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The main characteristics of mobile learning (m-learning) are recognized as the potential for learning process to be personalized, spontaneous, informal and ubiquitous. Although learning through mobile phones may take longer time compared to computers, the learners feel a greater sense of freedom of time and place, so that they can take the advantage of spare time to learn a second language when and where they are. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) deals with the use of mobile technology in language learning. In contrast to classroom learning, in MALL there is no need for the learners to sit in a classroom or at a computer to get learning materials. In fact, MALL can be considered an ideal solution to language learning barriers in terms of time and place. In this paper by looking at some applications of m-learning as well as some examples across various aspects of it, we observe the advantages and disadvantages derived from using mobile technologies for students as well as professionals. Here, it has been tried to demonstrate the benefits of using mobile phones in learning English as a second language. Areas of mobile-based language learning discussed in this paper are vocabulary, listening, grammar, phonetics, and reading comprehension.
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
DOI : 10.5121/ijdps.2012.3126 309
Mobile-Assisted Language Learning
Tayebeh Mosavi Miangah
and Amin Nezarat
English Language Department, Payame Noor University, Yazd, Iran
Information Technology Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
The main characteristics of mobile learning (m-learning) are recognized as the potential for learning
process to be personalized, spontaneous, informal and ubiquitous. Although learning through mobile
phones may take longer time compared to computers, the learners feel a greater sense of freedom of time
and place, so that they can take the advantage of spare time to learn a second language when and where
they are.
Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) deals with the use of mobile technology in language
learning. In contrast to classroom learning, in MALL there is no need for the learners to sit in a
classroom or at a computer to get learning materials. In fact, MALL can be considered an ideal solution
to language learning barriers in terms of time and place.
In this paper by looking at some applications of m-learning as well as some examples across various
aspects of it, we observe the advantages and disadvantages derived from using mobile technologies for
students as well as professionals. Here, it has been tried to demonstrate the benefits of using mobile
phones in learning English as a second language. Areas of mobile-based language learning discussed in
this paper are vocabulary, listening, grammar, phonetics, and reading comprehension.
e-learning, mobile-assisted language learning, mobile technology, second language learning, wireless
In the world that emerging technology-supported devices are rapidly growing, wireless
communication technology is not an exception in this respect. As mobile phones with high
capabilities extend into all areas of human life, it is expected that this wireless computing device
soon becomes accessible for all urban and rural areas of each country. So, widespread access to
such an inexpensive and sophisticated device has rather changed the landscape of e-learning in
many ways. In fact, mobile learning can be considered as the next generation of e-learning [13].
Mobile devices are not substitute for existing learning devices, but they serve as extension for
learning in new environment having new capabilities, though, not all learning content and
activities are appropriate for mobile devices [3]. Mobile learning is characterized by its potential
for learning to be spontaneous, informal, personalized and ubiquitous. Such learning is
reinforced when people encounter shortage of free time as the result of working longer hours. In
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
such an environment, busy people tend to use portable devices to learn new materials rather than
taking time for traditional classroom-based courses.
There are some factors having key roles in the use of mobile devices in learning
environments. Physical characteristics of a mobile phone such as its size and weight as well as
input and output capabilities such as keypad vs. touchpad and screen size and audio functions are
among the factors which should be assessed in this respect. The learner skills and his/her prior
knowledge and experience with mobile devices for learning, as well as the learner's attitude
towards the learning through mobile phone play a crucial role in the output quality of such a
mobile-based tasks [7].
In this study we try to investigate the way of effective learning through mobile technologies,
a shift from teacher-led learning to student-led one, via m-learning. The possibilities of learning
a second language in a mobile-based environment are demonstrated accompanying by some
examples of learning via mobile devices. Here, it has been tried to show the benefits of using
mobile phones in learning English as a second language. Areas of mobile-based language
learning discussed in this paper are vocabulary, listening, grammar, phonetics, and reading
Among all modern communication devices, mobile phones are the most powerful
communication medium even richer than email or chat as it can act as a learning device despite
its technical limitations. With such a learning device the learner controls the learning process and
progress in his/her own space based on his/her cognitive state.
Learning through the computer or e-learning enables the learners to learn in a non-classroom
environment when they are at home in front of their personal computers online or offline.
However, learning through the mobile phone or m-learning provides the learners with the
opportunity to learn when they are in the bus, outside or at work doing their part-time jobs. In
fact, they can learn every time and everywhere they are.
Two main characteristics of mobile devices are portability and connectivity. As for
connectivity, designing the mobile system must have capability of being connected and
communicated with the learning website using the wireless network of the device to access
learning material ubiquitously including short message service (SMS) and mobile e-mail.
Portability enables learners to move mobile devices and bring learning materials [4].
Klopfer and his colleagues state the following properties of mobile devices: 1) portability:
such devices can be taken to different places due to small size and weight; 2) social interactivity:
exchanging data and collaboration with other learners is possible through mobile devices; 3)
context sensitivity: the data on the mobile devices can be gathered and responded uniquely to the
current location and time; 4) connectivity: mobile devices can be connected to other devices,
data collection devices, or a common network by creating a shared network; 5) individuality:
activities platform can be customized for individual learner [6].
The widespread influence of the market increased the popularity of the mobile phone, and
this fulfills the need of teachers to provide tools and software for the learners in teaching
contexts. Moreover, comparing with other wireless devices such as laptop computers, mobile
phones are rather inexpensive having functions as Internet browsers available in most devices.
With such inexpensive devices accessible to even the poorest areas and having the
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
functionalities of e-mail or SMS, it is now possible to transfer information to and from mobile
phones between instructors and learners without any difficulty.
Although learning service through mobile devices has some advantages, it has its own
constraints as small screen, reading difficulty on such a screen, data storage and multimedia
limitations, and the like. Many of the mobile phones are not designed for educational purposes.
That is, it is difficult for the learners to use them for the task given by the teachers to be carried
out. This is partly due to the initial design of such devices, and partly due to non-existence of
such developed mobile phones. However, those devices which are appropriate for specific
learning tasks are too expensive for most of the learners to buy. Thus, teachers should be aware
of what kinds of tools learners have, and then set to chose or adapt resources compatible to such
tools [9].
In an experiment, Stockwell demonstrated that the learners found the activities take too long
to complete on the mobile devices, and consequently, some of them preferred to use their PCs to
do their assigned tasks. In that experiment many learners indicated from the outset that they did
not intend to use the mobile phones for doing their tasks because of the cost of Internet access,
the screen size, and the keypad [14].
Wireless communication technology are applied to many fields such as GPS navigation, wireless
monitoring system as well as learning various materials including learning language skills.
Mobile learning can take place either within the classroom or outside it. In the former case,
mobile phones possessing appropriate software are very effective in collaborative learning
among small groups. Although this type of learning has nothing to do with the mobility property
of such devices, it provides the learners with the opportunity of close interaction, conversation,
and decision-making among the members of their group due to the specific design of the
learning activity on mobile phones. These types of interaction among learners and their physical
movement can hardly be achieved when desktop or laptop computers are to be used.
Mobile learning technology is more useful for doing activities outside the classroom. Such
activities enable learning to be more directly connected with the real world experiments.
Moreover, learning through mobile phones outside the classroom has the advantage of better
exploiting the learner's free time; even the students on the move can improve their learning skills
SMS-based learning is another development in the use of wireless technologies in education
in which receiving wanted text messages supports learning outside of classroom and helps
learners benefit from their teacher's experimentation with mobile technology [10].
Game-based learning is another theme for mobile learning in which learning materials are so
designed to be integrated with aspects of physical environment. In such environments, learning
activities are facilitated using the mobile technology which serves as a link between the real
world of knowledge and the visual world of the game. TimeLab, for instance, is a game about
climate change and its effects. Players succeed to get information about the introduction of
possible new environmental laws via their mobile devices in different locations as they progress
in the game. They will later discuss the results of the game in the classroom [10].
The m-learning games can also be used to teach second language skills such as vocabulary,
pronunciation, grammar, listening and reading comprehension and spelling. According to
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
Canny, cell phones offer an ideal platform for learning since they are ubiquitous, affordable,
compact and wireless [11].
The researchers of the project MILLEE at the university of California (UC Berkeley)
concentrated on simple English language skills and designated a series of games that constitute a
curriculum equivalent to an ESL course. They tested their cell phone-based learning games in
North India. They reported that the game play can produce significant learning benefits, and this
type of learning will enhance student's basic skills and provides clues to the sustainability and
scalability of their approach Microsoft research program).
Many researchers were so interested in MALL approaches that they attempt to provide
some strong supports to conduct further studies on this discipline. Today, mobile
learning is easily possible by delivery of various learning materials or content to
learners through the mobile devices. Various activities related to language learning are
supported by mobile devices among which we can name SMS, internet access, camera,
audio/video recording, and video messaging (MMS). Different activities supported and
performed by various mobile devices depending of the model and facilities of the
device have been shown in Appendix 1. [8]
One of the advantages of mobile learning is that collaborative learning is very
encourages in this kind of learning. That is, different learners are able exchange their
knowledge, skills and attitudes through interaction. Collaborative learning helps the
learners to support, motivate and evaluate each other to achieve substantial amounts of
learning, the property which is almost absent in other kinds of learning. One can attain
a good collaborative approach simply by using a mobile device as an environment for
learning, which is, of course, highly dependent of the users than the devices. Devices,
in fact, act as pencils and calculators which are the basic equipment in a learning
process of a student. What is important, here, is the communication between the
learners, as an important factor in language learning is the interaction in the target
language [16]
There are different mobile devices in the market compatible to the needs of different
users. The basic activities can be performed by many mobile phones. However, for
language learning, the cost and technologies related to the mobile devices should be
taken into consideration. Such learners can use their customized mobile devices for
language learning based on their own abilities. The possible MALL activities and users
for some mobile devices has been shown in Appendix 2 [8]
When, in 1
973, the mobile devices were invented for the first time, no one ever thought some
day they would become an important part of routine life. As soon as the mobile phones became
a crucial part of our lives, there felt a need for using them in language learning tasks.
These days mobile devices such as PDAs, phones, and other handheld devices, are used
everywhere for doing everything ranging from voice calling to making short message, video
chat, listening to audio (Mp3, Mp4, Mpeg), web surfing, shopping, and the like. Apart from
these benefits, mobile devices have increasingly grown toward becoming tools for education
and language learning, and all its users from teachers or students are getting used to this
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
environment to make education as ubiquitous as possible. Moreover, the emerging of internet
made open and distance learning a means of receiving education from all parts of the world. In
a short period, the attractiveness of distance learning led to the realization that various mobile
devices provide a very effective resource for education. This way, many researchers tried to
make mobile devices a rich resource for teaching and learning. It was, in fact, a challenging
affair to cover learning tasks by a mobile phone [8].
MALL deals with the use of mobile technology in language learning. Students do not always
have to study a second language in a classroom. They may have the opportunity to learn it using
mobile devices when they desire and where they are. As learning English is considered a main
factor for professional success and a criterion for being educated in many communities,
providing more convenient environment for people to learn English is one of the strategic
educational goals towards improving the students' achievement and supporting differentiation of
learning needs.
There are many researches and developments towards the use of wireless technology for
different aspects of language learning. In the following lines it has been tried to demonstrate the
benefits of using mobile phones in learning English as a second language. Areas of mobile-based
language learning are diverse among which the most common ones are vocabulary, listening,
grammar, phonetics, reading comprehension, etc.
5.1.Learning Vocabulary
The type of activities focusing on vocabulary learning via mobile phone differs from one
research project to another, depending on the level of language proficiency of the learners.
Sending e-mail or SMS to students is a common way of learning new vocabulary based on the
lessons covered in the classroom. In a study Kennedy and Levy gave the learners the option to
receive messages covering known words in new contexts through SMS to their mobile phones
amounting nine or ten messages per week. The results indicated that the messages were very
helpful for learning vocabulary [5].
Similarly, Thornton and Hiuser sent short mini-lessons for learning vocabulary through e-
mail to mobile phones of the students three times a day. They used new words in multiple
contexts for the learners to infer the meaning. The results showed an improved range of scores
on post-tests which were very encouraging [15].
There are other strategies for learning vocabulary via mobile phones. Learners can be
provided with some tailored vocabulary practices based on activities performed in the classroom.
They are, then, asked to complete them on their mobile phones and send them back to their
Learning vocabulary can also be accompanied by the pictorial annotation shown on learners'
mobile devices for better understanding of new words. In a study conducted by Chen, et al.,
learners were provided with verbal as well as pictorial annotation for learning English
vocabulary. Results of a post-test showed that the pictorial annotation assisted learners with
lower verbal and higher visual ability to retain vocabulary [2].
5.1.Listening Comprehension
Listening exercises may be considered the first stage in learning a second language. With the
advent of the second generation of mobile phones, it is now possible to design a mobile
multimedia system for learning listening skills through listening exercises.
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
Huang and Sun designed a system composing of two subsystems. A multimedia materials
website that uploaded and maintained video materials, and a set of multimedia English listening
exercise on the mobile phone for the learners to repeat exercises in English listening in a
ubiquitous learning environment. They attempted to implement the mobile multimedia English
listening practice system based on capabilities of the mobile technology providing learners
download multimedia sound contents from mobile devices, register the learning website, order
mobile learning courses and activate reception of learning courses. According to Huang and Sun,
mobile multimedia English listening exercise system can enhance learner's English listening
abilities to a high degree [4]. It is also possible to design a platform in which learners listen to a
text by vocal service on their mobile phones, followed by a listening comprehension quiz based
on the text.
5.1.Learning Grammar
Grammatical points can be learnt through a specifically designed program installed on mobile
devices, in which grammatical rules are taught, followed by multiple-choice activities where
learners select the correct answer from the given alternatives. Grammatical exercises can be in
the form of 'true-false' or 'fill-in the blanks' which are to be responded by the learners.
Grammatical explanations may also be presented to learners via vocal service or short message
The second generation of mobile devices enable their users to access multimedia functions
including listening and speaking ones. A good m-learning service should consist of speech
facilities for transmitting voice. Having such facilities, the learners may download dictionaries
on the PDA1 with sound functions so that they can learn the correct pronunciation of unfamiliar
or new words to be able to fulfill their learning needs. Mobile devices with multimedia function
give the learners the opportunity to record their own voice. Then, teachers are able to make a
better assessment of the students' weaknesses in pronunciation. This way, by enhancing various
functions of the system like providing a dictionary for looking up unfamiliar words and their
correct phonetic form, the pronunciation as well as speaking skills of the learners can be well
The Praxis learning podcast line is a platform providing a context-driven, social-based, and
software-enhanced website for learning foreign languages. It has recently been working to
release mobile language learning features for PDAs, smart phones, etc., enabling learners to
learn phonetics of a given language in an interaction way using multimedia functions on the
mobile phones (Microsoft research program).
The speech aspect of mobile learning is as significant as textual aspect of it, since it enables
learners to comfortably speak with a system recording their voice and allowing them to listen
back to themselves. Then, they can compare their voice with an ideal pronunciation and make an
improvement in this skill [18].
5.1.Reading Comprehension
Reading practices help learners to enhance their vocabulary, and vocabulary knowledge, in turn,
helps them to promote reading comprehension [2]. Reading activities can be offered to learners
either via a well-designed learning course installed on the mobile devices or through SMS sent
1- Personal Digital Assistant like a basic palmtop computer
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
to the learners. In either case upon finishing the reading activity, the learners are provided with a
reading text function to evaluate their reading comprehension skill.
To offer an effective and flexible learning environment for English learning, Chen and Hsu
attempted to present a personalized intelligent mobile learning system known as PIM in which
the learners were provided with English news articles based on their reading abilities evaluated
by fuzzy item response theory. To promote the reading abilities of English news, the PIM system
would automatically discover and retrieve unknown vocabularies of individual learners from the
reading English news articles. The experimental results of the study indicated that English news
reading learning along with unfamiliar vocabulary learning with self-assessing feedback
response are very effective in prompting reading comprehension and reading abilities of the
learners [2].
Mobile learning programs in which reading function accompanied by text announcer
pronunciation will be more helpful to promote at the same time both reading comprehension and
listening comprehension.
The rising speed of mobile technology is increasing and penetrating all aspects of the lives so
that this technology plays a vital role in learning different dimensions of knowledge. Today, a
clear shift from teacher-led learning to student-led learning that m-learning allowed causes the
students feel using the technology more effective and interesting than before. In fact, we can
provide a richer learning environment through mobile phones for our language learners.
Though many researches have been carried out towards MALL technology as a growing
field of study in language learning, there are still so many works left to be done and a large
amount of information to be uncovered. Moreover, the methods with the help of which mobile
device technology can be used to provide a more robust learning environment have to be
further improved. The ways through which the barriers of CALL have been removed can help
the MALL technology to grow with less effort and cost. Some language skills such as speaking
and listening skills as mobile-based activities need some further improvements due to the
hardware weaknesses. Mobile-based learning or m-learning faces many challenges, but it has
grown in exponentially in spite of all its problems to provide a better environment for language
Mobile learning technology, however, has a rapid pace of development from a teacher-learner
text-based approach to a forthcoming multimedia supporting technology. In addition, podcast
lectures and digitized audio comments made the online interaction between teachers and
learners possible in a more convenient way without any time and space limitations [12].
Although going through language activities on mobile phones may take longer time
compared to computers, the learners feel a greater sense of freedom of time and place, so that
they can take the advantage of spare time to learn a second language when and where they are.
Mobile technology gets learning away from the classroom environment with little or no access to
the teacher, though the learning process can hardly be accomplished without a teacher's direction
or guidance. As the demand for acquiring a foreign language increases and the people time for
more formal, classroom-based, traditional language learning courses decreases, the need felt by
busy users for learning a foreign language through MALL will inevitably increases. In other
word, MALL can be considered an ideal solution to language learning barriers in terms of time
and place.
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
According to Yamaguchi, "A computer is better than a mobile phone or handling various
types of information such as visual, sound, and textual information, but the mobile phone is
superior to a computer in portability. Further, some students do not have their own computers.”
There are some limitations in MALL approaches which are hoped to be handled with some
future works, since the discipline has high potential for further development and improvement.
Enhancing mobile devices with video and voice chat features will make such MALL-based
technology more efficient both for the teachers and the students, as the teachers can use voice
or video chat to provide their students with learning material and receive their feedback.
Further research and experiments on MALL-based techniques should be carried out for
different languages having different properties. Arabic and Persian languages, for example, are
written from right to left and Chinese language is written both from right to left and from left to
right. As a result, mobile devices need to be so devised to be more compatible with such
languages with different orientations, making the scope of these devices usage greater than
Appendix 1. MALL Activities by Device, Medium and Communication Route
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
Appendix 2. Possible MALL Activities and Audiences for Low-Tech, Low-Cost
Mobile Devices
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.1, January 2012
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... With the widespread availability of smartphones, mobile learning has become a popular trend, allowing learners to study at their convenience anytime and anywhere. The oral aspect of mobile learning has been noted as particularly important [1]. Digital games and other technologies have also been used to enhance learning, such as Troussea et al.'s mobile language learning application with a chatterbot, MACE: a mobile artificial conversational entity for adapting domain knowledge and generating personalized advice [2][3][4], and Marougkas' framework for personalized virtual reality learning environments [5]. ...
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Medical terminology can be challenging for healthcare students due to its unfamiliar and lengthy terms. Traditional methods such as flashcards and memorization can be ineffective and require significant effort. To address this, an online chatbot-based learning model called Termbot was designed to provide an engaging and convenient method for enhancing medical terminology learning. Termbot, accessible through the LINE platform, offers crossword puzzles that turn boring medical terms into a fun learning experience. An experimental study was conducted, which showed that students who trained with Termbot made significant progress in learning medical terms, demonstrating the potential of chatbots to improve learning outcomes. Termbot’s gamified approach to learning can also be applied to other fields, making it a useful tool for students to learn medical terminology conveniently and enjoyably.
... The findings of this study regarding mobile learning were consistent with the results of much research conducted so far. According to Miangah and Nezarat (2012), although learners can spend more time on mobile phones than computers, they have more freedom of time and place to enjoy learning a second language. Their study was in harmony with the present research in that mobile technology leaves the classroom with little or no access to the teacher. ...
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To cite this article: Marzieh Ebrahimi (2022): Ubiquitous learning: the effect of LingAR application on EFL learners' language achievement and the realization of their motivation towards mobile learning, Interactive Learning Environments, ABSTRACT With the rapid development of mobile learning, a growing body of research has been carried out to assess the efficacy of this education method. To resolve the existing gap in the literature regarding new ways of mobile learning, the researcher aimed to study 120 Vietnamese students' achievements once they employed two models of learning (LingAR Application model and Augmented Reality model). About the students' achievement in the two kinds of individual learning, those instructed by the Application model outperformed those who learned English by the Augmented Reality model. Finally, to get some information about the students' motivation towards using augmented reality technology in their language learning, the researcher conducted a real-time focus group interview, and then, they extracted some themes from students' answers, and participants indicated different merits and drawbacks of the Augmented Reality model of this application. Keller's motivational model (2010) was adopted to analyze this interview. These results offered valuable insights into the successful implementation of LingAR applications in the field of education. Also, they highlighted possible factors that could establish the basis for future experimental research. The author suggested further study with more subjects from more cultural contexts with broader sample size. ARTICLE HISTORY
... 191) ističe, ovo nije samo pitanje posjedovanja, već i dostupnosti, pozicioniranja određenog uređaja u kulturnom miljeu i psihološkog odnosa korisnika sa uređajem. U literaturi se kao najčešće korišteni uređaji za MALL pominju mobilni telefon i PDA (Bonk, 2009;Chaka, 2009;Chinnery, 2006;Kenning, 2007;Miangah & Nezarat, 2012), ali uz njih i MP3 (Stockwell, 2013). Međutim, imajući u vidu da su mobilni telefoni 60 "With mobile devices, the educational event or activity follows the learner, instead of the learner having to arrive at a designated place in which to acquire it". ...
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This thesis deals with the application of modern technology in teaching English for Specific Purposes, with a focus on English for Information Technology, in higher education institutions in Montenegro. The results of the research presented in the thesis was mainly conducted at the Faculty of Information Technology (FIT), University "Mediterranean" Podgorica, as well as at the other five faculties of this university, the University of Montenegro and University Donja Gorica. The research was conducted during academic years 2014/15 and 2015/16, and it included 32 English teachers and 278 students from the three universities in Montenegro participated. The data were collected through questionnaires: 1) a questionnaire for English teachers, 2) a questionnaire for the students of five faculties of the University "Mediterranean" Podgorica and five departments of information technology at two faculties of the University of Montenegro, and 3) a questionnaire for the students of the Faculty of Information Technology, University "Mediterranean". The survey was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, students from the three universities were tested on the use of modern technologies in English language learning and teaching. The main objective was to determine whether the students from the faculties and departments of information technology use technology for learning English. At this stage, the application of a blog, a wiki, creating videos and Web pages was introduced in teaching English for Information Technology at the Faculty of Information Technology, University "Mediterranean" Podgorica. Then we presented how students perceived these technologies. In the second stage, we collected and processed the data on the application of technology in foreign language teaching by teachers in higher education institutions in Montenegro. The results obtained in the study showed that students use technology to learn, not in order to improve their language skills, but to get the required information. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that students of information technology use technology for learning more efficiently. The students of the FIT showed that the technologies V applied in teaching English for IT had great potential and were appropriate for language learning. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires for teachers showed that higher education institutions do not have adequate strategies for the implementation of technology in teaching. The teachers mostly initiate involving technology in their work by themselves, but this use is very narrow and mostly focused on communication.
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Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital era. The use of online games in vocabulary learning and teaching can be one solution to solve this problem. Android is the current world-famous software nowadays. It is believed to help teachers in delivering knowledge effectively and efficiently. Therefore, this paper aims to illustrate the effectiveness of Android-based educational games to enhance the ability of learners in learning English vocabulary. The discussion includes overview about vocabulary, games, ICT tools in EFL classroom, and the use of educational games from Android (App Inventor) can improve students' English competence in learning vocabulary. Therefore, this paper will be explained about the use of Android-based educational games as one of the fun alternative teaching innovations to support creative teachers and students. And hopefully it can be useful and meaningful reference and information for the reader about the use of android based educational game in learning and teaching English Vocabulary. Keywords: Android based educational game, vocabulary, ICT tool.
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This research is aimed to investigate is there any significant effect of using Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) towards students’ listening and speaking skill on the eleventh grade of SMAN 1 Tirtayasa in academic year 2020-2021. The population is the second grade students of SMAN 1 Tirtayasa. The sample of the research is two classes. They are XI IPA 1 as the controlled class and XI IPA 3 as experimental class. It was conducted by using experimental research design. The experimental group was taught by using Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) through Talk English Application (TEA) which is connected to the smartphone, while the controlled group was taught by using conventional technique. The instrument was used to collect the data by answering the questions of listening and make conversation video in pair for speaking. After analyzing the data, it was found that there was significant different effect between the class which taught by using MALL and the class taught by conventional with paired sample t-test. The result of the test shows a significance value of 2 tailed 0.000 <0.05. It means that alternative hypothesis (Ha) was accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected. The score of the result that teaching by using Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) was higher than taught conventional. Then, the researcher confirmed the findings of the learning outcomes by using MALL besides being able to develop students' listening and speaking skills, Students have easier access to material about daily conversation. Students are assisted by an application that is integrated into their smartphones, an application that guides learning English interactively. Students also can hone their listening and speaking skills at the same time because in learning using Talk English Application (TEA) students are trained to understand the speaker's expressions and respond to what the speaker says.
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The Framework for the Rational Analysis of Mobile Education (FRAME) model describes mobile learning as a process resulting from the convergence of mobile technologies, human learning capacities, and social interaction. It addresses contemporary pedagogical issues of information overload, knowledge naviga- tion, and collaboration in learning. This model is useful for guiding the develop- ment of future mobile devices, the development of learning materials, and the design of teaching and learning strategies for mobile education.
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This article discusses an experiment in sending regular Short Message Service (SMS) messages to support language learning, and vocabulary learning in particular, at beginners' level in Italian at an Australian university. The approach we took built on the initiatives of Thornton and Houser (2005) and Dias (2002b), and was informed by the results of an earlier trial we had conducted with students at high-intermediate level (Levy & Kennedy, 2005). In testing the possibilities for using mobile phones for language learning purposes, we were especially interested in investigating the acceptability of a ‘push’ mode of operation, in which the scheduling of messages is determined by the teachers. While the students appreciated the experience overall, and found the message content often useful or enjoyable, there was a wide range of views on the frequency of messages acceptable. We are therefore planning the further integration of messaging into the course around a flexible arrangement involving options for high or low frequency of pushed messages, as well as messages available on request – in ‘pull’ mode.
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Due to the rapid advancements in mobile communication and wireless technologies, many researchers and educators have started to believe that these emerging technologies can be leveraged to support formal and informal learning opportunities. Mobile language learning can be effectively implemented by delivering learning content through mobile phones. Because the screen size of mobile phones is limited, the presentation of materials using different Learning Content Representation (LCR) types is an issue that needs to be explored. This study addresses the issue of content adaptation in mobile language learning environments. Two dimensions have been taken into consideration to identify a promising solution: instructional strategies (LCR types: written annotation and pictorial annotation), and learners' cognitive models (verbal and visual short-term memory). Our findings show that providing learning content with pictorial annotation in a mobile language learning environment can help learners with lower verbal and higher visual ability because such learners find it easier to learn content presented in a visual rather than in a verbal form. Providing learning content with both written and pictorial annotation can also help learners with both high verbal and high visual abilities. According to the Cognitive Load Theory, providing too much information may produce a higher cognitive load and lead to irritation and a lack of concentration. Our findings also suggest that providing just the basic learning materials is more helpful to learners with low verbal and visual abilities.
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This paper sets out a framework for the design of a new genre of educational technology — personal (handheld or wearable) computer systems that support learning from any location throughout a lifetime. We set out a theory of lifelong learning mediated by technology and indicate how it can provide requirements for the software, hardware, communications and interface design of a handheld learning resource, or HandLeR. The paper concludes with a description and formative evaluation of a demonstrator system for children aged 7–11.
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Eighty-four students distributed between two different courses at a major research university (one a communication course, the other a computer science course) were given laptop computers with wireless network access during the course of a semester. A wide variety of data (from questionnaires, e-mail logs, proxy server logs, and diaries) regarding students' use of the laptops for electronic communication, Web browsing, and local application use (e.g., word processing) was collected and analyzed. The influences of course, network (wireless-wired), student population, and the passage of time were investigated in relation to the prevalence and nature of social computing (e.g., e-mail, instant messaging, chat, discussion boards, online annotations) in students' laptop usage. The relative prevalence of social computing increased and became more exclusive for students in the communication course, especially on the wireless network. Social computing and use of the wireless network were less prominent and influential for students in the computer science course.
Today's young people--the Net Generation--have grown up with technology all around them. However, teachers cannot assume that students' familiarity with technology in general transfers successfully to pedagogical settings. This volume examines various technologies and offers concrete advice on how each can be successfully implemented in the second language curriculum. Following the Introduction by Raquel Oxford and Jeffrey Oxford, this book contains the following chapters: (1) (Re)situating the Role(s) of New Technologies in World-Language Teaching and Learning (Remi A. van Compernolle and Lawrence Williams); (2) Internet and Language Teaching/Learning: Reflections on Online Emerging Technologies and Their Impact on Foreign-Language Instruction (Ana Nino); (3) Digital Natives and Their Self-Rated Electronic Literacy Skills: Empirical Findings From a Survey Study in German Secondary Schools (Carolin Fuchs); (4) Hybridizing the Curriculum: Needs, Benefits, Challenges, and Attitudes (Senta Goertler); (5) Reaching Students: A Hybrid Approach to Language Learning (Lauren Rosen); (6) The Influence of Technology on Second-Language Writing (Raquel Oxford); (7) Podcasting and the Intermediate-Level Spanish Classroom (Nancy Bird-Soto and Patricia Rengel); (8) Podcasting in the Language Classroom: Inherently Mobile or Not? (Lara Ducate and Lara Lomicka); (9) The Coalescence of Spanish Language and Culture Through Blogs and Films (Vanessa Lazo-Wilson and Clara Ines Lozano Espejo); (10) Pragmatic Variation Among Learners of French in Real-Time Chat Communication (Claire A. McCourt); (11) These Horses Can Fly! and Other Lessons From Second Life: The View from a Virtual Hacienda (Gloria B. Clark); (12) A New Language for the Net Generation: Why "Second Life" Works for the Net Generation (Jessamine Cooke-Plagwitz); (13) Web-Based Language Portfolios and the Five Cs: Implementation in Foreign Language College Classrooms (Jane Blyth Warren); and (14) Awakening to the Power of Video-Based Web-Conferencing Technology to Promote Change (Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy). A list of abbreviations used in this book is also included.
While the use of mobile devices for language learning has sparked the interest of an increasing number of researchers in recent years (e.g., Aizawa & Kiernan, 2003; Thornton & Houser, 2005), our knowledge of learners' preferences for the mobile platform and their usage patterns remains limited. Are learners prepared to use mobile phones for performing language learning activities, or is there still a preference for desktop computer environments? Do learners make attempts to use mobile phones and then opt for a desktop computer instead? When and where do those learners who choose to use mobile phones use them, and why do they choose them? The current study investigated 75 learners of English at a Japanese university who were assigned vocabulary learning activities which they could choose to complete on either a mobile phone or desktop computer. It sought to determine their intentions to use mobile phones for language learning if other options were available, to compare this with their actual usage patterns, and to determine when and why learners used mobile phones. Learner attitudes and preferences were elicited through a post-survey, and usage patterns were determined through analysis of detailed server logs. The results are discussed in terms of the readiness of learners to undertake mobile-based language learning activities, and the issues having an effect on the establishment of the mobile phone as a language learning tool.
Abstract We present three studies in mobile learning. First, we polled 333 Japanese university students regarding their use of mobile devices. One hundred percent reported owning a mobile phone. Ninety-nine percent send e-mail on their mobile phones, exchanging some 200 e-mail messages each week. Sixty-six percent e-mail peers about classes; 44% e-mail for studying. In contrast, only 43% e-mail on PCs, exchanging an average of only two messages per week. Only 20% had used a personal digital assistant. Second, we e-mailed 100-word English vocabulary lessons at timed intervals to the mobile phones of 44 Japanese university students, hoping to promote regular study. Compared with students urged to regularly study identical materials on paper or Web, students receiving mobile e-mail learned more (P<0.05). Seventy-one percent of the subjects preferred receiving these lessons on mobile phones rather than PCs. Ninety-three percent felt this a valuable teaching method. Third, we created a Web site explaining English idioms. Student-produced animation shows each idiom's literal meaning; a video shows the idiomatic meaning. Textual materials include an explanation, script, and quiz. Thirty-one Japanese college sophomores evaluated the site using video-capable mobile phones, finding few technical difficulties, and rating highly its educational effectiveness.
Since English has been an international language, how to enhance English levels of people by useful computer assisted learning forms or tools is a critical issue in non-English speaking countries because it definitely affects the overall competition ability of a country. With the rapid growth of wireless and mobile technologies, the mobile learning has been gradually considered as a novel and effective learning form because it inherits all the advantages of e-learning as well as breaks the limitations of learning time and space occurring in the traditional classroom learning. To provide an effective and flexible learning environment for English learning, this study adopts the advantages of the mobile learning to present a personalized intelligent mobile learning system (PIMS) which can appropriately recommend English news articles to learners based on the learners' reading abilities evaluated by the proposed fuzzy Item Response Theory (FIRT). In addition, to promote the reading abilities of English news, the unknown or unfamiliar vocabularies of individual learner can also be automatically discovered and retrieved from the reading English news articles by the PIMS system according to the English vocabulary ability of individual learner for enhancing vocabulary learning. Currently, the PIMS system has been successfully implemented on the personal digital assistant (PDA) to provide personalized mobile learning for promoting the reading ability of English news. Experimental results indicated that the proposed system provides an efficient and effective mobile learning mechanism by adaptively recommending English news articles as well as enhancing unknown or unfamiliar vocabularies' learning for individual learners.