to further examine potential paradoxical effects of acute exercise on feelings of energy and fatigue among adults with elevated depressive symptoms is needed. ...
Article
Objective: People with depressive symptoms often report low energy and fatigue. Though acute and chronic exercise can improve energy and fatigue, less is known about how the environment influences exercise response. This study quantified the effects of exercise completed outdoors and indoors on feelings of energy and fatigue among adults with depressive symptoms. Method: 18 young adults with depressive symptoms completed three counterbalanced 20-min conditions (outdoor exercise, indoor exercise, sedentary control). Exercise involved running for 20 min at moderate intensity. Participants completed self-reported measures of vigour-energy and fatigue immediately before and following each condition. Results: Compared to the sedentary control condition, exercise resulted in statistically significant and large improvements in feelings of energy. Improvements did not statistically differ between outdoor and indoor exercise. Exercise effects on feelings of fatigue were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Findings did not support that environment moderates the effects of exercise on feelings of energy in people with depressive symptoms.
... Though not statistically significant, small magnitude improvements were found for worry, worry engagement, and feelings of fatigue. The magnitude of these improvements is consistent with previously reported responses to acute exercise among otherwise healthy adults (9,12,27), people with multiple sclerosis (28), low-income adults with elevated depressive symptoms (29), and adult women diagnosed with major depressive disorder (30). Though not significantly different, the magnitude of exercise-induced changes in worry, worry engagement, and absence of worry was larger among women than men. ...
... Given that low energy is a prevalent associated symptom of GAD that may contribute to negative outcomes like lower health-related quality of life (3), automobile accidents (31), and reduced achievement and productivity (32), the large, significant improvements in feelings of energy found here may be statistically and clinically meaningful. The magnitude of improvement in feelings of energy is consistent with previous reports of moderate-to-large improvements in feelings of energy after acute exercise and exercise training among otherwise healthy adults (9,27), young women with persistent fatigue (33), and young women with analogue (5) and clinical GAD (4). Though debates continue regarding interpretations of clinical meaningfulness, based on the suggested minimal important difference of 0.5 standard deviation (34), the 1.09 standard deviation improvement in feelings of energy here may represent a clinically meaningful finding. ...
... The second main finding is that the VA mood increased after a single bout of the combination exercise training. This result is consistent with the meta-analysis result (Loy et al., 2013). The meta-analysis reported that the single bout of aerobic exercise improved energy and decreased fatigue (Loy et al., 2013). ...
... This result is consistent with the meta-analysis result (Loy et al., 2013). The meta-analysis reported that the single bout of aerobic exercise improved energy and decreased fatigue (Loy et al., 2013). Furthermore, one previous study using the combination SD, standard deviation; Cd, digit symbol coding; rST, reverse Stroop task; ST, Stroop task; LFT, letter fluency task; Updating, working memory updating task; D-CAT, digit cancellation task; AH, Anger-Hostility; CD, Confusion-Bewilderment; DD, Depression-Dejection; FI, Fatigue-Inertia; TA, Tension-Anxiety; VA, Vigor-Activity; F, Friendliness; TMD, total mood disturbance. ...
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Background Long-term combination of physical exercises has reported benefits for cognitive functions and mood states. However, it remains unclear whether a single bout of combination exercise training has acute positive effects on cognitive functions and mood states in middle-aged and older women. It is important to investigate acute effect of physical exercise because it would help to understand a mechanism of benefits of physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate 30 min of a single bout of combination exercise training on cognition and mood states in middle-aged and older females.Methods In this single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT), middle-aged and older females were assigned randomly to two groups: a combination exercise group and a no-exercise control group. The former group did the combination exercise training (aerobic, strength, and stretching exercises) for 30 min. Meanwhile, the latter group did not do any exercise and waited for 30 min. We measured cognitive functions and mood performance states before and after the exercise or control interventions.ResultsOur main results demonstrated that, compared to the control group, the combination exercise improved inhibition (reverse Stroop and Stroop) and increased vigor–activity mood scores in both middle-aged and older groups. We also found that the only combination exercise group showed the significant positive correlations between improved inhibition performance and improved vigor–activity mood.DiscussionThis randomized controlled trial revealed the acute benefits of combination exercise on inhibition in executive functions and vigor–activity in the healthy middle-aged and older females. Our results provided the scientific evidence related to acute effects of the single bout of the combination exercise training. It suggests that we would be better to do the 30 min physical exercise for our health.Clinical Trial RegistrationThis trial was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000029681). Registered 24 October 2017, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/ctr/ctr_view_reg.cgi?recptno=R000033922.
... are a single bipolar mood [2]. While many fatigue measurement tools assume that energy and fatigue are two ends of the same continuum [3][4][5], empirical studies exploring both energy and fatigue have shown that certain interventions selectively impact either energy or fatigue, suggesting that these two subjective states may be distinct [6][7][8][9]. Recent studies provide further evidence that energy and fatigue may be distinct yet overlapping moods [10][11][12]. ...
Article
Background: Mental and physical energy and fatigue can be assessed as either stable long-term traits or as a temporary state. Although researchers recognize the need to separate the two, most research has focused on state, leaving trait understudied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to apply demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial variables known to be associated with state fatigue and energy to examine predictors of trait mental and physical energy and fatigue. Methods: A convenience sample (N = 671) completed an online survey measuring mood, physical activity, mental workload, polyphenol (plant-based healthy micronutrients) consumption in the diet, and sleep quality. A multivariate multiple regression model was fit to simultaneously test associations between covariates for each four trait fatigue indicators. Results: Poor sleep quality was the only consistent predictor of both energy and fatigue (mental and physical), with confusion correlating with all but physical energy. Age and depression were predictors of mental and physical fatigue, but caffeine consumption was predicted by higher physical fatigue only. Mental workload and physical activity on off-days predicted physical energy only, while polyphenol consumption and BMI predicted mental energy only. Conclusions: Findings suggest that mental/ physical energy and fatigue may be separate constructs that can be treated as empirically distinct. The distinctions between physical and mental fatigue are less pronounced, needing further exploration. Subsequent research should explore other potentially important biopsychosocial sources of variation in trait mental and physical energy and fatigue.
... The = extremely), and each subscale, with four relevant items, can achieve a raw score in the range of 0 to 16. The BRUMS has been widely used to measure mood in athletes and changes in mood in response to both physical and mental exertion [25,26]. Motivation related to the TTE test was measured using the success motivation and intrinsic motivation scales developed and validated by Matthews et al. [27]. ...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that subjective thermal strain can reduce endurance performance independently from the general physiological strain normally associated with impaired endurance performance in the heat. Methods: In 20 °C and 44% relative humidity, 12 endurance-trained athletes (1♀ 11♂; mean ± SD; age: 27 ± 6 y; VO2max: 61 ± 6 ml/kg/min) performed a time to exhaustion (TTE) test in two different experimental conditions: with an electric heat pad applied to the subjects' upper back (HP) and control (CON: without heat pad). In both conditions, subjects cycled to volitional exhaustion at 70% of their VO2max. Cardiorespiratory, metabolic, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses were measured throughout the TTE test and compared at 0%, 50% and 100% isotime and at exhaustion. Results: TTE was reduced by 9% in HP (2092 ± 305 s) compared to CON (2292 ± 344 s; p = .023). The main effect of condition on thermal discomfort at isotime (p = .002), the effect of condition on thermal sensation at 0% isotime (p = .004) and the condition by isotime interaction on rating of perceived exertion (p = .036) indicated higher subjective thermal strain in HP compared to CON. None of the measured cardiorespiratory, metabolic and thermoregulatory variables differed significantly between conditions. Conclusion: Our novel experimental manipulation (HP) was able to induce significant subjective thermal strain and reduce endurance performance in a temperate environment without inducing the general physiological strain normally associated with impaired endurance performance in the heat. These results suggest that subjective thermal strain is an important and independent mediator of the heat-induced impairment in endurance performance.
... For example, in young, healthy adults, fatigue and energy are both correlated with and predicted by sleep quality (Boolani & Manierre, 2019); however, each construct has independent predictors, such as PA and age (Boolani & Manierre, 2019). Fatigue and energy can also be independently influenced in young, healthy adults through interventions, such as exercise (Loy, O'connor, & Dishman, 2013) and caffeine (Kumar, Wheaton, Snow, & Millard-Stafford, 2015), suggesting some of the mechanisms contributing to fatigue and energy are distinct. Furthermore, separate constructs of physical energy and mental energy have been defined and relate to the capacity to complete either physical or mental activities, respectively (Boolani & Manierre, 2019;O'Connor, 2004). ...
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Compromised attentional resources during perceived fatigue has been suggested to alter motor control. The authors determined if measures of postural control and gait are predicted by state and trait physical and mental fatigue and energy, and how these relationships are modified by sex, sleep quality, and physical activity. Young adults ( n = 119) completed the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration, overground walking, and questionnaires to quantify fatigue and energy, sleep quality, and physical activity. Regression models indicated that trait fatigue, trait energy, and sleep quality were predictors of postural control ( p ≤ .02, R ² ≥ .04). State fatigue, state energy, and sex were predictors of gait ( p ≤ .05, R ² ≥ .03). While the variance explained was low (3–13%), the results demonstrate perceptions of fatigue and energy may influence posture and gait.
... A previous meta-analysis found that acute exercise (i.e., a single bout of exercise for about 20-40 min) consistently increases feelings of energy but feelings of fatigue are reduced primarily after ≥20 min of low-to-moderate intensity exercise that concurrently increased feelings of energy (Loy et al., 2013). This complex finding supports the need for including both feelings of energy and fatigue in exercise research. ...
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In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the results of randomized controlled trials of different exercise training interventions on participants’ feelings of fatigue, energy, and vitality. The search of studies was conducted using six databases as well as several other supplementary search strategies available before December 2021. The initial search generated over 3,600 articles with 81 studies (7,050 participants) and 172 effects meeting the inclusion criteria. We analyzed the effects from the studies using a meta-analytic multivariate model and considered the potential moderating effect of multiple variables. Our analysis revealed exercise to decrease the feelings of fatigue by a small effect size (g = −0.374; 95% CI [−0.521, −0.227]), increase energy by a small-to-moderate effect size (g = 0.415; 95% CI [0.252, 0.578]), and to increase the feeling of vitality by a moderate effect size (g = 0.537; 95% CI [0.404, 0.671]). All main results remained robust after several sensitivity analyses using different statistical estimators, and consideration of outlier and influential studies. Moreover, moderator analyses revealed significant effects of exercise intensity and intervention duration on fatigue, exercise intensity, and modality on energy, and participant health, exercise intensity modality, and exercise training location on vitality. We conclude that when groups adopt a moderate intensity exercise training program while participating in a randomized trial, compared to controls, this typically results in small-to-moderate average improvements in feelings of fatigue, energy, and vitality.
... Five different adjectives were rated on a 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely) scale over "the past two weeks, including today" (29). The Profile of Mood States has been widely used to assess fatigue in both people with MS (30) and healthy control participants (31,32). ...
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Background: Disabling persistent perceived fatigue occurs in 50% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but mechanisms are poorly understood. Low histidine could contribute to fatigue since it is the neurotransmitter histamine precursor and low serum levels are reported in other diseases where fatigue is common (e.g. breast cancer, kidney disease, diabetes). Serum histidine is also inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF, IFN-y), which have been linked to MS fatigue. Purpose: To determine if serum histidine is low in fatigued women with MS, and if histidine is related to differences in proinflammatory cytokines. Methods: Participants were classified as having elevated (n = 19) or normal (n = 18) perceived fatigue based on a median sample split using Profile of Mood States fatigue scale scores, with the elevated fatigue group having scores >7. Histidine and gene-expression of TNF, IFN-y, and leptin were assayed from a serum sample. Results: After adjustment for depression, serum histidine was significantly lower in women with MS with elevated fatigue, compared to normal fatigue (64.57 vs. 70.48 nmol/mL, p = .048, g = 0.75). There were no differences between groups in cytokine expression (all p > .24). Gene expression of TNF correlated with histidine only in people with normal fatigue (r = .51, p = .034), while no other cytokines related to histidine levels. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that serum histidine is lower in fatigued women with MS, but the study did not find a relationship between histidine and TNF, IFN-y, or leptin gene expression.
... Physical activity has numerous benefits among young adults, including increased cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological health, cognitive capacity, sleep time and quality, and energy levels (Gerber et al., 2014;Hogan, Mata, & Carstensen, 2013;Lin et al., 2013;Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013). Lifelong exercise participation is influenced by exercise history, in that an active young adult can continue exercising as an older adult (Chatfield, 2015). ...
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Background: Although exercise participation has numerous benefits among young adults, socioeconomically disadvantaged ethnic minorities tend to be less active than their White counterparts of higher SES. Instead of relying on logical positivism in exercise promotion, a phronetic (humanistic) approach may better assist with understanding exercise behavior. Objective: The study purpose was to examine the exercise behavior and qualitatively distinct exercise values (e.g., activity and inactivity reasons) among socioeconomically disadvantaged African American young adults. Method: This was a phronetic, qualitative study among 14 African American young adults (M age = 32.97 years old ±14.13), who attended General Educational Development classes in an inner-city learning center. An in-depth and dialogical interview process was conducted regarding exercise behavior, positive and negative exercise experiences, reasons for exercise participation or not, exercise behavior of participants' peers and significant others, and neighborhood safety. Results: Only three men met the minimum aerobic exercise recommendations and their main activity was basketball. Three individuals were somewhat active, while the rest of the participants were inactive. Based on the phronetic, thematic analysis, two themes emerged. Exercise facilitators included enjoyment (from skill and fitness development in a playful setting), health improvement, weight loss and toned physique, and utilitarian purpose (i.e., karate to work for campus security). Exercise barriers included time constraints and other priorities (school, work, caretaking), injuries, accessibility and cost issues, safety issues (unsafe neighborhoods), personality (lack of motivation and self-discipline), and undesirable results on appearance and performance. Conclusion: Exercise promoters should emphasize: a) playful, culturally meaningful, and socially supported activities to increase fitness, skill development, and enjoyment; b) policy change via the provision of parental leave for both parents; c) safe and accessible exercise settings, especially among women of lower SES; d) information about safe exercises and injury recovery; and e) fit and healthy physiques for personal fulfilment and enjoyment.
... The available population-based evidence from adults supports that physical inactivity is associated with sleep complaints and feelings of low energy and fatigue, whereas PA is associated with better sleep quality and a reduced risk of reporting fatigue. Physically active individuals, on average, have 39% reduced odds of experiencing feelings of fatigue, and experimental evidence supports that acute exercise and chronic exercise improve feelings of energy and fatigue [18,[21][22][23]. It is plausible that similar neurobiological pathways underlie the benefits of physical activity and exercise for both sleep and feelings of energy and fatigue [22,24]. ...
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Physical activity (PA) can improve sleep quality, low energy, and fatigue. Though poor sleep quality may induce feelings of low energy and fatigue, the potential moderating effect of sleep quality on associations between PA and feelings of energy and fatigue among adolescents is unknown. Thus, this study examined the moderating effect of sleep quality on associations between PA frequency and feelings of energy and fatigue among adolescents in Ireland. Adolescents (N = 481; 281 males, 200 females) aged 15.1 ± 1.7 years self-reported PA frequency, feelings of energy and fatigue, and sleep quality (September to December 2015). Two-way ANCOVAs examined variation in feelings of energy and fatigue according to the interaction of PA and sleep quality. Standardized mean difference (d) quantified the magnitude of differences. Poor sleepers with low PA reported greater feelings of fatigue compared to normal sleepers with low PA (d = 1.02; 95% CI 0.60, 1.44), and poor sleepers with moderate PA reported greater feelings of fatigue compared to normal sleepers with moderate PA (d = 0.50; 0.17, 0.82). Poor sleepers with low PA reported greater feelings of fatigue compared to both poor sleepers with moderate PA (d = 0.44; 0.05, 0.83) and poor sleepers with high PA (d = 0.87; 0.46, 1.28). Poor sleepers with moderate PA reported greater feelings of fatigue compared to poor sleepers with high PA (d = 0.52; 0.14, 0.91). Poor sleep did not moderate the association between PA and feelings of energy. Sleep quality moderates the association between PA frequency and feelings of fatigue. Fatigue symptoms improve as PA frequency increases among adolescents with poor sleep quality.
... Second, this study did not ask participants to report regular physical activity habits. Evidence suggests that physical activity has a positive effect on feelings of vigor (e.g., Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013;Reed & Ones, 2006;Shirom et al., 2008). Accounting for physical activity would have enabled us to assess a potential predictor of feelings of vigor. ...
Article
Feelings of vigor are associated with positive consequences in the work place but these relationships have not yet been assessed in a high-risk occupational context. The current study assessed the relationships between feelings of vigor on physical health symptoms, functional impairment, and depression symptoms among U.S. service members who recently returned from a combat deployment. U.S. service members were asked to complete questionnaires at 2 time points. Significant positive correlations were found between combat experiences and the 3 outcomes. Significant negative correlations were found for feelings of vigor and each outcome. Regression analyses indicated a significant effect for feelings of vigor such that higher feelings of vigor at Time 1 predicted better physical health and fewer depression symptoms at Time 2. There was no significant effect for functional impairment. Results demonstrate the potential importance of maintaining or improving feelings of vigor throughout the work day, especially for those with high risk occupations.
... Physical exercise has been shown to improve energy-related sensations such as energetic arousal, calmness, burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, and vigour (Puetz et al., 2008;Kanning and Schlicht, 2010;Brand et al., 2020). Exercise appears to improve sensations of energy more consistently than sensations of fatigue: a meta-analysis on the effects of a single bout of exercise found that while acute exercise homogenously increased sensations of energy, the effects for fatigue were heterogeneous, and moderated by exercise intensity and duration (Loy et al., 2013). Similarly, 6 weeks of either low or moderate chronic exercise in adults reporting persistent fatigue improved sensations of energy in both conditions. ...
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Energy-related sensations include sensation of energy and fatigue as well as subjective energizability and fatigability. First, we introduce interdisciplinary useful definitions of all constructs and review findings regarding the question of whether sensations of fatigue and energy are two separate constructs or two ends of a single dimension. Second, we describe different components of the bodily energy metabolism system (e.g., mitochondria; autonomic nervous system). Third, we review the link between sensation of fatigue and different components of energy metabolism. Finally, we present an overview of different treatments shown to affect both energy-related sensations and metabolism before outlining future research perspectives.
... Statistically nonsignificant improvements were also observed for total PSWQ worry score. The magnitude of improvements ranged from moderate to large, and is consistent with previously reported effects of acute exercise on mood states among healthy adults (Ensari et al., 2015;Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013;McDowell et al., 2016), young adults with persistent fatigue (Herring & O'Connor, 2009), adults with Multiple Sclerosis (Ensari, Sandroff, & Motl, 2016), and women with Major Depressive Disorder (Meyer, Koltyn, Stegner, Kim, & Cook, 2016). ...
Article
Background Little is known about the acute effects of exercise among individuals with clinical or subclinical Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Purpose Thus, this study examined worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue responses to acute aerobic exercise and quiet rest, and explored potential moderators of response among young adult women with worry scores indicative of GAD. Methods Seventeen young women with Penn State Worry Questionnaire scores ≥45 (60 ± 8) completed 30-min treadmill running at 65%–85% heart rate reserve (%HRR) and 30-min seated quiet rest in counterbalanced order. Outcomes included worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue. Two condition X two time repeated measures ANOVA examined differences across condition and time. Hedges’ d effect sizes (95%CI) were calculated to quantify and compare the magnitude of change. Independent-samples t-tests explored potential moderators of outcome response. Results Total exercise time was 35.8 ± 3.4min with a mean 30.3 ± 0.16 in-zone minutes (65%-85%HRR); participants exercised at ∼72.9 ± 0.03 %HRR (range 66%–79%). Compared with quiet rest, acute exercise significantly improved worry engagement, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue (all p ≤ 0.031). Moderate-to-large (d = 0.44 to 1.69) reductions in state anxiety and feelings of fatigue and improvements in feelings of energy were found. Exercise-induced reductions in worry engagement were significantly larger among non-high trait anxious participants. Compared to normal sleepers, quiet rest significantly increased feelings of fatigue among poor sleepers. Conclusion Findings provide support for the positive effects of acute aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young women with worry indicative of GAD.
... The definition of fatigue is more challenging because this term is used when referring to many different phenomena ranging from feeling tired after a prolonged and vigorous bout of exercise (Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013) to the reduction in maximal force of an isolated muscle fibre induced by continuous electrical stimulation (Allen, Lamb, & Westerblad, 2008). For the purpose of this chapter, I adopt the definition of fatigue as an acute impairment in performance that includes both an increase in the perceived effort necessary to exert a desired force or power and an eventual inability to produce this force or power (Enoka & Stuart, 1992). ...
... Statistically nonsignificant improvements were also observed for total PSWQ worry score. The magnitude of improvements ranged from moderate to large, and is consistent with previously reported effects of acute exercise on mood states among healthy adults (Ensari et al., 2015;Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013;McDowell et al., 2016), young adults with persistent fatigue (Herring & O'Connor, 2009), adults with Multiple Sclerosis (Ensari, Sandroff, & Motl, 2016), and women with Major Depressive Disorder (Meyer, Koltyn, Stegner, Kim, & Cook, 2016). ...
... and others showing no changes (n range = 12-277) in fatigue after engaging in MVPA. The effects of acute PA on energy reported here are consistent with a meta-analysis of 16 acute activity experiments in which 11 of the samples were college students and two of the investigations are included in the present review (Loy et al., 2013). The meta-analysis found acute activity increased energy by a standardized mean (95% confidence interval) of 0.47 (0.39-0.56). ...
Article
Problem College students report high levels of mental and emotional exhaustion. As part of the 24-h activity cycle (24-HAC), sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), and physical activity are health habits that may exert independent and interactive effects on daily aspects of wellbeing and health in this cohort. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on relationships between the individual components of the 24-HAC and feelings of energy and fatigue among college students. Method Three databases were searched using terms related to sleep, SED, light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), energy, fatigue, and college students. Peer-reviewed, primary studies published in English using valid and reliable measures were included. Results Fifty-two unique studies were identified for inclusion. Sleep quality and quantity are likely positively associated with feelings of energy and negatively associated with feelings of fatigue; however, studies on LIPA and SED were less common leading to inconclusive findings. Most studies reported on associations between MVPA and feelings of energy or fatigue and indicate positive and negative relationships, respectively. Conclusions To date, most research has focused on relationships between MVPA and feelings of energy and fatigue. More research is needed to further characterize relationships between the other behavioral components and these outcomes of interest. Additionally, future research should include measurements of all four behavioral components within the framework of the 24-HAC to more fully elucidate how these behaviors interact to impact feelings of energy and fatigue in college students.
... Physical activity may reduce tension, induce relaxation, provide a distraction, and lessen rumination over stressors, which are all considered effective means for coping with stress (Hilt and Pollak, 2012;Sharon-David and Tenenbaum, 2017). A single bout of exercise can be enough to bring about a positive change, with research suggesting that as little as 10 min of aerobic exercise can have a positive effect on mood, reduced stress, and perceived energy levels (Rudolph and Butki, 1998;Loy et al., 2013Loy et al., , 2018. ...
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This study explored the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived health behaviors; physical activity, sleep, and diet behaviors, alongside associations with wellbeing. Participants were 1,140 individuals residing in the United Kingdom (n = 230), South Korea (n = 204), Finland (n = 171), Philippines (n = 132), Latin America (n = 124), Spain (n = 112), North America (n = 87), and Italy (n = 80). They completed an online survey reporting possible changes in the targeted behaviors as well as perceived changes in their physical and mental health. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) on the final sample (n = 1,131) revealed significant mean differences regarding perceived physical and mental health “over the last week,” as well as changes in health behaviors during the pandemic by levels of physical activity and country of residence. Follow up analyses indicated that individuals with highest decrease in physical activity reported significantly lower physical and mental health, while those with highest increase in physical activity reported significantly higher increase in sleep and lower weight gain. United Kingdom participants reported lowest levels of physical health and highest increase in weight while Latin American participants reported being most affected by emotional problems. Finnish participants reported significantly higher ratings for physical health. The physical activity by country interaction was significant for wellbeing. MANCOVA also revealed significant differences across physical activity levels and four established age categories. Participants in the oldest category reported being significantly least affected by personal and emotional problems; youngest participants reported significantly more sleep. The age by physical activity interaction was significant for eating. Discussed in light of Hobfoll (1998) conservation of resources theory, findings endorse the policy of advocating physical activity as a means of generating and maintaining resources combative of stress and protective of health.
... decreased clinical or experimental pain) (Crombie, Brellenthin, Hillard, & Koltyn, 2018) following exercise. Similarly, exercise can elicit moderate increases (standardized mean difference = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.24, 1.23) in fatigue in some cases (Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2016) and non-significant, small effects (standardized mean difference = 0.03; 95% CI: −0.08, 0.13) in other cases (Loy, O'Connor, & Dishman, 2013). This variability is especially evident when changes in psychological outcomes are reported for individual participants rather than at the group level (Ward-Ritacco, Poudevigne, & O'Connor, 2016). ...
Article
Objective: The understanding of placebo and nocebo effects in psychological responses to exercise is improved by measuring expectations. Despite availability of several validated expectancy measures, we argue for using scales that take both positive and negative expectations for exercise-induced changes into account. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Main Outcome Measures: A questionnaire was used to collect information on positive and negative expectations pertaining to how exercise would affect 14 different outcomes related to psychological health (n=966). Results: Outcomes for which a majority of the sample (> 50%) reported positive expectations for exercise-induced changes included: psychological well-being (75.3%), depression (74.3%), relaxation (74.2%), sleep quality (73.3%), stress (72.2%), anxiety (69.8%), energy (67.1%), and attention (60.2%). Outcomes for which a majority of the sample (> 50%) reported a negative expectation for exercise-induced changes were muscle pain (66.3%), fatigue (57.3%), and joint pain (50.7%). Across all 14 outcomes, the percentage of participants with negative expectations for exercise-induced changes ranged from 5.9 to 66.3%. Conclusion: Elucidating the potential presence of placebo and nocebo effects can improve the understanding of variability in the direction and magnitude of exercise-related effects on psychological health. Although there were only 3 outcomes for which the majority of participants reported negative expectations, we found that negative expectations were present to some degree for all 14 outcomes. Thus, for researchers who wish to characterize the potential presence of placebo and nocebo effects in studies of psychological responses to exercise, we recommend using measures that give equal consideration to positive and negative expectations.
... Short-term exercise may be an effective way to protect against mental health concerns in tertiary education settings, including during periods of high stress, such as exam periods [22]. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of all populations and age groups show that short-term exercise, including a single bout of exercise, can reduce symptoms of anxiety [23] and increase feelings of energy [24], while in healthy adults single bouts of exercise increase performance on memory tasks [25]. The potential of short-term exercise as a mental health promotion strategy in tertiary students, specifically, remains unknown. ...
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Exercise can improve mental health; however many tertiary students do not reach recommended levels of weekly engagement. Short-term exercise may be more achievable for tertiary students to engage in to promote mental health, particularly during times of high stress. The current scoping review aimed to provide an overview of controlled trials testing the effect of short-term (single bout and up to 3 weeks) exercise across mental health domains, both at rest and in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task, in tertiary students. The search was conducted using ‘Evidence Finder,’ a database of published and systematic reviews and controlled trials of interventions in the youth mental health field. A total of 14 trials meet inclusion criteria, six measured mental health symptoms in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task and the remaining eight measured mental health symptoms. We found that short-term exercise interventions appeared to reduce anxiety like symptoms and anxiety sensitivity and buffered against a drop in mood following an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task. There was limited available evidence testing the impacts of exercise on depression like symptoms and other mental health mental health domains, suggesting further work is required. Universities should consider implementing methods to increase student knowledge about the relationship between physical exercise and mental health and student access to exercise facilities.
... Based on a meta-analysis, artistic expression like movement dance therapy and dancing seems to link to positive mental health, including reduced depression and stress levels (Koch et al. 2014). Given also that exercise alone links to positive psychological and physical benefits among college students (Gerber et al. 2014;Lin et al. 2015;Loy, O'Connor, and Dishman 2013), it is unknown if performative art movement has stronger benefits on mental health and the love of movement than mere exercise participation. Therefore, the purpose of this phronetic, quasi-experimental study was to examine if a skill-based and performative form of aerial practice was more beneficial on mental health and the love of movement than only a skill-based aerial practice program. ...
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The purpose of this phronetic, quasi-experimental study was to examine if skill-based and performative aerial practice (treatment group-class, n = 8) was more beneficial on mental health and the love of movement than only skill-based aerial practice (control group-class, n = 9). The total study population included 17 undergraduate, beginner students in aerial practice (M age = 20.59). Based on Cohen’s d and two-way repeated measures ANOVA, depression and stress decreased over time with an upper-level small (d =.27; η² = 7.6%) and medium (d =.55; η² = 19%) within-subjects effect, respectively. Five qualitative themes emerged, including positive psychosocial and physical changes, healthy lifestyle choices, continuance with aerial practice – especially for the treatment group, and challenges with aerial silks, especially for the control group. Beyond skill development, including performativity qualities in aerial practice (dancing, expressing emotion, story sharing) may be key to the love of movement and long-term exercise participation.
... Interestingly, a previous audit of patients from our hospital's WHP service who received individual one-to-one physiotherapy (not group-based therapy) did not find significant improvements in the coping, independent living and pain domains using the same QOL tool [32]. The improvements in QOL domains seen in the current study may be a result of the general exercise training component, as exercise is well documented to improve physical function, reduce pain severity and increase energy levels, and in turn can improve coping [24,25]. ATHENA is underpinned by clinical practice guidelines [8] and recent research supporting group-based and multicomponent therapies to improve UI symptoms in overweight and obese women [11,12], so it is not surprising that ATHENA was proven to be effective in this study. ...
Article
Introduction and hypothesisSupervised pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), weight loss and exercise are recommended for overweight/obese women with urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to implement and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 12-week group exercise and healthy eating program (ATHENA) for overweight/obese women with UI.Methods This study, using an implementation-effectiveness hybrid type 3 design, was conducted within a Women’s Health Physiotherapy outpatient service at an Australian tertiary public hospital. Intervention feasibility and acceptability were assessed through process evaluation of implementation, while clinical effectiveness was assessed via pre-/post-clinical and quality of life surveys. Process data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and effectiveness data were compared pre-/post-intervention using inferential statistics.ResultsOf 156 eligible patients, 37 (24%) agreed to participate; 29 (78%) completed the ATHENA program. Median (IQR) age and body mass index were 53 (47–65) years and 30.8 (29.1–34.8) kg/m2 respectively. ATHENA was feasible to implement, with all components delivered as intended and high participant satisfaction. Ninety-seven percent of participants reported improved UI symptoms (global rating of change) and significant improvements in overall pelvic floor dysfunction and quality of life utility scores (p = 0.001). While weight did not change, significant improvements were found in body-food choice congruence (intuitive eating scale-2; p < 0.01).Conclusions The ATHENA intervention was feasible, acceptable and clinically effective for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence at a tertiary public hospital in Australia. Further research into longer term outcomes and the cost effectiveness of this group intervention is recommended. Trial registration: N/A. Ethics approval, HREC/2018/QGC/46582, date of registration 14/11/2018.
... This relationship was not significant for those who reported engaging in day-to-day physical activity (such as walking to complete basic tasks or climbing stairs). It has been demonstrated that exercise can increase energy levels, and exercise has multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system that may directly affect energy perception [9,47,48]. Physical activity levels may be predictive of improved perception of higher energy level and may signal quality of life status in aging populations [44,49]. These dose-response relationships parallel the results presented here, wherein higher levels of physical activity had the strongest associations with higher self-reported energy. ...
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Background Effects of fatigue on health in older age are well studied, yet little is known about the clinical relevance of energy perception. Aims To explore cross-sectional associations of self-reported energy with physical and mental health metrics in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Methods Participants rated their energy from 0 to 10; the outcome was energy dichotomized at the median (≥ 7 = higher energy). Four domains were assessed: depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale); physical performance (function: usual and rapid gait speed; fitness: 400-m walk time); physical activity (casual walking, walking for exercise, and intense exercise); and cognitive function (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Symbol Substitution Test). Covariates bivariately associated with energy entered a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for demographics, chronic conditions, and strength. Results Depressive symptoms, physical performance and activity, but not cognition, were bivariately associated with energy (p < 0.0005). Younger age, male sex, greater strength, and absence of chronic conditions predicted higher energy (p < 0.001). In a multivariable model, depressive symptoms [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 95% CI 0.69 (0.62, 0.76)] and 400-m walk times [aOR = 0.81 (0.72, 0.91)] were inversely associated with energy; usual and rapid gait speed [aOR = 1.3 (1.2, 1.4); aOR = 1.2 (1.1–1.4)], and time spent in intense exercise [aOR = 1.4 (1.1–1.7)] were positively associated with energy. Discussion In this cohort with a range of chronic conditions and fatigue, perceiving higher energy levels may reflect better emotional and physical health. Conclusion Energy should be considered in multidimensional clinical assessments of older age.
... However, Loy and colleagues [9] recently provided evidence that energy and fatigue are two distinct moods (e.g., an individual can be energetic and fatigued simultaneously), with multiple studies since showing that feelings of energy and fatigue are distinct yet overlapping constructs [10][11][12], with their own mental and physical components [13,14]. Although we are aware of multiple interventions, such as exercise [15], caffeine [16,17], and sleep [18], that increase feelings of energy and/or decrease feelings of fatigue, evidence regarding the effectiveness of these interventions is mixed. Additional research is needed to better understand the inter-and intra-individual differences in the efficacy of these interventions. ...
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Multiple studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms influence the neurocognitive effects of caffeine. Using data collected from a double-blinded, within-participants, randomized, cross-over design, this study examined the effects of trait (long-standing pre-disposition) mental and physical energy and fatigue to changes in moods (Profile of Mood Survey-Short Form (POMS-SF), state mental and physical energy and fatigue survey), cognitive (serial subtractions of 3 (SS3) and 7 (SS7)), and fine-motor task (nine-hole peg test) performance after consuming a caffeinated beverage and a non-caffeinated placebo. Results indicate that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modified the effects of caffeine on vigor, tension-anxiety, physical, and mental fatigue. Additionally, we report that those who were high trait physical and mental fatigue and low-trait mental energy reported the greatest benefit of caffeine on the SS3 and SS7, while those who were high trait mental and physical fatigue reported the greatest benefit of consuming caffeine on fine-motor task performance. The results of our study suggest that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modify the acute effects of caffeine among a group of healthy, young adults and should be measured and controlled for by researchers who choose to study the effects of caffeine on acute moods and cognitive and fine-motor task performance.
Article
Background Mild Parkinsonian Signs (MPS), highly prevalent in older adults, predict disability. It is unknown whether energy decline, a predictor of mobility disability, is also associated with MPS. We hypothesized that those with MPS had greater decline in self-reported energy levels (SEL) than those without MPS, and that SEL decline and MPS share neural substrates. Methods Using data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, we analyzed 293 Parkinson’s Disease-free participants (83±3 years old, 39% Black, 58% women) with neuroimaging data, MPS evaluation by Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale in 2006-2008, and ≥ 3 measures of SEL since 1999-2000. Individual SEL slopes were computed via linear mixed models. Associations of SEL slopes with MPS were tested using logistic regression models. Association of SEL slope with volume of striatum, sensorimotor, and cognitive regions were examined using linear regression models adjusted for normalized total gray matter volume. Models were adjusted for baseline SEL, mobility, demographics, and comorbidities. Results Compared to those without MPS (n=165), those with MPS (n=128) had 37% greater SEL decline in the prior eight years (p=0.001). Greater SEL decline was associated with smaller right striatal volume (adjusted standardized β=0.126, p=0.029). SEL decline was not associated with volumes in other regions. The association of SEL decline with MPS remained similar after adjustment for right striatal volume (adjusted OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.16 - 3.54). Conclusion SEL decline may be faster in those with MPS. Striatal atrophy may be important for declining energy but does not explain the association with MPS.
Article
Poor sleep and chronic fatigue are common in people with chronic stroke (i.e. ≥ 6 months post‐stroke). Exercise training is a viable, low‐cost therapy for promoting sleep and reducing fatigue; however, the effects of exercise on sleep and fatigue in people with chronic stroke are unclear. Thus, we conducted a systematic review ascertaining the effects of exercise on sleep and fatigue in people with chronic stroke. We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, AgeLine, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS, and reference lists of relevant reviews for articles that examined the effects of exercise on sleep or fatigue in chronic stroke. Search results were limited to adults ≥ 18 years, randomized controlled trials, non‐randomized trials, and pre–post studies, which were published in English and examined the effects of exercise on sleep or fatigue in people with chronic stroke. We extracted study characteristics and information on the measurement of sleep and fatigue, and assessed study quality and risk of bias using the CONSORT criteria and Cochrane risk‐of‐bias tool, respectively. We found two studies that examined the effects of exercise on sleep, and two that examined the effects of exercise on fatigue. All studies reported positive effects of exercise training on sleep and fatigue; however, there were concerns of bias and study quality in all studies. There is preliminary evidence that exercise promotes sleep and reduces fatigue in people with chronic stroke; however, the extent to which exercise impacts these health parameters is unclear.
Article
Amaç: Günümüzde artan teknolojiyle birlikte sağlıklı genç bireylerde, fiziksel aktivite düzeylerindeki azalmadan kaynaklı, kognitif durumlarında bozulma, duygu durumlarında değişiklikler ve yaşam kalitelerinde azalma görülmektedir. Kognitif görevle yapılan egzersizler bireylerin sağlık koşullarını iyileştirmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı sağlıklı genç bireylerde kognitif görevle yapılan denge egzersizlerinin, kognitif durum, duygu durumu ve yaşam kalitesine etkilerini incelemektir. Yöntem: Bu çalışmaya dâhil edilme kriterlerini sağlayan 18-30 yaş aralığındaki 50 sağlıklı genç birey dâhil edildi. Bireyler randomize olarak kognitif görevli egzersiz (Grup 1) (n=25) ve sadece egzersiz (Grup 2) (n=25) grubuna ayrıldı. Bireylere günde 1 seans, haftada 3 gün olmak üzere 6 hafta boyunca egzersiz verildi. Grup 1’e aerobik egzersiz ve denge egzersizlerine ilaveten kognitif görev verildi. Grup 2’deki bireylere sadece aerobik egzersiz ve denge egzersizleri yaptırıldı. Bireyler uygulama öncesinde ve bitiminde kognitif durum (Stroop Testi, Sözel Akıcılık Testi, Sayı Menzili Testi), duygu durumu (Depresyon Anksiyete Stres Ölçeği (DASÖ)) ve yaşam kalitesi (Kısa Form 36 (SF-36)) değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Egzersiz sonrası değerlendirmelerde Grup 1’de tüm kognitif testlerde ve SF-36 mental sağlık alt parametresinde, Grup 2’de tüm kognitif testlerde ve DASÖ depresyon alt parametresinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu (p<0,05). Gruplar arası değerlendirmede kognitif testlerden sözel akıcılık testinde ve SF-36 mental sağlık alt parametresinde Grup 1 lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu (p<0,05). Sonuç: Sağlıklı genç bireylerde, hem sadece egzersiz hem de kognitif görevle yapılan egzersizlerin kognitif fonksiyonlar üzerinde etkili olduğu görüldü. Kognitif görevle yapılan egzersizlerin sağlıklı genç bireylerin kognitif durum ve yaşam kaliteleri üzerinde etkili olduğu sonucuna ulaşıldı. Uygulanan egzersizlerin sağlıklı genç bireylerde özellikle kognisyon ve duygu durumu üzerine etkisinin daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için, objektif nitelikteki çalışmalara ihtiyaç duyulduğu düşünülmektedir.
Article
Objectives: Older adults engage in excessive sedentary behaviors which holds significant health implications. Examining affect responses during sedentary behavior is not well understood despite the wealth of evidence linking affect and motivation. Contextual influences (i.e., social, physical) likely influence affective responses during sedentary behavior and therefore warrant further investigation. Methods: Older adults (n=103, Mage=72, Range: 60-98) participated in a 10-day study where they were received 6 randomly timed, smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) prompts/day. Participants reported their affect, current behavior, and context at each EMA prompt. Participants also wore an activPAL accelerometer to measure their sedentary behavior duration. Separate multilevel models examined the extent to which the context influences affective responses during self-report sedentary (vs. non-sedentary) behaviors. Results: The social context moderated the association between sedentary behavior and negative affect. The physical context moderated the association between sedentary behavior and positive affect. Discussion: Interventions should consider the context of behaviors when designing interventions to reduce sedentary behavior as some contextual factors may attenuate, while other contexts may exacerbate, associations between activity-related behaviors and indicators of well-being.
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Background: School students nowadays often face study stress resulting from high study demands and concern about academic grades resulting in fatigue which interferes with their daily lives. Objective: Aim of the study was to investigate to what extent exercise intervention [low intensity running] is effective in reducing study related fatigue in school students. Methodology: The present study was conducted as a comparative study where 30 subjects were selected on the basis of selection criteria and assessed with outcome measures which included Fatigue Severity Scale and Balke Run Test. The intervention took place for 4 weeks where the participants were divided into 1:1 ratio; exercise group and control group. The exercise group underwent the study with each running session comprised for 60 minutes. Progression was assessed after every 2 weeks. Result and Conclusion: There were not much considerable improvement in VO2 MAX in both exercise and control group but fatigue was seen to be reduced compared to the initial score in exercise group in FSS score.
Article
Stair use, a common lifestyle activity, is a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that, despite often being brief in duration, may contribute to psychological health. A systematic literature review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) method to summarize psychological aspects related to stair use. Included studies examined at least 1 psychological outcome in relation to either objective measures of stair use, such as time or stair height, or subjective measures of, or measures related to, stair use such as perceived difficulty using stairs. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria; 12 used subjective stair use measures and 10 used objective stair use measures. The limited evidence from studies using self-reports supported that (1) perceived difficulty using stairs was positively associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression and (2) stair use was not associated with a reduced incidence of mental illnesses such as depression, suicide, or dementia. Studies using objective measures of stair use supported that (3) elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression are negatively associated with stair use performance. Given the widespread use of stairs, there is surprisingly little data about the extent to which, and for whom, stair use influences psychological health.
Article
Several clinical interventions report that consuming nuts will not cause weight gain. However, it is unclear if the type of instructions provided for how to incorporate nuts into the diet impacts weight outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published nut-feeding trials with and without dietary substitution instructions to determine if there are changes in body weight (BW) or composition. PubMed and Web of Science were searched through 31 December 2019 for clinical trials involving the daily consumption of nuts or nut-based snacks/meals by adults (≥18 y) for >3 wk that reported BW, BMI, waist circumference (WC), or total body fat percentage (BF%). Each study was categorized by whether or not it contained dietary substitution instructions. Within these 2 categories, an aggregated mean effect size and 95% CI was produced using a fixed-effects model. Quality of studies was assessed through the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Fifty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. In studies without dietary substitution instructions, there was no change in BW [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.01 kg; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.08; I2 = 0%] or BF% (SMD: -0.05%; 95% CI: -0.19, 0.09; I2 = 0%). In studies with dietary substitution instructions, there was no change in BW (SMD: -0.01 kg; 95% CI: -0.11, 0.09; I2 = 0%); however, there was a significant decrease in BF% (SMD: -0.32%; 95% CI: -0.61%, -0.03%; I2 = 35.4%; P < 0.05). There was no change in BMI or WC for either category of studies. Nut-enriched diet interventions did not result in changes in BW, BMI, or WC in studies either with or without substitution instructions. Slight decreases in BF% may occur if substitution instructions are used, but more research is needed. Limitations included varying methodologies between included studies and the frequency of unreported outcome variables in excluded studies.
Article
Objective To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effects of Qigong practice on self-reported fatigue among cancer patients or survivors. Methods 13 articles published before 31 December 2019 involving 1154 participants were selected according to PICO guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Hedges d effect sizes were calculated and random effects models were used to estimate the pooled effects. I² tests were applied to assess the heterogeneity. Moderating effects were tested by mixed model meta-regression analysis according to moderators derived from participant characteristics, features of Qigong exposure and research design. Study quality was judged using the Wayne Checklist. Results Qigong practice relieved cancer-related fatigue by a heterogeneous (I² = 81.4%) standardized mean effect size 0.46 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.78, z = 2.89, p = 0.0039). Reductions were larger in participants having elevated fatigue at baseline. Trials with blinded allocation or blinded assessment of participants had larger effects. Qigong had a significant effect on cancer-related fatigue when Qigong was compared with usual care or waitlist control (Hedges d = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.26, p < 0.001), but not when Qigong was compared with Western exercise (Hedges d = 0.46, 95%CI, −0.02 to 0.95, p = 0.06) or no treatment control (Hedges d = 0.10, 95%CI, −0.23 to 0.43, p = 0.60) in sub-analysis. Conclusion Qigong practice may have small-to-moderate efficacy for management of cancer-related fatigue, but the limited number of RCTs and methodological flaws in most of the trials make it premature to conclude clinical effectiveness. Further high-quality RCTs are needed to mitigate potential methodological bias.
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With fatigue being such a dominant feature, it is important to define the timeline and its impact following exertion in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This study aimed to investigate the physiological effects of repeated graded maximal exercise testing at 48 and 72 hours, along with analysing the reported time to recover from repeated graded exercise tests (PEM). ME/CFS (n = 16), age and gender matched controls (n=16) were randomly assigned to either a 48‐hour or 72‐hour protocol. Each participant completed a maximal incremental cycle exercise test on day one and again at either 48‐hours (48‐h) or 72‐hours (72‐h) later. Physiological responses were analysed at peak work rate (PWR). There were significant differences in both peak VO2 and workload (p<0.05) in the 48‐h ME/CFS group compared to the 48‐h controls in both test 1 and test 2. Significant differences in peak VO2 and workload were only demonstrated in test 2 in participants in the ME/CFS 72‐h group. There was a small but insignificant decrease in both peak VO2 and workload in the ME/CFS group at 48‐h. Interestingly those in the 72‐h ME/CFS protocol demonstrated an increase in workload (10 Watts), despite no change in VO2peak. Subjective data demonstrated the 48‐hour ME/CFS group reported significantly longer time to recover.
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Recent scientific evidence suggests that traits energy and fatigue are two unique unipolar moods with distinct mental and physical components. This exploratory study investigated the correlation between mental energy (ME), mental fatigue (MF), physical energy (PE), physical fatigue (PF), and the gut microbiome. The four moods were assessed by survey, and the gut microbiome and metabolome were determined from 16 S rRNA analysis and untargeted metabolomics analysis, respectively. Twenty subjects who were 31 ± 5 y, physically active, and not obese (26.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2) participated. Bacteroidetes (45%), the most prominent phyla, was only negatively correlated with PF. The second most predominant and butyrate-producing phyla, Firmicutes (43%), had members that correlated with each trait. However, the bacteria Anaerostipes was positively correlated with ME (0.048, p = 0.032) and negatively with MF (−0.532, p = 0.016) and PF (−0.448, p = 0.048), respectively. Diet influences the gut microbiota composition, and only one food group, processed meat, was correlated with the four moods—positively with MF (0.538, p = 0.014) and PF (0.513, p = 0.021) and negatively with ME (−0.790, p < 0.001) and PE (−0.478, p = 0.021). Only the Firmicutes genus Holdemania was correlated with processed meat (r = 0.488, p = 0.029). Distinct metabolic profiles were observed, yet these profiles were not significantly correlated with the traits. Study findings suggest that energy and fatigue are unique traits that could be defined by distinct bacterial communities not driven by diet. Larger studies are needed to confirm these exploratory findings.
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In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. Primary recommendation: To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)]
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This review summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials to examine whether strength training influences anxiety, chronic pain, cognition, depression, fatigue symptoms, self-esteem, and sleep. The weight of the available evidence supported the conclusion that strength training is associated with reductions in anxiety symptoms among healthy adults (5 trials); reductions in pain intensity among patients with low back pain (5 trials), osteoarthritis (8 trials), and fibromyalgia (4 trials); improvements in cognition among older adults (7 trials); improvements in sleep quality among depressed older adults (2 trials); reductions in symptoms of depression among patients with diagnosed depression (4 trials) and fibromyalgia (2 trials); reductions in fatigue symptoms (10 trials); and improvements in self-esteem (6 trials). The evidence indicates that larger trials with a greater range of patient samples are needed to better estimate the magnitude and the consistency of the relationship between strength training and these mental health outcomes. Plausible social, psychological, and neural mechanisms by which strength training could influence these outcomes rarely have been explored. This review revealed the high-priority research need for animal and human research aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms underlying mental health changes with strength training.
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This paper highlights the use of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in physical activity research by reviewing and synthesizing literature generated in exercise settings. The results of many studies using the POMS have supported the relationships between exercise and acute mood changes in normal populations and between exercise and chronic mood changes in clinical populations. Based on the multitude of studies utilizing the POMS, Berger and colleagues developed a preliminary taxonomy containing enjoyment, mode, and practice guidelines to help maximize the mood benefits associated with exercise. The POMS also has been employed to identify underlying mechanisms that may promote mood alteration. Unfortunately, there is no conclusive evidence that identifies a single mechanism or group of mechanisms as consistently influencing the exercise-mood relationship. Although knowledge of the relationship between exercise and mood alteration is substantial, much remains to be studied. Promising avenues for future investigation of exercise include mood changes in specific populations, environmental influences on mood alteration, and personal characteristics impacting mood alteration.
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A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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Research has demonstrated the anxiolytic and affective changes following resistance exercise. However, several studies have allowed the participants to leave the testing facility and return at a later time to complete psychological assessments. This weakens internal validity, making it impossible to interpret findings as due to exercise per se. To address this issue, 23 male participants were randomly assigned to either a “stay” or “go” group. Within each group, all participants completed a non-exercise control session and a weight-training session based on 50% of their one repetition maximum for each of five exercises. All participants remained in the laboratory for 60 minutes following each session, at which time only those in the “go” group left the laboratory and returned at 90 and 120 minutes for their remaining affective assessments. The results indicate that despite transient disruptions in mood, an acute bout of resistance exercise results in positive psychological changes that occur within 60 minutes after completion of the exercise session and which persist up to 120 minutes post-exercise. Allowing participants to leave the laboratory or requiring them to remain in the testing environment was found to lead to different patterns of affective responses during the post-exercise assessment period. Future researchers must take into account such methodological issues when designing acute exercise studies requiring extended periods of post-exercise assessment.
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Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.
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ObjectiveThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of acute aerobic exercise on self-reported positive-activated affect (PAA). Samples from 158 studies from 1979 to 2005 were included yielding 450 independent effect sizes (ESs) and a sample size of 13,101.MethodStudies were coded for moderators related to assessment time, exercise variables such as intensity, duration, and dose (combination of intensity and duration), and design characteristics. The analysis considered multiple measures of affect and corrected for statistical artifacts using Hunter and Schmidt [(1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park: Sage; (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage] meta-analytic methods.ResultsThe overall estimated mean corrected ES () and standard deviation (SDcorr) were .47 and .37, respectively. Effects were consistently positive (a) immediately post-exercise, (b) when pre-exercise PAA was lower than average, (c) for low intensity exercise <15–39% oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2R), (d) for durations up to 35 min, and (e) for low to moderate exercise doses. The effects of aerobic exercise on PAA appear to last for at least 30 min after exercise before returning to baseline. Dose results suggest the presence of distinct zones of affective change that more accurately reflect post-exercise PAA responses than intensity or duration alone. Control conditions were associated with reductions in PAA (, SDcorr=.25).ConclusionThe typical acute bout of aerobic exercise produces increases in self-reported PAA, whereas the typical control condition produces decreases. However, large SDcorr values suggest that additional variables, possibly related to individual differences, further moderate the effects of exercise on PAA.
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Quantitative literature reviews such as meta-analysis are becoming common in evolutionary biology but may be strongly affected by publication biases. Using fail-safe numbers is a quick way to estimate whether publication bias is likely to be a problem for a specific study. However, previously suggested fail-safe calculations are unweighted and are not based on the framework in which most meta-analyses are performed. A general, weighted fail-safe calculation, grounded in the meta-analysis framework, applicable to both fixed- and random-effects models, is proposed. Recent meta-analyses published in Evolution are used for illustration.
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Objective: Funnel plots (plots of effect estimates against sample size) may be useful to detect bias in meta-analyses that were later contradicted by large trials. We examined whether a simple test of asymmetry of funnel plots predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared to large trials, and we assessed the prevalence of bias in published meta-analyses. Design: Medline search to identify pairs consisting of a meta-analysis and a single large trial (concordance of results was assumed if effects were in the same direction and the meta-analytic estimate was within 30
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Incl. bibl., index.
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This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Sixty sedentary participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity (45-50% age predicted Heart Rate Reserve; HRR), high-intensity exercise (70-75% HRR) group, or a no-exercise attention control group. Participants in both exercise groups experienced changes in feeling states across the course of the exercise bout. The moderate-intensity group reported more positive and fewer negative feeling states both during and after exercise than the high-intensity group. Participants in both exercise conditions were significantly more positively engaged than the attention-control group postexercise. Consistent with social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997), the reciprocal determined relationship between self-efficacy and feeling states was found to be strongest in the high intensity exercise condition.
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A quasi-experimental approach assessed the comparability of exercise versus napping for maintaining alertness in aviators deprived of sleep. Subjective and objective data from two sleep-deprivation studies were pooled. Thirty aviators were included, 18 who were given zolpidem induced naps during the deprivation period and 12 who exercised during 40 hours of continuous wakefulness. Performance on Repeated Tests of Sustained Wakefulness, Profile of Mood State questionnaires, and Visual Analogue Scales was assessed. Zolpidem-induced naps were superior to rest in sustaining mood, and alertness on both a subjective and objective test. Napping was also clearly better than exercise for attenuating changes in mood and subjective alertness typically produced by sleep loss.
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This experiment was designed to examine the effect of resistance exercise of different workloads on subsequent psychological states. Participants, 54 undergraduate students (34 male, 20 female), were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) low workload resistance exercise (50% of 1 RM), (b) high workload resistance exercise (80% of 1RM), or (c) a no exercise control. Resistance exercise consisted of three sets of five repetitions for three free-weight exercises: the bench press, overhead press, and dumbbell row. Psychological state was i