Studies on the split ends formation of hair by brushing.

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The formation of split ends is one of the most important problems especially for women to present a good appearance. For the primary split ends care, the mechanical recovery of damaged hair fibers is of special importance since hair does not self-recover. In this work, the effects of cosmetic treatments on the generation of split ends have been investigated by auto-brushing machine as an accelerative method which is closer to the actual hair care process. These results strongly suggested that the important factor of the split ends formation was due to the structural changes of amorphous matrix proteins of hair fibers. We found that a diethylene glycol monoethylether (Ethyl Carbitol; EC) treatment was the most effective of all treatments we tested in inhibiting the split ends generation of permed hair, and EC treated permed hair behaved almost identically with untreated normal hair as far as the percentage of split ends generation was concerned.

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... These properties are reflected in the direction of the hair tips and in the difference of tactile feelings in dry and in wet conditions. The hair cuticle can be damaged by various factors such as chemical treatments 1) , UV rays 2) and brushing 3) . These multiple causes can result in irreversible hair damage in terms of cuticle lifting, breakage of 18-MEA and/or an increasingly coarse texture. ...
The alteration of hair surface properties due to hair damage results in a coarse texture for tactile feeling. The relationship between the surface properties of hair and the recognition of hair damage was investigated using unique artificial hair surface model plates engraved with an excimer laser. Four model plates that specifically represent normal and damaged states of hair were utilized for these experiments. The relative tactile feeling for the degree of hair damage of the 4 plates was evaluated by volunteers (n=10) who touched and rubbed the plates with their fingers. Simultaneously, the coefficient of dynamic friction of their fingers against the plates was measured by recording the normal and frictional forces which indicated that the plate with a wider area of artificial cuticle structure was recognized as damaged hair. Further, an irregular pattern of height and width in the cuticle structure influenced the perception of hair damage. As the friction of the fingers against the plates increased, the tactile feeling of each plate became more coarse in texture. In contrast, not all the tests of friction measured corresponded exactly with the results mentioned above. These results show that the recognition of hair damage depends on a wider cuticle and on an irregular order of cuticle structure (both in width and in height).
It is important for the understanding of the complexity of a human hair structure to observe the ultra-structures and to measure their mechanical properties at the same point of the specimen. We examined the extremely smooth surface of the hair cross-section by force modulation (FM) method and Young's modulus mapping method by analyzing force curves (FCs) in two-dimensional lattice being installed in an atomic force microscope (AFM). Consequently, the FM method was used to evaluate the changes in structural and mechanical properties in the internal structures of hair in air and in water performing any pre-treatment (chemical modification) on hair specimen. It was also possible to determine the semi-quantitative changes caused by the chemical damages of hair and the repairing effect of conditioning agents at nano-size level with Young's modulus mapping method.
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