ArticlePDF Available

In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells

Authors:
  • Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu (J&K)

Abstract and Figures

In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
Vol. 51, October 2014, pp. 416-419
NOTE
In vitro anticancer activity of extracts
of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells
Vikas Sharma*, Shabir Hussain, Moni Gupta and
Ajit Kumar Saxena#
Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences,
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences
and Technology of Jammu, Main Campus Chatha,
Jammu-180009, J&K, India
#Cancer Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative
Medicine, Canal Road Jammu-180001, J&K, India
Received 12 December 2013; revised 10 September 2014
In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous
extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia,
M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 µg/ml
was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines — A-549,
COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and
U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma,
lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB)
assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp.
displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97%
against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7,
NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found
to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate
that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic
properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.
Keywords: Mentha Spp., Cancer cells, SRB assay
Mentha is a plant with worldwide distribution and
contains several species which are used in traditional
medicine, mainly for gastrointestinal disturbances.
Cytotoxic and other pharmacological activities have
also been reported from Mentha Spp.1-3. Methanolic
extract and essential oils from six Mentha species viz,
M. piperita, M. spicata, M. pulegium, M. longifolia,
M. aquatica and M. crispa have shown cytotoxicity
against HeLa and HEP-2 cancer cell lines4. Aqueous
extract of M. spicata (pahari pudina), an important
aromatic spice has also shown cytotoxic effect in
mouse fibrosarcoma Wehi-64 and human monocytic
U937 cells5. The cytotoxic effect of essential oil from
M. spicata leaves on some cancer cell lines is also
reported in vitro6,7. Chloroform and ethylacetate
extracts of leaves of M. piperita (Gamathi pudina)
has shown significant dose and time-dependent
anticarcinogenic activity against HeLa, MCF-7,
Jurkat, T24, HT-29 and MIAPaCa-2 cancer cell lines8.
M. arvensis, commonly known as pudina is used in
various symptoms of diseases, such as abdominal
pain, vomiting, cough, loss of appetite, menstrual
disorders, joint pain and in diseases of liver, spleen
and asthma9.
In the present study, anticancer potential of four
Mentha Spp. Viz., M. arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata
and M. viridis has been investigated against eight
human cancer cell lines (A-549, COLO-205,
HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and
U-87MG) of six different origins (breast, colon,
glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate).
Materials and Methods
Chemicals
RPMI-1640 medium, Dulbecco’s minimum essential
medium (DMEM), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),
EDTA, fetal calf serum (FCS), sulphorhodamine blue
(SRB) dye, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), trypsin,
gentamycin, penicillin and 5-flurouracil were purchased
from Sigma Chemical Co., USA. All other chemicals
were of high purity and obtained locally with the brand
Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. and S.D. Fine
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd.
Plant material and preparation of extracts
The whole plants of four Mentha Spp. viz,
M. arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis
were authenticated at site by Prof. M Saleem,
Division of Agroforestry, SKUAST-Jammu and then
collected in the month of May from Herbal Garden,
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences
and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-Jammu),
J&K, India. The freshly collected plant material
was chopped, shade-dried and ground into powdered
form and extracted with different solvents at room
temperature to obtain extracts for bioevaluation.
The methanolic extract was prepared by percolating
the dried ground plant material (100 g) with 95%
methanol and then concentrating it to dryness under
reduced pressure The aqueous extract was obtained by
boiling dried ground plant material (100 g) for 30 min
in distilled water (300 ml) and freeze-dried. Stock
——————
*Author for correspondence
E-mail: vikas.skuast@gmail.com
Mobile: 09469752697, 09419634588
NOTES
417
solutions of 20 mg/ml were prepared by dissolving
95% methanolic extract in DMSO and aqueous
extract in sterile water. Stock solutions were prepared
at least one day in advance and were not filtered and
the microbial contamination was controlled by
addition of 1% gentamycin in complete growth
medium i.e. used for dilution of stock solutions to
make working test solutions of 200 µg/ml.
Cell lines and cultures
The human cancer cells A-549, COLO-205,
HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and
U-87MG were obtained from National Centre for
Cell Science, Pune, India and National Cancer
Institute, Frederick, USA. These human cancer cells
were further grown and maintained in RPMI-1640
medium and DMEM. The media was supplemented
with FCS (10%), penicillin (100 units/ml), streptomycin
(100 µg/ml) and glutamine (2 mM).
Preparation of positive controls
Positive controls like adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil
were prepared in distilled water, while paclitaxel was
prepared in DMSO. These were further diluted in
gentamycin medium to obtain desired concentrations
of 2 × 10-5 M and 2 × 10-6 M.
In vitro assay for cytotoxic activity
Extracts were subjected to in vitro anticancer
activity against various human cancer cell lines10.
In brief, the cells were grown in tissue culture flasks
in growth medium at 37oC in an atmosphere of
5% CO2 and 90% relative humidity in a CO2
incubator (Hera Cell; Heraeus; Asheville, NCI, USA).
The cells at sub-confluent stage were harvested from
the flask by treatment with trypsin (0.05% trypsin in
PBS containing 0.02% EDTA) and suspended in
growth medium. Cells with more than 97% viability
(trypan blue exclusion) were used for determination
of cytotoxicity. An aliquot of 100 µl of cells
(105 cells/ml) was transferred to a well of 96-well
tissue culture plate. The cells were allowed to grow
for 24 h. Extracts (100 µl/well) were then added to
the wells and cells were further allowed to grow for
another 48 h.
The anti-proliferative SRB assay which estimates
cell number indirectly by staining total cellular
protein with the dye SRB was performed to assess
growth inhibition. The SRB staining method is
simpler, faster and provides better linearity with
cell number. It is less sensitive to environmental
fluctuations and does not require a time sensitive
measurement of initial reaction velocity11. In brief, the
cell growth was stopped by gently layering 50 µl of
50% (ice cold) trichloroacetic acid on the top of
growth medium in all the wells. The plates were
incubated at 4oC for 1 h to fix the cells attached to the
bottom of the wells. Liquid of all the wells was then
gently pipetted out and discarded. The plates were
washed five-times with distilled water and air-dried.
SRB 100 µl (0.4% in 1% acetic acid) was added to
each well and the plates were incubated at room
temperature for 30 min.
The unbound SRB was quickly removed by
washing the cells five-times with 1% acetic acid.
Plates were air-dried, tris buffer (100 µl, 0.01 M,
pH 10.5) was added to all the wells to solubilize
the dye and then plates were gently stirred for 5 min
on a mechanical stirrer. The optical density (OD) was
recorded on ELSIA reader at 540 nm. Suitable
blanks (growth medium and DMSO) and positive
controls (prepared in DMSO and distilled water) were
also included. Each test was done in triplicate and
the values reported were mean values of three
experiments.
The cell growth was determined by subtracting
average absorbance value of respective blank from the
average absorbance value of experimental set. Percent
growth in presence of test material was calculated as
under:
OD Change in presence of control = Mean OD of
control – Mean OD of blank
OD Change in presence of test sample = Mean OD
of test sample – Mean OD of blank
% Growth in presence of control = 100/OD change
in presence of control
% Growth in presence of test sample = % Growth
in presence of control × OD change in presence of
test sample
% Inhibition by test sample = 100 – % Growth in
presence of test sample
The growth inhibition of 70% or above was
considered active while testing extracts, but in testing
of active ingredients at different molar concentrations,
the growth inhibition of 50% or above was the criteria
of activity.
Results and Discussion
The in vitro cytotoxic activity of whole plants of
Mentha Spp. is summarized in Table 1. The methanolic
extract of M. arvensis showed in vitro cytotoxic effect
against four human cancer cell lines from four different
tissues. Maximum growth inhibition (92%) was observed
INDIAN J. BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS., VOL. 51, OCTOBER 2014
418
against THP-1 (leukemia). The extract showed 86%,
85% and 76% growth inhibition against colon cancer
cells (COLO-205), lung cancer cells (NCI-H322) and
breast cancer cells (MCF-7), respectively. Whereas
the aqueous extract of M. arvensis suppressed
97% and 75% proliferation of HCT-116 (colon) and
PC-3 (prostate), respectively.
The methanolic extract from M. longifolia suppressed
the proliferation in the range of 75-92% against four
human cancer cell lines from colon, breast, lung
and leukemia origin. Its aqueous extract showed
maximum growth inhibitory effect (81%) against
colon cancer cells (HCT-116), which was considered
significant. The methanolic extract of M. spicata
displayed in vitro anticancer efficacy the range of
71-97% against THP-1, COLO-205, MCF-7 and
NCI-H322. However, its aqueous extract showed
in vitro cytotoxicity only against PC-3 (85%).
Similarly, methanolic extract from M. viridis
exhibited in vitro cytotoxic efficiency against COLO-
205, MCF-7, NCI-H322, THP-1 in the range of 71-
94%, but its aqueous extract was found active against
only HCT-116 (70%) and PC-3 (71%).
Most of the drugs used in cancer chemotherapy
exhibit cell toxicity and can induce genotoxic,
carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in non-tumor
cells. Therefore, there is a need for alternative drugs
of natural origin that are less toxic, endowed with
fewer side effects and more potent in their mechanism
of action. Recently, we have reported that methanolic
extract from the leaves of Nardostachys jatamansi
(commonly known as muskroot) exhibits in vitro
anticancer effect against five human cancer cell
lines viz., NCI-H23, HeLa, SK-N-MC, SW-620 and
COLO-205 in the range of 70-93%12.
Similarly, the methanolic extract from the fruit
part of ‘Kamala tree’ (Mallotus philippinensis) has
displayed significant cytotoxic effect against fourteen
human cancer cell lines A-549, COLO-205,
DU-145, HEP-2, HeLa, IMR-32, KB, MCF-7,
NCI-H23, OVCAR-5, SiHa, SK-N-MC, SW-620 and
ZR-75-113. Also, the methanolic extract from the
stem-leaves of Calotropis procera has shown 70%
growth inhibition of colon cancer cells (HCT-15)14
and the seed part of Apium graveolens is observed to
be active against COLO-205, HeLa, KB, SK-N-MC15.
The strong anti-proliferative effect on a range of
human cancer cell lines is also displayed by the
methanolic extract from the fruit part of Momordica
charantia; this particular extract has been observed to
be cytotoxic to a wide spectrum of cancer cells
(A-549, COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3,
THP-1 and U-87MG) with the growth inhibition
ranging between 75-100%. The extract has shown a
Table 1—Growth inhibitory effect of extracts of whole plants from Mentha Spp. with appropriate positive controls against human
cancer cell lines
Plant Extract Conc.
(µg/ml) Lung Colon Colon
Breast Lung Prostate Leukemia Glioblastoma
A-549 COLO-
205 HCT-
116 MCF-7
NCI-
H322 PC-3 THP-1 U-87MG
Growth inhibition (%)
Methanolic 100 58 86 23 76 85 0 92 36
M. arvensis
Aqueous 100 46 21 97 63 42 75 3 9
Methanolic 100 58 92 20 84 75 0 92 58 M. longifolia Aqueous 100 56 14 81 57 31 3 7 2
Methanolic 100 53 81 53 75 71 0 97 38 M. spicata Aqueous 100 42 22 68 61 34 85 18 16
Methanolic 100 61 88 7 70 71 0 94 54 M. viridis
Aqueous 100 48 24 70 59 39 71 9 12
Positive controls Conc.
(Molar)
5-Flurouracil 2×10–5 - 51 68 - - - 73 60
Paclitaxel 1×10–6 79 - - - 52 - - -
Adriamycin 1×10–6 - - - 60 - 59 - -
Growth inhibition of 70% or above is indicated in bold.
The mark (-) indicates that particular human cancer cell line was not treated with that particular positive control.
NOTES
419
high degree of growth inhibition against NCI-H322
(lung, 100%), MCF-7 (breast, 99%) and COLO-205
(colon, 97%). Interestingly, the extract has exhibited
the cytotoxic effect significantly higher than 5-flurouracil,
adriamycin and paclitaxel used as positive controls16.
Moreover, potent cytotoxic effect of 80% methanolic
extract and chloroform fractions of Mentha spicata
has been reported against HeLa, HEP-2 and PC-3
cancer cell lines1,4. Aqueous extract from M. spicata
has also shown cytotoxic effect on U-937 human
monocytic leukemia cells5. M. longifolia has also
shown cytotoxicity of IC50 at a concentration of
119 µg/ml and 89.9 µg/ml against HeLa and HEP-2
human cancer cells4. The oral administration of
aqueous extract from M. piperita leaves has exhibited
a significant reduction in number of lung tumors
from an incidence of 67.92% in animals given only
benzo[a]pyrene to 26.31%17. M. piperita has a
chemopreventive effect against the tumorigenicity of
shamma which could be due to anti-mutagenic
properties18. Essential oil from M. pulegium is also
found to be a cytotoxic agent against human ovary
adenocarcinoma SK-OV-3, human malignant cervical
adenocarcinoma HeLa and human lung carcinoma
A-549 cell lines19.
To conclude, Mentha Spp. possess in vitro
cytotoxic effect against COLO-205, HCT-116,
MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3 and THP-1 cancer cells.
However, further studies are required for the isolation
of active ingredient(s) which may serve as lead
molecule(s) in the development of anticancer agents,
especially for colon, breast, lung cancer and leukemia
carcinoma.
References
1 Arumugam P, Ramamurthy P & Ramesh A (2010) Int
J Food Prop 13, 23-31
2 Manosroi J, Dhumtanom P & Manosroi A (2006) Cancer
Lett 235, 114-120
3 Londonkar R L & Poddar P V (2009) World J Gastrointes
Oncol 1, 82-88
4 Rahimifard N, Hajimehdipoor H, Hedayati M H, Bagheri O,
Peshehvar H & Ajani Y (2010) J Med Plants 9, 88-92
5 Hajighasemi F Hashemi V & Khoshzaban F (2011) J Med
Plant Res 5, 5142-5147
6 Zu Y, Yu H, Liang L, Fu Y, Efferth T, Liu X & Wu N (2010)
Molecules 15, 3200-3210
7 Hussain A I, Anwar F, Nigam P S, Ashraf M & Gilani A H
(2010) J Sci Food Agric 90, 1827-1836
8 Jain D, Pathak N, Khan S, Raghuram G V, Bhargava A,
Samarth R & Mishra P K (2011) Int J Toxicol 30, 225-236
9 Paranjape P (2001) Indian Medicinal Plants: A Guide to
Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine, pp 1-31, Chaukhamba Sanskrit
Pratishthan, New Delhi.
10 Monks A, Scudiero D, Skehan P, Shoemaker R, Paull K,
Vistica D, Hose C, Langley J, Cronise P,Vaigro– Wolff A,
Gray–Goodrich M, Campbell H, Mayo J & Boyd M (1991)
J Natl Cancer Inst 83, 757-766
11 Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, McMohan J,
Vistica D, Warren J T, Bokesh H, Kenny S & Boyd M
(1990) J Natl Cancer Inst 82, 1107-1112
12 Sharma V & Hussain S (2013) Bioinfolet 10, 567-571
13 Sharma V (2011) J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 20, 190-195
14 Bhagat M & Sharma V (2010) Int J Med Sci 2, 152-154
15 Sharma V & Tiku A K (2008) Asian J Exp Chem 3, 41-45
16 Hussain S, Sharma V & Saxena A K (2013) Int J Plant Sci 8,
140-143
17 Samarth R M, Panwar M, Kumar M & Kumar A (2006)
Mutagenesis 21, 61-66
18 Samman M A, Bowen I D, Taiba K, Antonius J & Hannan M
A (1998) Carcinogenesis 19, 1795-1801
19 Shirazi F H, Ahmadi N & Kamalinejad M (2004)
J Pharm Sci 12, 106-110.
... According to earlier studies, ethanol extract (10 μg mL -1 ) from Agave americana leaves exhibited eminent inhibitory activity against the human ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1) cell line [12]. Similarly, extract (methanol) from Mentha spicata leaves revealed significant antiprolifer-ative activity against breast (MCF-7), colon (COLO-205), lung (NCI-H322), and hematopoietic (THP-1) cancer cell lines [13]. Methanolic leaf extracts (200 μg mL -1 ) from Mangifera indica have shown exceptional anticancer activity against bronchogenic (Chago K-1), ductal (BT-474), and gastric (Kato-III) carcinomas along with liver hepatoblastoma (Hep-G2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW-620) [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and crude ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, and acetonic extracts from leaves of Agave americana, Mentha spicata, and Mangifera indica were scrutinized for possible antineoplastic and cytotoxic efficacy. In this study, all the synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), EDX-spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Results of various characterization analyses performed in this study revealed that synthesized AgNPs had the highest absorption at 410-430 nm, polycrystalline structure with sizes ranging from 23 to 38 nm, and were thermally stable up to 350° C. Furthermore, it was manifested that phytoproduced AgNPs from A. americana revealed good antineoplastic activity (69%). M. indica- and M. spicata-based AgNPs displayed moderate activity against PC-3 (prostate cancer cell line). Similarly, good cytotoxic aptitude was demonstrated by A. americana- and M. indica-based AgNPs at the highest sample concentration (1000 μL). Excellent cytotoxicity was revealed by ethanol (100%), methanol (100%), and aqueous extracts (100%) of A. americana and methanol extract (83%) of M. spicata at 1000 μL.
... The results indicate that Mentha spp. have compounds with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents [148]. Salvia multicaulis ethanol extract exhibited antiproliferative activity against both PC-3 and Du145 cells, with IC 50 values of 240 and 143 µg/mL, respectively [111], while Salvia triloba methanolic extract (STE) induced selective cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced cell motility in the same cells and significantly decreased ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels in STE-treated DU145 cells, while ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and VEGF levels were considerably reduced in PC-3 cells [164]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the second deadliest malignancy in men and the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men. Traditional plants have been applied to handle various diseases and to develop new drugs. Medicinal plants are potential sources of natural bioactive compounds that include alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and steroids. Many of these naturally-occurring bioactive constituents possess promising chemopreventive properties. In this sense, the aim of the present review is to provide a detailed overview of the role of plant-derived phytochemicals in prostate cancers, including the contribution of plant extracts and its corresponding isolated compounds.
... The extract showed growth inhibition against colon cancer cells (COLO-205), lung cancer cells (NCI-H322) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), was 86%, 85% and 76%, respectively. Whereas the aqueous extract suppressed 97% and 75% proliferation of HCT-116 (colon) and PC-3 (prostate), respectively [42]. ...
Chapter
Mentha arvensis Linn. commonly called Podina, is a traditional herb of the family Lamiaceae distributed all over the world. First grown in Europe in ancient times, cultivation spread to Japan in the nineteenth century, then to China and other Asian countries ethnomedical records. Preliminary studies from the animal model have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use and the novel bioactive compounds. The chapter summarizes the selected scientific evidence on the pharmacological properties and phytochemistry of Mentha arvensis (L.) over the past 47 years from 1972 to 2020 available on several Non-English journals and English/Non-English, while identifying potential areas of further development of this herb as an economic adjunct. The evidence suggests that the extracts and compounds from Mentha arvensis (L.) possess antimicrobial action against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, antioxidant, antifertility, TNF-alpha inhibition, radioprotective, anti-ulcer, neuroleptic, nephroprotective, sedative-hypnotic, anticancer, antiemetic, analgesic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and other cardiovascular protective activities. The various scientific evidence suggests that there is strong pharmacological potential in developing Mentha arvensis (L.) as a drug to be used in the treatment of various disorders from antimicrobial to anticancer therapy.
... However, no cytotoxic activity was observed in methanol and ethanol extracts against the tested cell lines. Sharma et al.,(2014), evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plant of M. viridis against MCF-7 and HCT-116 In vitro, using a 100 μg/mL concentration, and sulforhodamine Blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extract exhibited cytotoxicity against MCF-7 while aqueous extract was found active against HCT-116 27 . ...
Article
Many medicinal plants have been used to treat and prevent illnesses in Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Mentha viridis obtainedfrom Albaha region of Saudi Arabiaand evaluate its antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential. The extract was obtained from plant fresh material and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential of the plant extract was analysed by performing four subsequent extracts: ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol. The GC-MS analysis showed carvone as a main component, as it comprised 64.82 % of the plant extract. In antimicrobial activity, methanol extract showed significant activityagainst Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibition of 15 mm. The MTT assay showed thatpetroleum ether and chloroform extracts have moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with IC50 values of 193.23 μg/mL and 131.86 μg/mL, respectively. Chloroform extract also showed mild activity against HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell line with IC50value of 189.2 μg/mL. This study highlights the potential of M. viridis extracts as powerful bioactive phytochemicals with possible role in diseases and cancer therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) and Nanowires (NWs), the two nanomaterials with outstanding properties, are the materials with which their behaviour and properties have long been drawing attention to researchers. However, the tiny nature of these two materials causes difficulties in describing and estimating their behaviour and properties, thus a numerical technique that considers the tiny nature of the materials like Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is a promising solution to this problem. Since the early utilization of MD simulation in the investigation of the behaviour of carbon-nanotubes and nanowires, it provides the researcher with an excellent description of how the two materials behave at atomic-scale and then estimate their properties. Recently, MD simulation of CNTs and NWs exhibit growth in the simulation size as with the growth of the computing capabilities. The size of the materials being simulated by MD simulation increased significantly in the recent year, thus giving possibility to achieve a better description of the behaviour and a more precise estimation of the properties. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the investigation of the joining processes and properties of carbon-nanotubes and nanowires at atomic-scale utilizing molecular dynamics simulation.
Article
Background Cancer is one of the most critical but ubiquitous causes of death grappled from past decades. Widely used chemotherapy with cytotoxic activity blocks/ kills the cancer cell. The compounds targeted for anticancerous activity are either derived synthetically or naturally (through plants or microbial origin). Current day, versatile role of plants in medicinal field has been attributed to the secondary metabolites it produces, known for their anticancer activity. Therefore, discovery, identification and commercial production of such novel anticancer drugs is escalated and are centerpiece for pharmaceuticals. Main body A biotechnological approach, principally tissue culture, leads the candidacy to be an alternative method for production of anticancer compounds. A wide range of bioactive agents like alkaloids, steroids, phenolics, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids are in huge demand commercially. Plant tissue culture applications are constructively more advantageous over conventional methods in terms of their continuous, controlled, aseptic production, large scale and de novo synthesis opportunity. Various bioreactors are used for mass cultivation of bioactive compound at commercial level. For example: stirred tank reactors are used for production of shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, vincristine from Catharanthus roseus , podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum etc . Strategies like callus culture, suspension culture and hairy root culture are opted for mass cultivation of these bioactives. Conclusions This review summarizes plant tissue culture as a promising strategy proven to be a colossal breakthrough in reliable and continuous production of existing and novel anticancer compounds and help in combating the increasing future demands.
Article
Introduction The increasing number of cancer patients, together with the side effects of current chemical treatments have encouraged the exploration of the potential of Iranian medicinal plants as a rich source of anticancer compounds. Methods In the current review, 114 medicinal plant species grown in Iran were selected and their major constituents, animal or cell targets, as well as possible anticancer mechanisms, were ascertained through searching pertinent keywords in the Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Results Of the 114 species (with more emphasis on Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Fabaceae as major plant families in Iran) that were reviewed, some were endemic plants of Iran, with others found in other countries. Besides valuable and well-known anticancer plants such as Taxus baccata and Catharanthus roseus, other species were included. Several compounds of these plants, such as organo-sulfur compounds, terpenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins, phenylethanoids, coumarins and polysaccharides have been proposed to exhibit anticancer effects. In general, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial suppression, reductiob of DNA damage, vital enzyme inhibition and/or blocking angiogenesis were considered as the proposed mechanisms for the anticancer potential of the studied plants. Conclusion Investigating the bioactive anticancer components of Iranian medicinal plants, especially the endemic species, seems to be beneficial for achieving novel potential anticancer drugs that are better equipped to fight cancer.
Article
Full-text available
The postharvest life of most fruit, vegetables and cereals is limited by fungal proliferation. The chemical composition of Mentha piperita, M. spicata and M. suaveolens essential oils (EO), and the antifungal activity against four pathogenic and post-harvest fungi isolated from food, were herein investigated to evaluate their potential as natural food preservatives. The EO were obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts leaves, stems and inflorescences (except for peppermint oil, which was purchased in a specialized store) and submitted to GC-MS and GC-FID analysis. Regarding the EO composition, carvone (41.1%) and limonene (14.1%) were the major compounds in M. spicata, menthol (47.0%) and menthone (23.1%), as well as other menthol derivatives (neomenthol -3.6%- and menthofurane -3.7%-) in M. piperita, and piperitone oxide (40.2%) and piperitenone oxide (31.4%) in M. suaveolens. Botryotinia fuckeliana was the most sensitive fungus. The three studied EO inhibited growth by 92–100%. The highest dose of M. suaveolens EO, 400 µg/mL, produced 100% MGI in all the studied fungi, except Fusarium oxysporum with 94.21%. The M. suaveolens EO can be considered to develop a low-risk enviro-friendly botanical biofungicide.
Preprint
Full-text available
Context: The use of traditional Arabic medicine (TAM) has spread to treat various diseases in Syria since ancient time. They are cost-effective with fewer side effects and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines. Objective: We conducted ethnobotanical and ethno-medicine research on plants traditionally used as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 symptoms in Syria. Methods: Information was collected in the period of (September 1st, 2020 to December 21st, 2020), from Southern Region (Damascus, As Suwayda, Dar'a), Northern region (especially Aleppo), Central region (Himis, Hamah), Western coastal region (Latakia, Tartus) Eastern Region (Dayr az Zawr, Al Hasakah) in Syria. 150 informants were divided into two group one of them is pharmacists who interested in herbal remedies 73.34% (63.64% female and 36.36% male of them), and the other is herbalists 26.66% who are called "attarin" traditional healers and bee therapists. Medicinal plants being mentioned by the Informants were recorded with local names and photographed. Each reported medicinal plant species was gathered, compressed, dehydrated, and identified. Results: In this research we listed a total of 26 medicinal species relating to 15 botanical families were generally utilized by pharmacists and herbalists in the prevention and treatment of COVID 19. The calculated results of medicinal use-value MUV showed that Pimpinella anisum L. was ranked first (MUV=0.933) followed by Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (MUV=0.920), then Thymus syriacus Boiss. (MUV=0.9). Conclusion: There may be some effective Syrian traditional herbal remedies in preventing and treating COVID-19 symptoms for some people, but the lack of information on the mechanism of effect, the appropriate dosage, side effects, toxicity and drug interactions makes them questionable, as they need more research and study.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mentha species are widely used in traditional medicine mostly as anti-flatulence. Nowadays, their usage as flavor and preservative in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries has been developed. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of some Mentha species have been reported. Objective: In this study, cytotoxic properties of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, M. aquatica, M. crispa, M. pulegium and M. longifolia have been investigated. Methods: Different concentrations of essential oils and total extracts of six Mentha species were tested by MTT assay against Vero, Hep2 and Hela cell lines. Results: The results showed that all samples were toxic against Vero, Hela and Hep2 cell lines (IC50 28.1-166.2 μg/ml). Conclusion: All examined Mentha species extracts and essential oils have cytotoxic effects but some of them could be considered as potent toxic agents.
Article
Full-text available
In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants' cytotoxicity. One of the most frequently used Iranian traditional plants is Mentha Pulegium from Labiatae family. In the present study, essential oil and the methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium, were analyzed for cytotoxicity on human ovary adenocarcinoma SK-OV-3, human malignant cervix carcinoma Hela, and human lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Two different assays of clonogenic and neutral red (NR) were used for evaluation of cytotoxicity. Although the methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium did not show any cytotoxic effects, the essential oil of this plant proved to be a potent cytotoxic agent on the above three cell lines. According to the clonogenic assay, LD50s of the essential oil on SK-OV-3, Hela and A549 cell lines are 14.10, 59.10 and 18.76 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that Mentha pulegium essential oil might be considered as a potentially toxic agent on human cancer cell lines, and a possible candidate for human cancer chemotherapy. However, further biological tests on the efficacy and side effects of this plant are necessary before its use in human.
Article
Full-text available
Mentha spicata is a herb with several biological properties. Cytotoxicity of essential oils of M. spicata on some cancer cells has been reported. In this study the cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of M. spicata on two tumor cell lines (Wehi-164 fibrosarcoma and U937 leukemic monocyte) has been evaluated in vitro. Wehi-164 and U937 cells were separately cultured in RPMI with 10% FBS. Then the cells at logarithmic growth phase were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of aqueous extract of M. spicata (0.1 to 10 mg/ml) at 24, 48 and 72 h periods. The cell proliferation was assessed with trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assays. Aqueous extract of M. spicata significantly reduced the proliferation of Wehi-164 and U937 cells dose and time-dependently. The LD 50 values of M. spicata extract were 5.97, 4.63 and 4.77 mg/ml for the Wehi-164 cells and 5.6, 5.3 and 4.84 mg/ml for the U937 cells, after 24, 48 and 72 h treatment respectively. Aqueous extract of M. spicata showed cytotoxic effect in mouse fibrosarcoma Wehi-164 and human monocytic U937 cells. Thus, M. spicata could have potential anti-tumor activity. In vivo studies as well as identification of effective components of M. spicata with anti-cancer activity and their exact mechanism of action could be useful in designing new anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity and anticarcinogenic potential of Mentha leaf extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts) on 6 human cancer (HeLa, MCF-7, Jurkat, T24, HT-29, MIAPaCa-2) and normal (IMR-90, HEK-293) cell lines. Of all the extracts tested, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of M piperita showed significant dose- and time-dependent anticarcinogenic activity leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, perturbation of oxidative balance, upregulation of Bax gene, elevated expression of p53 and p21 in the treated cells, acquisition of senescence phenotype, while inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines response. Our results provide the first evidence of direct anticarcinogenic activity of Mentha leaf extracts. Further, bioassay-directed isolation of the active constituents might provide basis for mechanistic and translational studies for designing novel anticancer drugs to be used alone or as adjuvant for prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies.
Article
Full-text available
To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models.
Article
Full-text available
Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.
Article
Total antioxidant activity (TAA) and cytotoxic effect of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. were estimated. Relative antioxidant activity (RAA) was also determined relative to quercetin and L-ascorbic acid. Polyphenolics (phenolics and flavonoids) and pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were quantitated and expressed as mg/g of the ethanol fraction. The ABTS/HRP/H2O2 decoloration method was used to estimate the total antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic effect on human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) was assessed by MTT assay. The TAA was highest for ethyl acetate fraction (83%) followed by aqueous (75%), chloroform (51%) and hexane (47%) fractions. RAAs of ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were equal to quercetin and ascorbic acid but less in hexane and chloroform fractions. Phenolics and flavonoids were higher in ethyl acetate (54 and 22 mg/g), aqueous (32 and 24 mg/g) and chloroform (30 and 16 mg/g) fractions compared to the hexane (14 and 15 mg/g) fraction. Chlorophyll and carotenoids were higher in chloroform fraction (29 and 7 mg/g) than in ethyl acetate (13 and 5 mg/g), hexane (14 and 3 mg/g) and aqueous (5 and 0.9 mg/g) fractions. Cytotoxic effect against PC-3 cell line was found to be highest for the chloroform fraction and lower for the aqueous fraction. Polyphenolic content and TAAs of the ethanol fractions were positively correlated. Similarly pigment content and cytotoxic effect of PC-3 cells were positively correlated.
Article
In vitro assay for cytotoxic activity of glands/hairs obtained from the fruits of Mallotus philippinensis has been carried out against 14 human cancer cell lines from nine different origins via 95% ethanolic, 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract at the concentration of 100μg/ml. Results revealed that the 95% ethanolic extract showed highest in vitro cytotoxic effect against all the 14 human cancer cell lines. The fractions of the same extract i.e. 95% ethanolic were obtained and it was found that the significant cytotoxic potential was produced by the chloroform soluble fraction at 100μg/ml as this fraction inhibited the growth of ten human cancer cell lines from seven different tissues. Further, the chromatographic analysis of the said fraction afforded a polyphenolic molecule rottlerin. This drug at the concentration of 1 × 10−5M and 1 × 10−4M suppressed the proliferation of eight human cancer cell lines from six different tissues and proved its exceptionally remarkable in vitro anticancer efficiency. Keywords Mallotus philippinensis –Rottlerin–In vitro cytotoxic–Cancer cell lines–95% ethanolic extract