This represents one of several sections of "A Bibliography Related to Crime Scene Interpretation with Emphases in Geotaphonomic and Forensic Archaeological Field Techniques, Nineteenth Edition" (The complete bibliography is also included at ResearchGate.net.). This is the most recent edition of a bibliography containing resources for multiple areas of crime scene, and particularly outdoor crime scene, investigations. It replaces the prior edition and contains approximately 10,000 additional citations. As an ongoing project, additional references, as encountered, will be added to future editions.
References in this section, like fingerprints, ballistics, and blood evidence, are most often thought of in traditional criminalistics or police sciences. Some of the references below date to the early days of forensics and criminalistics. This section is included because it represents one of the six areas comprising Geotaphonomy: Stratification, Tool Marks, Bioturbation, Sedimentation, Compression/Depression (foot and shoe prints), and Internal Compaction. In addition to the recovery and interpretation of impression evidence, other trace evidence which might be found on surface and subsurface death scenes are cited. Entomological and botanical evidence also constitute trace items left or taken from crime scenes. Because of the number of works referencing those topics, they are addressed in respective sections in this bibliography. Some citations in this section could also be cross-referenced with those in Taphonomy given their discussion of the detioration, or decomposition of hairs and fibers among victims' remains or contamination of impression evidence through prolonged exposure at crime scenes.
When this compiler first became interested in forensic science, one of the first references he read, and which most influenced subsequent processing of scenes and research, was Crime Investigation by Paul Kirk (1974). In that paper the words of Kirk serve as the foundation for collecting trace evidence at any scene regardless its age or condition:
"Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his foot prints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothing, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. All of these and more bear mute witness against him. This evidence does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Pysical evidence cannot be wrong. It cannot perure itself. It cannot be wholly absent. Only its interpretation can err. Only human failure to fint it, study and understand it, can diminish its value."