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The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association.
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... Many animals copulate more than once, it is necessary for simple fertilization (Arnqvist and Nilsson 2000). In the present study, we have noticed a multiple and repeated africana, it was mentioned by Kruger and Du Preez (2015) that the spermatophore remains attached to the dermal wall of the leech through an adhesion that sets as the spermatophore is pressed against the body surface of the recipient leech. Moreover, we have documented that usually 1-3 spermatophores are attached to the studied parent leech. ...
... Moreover, they postulated that the sperm is pumped from the spermatophore into the vector tissue at a high pressure, and as a result, the vector tissue cells are pushed aside in places where the extracellular matrix fills the gaps between them, and in consequence, the spermatozoa can pass quickly through. Vector tissue has been found in the reproductive system of Batracobdelloide moogi (Glossiphoniidae) and all studied representative of the family Piscicolidae (Kruger and Du Preez 2015). The presence or absence of this vector tissue for Helobdella stagnalis is currently not known and may be a feature of taxonomic relevance. ...
... In our study, we have documented that the attachment of the spermatophore was in any place at the dorsal face of the leech. While in Marsupiobdella africana the majority of spermatophores are deposed in the anterior part of the leech (Van der Lande and Tinsley 1976; Kruger and Du Preez 2015). Moreover, no sign of penetration of the spermatophore itself was observed. ...
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The reproductive biology of the Glossiphoniidae leech Helobdella stagnalis, under laboratory conditions, the structure of its eggs and its developmental stages were studied. Sperm transfer and insemination are made by hypodermic injection: one or numerous spermatophores were attached to the skin of the partner during copulation and sperm is injected through it. The leeches can copulate repeatedly with several partners. Each leech produces 4–8 cocoons containing 20–60 eggs whose are attached to the ventral side of the parent and carried around. At 22 °C, the developmental duration is 24 days from the oviposition until the juveniles leave the parent leech. Three (3) major stages have been distinguished: Eggs cleavage, germinal band generation, and juveniles hatching. The sexual behavior of Hellobdella stagnalis was described with a special attention given to parental care.
... For the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the specimens preserved in absolute alcohol were dried using the critical point drying (CPD) technique, sputter coated with gold, and investigated for external morphology using a Quanta 450 scanning electron microscope equipped with an Oxford Instrument X-Max (Kruger & Preez, 2015). ...
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A new glossiphoniid leech species, Placobdelloides tridens sp. n., is discovered on the Malayan Giant Turtle (Orlitia borneensis) at the Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo in Thailand. The morphological study of this new species revealed that it is distinguished from P. siamensis, a turtle leech species that can be found commonly in Thailand. Placobdelloides tridens presented the following diagnostic morphological characteristics: a pear-shaped and triannulate body, well-developed rod-like papillae on the dorsal surface, smooth posterior and anterior suckers with nominal pits inside, a single pair of dark contiguous eyes, light yellow-brown to greenish dorsal color, absence of median line, male and female gonopore separated by a single annulus and a unique trident shape at the tip of the crop ceca. The phylogenetic relationships of P. tridens sp. n., was clarified, and shown to be a sister clade to the P. siamensis and P. sirikanchanae clade. Furthermore, this is a new host record for P. siamensis, which was found on O. borneensis, Batagur affinis and B. borneoensis in the Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi, Thailand.
... According to Kutschera and Wirtz (2001), the Glossiphoniidae family can be divided into three subfamilies based on cocoon attachments: Glossiphoniinae attach cocoons to substrates, Haementeriinae attach cocoons directly to the venter of the parent, and monogeneric Theromyzinae (a unique genus) show a mixture of these characters (Kruger and Du Preez, 2015). ...
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Placobdelloides siamensis is a glossiphoniid leech with a short life cycle. In a laboratory setting, ten mature P . siamensis left their host (a turtle) after feeding for approximately three days and initiated copulation. The adults spent 3–4 days gestating before depositing eggs (272.8±62.9 eggs/clutch; range: 186–359 eggs/clutch). The eggs then changed from a creamy white to a creamy brownish color before hatching. Hatching occurred after incubation on the parent's ventral surface for 5–7 days. The transparent brood, with a single pair of red eyes, spent a couple of weeks under the venters of their parents. After this period, they left their parents and grew to maturity in 10–15 days; leeches were considered mature when their color was similar to that of their parents and they performed their first copulation. In addition, the mature leeches survived for 163 days on one feeding.
... Each specimen was investigated for eye number and location, annulation, and color under an MVX10 Research Macro Zoom microscope (Olympus) at × 250 magnification. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specimens preserved in 2.5% glutaraldehyde were dehydrated and critical-point dried, mounted on a stub using carbon tape before being coated with gold, and investigated for external morphology using a Quanta 450 scanning electron microscope equipped with an Oxford Instrument X-Max instrument (Kruger and Preez 2015). ...
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A new snail-eating leech, Batracobdelloides bangkhenensis sp. n., was discovered at Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok, Thailand. This species is found free living in the benthic zone of ponds; feeds on freshwater snails, including Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Indoplanorbis exustus, Radix rubiginosa, Physella acuta, and Pomacea canaliculata; and uses a shell as a shelter during the parental care period, with a colony of 7-15 juvenile individuals held on the venter inside the shell of host. Batracobdelloides bangkhenensis displays distinct morphological characters, including a rice-shaped body showing transparency, cephalization, two eye pairs merged on somite III, an anterior sucker twice as large as the cephalic region, a central mouth in the anterior sucker, seven light brown transverse rows in the neck region, absent dorsal papillae, rich green pigments on the dorsum, a male gonopore on XIIa2/XIIa3 (27-28), a female gonopore on XIIIa1/XIIIa2 (29-30), and diffuse aggregations of minute, spherical salivary glands in the neck region. Comparisons of the COI and COI-ND1 genes showed a monophyletic clade for Batracobdelloides, and the phylogenetic tree of the COI gene also indicated that B. bangkhenensis is distinct from other species in the genus, with strong support values.
... In South Africa, X. laevis is one of the most abundantly occurring aquatic species (Measey & Davies, 2011). Since the 1930s, numerous studies documenting the occurrence of parasites in X. laevis have emerged (i.e., Southwell & Kirshner, 1937;Sandon, 1941;Price, 1943;Nigrelli & Maraventano, 1944;Elkan & Murray, 1952;Williams, 1959;Pritchard, 1964;Macnae et al., 1973;Cosgrove & Jared, 1974;Tinsley & Sweeting, 1974;Tinsley & Owen, 1975, 1979Tinsley & Whitear, 1980;Moravec & Cosgrove, 1982;Wade, 1982;Harris & Tinsley, 1987;Ferguson & Appleton, 1988;Kruger et al., 1991;Jackson & Tinsley, 1995a, 1995bJackson & Tinsley, 1997;King & van As, 1997;King & van As, 2000;Jackson & Tinsley, 2001a, 2001bTheunissen et al. 2014;Kruger & du Preez, 2015;Svitin et al., 2018, just to mention but a few). However, these studies mainly focus on morphological description, host range and geographical distribution of individual parasites. ...
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This study determined the diversity and seasonality of parasites species of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802), from three localities, namely Modjadjikloof, Mokopane and University of Limpopo, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of seven parasite species were collected and identified. They included two nematodes, Camallanus kaapstaadi Southwell & Kirshner, 1937 and Batrachocamallanus slomei (Southwell & Kirshner, 1937), a monogenean, Protopolystoma xenopodis (Price, 1943), a cestode, Cephalochlamys namaquensis (Cohn, 1906), a protozoan, Trichodina xenopodos Fantham, 1924, two digeneans, Progonimodiscus doyeri Ortlepp, 1926 and Dollfuschella rodhaini Vercammen-Grandjean, 1960. The most common and abundant parasite species by far were Cm. kaapstaadi, B. slomei and Cp. namaquensis, with Cm. kaapstaadi, B. slomei present in all localities. Trichodina xenopodos was a rare species, only present in host populations from Modjadjiskloof. Modjadjiskloof had the highest species richness (all seven parasite species) followed by Mokopane (five parasite species) and University of Limpopo (3 parasite species). There were also higher infection levels (prevalence and mean intensity) of Cm. kaapstaadi, B. slomei, Cp. namaquensis and Pt. xenopodis in hosts from Modjadjiskloof while Pd. doyeri and D. rodhaini infection levels were greater in Mokopane. The variability between localities shows that parasites with heteroxenous life cycles are more strongly associated with more pristine habitats. The variability in calculated indices (prevalence and mean intensity) also suggests that the occurrence of some of the parasites is affected by season, favouring higher infection rates during summer. This suggests that temperature has a direct role in the reproductive and developmental processes of these parasites. Neither length nor sex had an influence on the prevalence or intensity of parasites.
... The other six species are recorded from X. laevis for the first time herein, although the possibility of associations with nematodes in the native range has been suggested by a few earlier reports (Thurston 1970;Cosgrove and Jared 1974;Brayton 1992). Surprisingly, this high number of novel parasite associations is reported despite more than 100 years of investigations and numerous parasitological surveys of X. laevis since the early 1900s (Cohn 1906;Metcalf 1923;Southwell and Kirshner 1937;Porter 1938;Sandon 1941;Price 1943;Nigrelli and Maraventano 1944;Elkan and Murray 1952;Dick 1959;Williams 1959;Vercammen-Grandjean 1960;Yeh 1960aYeh , 1960bBeverley-Burton 1963;Mettrick 1963;Manter and Pritchard 1964;Pritchard 1964;de Puytorac and Grain 1965;Thurston 1967;Dollfus 1968;Fischthal and Thomas 1968;Thurston 1970;Avery 1971;Macnae et al. 1973;Cosgrove and Jared 1974;Tinsley and Sweeting 1974;Tinsley andWynne Owen 1975, 1979;Tinsley and Whitear 1980;Moravec and Cosgrove 1982;Wade 1982;Harris and Tinsley 1987;Appleton 1988a, 1988b;Jackson and Tinsley 1988;Kruger et al. 1991;King and van As 1992;Tinsley 1995a, 1995b;Tinsley and Jackson 1995;du Preez et al. 1996;Tinsley 1996;Crous and du Preez 1997;Jackson and Tinsley 1997;King and van As 1997;Tinsley 1998a, 1998b;Tinsley andJackson 1998a, 1998b;King and van As 2000;Tinsley 2001a, 2001b;Aisien et al. 2004;Bruňanská et al. 2012;Feldman and Ramirez 2014;Theunissen et al. 2014;Kruger and du Preez 2015;Svitin et al. 2018). We suggest that these new host-parasite associations could be a result of the Contracaecum sp. ...
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The effect of invasive species on local parasite dynamics is often overlooked. The African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802) (Anura: Pipidae) is a global invader, with established populations on four continents and is a domestic exotic in southern Africa. Despite a century of parasitological surveys, the current study reports seven previously unrecorded nematode species parasitising X. laevis across South Africa. These are adult Capillaria sp. and Falcaustra sp. from the intestine, third stage larvae of Contracaecum sp. encysted in the body cavity, third stage larvae of Paraquimperia sp. and Tanqua sp. from the intestine and two different species of second stage nematode larvae from the lungs and kidneys, respectively. Morphological descriptions, photomicrographs and molecular data of the 18S and 28S rRNA and COI genes are provided to aid future investigations. We propose that these nematodes could well be using X. laevis as a definitive, paratenic and intermediate host, probably involving native fish, piscivorous birds, semi-aquatic reptiles and invertebrates in their life cycles. All recovered nematodes are recorded for the first time herein in association with X. laevis, except for the genus Contracaecum, members of which have previously been recorded from invasive X. laevis from California and Chile. The current study illustrates that X. laevis is an important parasite reservoir in its native range, with implications for its role in the invasive range. The fact that none of these nematodes could be identified to species level underscores the importance of provid ing morphological descriptions and molecular data when reporting on parasitological surveys, especially those of known invasive species.
... Recently, a number of general studies on parasites of African anurans, and particularly the guttural toad, have been performed (Halajian et al., 2013;Kruger and Du Preez, 2015). The current study is the first known record of an adult filarial nematode from an anuran in South Africa. ...
Article
Anuran filarial nematodes are restricted to two comparatively small subfamilies (Icosiellinae and Waltonellinae) of the filariae that currently comprise six genera and 41 recognised species. However, the life histories of only five anuran filarial nematodes, proposed as an ancestral group based on molecular phylogenetic studies, have been elucidated. Furthermore, data on the natural vectors (in situ) and parasite transmission is limited. In the current study we elucidate the life history of Neofoleyellides boerewors n. gen. n. sp. parasitising the guttural toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis and the mosquito vectors Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) mashonaensis and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) montana. Additionally, we report on the unique host-seeking behaviour of the mosquito vectors which locate their toad hosts using their calls. The complex host-vector relationship and specialised host-seeking behaviour by these mosquitoes indicate biases towards host species and male toad infections.
... Each specimen was examined for eye number and placement, annulation, digestive system (including the number and structure of gastric ceca), and reproductive system, following Sawyer (1986) under an MVX10 Research Macro Zoom microscope (Olympus) at 250× magnification. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), leeches were preserved in absolute alcohol, dried using the critical point drying technique (CPD), and coated in gold, and their morphology was studied using a Quanta 450 Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Oxford Instrument X-Max (Kruger and Du Preez 2015). ...
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A new species of glossiphoniid leech, Placobdelloides sirikanchanaesp. nov. , is reported in the Asian leaf turtle ( Cyclemys dentata ) and the dark-bellied leaf turtle ( C. enigmatica ) from Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. The examination of morphological characters revealed that this new species is similar to P. siamensis (Oka, 1917), a common turtle leech species found in Thailand. Placobdelloides sirikanchanaesp. nov. demonstrates distinct morphological characters, with an elongated, narrow body, 13–17 well-developed knob papillae on each annulus, dark brown to greenish dorsal color with a crimson median line, the absence of a scarlet dot, different male and female gonopore distributions, a rough posterior sucker with a random pit distribution, and 104–115 eggs per clutch. The phylogenetic relationships of COI-ND1 genes were clarified and shown to be distinct from those of P. siamensis . Additionally, habitat preferences tended toward low oxygen conditions such as puddles or water patches on rubber plantations.
... In Africa, Leigh-Sharpe (1933) reported on the hirudinoid leech Limnatis nilotica parasitizing the frog Rana ridibunda (= Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771) from Casablanca, Morocco. In South Africa, Kruger and Du Preez (2015) described the parasitic association between the Marsupial leech (Marsupiobdella africana) and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis Daudin 1802). Other leeches found parasitizing on African amphibians include several Malagabdella species of the terrestrial leech family Haemadipsidae, which were found parasitizing at least four species of the anuran family Mantellidae (Rocha et al. 2012) in Madagascar. ...
... Moreover, the fact that its parasite fauna has been well studied, makes X. laevis the ideal model to test the ERH in terms of parasites as natural enemies. Since the description of its first associated parasite (Cohn 1906), over 20 metazoan parasite species have been associated with it in its native range (Avery 1971;Beverley-Burton 1963;Cosgrove and Jared 1974;Crous and du Preez 1997;Dick 1959;du Preez et al. 1996;Elkan and Murray 1952;Ferguson and Appleton 1988a, b;Fischthal and Thomas 1968;Harris and Tinsley 1987;Héritier et al. 2015;Jackson and Tinsley 1995a, b, 1997van As 1992, 1997;Kruger and du Preez 2015;Macnae et al. 1973;Manter and Pritchard 1964;Moravec and Cosgrove 1982;Nigrelli and Maraventano 1944;Pritchard 1964;Prudhoe and Bray 1982;Southwell and Kirshner 1937;Svitin et al. 2018;Theunissen et al. 2014Thurston 1967Thurston 1970;Jackson 1995, 1998;Tinsley and Sweeting 1974;van der Lande and Tinsley 1976;Vercammen-Grandjean 1960;Wade 1981Wade , 1982. Likewise, the parasitic fauna of the established invasive populations, although not as well studied as in the native range, nonetheless have been surveyed on three continents. ...
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The introduction of species to multiple continents creates natural experiments suited to the evaluation of ecological hypotheses. For the Enemy Release Hypothesis (ERH), which postulates that the success of invasive populations hinges upon release from the effects of their natural enemies, assessments of parasite loss during invasion across independent geographical replicates are scarce. This study is the first to test the ERH for a globally invasive amphibian, Xenopus laevis, a successful invader on four continents with a well-described parasite fauna. In this study, the metazoan parasite communities of X. laevis from 20 invasive and 27 native sites in five countries and three continents were compared. An overall pattern of reduced parasite diversity in invasive X. laevis was not yet countered by acquisition of novel parasites. Invasive X. laevis harboured impoverished parasite communities that were distinct from those of native X. laevis from undisturbed habitats. Conversely, parasite communities from native X. laevis from disturbed habitats were similar to those from the invasive range. Accompanying parasites were common in the native range and included both generalists with indirect and specialists with direct life cycles. Our findings emphasise that parasite loss is characteristic of the invasion process of X. laevis and possibly contributes to its success as a global invader. The ERH is supported in terms of metazoan parasites as natural enemies, irrespective of the geographical origin, climatic conditions and invasion history of the host populations. This study also draws attention to parasites that co-invade with their hosts as invaders in their own right.
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Sperm Transfer Through the Vector Tissue in Piscicola Respirans (Clitellata, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) In fish leeches (Piscicolidae) indirect (hypodermic) insemination has evolved, thus the spermatophores are released in the specialised region of the body wall known as a copulatory area or a copulatory region. The way in which the spermatozoa reach the ovaries is not fully understood. In piscicolids beneath the copulatory area there is a specialized connective tissue (vector tissue), which is thought to guide the spermatozoa toward the ovaries. To date the structure of the vector tissue has not been observed in copulating specimens, which have spermatophores implanted in their coplulatory area. Here we present the first ultrastructural observation of massive sperm transfer from the spermatophore throughout the vector tissue to the ovaries. Our results show that the sperm transfer is both massive and rapid. The migrating spermatozoa form huge aggregations which push aside the vector tissue cells, in such a way that between these cells voluminous gaps are formed. Unexpectedly to our previous suggestions, the ultrastructural pictures show that the long cytoplasmic processes of granular cells, which constitute the main mass of the vector tissue, are not engaged in sperm transport. We suggest that the sperm is pumped with a high pressure from the spermatophore into the vector tissue, and as a result the vector tissue cells are pushed aside and spermatozoa can freely pass between them.
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Seasonal collections (including 38 fish species and two turtle species), taken mainly from two southeastern Wisconsin lakes between 1976 and 1978, were examined. Five free-living and six parasitic species of leeches (Hirudinea), from various fishes and turtles, are reported. New records include one state and nine host records. All records are new for southeast Wisconsin. Morphological variations and ecological observations, particularly of parasitic species, as well as notes on some host tissue reactions, are reported. The spermatophore of Placobdella ornata is described.
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The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoront’s dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1 year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle.
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The 3e of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates continues the tradition of in-depth coverage of the biology, ecology, phylogeny, and identification of freshwater invertebrates from the USA and Canada. This edition is in color for the first time and includes greatly expanded classification of many phyla and a downloadable set of references for all chapters. - Contains extensive and detailed classification keys for identification of diverse freshwater invertebrates. - Many drawings and color photographs of freshwater invertebrates. - Single source for a broad coverage of the anatomy, physiology, ecology, and phylogeny of all major groups of invertebrates in inland waters of North America, north of Mexico. "Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the latest edition of Thorp and Covich. I have admired prior editions of this superb book for its comprehensive coverage of freshwater invertebrates. The current edition improves upon the high standard set by prior editions through the use of color and greater taxonomic specificity. Authored by an outstanding collection of experts, individual chapters provide comprehensive coverage of morphology, physiology and ecology, as well as methods for collecting, rearing and preserving freshwater invertebrates. Together with chapters on ecology and habitats of inland waters, this carefully edited volume provides the central knowledge of freshwater invertebrates that every student and researcher will find invaluable. I highly recommend this superb new edition of Thorp and Covich - it is a must-own volume that every student and researcher of freshwater invertebrates will find invaluable." J. David Allan, Ph.D. Professor and Acting Dean School of Natural Resources and Environment The University of Michigan *** "This 3rd edition contains a wealth of information, which has expanded its utility beyond the earlier editions. Thorp and Covich gathered the recognized experts in North America to compile the full extent of current knowledge on this diverse group of aquatic fauna. The color plates are amazing and add tremendous value to both the learner and learned of the invertebrate biologists." Michael T. Barbour, PhD Director, Center for Ecological Studies Tetra Tech, Owings Mills, Maryland *** "At last, after half a century, this new edition of Thorp and Covich is a worthy successor to Edmondson's (1957) classic second edition of Ward and Whipple's Freshwater Biology. It brings us up to date on the amazing advances in the biology of freshwater invertebrates, the keys are detailed, and the illustrations as beautiful as they are useful." Nelson G. Hairston, Jr. Frank H.T. Rhodes Professor of Environmental Science Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Cornell University *** "The 3rd edition of Thorp and Covich has been extensively revised. The chapters are written by experts who present up-to-date reviews on the structure, function, ecology, and systematics of each invertebrate group. The biggest change from the 2nd edition is an expansion of the taxonomic keys to allow identifying many of the taxa to the species level. References to more-detailed monographs and web sites allow users to quickly gain a fuller perspective on particular groups of interest. The book should continue to be a vital resource for research labs and as a classroom text." John E. Havel, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Missouri State University "The 3rd edition of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates continues the tradition of in-depth coverage of the biology, ecology, phylogeny, and identification of freshwater invertebrates from the USA and Canada. This edition is in color for the first time and includes greatly expanded classification of many phyla and a downloadable set of references for all chapters."--GrrlScientist's Maniraptora blog on Nature.com "This third edition ensures that this work will remain the most up-to-date and comprehensive information source on freshwater invertebrate animals in the US and Canada. Numerous color photographs and some diagrams now brighten more than half of the new chapters. Fifty coauthors contributed, a 35 percent increase from the second edition.. Highly recommended."--CHOICE
Book
The 3e of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates continues the tradition of in-depth coverage of the biology, ecology, phylogeny, and identification of freshwater invertebrates from the USA and Canada. This edition is in color for the first time and includes greatly expanded classification of many phyla and a downloadable set of references for all chapters. - Contains extensive and detailed classification keys for identification of diverse freshwater invertebrates. - Many drawings and color photographs of freshwater invertebrates. - Single source for a broad coverage of the anatomy, physiology, ecology, and phylogeny of all major groups of invertebrates in inland waters of North America, north of Mexico. "Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the latest edition of Thorp and Covich. I have admired prior editions of this superb book for its comprehensive coverage of freshwater invertebrates. The current edition improves upon the high standard set by prior editions through the use of color and greater taxonomic specificity. Authored by an outstanding collection of experts, individual chapters provide comprehensive coverage of morphology, physiology and ecology, as well as methods for collecting, rearing and preserving freshwater invertebrates. Together with chapters on ecology and habitats of inland waters, this carefully edited volume provides the central knowledge of freshwater invertebrates that every student and researcher will find invaluable. I highly recommend this superb new edition of Thorp and Covich - it is a must-own volume that every student and researcher of freshwater invertebrates will find invaluable." J. David Allan, Ph.D. Professor and Acting Dean School of Natural Resources and Environment The University of Michigan *** "This 3rd edition contains a wealth of information, which has expanded its utility beyond the earlier editions. Thorp and Covich gathered the recognized experts in North America to compile the full extent of current knowledge on this diverse group of aquatic fauna. The color plates are amazing and add tremendous value to both the learner and learned of the invertebrate biologists." Michael T. Barbour, PhD Director, Center for Ecological Studies Tetra Tech, Owings Mills, Maryland *** "At last, after half a century, this new edition of Thorp and Covich is a worthy successor to Edmondson's (1957) classic second edition of Ward and Whipple's Freshwater Biology. It brings us up to date on the amazing advances in the biology of freshwater invertebrates, the keys are detailed, and the illustrations as beautiful as they are useful." Nelson G. Hairston, Jr. Frank H.T. Rhodes Professor of Environmental Science Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Cornell University *** "The 3rd edition of Thorp and Covich has been extensively revised. The chapters are written by experts who present up-to-date reviews on the structure, function, ecology, and systematics of each invertebrate group. The biggest change from the 2nd edition is an expansion of the taxonomic keys to allow identifying many of the taxa to the species level. References to more-detailed monographs and web sites allow users to quickly gain a fuller perspective on particular groups of interest. The book should continue to be a vital resource for research labs and as a classroom text." John E. Havel, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Missouri State University "The 3rd edition of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates continues the tradition of in-depth coverage of the biology, ecology, phylogeny, and identification of freshwater invertebrates from the USA and Canada. This edition is in color for the first time and includes greatly expanded classification of many phyla and a downloadable set of references for all chapters."--GrrlScientist's Maniraptora blog on Nature.com "This third edition ensures that this work will remain the most up-to-date and comprehensive information source on freshwater invertebrate animals in the US and Canada. Numerous color photographs and some diagrams now brighten more than half of the new chapters. Fifty coauthors contributed, a 35 percent increase from the second edition.. Highly recommended."--CHOICE