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Impact of coffee components on inflammatory markers: A review

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Abstract

This review evaluates coffee constituents in order to determine their influence on the inflammation process. Coffee is a common beverage that contains multiple substances that impact inflammatory markers. The caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), cafestol, trigonelline, and kahweol found in coffee are thought to have significant potential as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Experimental animal studies indicated reduction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1B (IL-1B), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with coffee consumption. Human studies presented mixed results. At this point, coffee shows some promise against the inflammatory response. More research with controlled, double-blinded studies in humans must be conducted before practitioners advise patients to utilize the beverage as a prophylaxis against inflammation.

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... Caffeine, the natural alkaloid which is the major component of coffee, originally isolated from coffee beans in 1820. In the United States about 87% of the general population consumes caffeinated beverages, among which 71% are coffee-infused concoctions [2]. However, C. canephora (robusta) is known to contain more caffeine than C. arabica. ...
... From 1995 to 2007, coffee consumption rose per person from 3.5 to 4.4 in the USA; 3.3 to 4.1 in Europe, and from 7.9 to 12.0 kg/year in Finland [3]. The latest one is the most consumed area, this is due to the beverage is a primary source of dietary polyphenols to them [2]. ...
... 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid is the most common form of CGA, which is often called 'chlorogenic acid.' General pathways of CGA synthesis has been shown in fig. 3. The metabolism of CGAs is still unclear but thought to be in the small intestine and colon [2]. The first step is carried out by the active esterase enzymes, which generate the original phenolic acids in both the small and large bowel. ...
Article
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Now, the days begin with cups of coffee worldwide. Caffeine is the main component of coffee, which is vastly consumed as a psychoactive agent, and in varieties of dietary supplements. Day by day coffee and caffeinated-consumption areas are expanding. Only a single cup of coffee contains thousands of biochemical. Otherwise, during roasting, some of which turn to convert other chemicals moieties. Thus, the coffee is an interesting item to the drug scientists. Upon this jackpot, a number of researches have been done on coffee and its chemical components; in which many postulations are still in contentious and some are unclear to the coffee users. Upon going through the stand-point, this study has been snapshot to sketch a complete overview on coffee and its components. Our finding depicts constituents of coffee to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-Parkinson’s disease, and cardioprotective activities. But the anti-cancerous effect of coffee components is not clear yet. In conclusion, coffee, and its constituents are in important in phytopharmacological research.
... Coffee compounds can decrease chronic inflammation and, therefore, protect against DNA degradation, consequently decreasing the risk of disease [46]. The Wistar rats A medium roast of Coffea arabica (+) SOD, CAT, and GPx [36] Wistar rats Green Coffea arabica (-) Lipid peroxidation (+) GSH, SOD, CAT, and GR [35] Wistar rats Green Coffea canephora and caffeine (-) Carrageenan-induced paw oedema (Pergolizzi et al. 2018) Wistar rats Green Coffea arabica (-) IL-1β, TNF-α, and Nos2 (-) Interstitial inflammation index [47] Humanized SHBG transgenic mice Caffeine (+) Hepatic SHBG production (-) Akt phosphorylation [77] Cross-sectional clinical trial Caffeinated beverages Coffee consumption positively associated with SHBG concentration [78] Prospective clinical trial Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee (-) CRP, IL-6, and TNFR-2 (+) Adiponectin and SHBG (-) Estrone (+) Testosterone (-) C-peptide and IGFBP-3 [50] Prospective clinical trial Coffee intake (-) Urinary 8-OHdG (-) Ferritin [61] Prospective clinical trial Coffee intake (+) AhR (+) CYP1A1/A2 [65] Intervention clinical trial Green and roasted Coffea arabica blend (-) Spontaneous DNA strand breaks ( [57]; 2014; 2011) ...
... As a result, COX is suppressed, causing a reduction of IL-6 and IL-8 and TNF-α release [28,34]. Great CGA concentration represses IL-1B mRNA, provoking considerably less cell adhesion and inflammation [46]. ...
... Kahweol also decreases iNOS in rats' carrageenan paw oedema. During roasting, trigonelline is fractionated in nicotinic acid, which is a promising anti-inflammatory agent, as it diminishes MCP-1 and enhances adiponectin in adipocytes infused with TNF-α [46]. ...
Article
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common types of cancer among men, and coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing PCa. Therefore, we aim to review possible coffee molecular mechanisms that contribute to PCa prevention. Coffee has an important antioxidant capacity that reduces oxidative stress, leading to a reduced mutation in cells. Beyond direct antioxidant activity, coffee stimulates phase II enzymatic activity, which is related to the detoxification of reactive metabolites. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee reduce tissue damage related to PCa development. Coffee induces autophagy, regulates the NF-κB pathway, and reduces the expression of iNOS and inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP. Also, coffee modulates transcriptional factors and pathways. It has been shown that coffee increases testosterone and reduces sex hormone-binding globulin, estrogen, and prostate-specific antigen. Coffee also enhances insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. All these effects may contribute to protection against PCa development.
... Its consumption in Europe has been increasing, and currently it averages around 4.1 kg/person/year. The highest intake of coffee per capita has been observed in Finland (12 kg/year) [1]. Coffee contains many substances that affect the human body, which include polyphenols, among them caffeine, caffeic acid, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes such as cafestol and kahweol [1]. ...
... The highest intake of coffee per capita has been observed in Finland (12 kg/year) [1]. Coffee contains many substances that affect the human body, which include polyphenols, among them caffeine, caffeic acid, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes such as cafestol and kahweol [1]. Several research teams have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic potential of these components [1]. ...
... Coffee contains many substances that affect the human body, which include polyphenols, among them caffeine, caffeic acid, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes such as cafestol and kahweol [1]. Several research teams have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic potential of these components [1]. Additionally, in many observational studies, coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several types of cancer [2], diabetes mellitus type 2, ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease [3]. ...
Article
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Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Coffee contains bioactive compounds that affect the human body such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, diterpenes, and melanoidins. Some of them have demonstrated potential anticarcinogenic effects in animal models and in human cell cultures, and may play a protective role against colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and other countries. Dietary patterns, as well as the consumption of beverages, may reduce the risk of CRC incidence. In this review, we focus on published epidemiological studies concerning the association of coffee consumption and the risk of development of colorectal cancer, and provide a description of selected biologically active compounds in coffee that have been investigated as potential cancer-combating compounds: Caffeine, caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), and kahweol in relation to colorectal cancer progression in in vitro settings. We review the impact of these substances on proliferation, viability, invasiveness, and metastasis, as well as on susceptibility to chemo- and radiotherapy of colorectal cancer cell lines cultured in vitro.
... A study of the traits of decaffeinated coffee consumers in the US found that decaffeinated coffee consumption could be related to a history of illness in some people but to a healthy lifestyle in others [11]. Another study found that concerns associated with regular coffee could be voided almost entirely with a transition from regular to decaffeinated coffee [12]. Studies have reported that decaffeinated coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes [13,14,15], improve the insulin sensitivity [16] and improve the intestinal barrier integrity [17]. ...
... Despite the worldwide consumption of coffee and evidence of its anti-inflammatory properties [12,20], little is known about the anti-inflammatory and nociceptive activity of its bioactive compounds. Thus, the present study investigated decaffeinated coffee extracts and utilized inflammation assays, nociception animal models and a chemical analysis of the bioactive compounds in decaffeinated coffee. ...
... Green coffee beans are good sources of proteins, lipids, and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, diterpenes, and caffeine (De Oliveira et al. 2014;Bitencourt et al. 2018;Efthymiopoulos et al. 2019;Granados-Vallejo et al. 2019). Coffea arabica contains approximately 15% lipids, composed mainly of triacylglycerols, sterols, and tocopherols (Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino 2012). Palmitic, oleic, linoleic, stearic, arachidic, and behenic acids are the most prevalent fatty acids in green coffee beans (Andrade et al. 2012;Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino 2012;Hurtado-Benavides et al. 2016). ...
... Coffea arabica contains approximately 15% lipids, composed mainly of triacylglycerols, sterols, and tocopherols (Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino 2012). Palmitic, oleic, linoleic, stearic, arachidic, and behenic acids are the most prevalent fatty acids in green coffee beans (Andrade et al. 2012;Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino 2012;Hurtado-Benavides et al. 2016). The antioxidant activity of green coffee beans is attributed to phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, anthocyanins, tannins, and lignans (Farah and Donangelo 2006). ...
Article
In this research, a supercritical CO2-ethanol extraction was optimized to obtain a green coffee oil rich in bioactive compounds. A face-centered central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of temperature (50–70 °C), extraction pressure (15.0–30.0 MPa), and cosolvent content (5–20%) on the extraction yield and total phenolic compound content of green coffee supercritical extract (GCSE). The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial model. According to the statistical analyses, the lack of fit was not significant for either mathematical model. From the response surface plots, the extraction pressure and cosolvent content significantly impacted the extraction yield, while the total phenolic compound content was impacted by temperature and cosolvent content. The optimal conditions were a 20% cosolvent content, a pressure of 30 MPa, and a temperature of 62 °C, which predicted an extraction yield of 7.7% with a total phenol content of 5.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g GCSE−1. The bioactive compounds included 5-caffeoylquinic acid (11.53–17.91 mg g GCSE−1), caffeine (44.76–79.51 mg g GCSE−1), linoleic acid (41.47–41.58%), and palmitic acid (36.07–36.18%). Our results showed that GCSE has the outstanding chemical quality and antioxidant potential, suggesting that GCSE can be used as a functional ingredient.
... One theme of great importance on coffee consumption is its relation to the inflammation process as coffee contains multiple substances that individually are known to impact inflammatory markers [10]. On one hand, caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGA, the most representative source of phenolic compounds in coffee) have reported anti-inflammatory properties [11][12][13]. On the other hand, the immunostimulatory potential of coffee has been attributed to polysaccharides, more specifically a pro-inflammatory potential associated to coffee infusion galactomannans [14] and instant coffee arabinogalactans [15,16]. ...
... However, Permeate 1 sample, from both espresso and instant coffee, showed a significant decrease in the LPS induced nitrite production, respectively, 36 and 31% decrease in relation to the control. Nevertheless, this anti-inflammatory activity of Permeate 1 was not observed in Permeate 2, although it is expected that both Permeates contain caffeine and CGA, whose anti-inflammatory activity has been reported [11][12][13]. ...
Article
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Coffee brews have High Molecular Weight (HMW) compounds with described immunostimulatory activity, namely polysaccharides and melanoidins. Melanoidins are formed during roasting and are modified during brews technological processing. In addition, brews have Low Molecular Weight (LMW) compounds, namely free chlorogenic acids and caffeine, with well-known anti-inflammatory properties. However, this study shows that both espresso and instant coffee brews did not present immunostimulatory neither anti-inflammatory in vitro activities. It is possible that the simultaneous existence of compounds with antagonistic effects can mitigate their individual effects. To test this hypothesis, an ultrafiltration separation process was applied, studying the behavior of coffee brews’ HMW on retention of LMW compounds. Several ultrafiltration sequential cycles were required to separate retentates from LMW compounds, suggesting their retention. This effect was higher in instant coffee, attributed to its initial higher carbohydrate content when compared to espresso. Separation of HMW and LMW compounds boosted their immunostimulatory (6.2–7.8 µM nitrites) and anti-inflammatory (LPS induced nitrite production decrease by 36–31%) in vitro activities, respectively. As coffee anti-inflammatory compounds are expected to be first absorbed during digestion, a potential in vivo fractionation of LMW and HMW compounds can promote health relevant effects after coffee intake.
... Stress-like patterns of increased corticosterone secretion and decreased thyrotropin are described among the neuroendocrine effects of caffeine, while chronic treatment is known to induce tolerance to these effects ( Spindel et al., 1983). Immunomodulatory effects of caffeine by the decrease of cytokines (Frost Meyer and Logomarsino, 2012) have also been proposed to contribute to neuroprotection, e.g., in Alzheimer's disease ( Horrigan et al., 2006). A better balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in favor of anti-inflammation is also posed as the main hypothesis to explain the effects of caffeine reducing the inflammatory processes in severe life-threatening conditions ( Bessler et al., 2012). ...
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Coffee or caffeine has recently been suggested as prophylaxis for dementia. Although memory problems are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease, this dementia is also characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms called Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). The impact of preventive/therapeutic strategies on both cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms can be addressed in the 3xTg-AD mice, since they exhibit cognitive but also BPSD-like profiles. Here, we studied the long-term effects of a low dose of caffeine in male 3xTg-AD mice and as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) counterparts with normal aging. Animals were treated (water or caffeine in drinking water) from adulthood (6 months of age) until middle-aged (13 months of age), that in 3xTg-AD mice correspond to onset of cognitive impairment and advanced stages, respectively. The low caffeine dosing used (0.3 mg/ml) was previously found to give a plasma concentration profile in mice roughly equivalent to that of a human coffee drinker. There were significant effects of caffeine on most behavioral variables, especially those related to neophobia and other anxiety-like behaviors, emotionality, and cognitive flexibility. The 3xTg-AD and NTg mice were differently influenced by caffeine. Overall, the increase of neophobia and other anxiety-related behaviors resulted in an exacerbation of BPSD-like profile in 3xTg-AD mice. Learning and memory, strongly influenced by anxiety in 3xTg-AD mice, got little benefit from caffeine, only shown after a detailed analysis of navigation strategies. The worsened pattern in NTg mice and the use of search strategies in 3xTg-AD mice make both groups more similar. Circadian motor activity showed genotype differences, which were found to be enhanced by caffeine. Selective effects of caffeine on NTg were found in the modulation of behaviors related to emotional profile and risk assessment. Caffeine normalized splenomegaly of 3xTg-AD mice, a physical indicator of their impaired peripheral immune system, and trended to increase their corticosterone levels. Our observations of adverse caffeine effects in an Alzheimer’s disease model together with previous clinical observations suggest that an exacerbation of BPSD-like symptoms may partly interfere with the beneficial cognitive effects of caffeine. These results are relevant when coffee-derived new potential treatments for dementia are to be devised and tested.
... Coffee constituents may reduce chronic inflammation, protect against deoxyribonucleic acid degradation (Cárdenas et al., 2011;Kim et al., 2006;Mullen et al., 2011;Ranheim and Halvorsen, 2005). Cells treated with the diterpenes have much less DNA damage, showed free radicals were scavenged by cafestol and kahweol, which would mean possible protection from oxidative stress, central nervous system, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and inflammation (Butt and Sultan, 2011;Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino, 2012;Fukushima et al., 2009;Kempf et al., 2010;Larsson and Orsini, 2011;Lee et al., 2007;Lopez-Garcia et al., 2006;Sofi et al., 2007;Vitaglione et al., 2010;Yamauchi et al., 2010). Chemical analysis of the diterpenes in different coffee brews has shown that Scandinavian boiled coffee and Turkish coffee contain the maximum amounts of cafestol and kahweol, while instant and filtered coffee contain negligible amounts (Cavin et al., 2002;Urgert and Katan, 1997). ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants have been used since the existence of mankind. Herbal medicines based on traditional medicine endure as primary health care delivery worldwide up today. In addition, natural compounds have been used as either conventional drugs or inspiration model for synthetic drugs. Plants are still good sources for discovering new compounds with therapeutic potential. Diterpenoids, comprising a varied group of secondary metabolites, are isoprene derived compounds consisting of four isoprene units. Diterpenes are classified mainly according to their chemical structure, in terms of the ring number they contain as: acyclic (phytane), monocyclic (retinol—vitamin A), bicyclic (labdane, halimane, clerodane), tricyclic (abietane, pimarane, cassane, rosane, podocarpane, chinane, vouacapane), tetracyclic (kaurane, trachylobane, aphidicolane, stemodane, stemarane, beyerane, atisane, scopadulane, gibberellane), and macrocyclic (polycyclic—cembrane, taxane, daphnane, tigliane, ingenane, jatrophane), and other miscellaneous structures. Diterpenes are mainly analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry; tandem mass spectrometry; diode array detection depending to the structure. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry also can be applied. Natural foods may contain terpenoids, diterpenes, and tetraterpenes as secondary metabolites. Diterpenes have been used in traditional medicine for anticancer, antidiabetic and various other ailments. In this chapter, properties and classification of diterpenes, importance of chromatography in diterpenes analysis, effects of processing in the phytochemicals have been discussed.
... Since inflammation is correlated with and influenced by various cytokines and chemokines, reduction of these markers should decrease the degree of overall inflammation [257]. The anti-inflammatory action of caffeine is thought to be related to phosphodiesterase inhibition and/or with adenosine receptor antagonism mechanisms [244,258]. ...
Article
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Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during the brew’s preparation. After consumption, caffeine is almost completely absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver by phase I (cytochrome P450) enzymes, mainly CYP1A2, which appears to be polymorphically distributed in human populations. Paraxanthine is the major caffeine metabolite in plasma, while methylated xanthines and methyluric acids are the main metabolites excreted in urine. In addition to stimulating the central nervous system, caffeine exerts positive effects in the body, often in association with other substances, contributing to prevention of several chronic diseases. The potential adverse effects of caffeine have also been extensively studied in animal species and in humans. These aspects will be approached in the present review.
... For example, a garlic extract inhibited IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) mRNA and protein expression in LPS-induced 3 T3-L1 adipocytes (Quintero-Fabian, Ortuno-Sahagun, Vazquez-Carrera, & Lopez-Roa, 2013), and upregulated IL-10 expression in murine macrophages that were infected with Leishmania (Hodge, Hodge, & Han, 2002). Although, very limited research is available on the anti-inflammatory activities of coffee leaves, similar phytochemicals present in coffee beans can interfere with underlying causes of inflammation (Frost-Meyer & Logomarsino, 2012). An aqueous extract of roasted and green Coffea arabica L. beans produced antiinflammatory activity that was shown to reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin-induced pain in rats, and LPS-induced leukocyte migration in mice (Moreira et al., 2013). ...
Article
Our previous study reported that different tea processing methods along with the age of coffee leaves affected antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities; however, identification of phytochemical components or associated mixtures that contribute to the anti-/pro-inflammatory activities was not determined. Herein, we report results of additional experiments designed to characterize the phytochemical composition of fractionated coffee leaf extract, derived from Japanese-style-green-tea-process-young (JGTP-Y) and black-tea-process-mature (BTP-M) leaves and related these data to anti-/pro-inflammatory activities. The aqueous fraction of BTP-M coffee leaves induced nitric oxide (NO), iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production in Raw 264.7 cells. A 40% methanol fraction possessed greatest anti-inflammatory activities in IFN-γ and LPS treated Raw 264.7 cells (P < 0.05). The anti-inflammatory activities of coffee leaf fractions could not only be attributed to chlorogenic acids, mangiferin, rutin, and caffeine content, but possibly subtle interactions of mixtures of bioactive molecules.
... A published review on coffee immunomodulator active components revealed that in numerous investigations, both caffeinated and noncaffeinated coffee had a similar effect on certain cytokines and other immunomodulator indicators, but different effects have been reported in other studies. Other components found in coffee, such as cafestol, kahweol, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline were associated with antioxidants and the anti-inflammatory properties of coffee [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many edible plants exhibit immunomodulator activities that have beneficial effects on human health. These activities include the ability to activate, multiply, or suppress elements of the immune response. Some of these plants promote health by strengthening host defences against different diseases. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the constituents of several edible plants, their immunomodulatory activity, and mechanism of actions for Carica papaya, Coffea sp, Asparagus cochinchinensis, Dioscorea alata, beans, mushrooms, herbs, spices, and several vegetables. The studies reported here are pre-clinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies (limited in number). The bioactive compounds responsible for the immunomodulator activity of these plants were yet to be identified. This is because the plant is naturally a complex mixture, whilst the immune system is also an intricate system involving many cells and cytokines/chemokines. Metabolomics is a key tool for conducting global profiling of metabolites in a complex system. Therefore, it offers the ability to identify the presence of compounds in plant extracts associated with their immunomodulation effects. Likewise, metabolomics can also be used to detect any changes to metabolites in the cell as a response to treatment. Therefore, affected metabolic pathways that lead to the activation of certain immune responses can be determined from one single experiment. However, we found in this review that the use of a metabolomics approach is not yet fully developed for an immunomodulator study of food plants. This is important for the direction of future research in this field because unlike medicinal plants, food plants are consumed on a regular basis in small amounts with more obvious effects on the immune system. Information about possible bioactive compounds, their interactions (synergism, antagonism), and how the human body responds to them should be studied in a more holistic way.
... Green tea and coffee have garnered much research attention in recent years due to their possible role in lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers, [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] which has been attributed to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anticarcinogenic bioactivity of polyphenols contained in these two beverages. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14] However, the results have not been consistent between studies regarding the beneficial effects of green tea and coffee. One possible reason is the inherent imprecision in the measurement of green tea and coffee intake by using self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and food records (FR). ...
Article
Background and objectives: Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies. Methods and study design: In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Results: Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high. Conclusions: The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.
... Coffee is a well-known beverage around the world and the most popular caffeinated drink choice [1,2]. A recent meta-analysis of 31 cohort studies reported that coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of total mortality and cause-specific mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer [3]. ...
Article
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Coffee contains bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, and its consumption may reduce c-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a biomarker of chronic inflammation. A previous meta-analysis reported no overall association between blood CRP level and coffee consumption by modeling the coffee consumption in categories, with substantial heterogeneity. However, the coffee cup volume was not considered. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis investigating the association between coffee consumption and CRP levels reported in previous observational studies. A dose–response meta-analysis was conducted by mixed-effects meta-regression models using the volume of coffee consumed as metric. Eleven studies from three continents were identified using the PubMed database, totaling 61,047 participants. Three studies with the largest sample sizes observed a statistically significant association between coffee and CRP levels, which was inverse among European and United States (US) women and Japanese men (1.3%–5.5% decrease in CRP per 100 mL of coffee consumed) and positive among European men (2.2% increase). Other studies showed no statistically significant associations. When all studies were combined in the dose–response meta-analysis, no statistically significant associations were observed among all participants or when stratified by gender or geographic location, reflecting the conflicting associations reported in the included studies. Further studies are warranted to explore these inconsistent associations.
... Inflammation is a response triggered by noxious stimuli caused by either physical or chemical trauma. Phenolic compounds such as CGA have been shown to attenuate inflammation and confer anti-inflammatory effects(Frost- Meyer & Logomarsino, 2012). Since polyphenols are extensively metabolized in the body, consuming polyphenol-rich foods can help mitigate the effects of chronic inflammation and aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ...
Article
Coffee is a popular and well-loved beverage consumed worldwide by millions of people every day. While most patrons of coffee do so because of its unique and satisfying taste, consumers may be unaware of the potential beneficial health effects it also imparts. The antioxidants found in green coffee beans collectively known as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and caffeine are two of the most abundant bioactive compounds present in coffee. Both these bioactive compounds have been implicated in many studies to impart a wide range of health benefits, from reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes, to their use as aides in weight management. Indeed, epidemiological studies on people who consume moderate amounts of coffee on a regular basis have unanimously shown benefits to overall health. While caffeine and CGA are naturally occurring compounds in coffee, their potential in conferring beneficial health effects warrant research into other potential food matrixes that can be used to bind and deliver these bioactive compounds into foods that do not naturally contain them. Milk proteins, specifically caseins, have been shown to be excellent vehicles to both bind and deliver sensitive bioactive compounds of various chemical and physical properties. Caseins have been shown in numerous studies to successfully bind to molecules such as vitamin D2, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHA), and iron to name a few. Because caseins exhibit high versatility in binding a variety of molecules, caseins were the milk protein of choice for the experiments in this thesis. Polyphenols have been the subject of many studies on its binding capacity with milk proteins, but research on the binding capacity of caffeine with caseins is limited. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis are threefold: 1) develop, optimize and validate an HPLC method for the accurate and simultaneous determination of caffeine and CGA, 2) establish a procedure by which caffeine and CGA bind to sodium caseinate, and 3) determine the optimal treatment conditions of pH and temperature to increase binding interactions and speculate on the mechanism of binding for each bioactive compound. A reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed and subjected to validation studies with good results in linearity (caffeine R2 = 0.9992, CGA R2 = 0.9995) and precision (RSD of caffeine
... Arabinogalactan, the major coffee bean polysaccharide exerted immunomodulation by stimulating mouse immunocytes and enhancing Th1 (IL-12p40) immune response ( Gotoda et al., 2012). Human studies showed contrasting effects of coffee on inflammatory response with IL-6 increase in subjects consuming 200 ml coffee/day in one study, while others revealed no correlation ( Frost-Meyer & Logomarsino, 2012 and references therein). Proteins from the STRING network analysis ( Fig. 2) clustered the anti-inflammatory response of hgf-NDSCG 50-stimulated macrophages along 4 KEGG pathways: "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction": this pathway play a role in health and are crucial during immunological and inflammatory responses in disease. ...
Article
Spent coffee grounds (SCG), rich in dietary fiber can be fermented by colon microbiota producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with the ability to prevent inflammation. We investigated SCG anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating its composition, phenolic compounds, and fermentability by the human gut flora, SCFAs production, nitric oxide and cytokine expression of the human gut fermented-unabsorbed-SCG (hgf-NDSCG) fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCG had higher total fiber content compared with coffee beans. Roasting level/intensity reduced total phenolic contents of SCG that influenced its colonic fermentation. Medium roasted hgf-NDSCG produced elevated SCFAs (61:22:17, acetate, propionate and butyrate) after prolonged (24 h) fermentation, suppressed NO production (55%) in macrophages primarily by modulating IL-10, CCL-17, CXCL9, IL-1β, and IL-5 cytokines. SCG exerts anti-inflammatory activity, mediated by SCFAs production from its dietary fiber, by reducing the release of inflammatory mediators, providing the basis for SCG use in the control/regulation of inflammatory disorders. The results support the use of SGC in the food industry as dietary fiber source with health benefits.
... The effects of its regular consumption on health are of public interest, since coffee is a complex beverage containing several bioactive molecules that cause biological effects not limited to their biochemical actions. Caffeine is its most studied compound, but there are other compounds known to exhibit antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging activity, such as phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acids), diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol), and melanoidins (high molecular weight nitrogenous ; Meyer and Logomarsino, 2012; Moreira et al., 2012; O'Keefe et al., 2013; Preedy, 2014). Various benefits may be obtained from regular consumption of coffee , for instance, in reducing the risk of infections, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, and even obesity and depression (O'Keefe et al., 2013; Preedy, 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents a short review of electronic tongues (e-tongues) applied in coffee analysis, one of the most consumed beverage worldwide resulting in a billion dollar market. These e-tongues are useful for the food industry, particularly if the fast, reliable analysis of samples is correlated to the human taste sensation. The use of electrochemical methods in several papers in research literature is described, which demonstrate the possible distinction of overall differences between coffee samples (distinct global quality), in addition to quantification of caffeine and chlorogenic acid concentrations in coffee. Recent developments using microfluidics are also discussed, in which only microliters are needed for sampling and discharge, making it possible to fabricate lab-on-a-chip devices for coffee analysis.
... Nowadays,it is evident that coffee, a widely used popular drink potentially acting as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, is helpful to manage PD. The activity, however, is linked to its well-known diterpenes, cafestol, and kahweol (Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino, 2012;Cano-Marquina et al., 2013;Mejia and Ramirez-Mares, 2014;Bae et al., 2014). ...
Article
A significant number of studies have been performed with diterpene effect on the brain. Our study aims to make a systematic revision on them. The initial purpose of this review was to screen diterpenes with neurological activity, in particular those that have already been studied and published in different journals (databases until August 2015). The second purpose was to make an action-wise discussion as results viewed on them by taking into drug discovery and development account. Diterpenes considered in this review were selected on the basis of updated information on them and having sufficient information on their screenings. We identified several examples of diterpenes having an interest in further study. We have included the possible sources of them as observed in evidence, their known molecular neurobiological mechanisms, and the active constituents responsible for such activities with the doses and test systems. Results suggest diterpenes to have neurobiological activities like neuro-protection, anti-epileptic, anxiolytic, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-cerebral ischemia, anti-neuropathic pain, anti-neuro-inflammatory, and many more. In conclusion, diterpenes may be the prominent candidates in neurobiological drug research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... This common beverage contains multiple bioactive compounds (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, cafestol, trigonelline and kahweol) with significant potential as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. These substances have various therapeutic applications such as liberation of free fatty acids from human adipocytes to prevent body fat accumulation, inflammation control by reducing the inflammatory markers, and sun protection factor due to the lipid fraction of green coffee extract (Onakpoya et al., 2011, Wagemaker et al., 2011, Frost-Meyer et al., 2012, Flanagan et al., 2013, Martinez-Saez et al., 2014. In literature, various methods are proposed to evaluate the bioactive compound content from coffee products and their antioxidant capacity. ...
Article
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During the last decade researches concerning the essential role of coffee in health and disease prevention showed an increased development. In the present study we obtained extracts from three green Arabica coffee varieties which demonstrated a significant antioxidant potential due to the presence in their composition of two bioactive compounds, caffeine and chlorogenic acids. The content and antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analyses using spectrophotometric and chromatography methods. The chlorogenic acid was found in high concentrations, being followed by gallic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The highest caffeine contents were found in the green coffee extracts of the Supremo–Columbia and Top Quality–Kenya products.
... Coffee is one of the most popular beverage which has been cultivated and consumed throughout the centuries [1]. Coffee consumption is prevalent in the world due to its physiological effects as well as its pleasant taste and aroma [2]. ...
Article
The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees Coffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years. Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been named as “Turkish Coffee”. According to this presentation style, roasted and then finely ground coffee beans are boiled in a pot, usually with sugar, and served in a cup where the grounds are allowed to settle. Turkish coffee contains many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. There are many elements in the structure of the Turkish coffee and have various effect on human health. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) contents in Turkish coffee aimed for conscious consumption. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. From the results of experiments Mg, Fe and Ca contents were found in Turkish coffee as 21.46, 0.008 and 78.48 ppm respectively. Element contents which are found in 1, 2 and 5 cups of coffee are calculated. Analysis data were calculated with two different results such as daily intake for adults (mg) and percentage intake for adults (%). Furthermore, the daily intake of element from coffees that affects human health is also investigated.
... Chlorogenic acids, which are esters of quinic acid with different cinnamic acids, are receiving a large interest among the scientific community, in fact it is estimated that people ingest between 100 and 1000 mg of CGAs daily, depending on the diet 9 , since they are largely present in the plant kingdom. Because of this large intake many studies evaluated the biological activity of these compounds and it was found that they may be responsible for the reduced risk of some chronic diseases, may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases [10][11][12][13] . Different studies on the correlation between coffee intake and the biological effects of these compounds have been reported 14 , since coffee is a major source of chlorogenic acids and it is a very diffuse beverage all around the world. ...
Article
We exploit a recently developed computational approach [I. Gladich et al, J. Chem. Phys. B, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b06227 (2015)] to design cyclic peptides capable to recognize chlorogenic acid and related phenolic compound. A peptide designed by this procedure was synthesized and characterized by circular dichroism and fluores-cence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. We found that the peptide is selective for chlorogenic acid against other ortho-diphenols such as caffeic acid, and mono-phenols as ferulic and coumaric acid. Indeed, when chlorogenic or caffeic acid are bound to the cyclic peptide, the ortho-diphenol moiety capable to undergo oxidation is not available to electrode surface due to diffusion limitation and steric hindrance. This phenomenon did not occur for cumaric and ferulic acid possibly because of limited complex formation with the cyclic peptide. In an electrochemical sensing system the peptide can therefore discriminate ortho-diphenols in a mixture of phenols.
... Many beneficial health effects are attributed to the ingestion of GGAs, such as antimutagenic action, decrease in bloodstream glucose levels, cardiovascular benefits, and neuroprotective, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities (Tresserra-Rimbau, Medina-Rem on, Estruch, & Lamuela-Rabent os, 2015; Han, Omri, Sasaki, & Isoda, 2015;Ludwig, Clifford, Lean, Ashihara, & Crozier, 2014;Frost-Meyer & Logomarsino, 2012;Johnston, Clifford, & Morgan, 2003;Lee & Zhu, 2006). The presence of phenolic compounds directly affects the characteristics of a coffee brew, contributing to changes in color, flavor and aroma during the roasting process (Farah & Donangelo, 2006;Farah, Monteiro, Calado, Franca, & Trugo, 2006). ...
... About 60 tropical and subtropical countries produce coffee extensively, being in some cases the main agricultural export product (Esquivel & Jiménez, 2012). Several macro and microelements are absorbed from the soil by the coffee seeds in particular proportions during the plant growing (dos Santos & de Oliveira, 2001;Frost-Meyer, Logomarsino, & Logomarsino, 2012). The different pattern of accumulation will be influenced by the soil type, soil chemical composition and the general environmental growing conditions. ...
Article
This study examines the application of advanced data mining techniques associated with trace element concentrations for authenticity evaluation of organic coffee samples. Fifty-four coffee samples (20 organic and 34 non-organic) were evaluated according to their macro and microelement contents to establish reference ranges and identify differences in patterns of chemical elements in both crop procedures. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of thirty-eight chemical elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Er, Gd, Ge, Ho, La, Lu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Yb, W, U, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Ti, Zr and Zn). In general, higher levels of chemical elements were found in conventional coffee compared with organic samples. The classification of samples was performed by using three well known data mining algorithms, named Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naive Bayes (NB). When all analyzed variables were considered, a 96.3% accuracy level was obtained with the three algorithms. The level of accuracy remained at 96.3% for SVM and MLP and rose to 98.2 for NB when only eight of the investigated minerals - i.e. Zn, Se, Ba, U, Dy, Ti, Th, Mo - were used for chemometric analysis. This level of accuracy provides a strong foundation to propose the combination of trace element spectral fingerprints with data mining techniques as a valuable tool to evaluate the authenticity of organic coffee samples.
... However, there are studies that report con icting results. Some studies have shown that coffee can exert anti-in ammatory and antioxidant effects due to compounds such as caffeine, cafestol, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline 37 . This theory has been supported in some observational studies. ...
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Objective: Prospective cohort studies on coffee, tea and caffeine in relation to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to conduct a dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies on the association between dietary caffeine, different types of coffee and tea consumption and the risk of RA. Methods: PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE were searched up to July 2021 to identify relevant studies that had considered different types of coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), tea or caffeine exposure with RA as the main, or one of the, outcome(s). Two authors independently screened 742 publications. Finally, 5 prospective cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated by using a fixed-effects model. We also performed linear and non-linear dose-response analyses to examine the dose-response relations. Results: Comparing extreme categories, we found a positive, significant association between coffee (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.04-1.62; I² = 0%, n = 5) and decaffeinated coffee (RR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.35-2.65; I² =38.1%, n =3) consumption and risk of RA. One additional cup of coffee consumed per day was associated with an increased risk of RA by 6% (95% CI: 1.02-1.10; I² = 0%;). This increase in the risk of RA for one cup/d of decaffeinated coffee was 11% 95% CI: 1.05-1.18; I² = 38). No significant association was observed between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA. Conclusion: We found that a higher intake of coffee and decaffeinated coffee was associated with increased risk of RA. No significant association between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA was observed.
... Thus, the prevalence of diabetes can be determined by reduction of chronic inflammation. Coffee bioactive constituents may minimise chronic inflammation and, hence, protect against diabetes and many other chronic diseases with some degree of F I G U R E 5 Forest plot of meta-analysis: SMD of the serum CRP level between the highest and the lowest coffee intake category inflammatory reactions in their pathogenesis such as arthritis and cardiovascular diseases.81 In the current meta-analysis, there were 31 studies that examined coffee consumption association with diabetes risk. ...
Article
Aim Coffee and diabetes risk association has been demonstrated in numerous studies; however, the exact mechanism hasn't been clarified yet. The present meta‐analysis was conducted to cover the current knowledge regarding the effect of coffee on Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in addition to the evaluation of adiponectin, leptin, C‐reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) levels among coffee consumers as relatively possible mediators of this effect. Method A comprehensive search of the literature was carried out using search engines up to March 2020. The effect sizes were investigated using the standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) or relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 69 cross‐sectional and cohort studies were included and divided as follows: 31 articles for T2D risk, 15 studies for adiponectin, 6 studies for leptin, 12 studies for CRP and 5 studies for IL‐6. Results Overall, coffee consumption was inversely associated with T2D risk with an estimated pooled RR of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [0.68,0.80] for the highest versus lowest coffee consumption categories. The combined SMD between the different coffee intake categories, showed that coffee consumption was associated with higher adiponectin levels (P=0.002), and lower level of leptin (P=0.04) and CRP (P=0.2), with apparently no change in IL‐6 levels (P=0.91). Conclusion The present meta‐analysis showed strong epidemiological evidence that coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of T2D. Also, adiponectin, leptin concentrations appeared to be potential mediators of the coffee effect on diabetes, while IL‐6 levels did not.
... However, there are studies that report conflicting results. Some studies have shown that coffee can exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects due to compounds such as caffeine, cafestol, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline (43). This theory has been supported in some observational studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Prospective cohort studies on coffee, tea and caffeine in relation to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to conduct a dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies on the association between dietary caffeine, different types of coffee and tea consumption and the risk of RA. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE were searched up to July 2021 to identify relevant studies that had considered different types of coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), tea or caffeine exposure with RA as the main, or one of the, outcome(s). Two authors independently screened 742 publications. Finally, five prospective cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated by using a fixed-effects model. We also performed linear and non-linear dose-response analyses to examine the dose-response relations. Results Comparing extreme categories, we found a positive, significant association between coffee (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.04–1.62; I ² = 0%, n = 5) and decaffeinated coffee (RR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.35–2.65; I ² = 38.1%, n =3) consumption and risk of RA. One additional cup of coffee consumed per day was associated with an increased risk of RA by 6% (95% CI: 1.02–1.10; I ² = 0%). This increase in the risk of RA for one cup/d of decaffeinated coffee was 11% (95% CI: 1.05–1.18; I ² = 38). No significant association was observed between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA. Conclusion We found that a higher intake of coffee and decaffeinated coffee was associated with increased risk of RA. No significant association between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA was observed. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=227665 , identifier: CRD42021227665.
... For coffee as a beverage, there are many studies investigating the beneficial effects of the compounds present in the drink. Among the most studied compounds include chlorogenic acid, caffeine, cafestol, kahweol, and trigonelline which have been found to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties 45 . However, the volatile compounds inhaled from coffee aroma could have different profiles from what are present in coffee bean oil and coffee beverages. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee beverage consumption is well-known to exert various health benefits; however, the effects of coffee aroma are rarely explored. This study aimed to investigate the calming effect of inhaling coffee aroma while the patients underwent dental procedures (probing and scaling). Salivary α-amylase (sAA) and cortisol (sCort) levels were measured as proxies of sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to stress respectively. Blood pressures and pulse rates were recorded. The results showed that undergoing dental procedures could increase sAA and sCort levels of the patients inhaling sham aroma while those inhaling coffee aroma had significantly decreased sAA and sCort levels (40% and 25% differences, respectively). The pulse rates of those inhaling coffee aroma were also lower. Subjective assessment using visual analog scale was in line with objective measures as well. The preference for coffee aroma or the frequency of coffee drinking had no effect on the sAA and sCort responses. This is the first study to provide evidence on the effect of coffee aroma on sAA and sCort levels in patients undergoing dental procedures.
... Coffee is one of the most valuable traded commercial foods, and the second largest commodity exported by emerging countries (International Coffee Organization (ICO), 2019). The importance given to the consumption of the beverage has been attributed not only to the stimulating effect of caffeine, but also to the bioactivity of several other compounds such as chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, kahweol, and cafestol, which can protect against the activation of pathological processes at the cellular level (Frost-Meyer & Logomarsino, 2012). ...
Article
Protein extracts from green and roasted coffee beans and from spent coffee grounds (SCG) were evaluated as bioactive peptides sources. The in silico approach revealed a high frequency of the occurrence (A) of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) (0.62) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor peptides (0.44) in the 11S coffee globulin, which could be released after digestion. After in vitro digestion of the protein, the green bean and SCG proteins were more susceptible to proteolysis, releasing smaller polypeptides (3.4 kDa), which showed higher anti-hypertensive potentials (IC50 = 0.30 and 0.27 mg soluble protein/mL). However, the antioxidant capacity only increased for the roasted coffee and SCG extracts due to antioxidant groups formed during roasting. The heat treatment applied during coffee brewing increased the sensitivity of the SCG extract to proteolysis, leading to their high anti-hypertensive and antioxidant potentials. Therefore, the 11S coffee globulin is a precursor of a series of bioactive peptides.
... Subsequently, the intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was analyzed in a separate multivariate model. This was performed because coffee and tea contain several other bioactive substances, including chlorogenic acid in coffee 39 and catechins in tea. 40 Multicollinearity between independent variables was checked. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the association between caffeine intake and dry eye disease (DED) in the large, population-based LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. Methods: DED was cross-sectionally assessed in 85,302 participants (59% female participants) using the Women's Health Study dry eye questionnaire. Dietary caffeine was calculated from the intake of coffee, tea, cola, and energy drinks. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between DED and caffeine, correcting for demographic variables, smoking status, alcohol intake, and 48 comorbidities of DED. Results: The mean (SD; range) age of participants was 50.7 years (12.4; 18-96), and 50,339 (59%) were female. The mean (SD) caffeine intake was 285 (182) mg/d. After correcting for demographics, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol intake, higher caffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of Women's Health Study-defined DED [odds ratio (OR) 0.971 per 100 mg/d, 95% CI, 0.956-0.986, P < 0.0005]. When additionally adjusting for medical comorbidities, no significant effect was observed (OR 0.985, 95% CI, 0.969-1.001, P = 0.06). Caffeine's effect on DED was similar in male and female participants and independent of sleep quality and stress at work. Decaffeinated coffee intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of DED, when adjusted for caffeinated coffee, demographics, alcohol intake, smoking status, and comorbidities (OR 1.046 per cup/d, 95% CI, 1.010-1.084, P = 0.01). None of the beverages were significantly associated with the risk of DED, when correcting for intake of the other caffeinated beverages, demographics, smoking status, alcohol intake, and all comorbidities. Conclusions: Dietary caffeine intake does not seem to be a risk factor for DED in the general population.
... The current data showed that GCBE reduced tissue concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in I/R rats, which suggests that GCBE could confer a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the inflammatory response. Frost-Meyer and Logomarsino (2012) and other studies have hypothesized that GCBE administration could reduce the concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats. We can deduce that the neuroprotective effects of GCBE may be attributed to the suppression of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting NF-κB activation. ...
Article
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Stroke is a lethal event with a high incidence in Egypt. Quick early intervention can be lifesaving. Transient global ischemia (TGI), a type of ischemic stroke, is mainly instigated by cardiac arrest. Ischemia followed by reperfusion causes further neuronal cell damage. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of green (GCBE) and roasted (RCBE) coffee bean water extract against transient global ischemia-induced via a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CAO) in rats. Before CAO, 1.5 ml/kg body weight/day of GCBE or RCBE was administered for 14 days by oral gavage. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and sham groups were treated with a vehicle. Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme activities, such as MDA, NO, GSH, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB, and BDNF were investigated. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, in addition to heme oxygenase 1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 were determined. Apoptotic markers, including Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3, in addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor-a, were investigated, followed by an examination of hippocampal histopathology. Pre-administration of GCBE and RCBE improved neurological function and neuronal survival, suppressed the spread of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, and reversed most of the pathological changes. However, green coffee bean extract was more effective than roasted coffee bean extract, perhaps due to the roasting process, which may affect active compounds. In conclusion, GCBE and RCBE represent a potential clinical strategy for pre-ischemic conditioning.
... Caffeine, chlorogenic acid and diterpenes in coffee have antiinflammatory and anti-oxidant potential, 11 and are considered to be the primary mechanisms that explain the health benefits of habitual coffee consumption. 12 Previous studies have suggested that the inverse association between habitual coffee consumption and the risk of developing liver cancer and diabetes is mediated by reduced inflammation. ...
Article
Aims Coffee consumption has been suggested, in animal studies, to inhibit the progression of sarcopenia, possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have been carried out in humans. We aimed to examine whether coffee consumption was related to indicators of sarcopenia in a Japanese population, and whether the association was mediated by reduced inflammation. Methods This study was a cross-sectional design. Participants were community residents (n = 6369) aged 45–74 years. We measured skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; kg/m²) by a bioelectrical impedance method, and grip strength with a Smedley-type dynamometer. Habitual coffee consumption was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured as an inflammatory marker. The association between habitual coffee consumption and SMI or grip strength was analyzed with a linear regression model adjusted for covariates. Results A significant positive association was found between coffee consumption and SMI (men: β = 0.023; Ptrend = 0.004, women: β = 0.011; Ptrend = 0.012). Further adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not materially alter the results (men: β = 0.023; Ptrend = 0.005, women: β = 0.009; Ptrend = 0.024). The relationship between coffee consumption and grip strength did not reach statistical significance; however, a positive trend was observed (men: β = 0.208; Ptrend = 0.085, women: β = 0.092; Ptrend = 0.167). Conclusions We found that coffee consumption was positively associated with SMI independently of inflammation in middle-aged and older Japanese people. Reduced inflammation by coffee does not seem to be an important mediator, and further investigations are required to explore the mechanisms of this association. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••–••.
... It's also been suggested that caffeine appears to exert most of its biological effects through the antagonism of the A1 and A2A subtypes of the adenosine receptor [89]. Caffeine is also known to stimulate the human nervous system (central), to increase the blood flow by the dilation of peripheral vessels, to enhance the breathing rate, and it is also known to aid the digestion of the food in the stomach [90]. Studies also report the enhancing effect of caffeine [91] is generating a very keen exchange of views between researchers [47]. ...
Article
Coffee is known to be one of the popular beverages today on the globe. Due to its easy availability and preparation, it is consumed by the population of almost all countries. This wonder crop was discovered in the 6th century in Ethiopia. Since then, people have also used various brewing methods to extract hundreds of the bioactive compounds present in these aromatic seeds. No doubt, excessive consumption of the same can be harmful too. As a functional food, coffee is known to have multiple health benefits. Coffee beans contain vitamins, minerals, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and various other biologically active ingredients. This review briefly describes the major biologically active compounds present in these seeds – caffeine, trigonelline, diterpenes, and chlorogenic acid (CGA). It also aims to describe various bioactive activities such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, antibacterial, antiviral, etc., against variable hallmarks. Thus, explaining different pharmacological effects for the welfare of the human population.
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Traceability offers significant information about the quality and safety of Chinese Angelica, a medicine and food homologous substance. In this study, a systematic four-step strategy, including sample collection, specific metal element fingerprinting, multivariate statistical analysis, and benefit-risk assessment, was developed for the first time to identify Chinese Angelica based on geographical origins. Fifteen metals in fifty-six Chinese Angelica samples originated from three provinces were analyzed. The multivariate statistical analysis model established, involving hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and self-organizing map clustering analysis was able to identify the origins of samples. Furthermore, benefit-risk assessment models were created by combinational calculation of chemical daily intake (CDI), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR) levels to evaluate the potential risks of Chinese Angelica using as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and food, respectively. Our systematic strategy was well convinced to accurately and effectively differentiate Chinese Angelica based on geographical origins.
Article
In the present work the scavenging capacity of coffee brews against ROS (ROO center dot, H2O2, HO center dot and HOCl) and RNS (NO center dot and ONOO-) was evaluated and correlated with their bioactive compounds by multivariate analysis. It is the first time that the complete antioxidant capacity profile of coffee brews against different ROS and RNS is evaluated and that the capacity of coffee brews to scavenge NO center dot is reported. The coffee brews were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested and possibly NO2 center dot and CO3 center dot-. The capacity of the coffee brews to scavenge ROO center dot (2523 to 3673 mu mol TE/g), HO center dot (IC50 = 2.24 to 438 mu g/mL), NO center dot (IC50 = 3.07 to 5.67 mu g/mL) and ONOO- (IC50 = 1.29 to 2.88 mu g/mL) was positively correlated to the contents of chlorogenic acids, chlorogenic acid lactones and p-coumaric acid, while the scavenging capacity against H2O2 (IC50 = 336 to 531 mu g/mL) was positively correlated to the content of browned compounds, mainly melanoidins. The coffee brews showed to be potent HOCl scavengers (IC50 = 5.12 to 11.20 mu g/mL), which was correlated to the contents of caffeic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and browned compounds. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the scavenging capacity against ROS/RNS is one of the mechanisms that can explain the association between the consumption of coffee brews and the decreased risk of chronic-degenerative diseases.
Article
The consumption of cold brew is relatively new and guidelines with conditions and parameters to produce cold brew are still lacking. In this study, the parameters to obtain cold brew coffee from Coffea arabica were optimized to obtain a coffee extract rich in caffeine and soluble solids. The effects of extraction time, particle size of ground coffee, extraction temperature, coffee‐to‐water ratio, stirring on caffeine yield, soluble solids, on caffeine concentrations were studied. Optimized parameters showed 45 minutes sufficed to perform a cold extraction at 4 °C and 24 °C. The parameters selected for validation were 24 °C, 30% coffee‐to‐water ratio, and a stirring of 400 rpm resulting in 3.98 mg/mL of extracted caffeine, 11.20 °Brix and 93.9% of caffeine yield. The smaller particle size (595 μm) displayed the higher caffeine extraction of about 4 mg/mL. This study reveals the high efficiency of cold brew extraction and its potential at industrial scale, decreasing costs with energy and extraction time, and producing a coffee rich in caffeine and soluble solids.
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In this research work the effects of four solvents and their mixtures on the extraction of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline in crude extracts of four coffee cultivars, traditional red bourbon, IAPAR59, IPR101 and IPR108 cultivars, were investigated by UV spectrophotometry and UV spectra obtained from RP-HPLC-DAD. The experimental results and the principal component analysis of UV spectra showed that the effect of solvent extraction of the metabolites does not depend on cultivars, because the spectral characteristics are similar, but the concentrations are different. The UV and UV-DAD spectra for four simplex centroid design mixtures were also similar but the concentrations of caffeine, trigonelline and the chlorogenic acids are different and depend on the solvent used in the extraction.
Article
The world generates a large amount of used coffee grounds every day. These spent coffee grounds could potentially be used to cultivate microorganisms for fine chemical productions. Here, the effect of spent coffee grounds extract (SCGE) on astaxanthin-producing yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was explored. The SCGE addition to the culture medium notably increased growth of cell and decreased intracellular astaxanthin (ASX) content. The caffeine contained in SCGE was found to activate ASX biosynthesis, not to effect on cell growth. In X. dendrorhous, the addition of SCGE resulted in significant cell growth, and the addition of caffeine contained therein suppressed the decrease in ASX biosynthesis, resulting in an overall increase in ASX production.
Article
Biogenic amines (BAs) are organic bases that play several physiological roles in humans, acting as local hormones and neurotransmitters modulating smooth muscle cell contraction, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability and mucus secretion, tachycardia, alterations of blood pressure, arrhythmias, gastric acid secretion, and nociception in nerve fibers. However, when ingested in high concentrations, they can cause a range of toxicological effects such as migraine, headaches, gastric and intestinal problems, and pseudoallergic responses, mainly due to the toxic action of histamine and tyramine. In particular, histamine toxicity seems enhanced by the presence of other amines such as cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine, which act as potentiators of its toxicity. Moreover, some BAs (spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine), when subjected to heat, can give rise to the formation of secondary amines, and in the presence of nitrites, these can generate nitrosamines, chemical agents considered to possess major carcinogenic properties. Under normal conditions, the human body is able to detoxify BAs ingested from foods by acetylation and oxidation by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) and specific amine methyltransferases. However, this detoxification system can be negatively influenced by some food components (other amines, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde, phenols, etc.), drugs acting as inhibitors of MAO and DAO and tobacco.
Article
The health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide-ranging. The cardiovascular effects of coffee are still debated, although most recent findings indicate that moderate coffee consumption is unlikely to adversely affect cardiovascular outcome. The potential benefits of chronic coffee intake also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, most data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies. In addition, a considerable interindividual variability in cardiovascular and psychoactive responses to coffee drinking has been observed: this is in part due to tolerance, but there is evidence that variability may have a genetic basis.
Article
Supercritical CO2 (SC‐CO2) extraction is commonly used to eliminate caffeine from coffee beans. In this work, the feasibility of tryptamine elimination is considered as a further objective of the process. SC‐CO2 extraction process parameters (eg, pressure, CO2 flow rate, water content) were studied to obtain tryptamine reduction, starting from those used in supercritical decaffeination. A good compromise, in terms of tryptamine residue in coffee beans, and process feasibility and selectivity, was found operating at 280 bar and 0.8 kg/h CO2, at a starting H2O content in coffee beans of 20% w/w. Using these process conditions, a tryptamine residue of 218 ppm (ppm) was measured in coffee beans after 18 hours of processing. A negligible effect on process selectivity and tryptamine yield was obtained by changing the CO2 flow rate and the initial water content. However, working at an initial water content of 30% w/w and using wet CO2 (CO2 plus 3% w/w water), a tryptamine residue of 107 ppm in coffee beans was obtained, but industrial complexity and costs increased.
Article
Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted.
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Background: Coffee drinking has been implicated in mortality and a variety of diseases but potential mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. Large-scale systems epidemiological approaches may offer novel insights to mechanisms underlying associations of coffee with health. Objective: We performed an analysis of known and novel protein markers linked to cardiovascular disease and their association with habitual coffee intake in the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, n=816) and followed-up top proteins in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, n=635) and EpiHealth (n=2418). Methods: In PIVUS and ULSAM, coffee intake was measured by 7-day dietary records while a computer-based food frequency questionnaire was used in EpiHealth. Levels of up to 80 proteins were assessed in plasma by a proximity extension assay. Results: Four protein-coffee associations adjusted for age, sex, smoking and BMI, met statistical significance in PIVUS (FDR<5%, P<2.31×10(-3) ): leptin (LEP), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 6 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The inverse association between coffee intake and LEP replicated in ULSAM (β, -0.042 SD per cup of coffee, P=0.028) and EpiHealth (β, -0.025 SD per time of coffee, P=0.004). The negative coffee-CHI3L association replicated in EpiHealth (β, -0.07, P=1.15×10(-7) ), but not in ULSAM (β, -0.034, P=0.16). Conclusions: The current study supports an inverse association between coffee intake and plasma LEP and CHI3L1 levels. The coffee-CHI3L1 association is novel and warrants further investigation given links between CHI3L1 and health conditions that are also potentially influenced by coffee. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality, ii) develop a signature of ‘inflammaging’. Methods Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age=59 years) and follow-up (median age=70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with two marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively. Results The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, IL-6, TNF-α, several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, CRP, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included ten markers and was strongly associated of mortality (HR per SD=1.40, 95%CI:1.24-1.57, P=2x10 -8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR=1.38, 95%CI:1.23-1.55, P=4x10 -8) and mortality-associated markers (HR=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P=1x10 -10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study. Conclusion Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on ten markers was strongly associated with mortality.
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Coffee is one of the most popular drinks consumed in the world, also in Poland. In the literature, much attention is paid to the influence of coffee on human health, especially daily intake of caffeine, and also purchasing consumer behavior. There is a lack of research devoted to consumer choices and habits in relation to coffee consumption and brewing method. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of coffee consumers and present their segmentation based on consumer choices and habits towards coffee consumption. The study was performed using the computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) method on a group of 1500 adults respondents in Poland reporting the consumption of coffee. We collected information about consumer choices and habits related to coffee consumption, including brewing method, place of consuming coffee, and factors determining coffee choices. Using cluster analysis, we identified three main groups of coffee consumers. There are “Neutral coffee drinkers”, “Ad hoc coffee drinkers”, and “Non-specific coffee drinkers”. The respondents in the study are not coffee gourmets; they like and consume coffee, but these are often changing choices. To conclude, it can be stated that the Polish coffee consumer prefers conventional methods of brewing coffee (like a “traditionalist”) but is open to novelties and new sensory experiences. Based on study results it is possible to know the coffee drinking habits in Poland.
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Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease associated with having excess body fat that could be influenced by many factors. Our study aimed to assess the powerful effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus alone or combined (symbiotic) with Prebiotics such as Ginger, Pineapple and Green Coffee as anti-obesity agents. Methodology: Using 8 groups (10 rats each) of Sprague-Dawley rats, Group 1 was kept as a negative control, Group 2 positive control, while other groups were orally given Lactobacillus acidophilus, Ginger, Pineapple and Green Coffee individually and in combination with Probiotics, for 45 days till the end of the experiment while the body weight of rats was recorded.Blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters analysis and organs were dissected and homogenized to analyze obesity-related biomarkers, Results: Our results revealed that either individual or mixed administration of this pro and prebiotics decreased the body and organs, specifically those treated with the mixture or probiotic and prebiotic, also serum (HDL), CAT), and (SOD) was decreased (P <0.05), while other biochemical parameters (T.G), (CHOL), (U.A), (Creat), Urea, (GOT),(GPT) and (ALP); (significantly (P<0.05) was decreased when compared with the positive control group, Nevertheless, the histopathological examination showed the reduction of adipose tissue in kidney, liver, and Pancreas showed overestimate reductions in the percentage of body fat. Conclusions: This study showed a promising effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus when it combined with these plants as natural feed additives on obesity.
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Based on some studies, moderate caffeine consumption provides several benefits to human health. However, there are few reports on the anti-degranulation activity of caffeine. Allergy is a global healthcare problem that is drastically increasing in both developed and developing countries. Meanwhile, allergic reactions are triggered by the presence of chemical mediators released from the granules in mast cells, which are called the degranulation process. In this study, caffeine was evaluated for anti-degranulation activity using basophilic cell line RBL-2H3 cells as the in vitro model and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model mice in vivo. As a result, caffeine effectively suppressed antigen-induced degranulation by RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Besides, caffeine also inhibited FcεRI-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, such as phosphorylation of Syk, Btk, PLCγ1, PI3K, and Akt in antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Caffeine also suppressed PCA response in mice.
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Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites generally involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress conditions. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). These compounds have a number of beneficial health properties related to their potent antioxidant activity as well as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and antiviral activities. The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. During coffee processing, CGA may be isomerized, hydrolyzed or degraded into low molecular weight compounds. The high temperatures of roasting also produce transformation of part of CGA into quinolactones and, along with other compounds, melanoidins. This review focuses on the chemical characteristics, biosynthesis, and distribution of CGA and related compounds in coffee. The influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors as well as processing on the chemical composition of coffee beans is discussed. The impact of CGA composition of green coffee on cup quality is also approached. Despite the existence of substantial published information on the total levels of CGA in coffee, more research is needed on the composition of minor phenolic compounds and specific CGA isomers (and related substances) in green and roasted coffee beans, as well as their impact on coffee quality.
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The total antioxidant activity of coffee beverages was measured with stabilized radical EPR spectroscopy. Depending on which stabilized radical is used, Fremy's salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) or 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) values can differ significantly. For the determination of antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products in coffee, TEMPO appears to be the better radical marker. Thus the contribution of both main antioxidant active compounds (polyphenols, melanoidins) whose ratio varies with roasting conditions could be estimated. During storage experiments of coffees brews changes in antioxidant action are found to be time dependent. The content of chlorogenic acids increased significantly at higher storage temperatures, probably caused by a release from polymer structures. Additional antioxidant capacity of coffee melanoidins seems to be strongly influenced by atmospheric oxygen. The higher roasted sample is less vulnerable than medium or light roasted coffee. Investigations with model systems showed that among all coffee constituents the carbohydrates are mainly responsible for the formation of oxygen scavenging substances.
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There is accumulating evidence that coffee consumption may reduce risk for type 2 diabetes, a known risk factor for Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases. Coffee consumption is also associated with reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementias. However, preventive and therapeutic development of coffee is complicated by the cardiovascular side effects of caffeine intake. As coffee is also a rich source of chlorogenic acids and many bioactive compounds other than caffeine, we hypothesized that decaffeinated coffee drinks may exert beneficial effects on the brain. We have investigated whether dietary supplementation with a standardized decaffeinated green coffee preparation, Svetol®, might modulate diet-induced insulin resistance and brain energy metabolism dysfunction in a high-fat diet mouse model. As expected, dietary supplementation with Svetol® significantly attenuated the development of high-fat diet-induced deficits in glucose-tolerance response. We have also found that Svetol®) treatment improved brain mitochondrial energy metabolism as determined by oxygen consumption rate. Consistent with this evidence, follow-up gene expression profiling with Agilent whole-genome microarray revealed that the decaffeinated coffee treatment modulated a number of genes in the brain that are implicated in cellular energy metabolism. Our evidence is the first demonstration that dietary supplementation with a decaffeinated green coffee preparation may beneficially influence the brain, in particular promoting brain energy metabolic processes.
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Adult weight gain and obesity have become worldwide problems. Issues of cost and potential side effects of prescription weight loss drugs have led overweight and obese adults to try nutraceuticals that may aid weight loss. One promising nutraceutical is green coffee extract, which contains high concentrations of chlorogenic acids that are known to have health benefits and to influence glucose and fat metabolism. A 22-week crossover study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a commercial green coffee extract product GCA™ at reducing weight and body mass in 16 overweight adults. Subjects received high-dose GCA (1050 mg), low-dose GCA (700 mg), or placebo in separate six-week treatment periods followed by two-week washout periods to reduce any influence of preceding treatment. Treatments were counterbalanced between subjects. Primary measurements were body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat. Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured. Significant reductions were observed in body weight (-8.04 ± 2.31 kg), body mass index (-2.92 ± 0.85 kg/m(2)), and percent body fat (-4.44% ± 2.00%), as well as a small decrease in heart rate (-2.56 ± 2.85 beats per minute), but with no significant changes to diet over the course of the study. Importantly, the decreases occurred when subjects were taking GCA. Body mass index for six subjects shifted from preobesity to the normal weight range (<25.00 kg/m(2)). The results are consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green coffee extract in weight loss. The results suggest that GCA may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults, and may be an inexpensive means of preventing obesity in overweight adults.
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Epidemiological studies have shown that unfiltered coffee consumption is associated with a low incidence of cancer. This study aims to identify the effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene contained in unfiltered coffee, on angiogenesis and key inflammatory molecules. The experimental procedures included in vivo angiogenesis assays (both the chicken and quail choriallantoic membrane assay and the angiogenesis assay with fluorescent zebrafish), the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay and the in vitro analysis of the effects of treatment of human endothelial cells with kahweol in cell growth, cell viability, cell migration and zymographic assays, as well as the tube formation assay on Matrigel. Additionally, two inflammation markers were determined, namely, the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and the levels of secreted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. We show for the first time that kahweol is an anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in two in vivo and one ex vivo angiogenesis models, with effects on specific steps of the angiogenic process: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation on Matrigel. We also demonstrate the inhibitory effect of kahweol on the endothelial cell potential to remodel extracellular matrix by targeting two key molecules involved in the process, MMP-2 and uPA. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of this compound is demonstrated by its inhibition of both COX-2 expression and MCP-1 secretion in endothelial cells. Taken together, our data indicate that, indeed, kahweol behaves as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic compound with potential use in antitumoral therapies. These data may contribute to the explanation of the reported antitumoral effects of kahweol, including the recent epidemiological meta-analysis showing that drinking coffee could decrease the risk of certain cancers.
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The association between coffee intake and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) may be modified by oxidative stress. The authors examined the relation of coffee consumption to serum CRP considering potential inter-actions of serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and bilirubin. The subjects included 4455 men and 5942 women aged 49-76 years who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases in Fukuoka, Japan. Geometric means of serum CRP and 95% confidence intervals across the category of coffee intake stratified by serum GGT and bilirubin were estimated using multiple linear regression. Serum CRP concentrations were progressively lower with higher intake of coffee in men with high serum GGT (p for trend=0.009), but not in those with low serum GGT (p for trend=0.73) and GGT modified the association (p for interaction=0.03). Women showed no association between coffee intake and CRP whether serum GGT was low or high. There was no effect modification of serum bilirubin on the association between coffee intake and CRP in either men or women. These results support a protective effect of coffee intake against systematic inflammation in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and imply that such an effect may be stronger in elevated oxidative stress.
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Higher coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in cohort studies, but the physiological pathways through which coffee affects glucose metabolism are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between habitual coffee and tea consumption and glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population and possible mediation by inflammation. We cross-sectionally examined the association between coffee, green tea, black tea and Oolong tea consumption and glycemic (fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-beta, plasma HbA1c) and inflammatory (plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein) markers in a multi-ethnic Asian population (N = 4139). After adjusting for multiple confounders, we observed inverse associations between coffee and HOMA-IR (percent difference: - 8.8% for ≥ 3 cups/day versus rarely or never; Ptrend = 0.007), but no significant associations between coffee and inflammatory markers. Tea consumption was not associated with glycemic markers, but green tea was inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (percent difference: - 12.2% for ≥ 1 cup/day versus < 1 cup/week; Ptrend = 0.042). These data provide additional evidence for a beneficial effect of habitual caffeinated coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity, and suggest that this effect is unlikely to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder of unknown etiology. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depletion of dopamine in the striatum, abnormal mitochondrial and proteasomal functions, and accumulation of α-synuclein that may be closely associated with pathological and clinical abnormalities. Increasing evidence indicates that both oxidative stress and inflammation may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of PD. Oxidative stress is characterized by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione. Lipid mediators for oxidative stress include 4-hydroxynonenal, isoprostanes, isofurans, isoketals, neuroprostanes, and neurofurans. Neuroinflammation is characterized by activated microglial cells that generate proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. Proinflammatory lipid mediators include prostaglandins and platelet activating factor, together with cytokines may play a prominent role in mediating the progressive neurodegeneration in PD.
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Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are global problems affecting all age groups and have been characterized as lifestyle disorders. Though no study has clearly proved a direct correlation between obesity and T2D, a number of factors are associated with obesity causing insulin resistance and T2D. The factors such as adipokines and various transcription factors help to maintain a proper metabolic state in the body. Deregulation in any of these signalling balances due to obesity may trigger an inflammatory cascade which could lead to the aforesaid problems of insulin resistance and T2D. In this review, we have discussed the factors that probably link inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance and subsequently T2D and the possible therapeutic opportunities to decrease health risk of T2D in future.
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Our aim in this crossover study was to investigate the acute effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption on appetite feelings, energy intake, and appetite-, inflammation-, stress-, and glucose metabolism-related markers. Sixteen healthy men (age range, 21-39 y; BMI range, 19.7-28.6 kg/m(2)) received in a random order on 3 separate occasions a standard breakfast snack with 200 mL of either caffeinated coffee (3 mg caffeine/kg body weight), decaffeinated coffee, or water (control). Before intervention (-15 min) and at standard time points following breakfast consumption (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min), participants recorded their appetite feelings and we collected blood samples for measurements of circulating glucose, insulin, cortisol, and appetite- and inflammation-related markers. At 180 min, participants consumed a meal ad libitum. The appetite-related ratings, the appetite plasma hormonal responses as well as the plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma and serum inflammatory marker responses did not show an overall intervention effect or a time x intervention interaction. Ad libitum energy intake did not differ among the 3 interventions. However, a significant intervention effect (P = 0.04) and a time x intervention interaction (P-interaction = 0.02) were found for serum cortisol; cortisol concentrations were significantly higher following the caffeinated coffee intervention, compared to control, at 60 min and thereafter. In conclusion, the usually consumed amount of caffeinated coffee does not have short-term effects on appetite, energy intake, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers, but it increases circulating cortisol concentrations in healthy men.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder typified by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We have previously shown that soluble TNF (solTNF) is required to mediate robust degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or lipopolysaccharide. What remains unknown is whether TNF inhibition can attenuate the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration. To test this, rats were injected in the SNpc with lentivirus encoding dominant-negative TNF (lenti-DN-TNF) 2 weeks after receiving a 6-OHDA lesion. Remarkably, when examined 5 weeks after the initial 6-OHDA lesion, no further loss of nigral DA neurons was observed. Lenti-DN-TNF also attenuated microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that TNF is likely a critical mediator of nigral DA neuron death during the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration, and that microglia may be the principal cell type involved. These promising findings provide compelling reasons to perform DN-TNF gene transfer studies in nonhuman primates with the long-term goal of using it in the clinic to prevent the delayed and progressive degeneration of DA neurons that gives rise to motor symptoms in PD.
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Several studies conducted worldwide report an inverse association between caffeine/coffee consumption and the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, heterogeneity and conflicting results between studies preclude a correct estimation of the strength of this association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies to better estimate the effect of caffeine exposure on the incidence of PD. Data sources searched included Medline, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science and reference lists, up to September 2009. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Three independent reviewers selected the studies and extracted the data on to standardized forms. Twenty-six studies were included: 7 cohort, 2 nested case-control, 16 case-control, and 1 cross-sectional study. Quantitative data synthesis of the most precise estimates from each study was accomplished through random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic. The summary RR for the association between caffeine intake and PD was 0.75 [[95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 0.68-0.82], with low to moderate heterogeneity (I2= 28.8%). Publication bias for case-control/cross-sectional studies may exist (Egger's test, p=0.053). When considering only the cohort studies, the RR was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.71-90; I2=8.1%). The negative association was weaker when only women were considered (RR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.02; I2=12.9%). A linear relation was observed between levels of exposure to caffeine and the RR estimates: RR of 0.76 (95%CI: 0.72-0.80; I2= 35.1%) per 300 mg increase in caffeine intake. This study confirm an inverse association between caffeine intake and the risk of PD, which can hardly by explained by bias or uncontrolled confounding.
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Coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Suggested mechanisms underlying the association have included attenuation of subclinical inflammation and a reduction in oxidative stress. The aim was to investigate the effects of daily coffee consumption on biomarkers of coffee intake, subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Habitual coffee drinkers (n = 47) refrained for 1 mo from coffee drinking; in the second month they consumed 4 cups of filtered coffee/d and in the third month 8 cups of filtered coffee/d (150 mL/cup). Blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, bead-based multiplex technology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or immunonephelometry. Coffee consumption led to an increase in coffee-derived compounds, mainly serum caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid metabolites. Significant changes were also observed for serum concentrations of interleukin-18, 8-isoprostane, and adiponectin (medians: -8%, -16%, and 6%, respectively; consumption of 8 compared with 0 cups coffee/d). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I increased significantly by 12%, 7%, and 4%, respectively, whereas the ratios of LDL to HDL cholesterol and of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly by 8% and 9%, respectively (8 compared with 0 cups coffee/d). No changes were seen for markers of glucose metabolism in an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Coffee consumption appears to have beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and HDL cholesterol, whereas no changes in glucose metabolism were found in our study. Furthermore, many coffee-derived methylxanthines and caffeic acid metabolites appear to be useful as biomarkers of coffee intake.
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Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar associations have also been reported for decaffeinated coffee and tea. We report herein the findings of meta-analyses for the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of diabetes. Relevant studies were identified through search engines using a combined text word and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) search strategy. Prospective studies that reported an estimate of the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea with incident diabetes between 1966 and July 2009. Data from 18 studies with information on 457 922 participants reported on the association between coffee consumption and diabetes. Six (N = 225 516) and 7 studies (N = 286 701) also reported estimates of the association between decaffeinated coffee and tea with diabetes, respectively. We found an inverse log-linear relationship between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of diabetes such that every additional cup of coffee consumed in a day was associated with a 7% reduction in the excess risk of diabetes relative risk, 0.93 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.95]) after adjustment for potential confounders. Owing to the presence of small-study bias, our results may represent an overestimate of the true magnitude of the association. Similar significant and inverse associations were observed with decaffeinated coffee and tea and risk of incident diabetes. High intakes of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea are associated with reduced risk of diabetes. The putative protective effects of these beverages warrant further investigation in randomized trials.
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Onset of Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreatic beta-cell fails to adapt to the increased insulin demand caused by insulin resistance. Morphological and therapeutic intervention studies have uncovered an inflammatory process in islets of patients with Type 2 diabetes characterized by the presence of cytokines, immune cells, beta-cell apoptosis, amyloid deposits, and fibrosis. This insulitis is due to a pathological activation of the innate immune system by metabolic stress and governed by IL-1 signaling. We propose that this insulitis contributes to the decrease in beta-cell mass and the impaired insulin secretion observed in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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This review reports the evidence for a relation between long-term coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated this association and, at this moment, at least fourteen out of eighteen cohort studies revealed a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with frequent coffee intake. Moderate coffee intake (>/=4 cups of coffee/d of 150 mL or >/=400 mg of caffeine/d) has generally been associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Besides, results of most studies suggest a dose-response relation, with greater reductions in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk with higher levels of coffee consumption. Several mechanisms underlying this protective effect, as well as the coffee components responsible for this association are suggested. Despite positive findings, it is still premature to recommend an increase in coffee consumption as a public health strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus. More population-based surveys are necessary to clarify the long-term effects of decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee intake on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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A major site of action for the atheroprotective drug nicotinic acid (NA) is adipose tissue, via the G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR109A. Since, adipose tissue is an active secretory organ that contributes both positively and negatively to systemic inflammatory processes associated with cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that NA would act directly upon adipocytes to alter the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, and the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin. TNF-alpha treatment (1.0ng/mL) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in an increase in gene expression of fractalkine (9+/-3.3-fold, P<0.01); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (24+/-1.2-fold, P<0.001), 'regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted' (RANTES) (500+/-55-fold, P<0.001) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (200+/-70-fold, P<0.05). The addition of NA (10(-4)M) to TNF-alpha-treated adipocytes attenuated expression of fractalkine (50+/-12%, P<0.01); MCP-1 (50+/-6%, P<0.01), RANTES (70+/-3%, P<0.01) and iNOS (60+/-16%). This pattern was mirrored in protein released from the adipocytes into the surrounding media. The effect on gene expression was neutralised by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. NA attenuated macrophage chemotaxis (by 27+/-3.5%, P<0.001) towards adipocyte conditioned media. By contrast, NA, (10(-6)-10(-3)M) increased, in a dose-dependent manner, mRNA of the atheroprotective hormone adiponectin (3-5-fold n=6, P<0.01). NA suppresses pro-atherogenic chemokines and upregulates the atheroprotective adiponectin through a G-protein-coupled pathway. Since adipose tissue has the potential to contribute to both systemic and local (perivascular) inflammation associated with atherosclerosis our results suggest a new "pleiotropic" role for NA.
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Evidence in support of the concept of local pancreatic islet inflammation as a mechanism of beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes is accumulating. Observations in human islets from type 2 diabetic patients and rodent models of the disease indicate the increased presence of IL-1 driven cytokines and chemokines in pancreatic islets, concomitant with immune cell infiltration. Inflammation is the body's protective response to harmful stimuli and tissue damage. However, under chronic stress (e.g. metabolic stress in obesity and type 2 diabetes) the body's own defensive response may become deleterious to tissue function. Here, we summarize the current evidence that islet inflammation is a feature of type 2 diabetes, and discuss its role with respect to alpha and beta cell compensation and eventual beta cell failure.
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This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from cross-sectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day) against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1-12 weeks), have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (approximately 2/1 mmHg) when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fibre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension.
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Epidemiological studies show coffee consumption to be correlated to large risk reductions in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Such correlations are seen with decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, and occur regardless of gender, method of brewing, or geography. They also exist despite clear evidence showing that caffeine causes acute postprandial hyperglycemia and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity. As the beneficial effects of coffee consumption exist for both decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, a component of coffee other than caffeine must be responsible. This review examines the specific coffee compounds responsible for coffee's effects on T2D, and their potential physiological mechanisms of action. Being plant-derived, coffee contains many beneficial compounds found in fruits and vegetables, including antioxidants. In fact, coffee is the largest source of dietary antioxidants in industrialized nations. When green coffee is roasted at high temperatures, Maillard reactions create a number of unique compounds. Roasting causes a portion of the antioxidant, chlorogenic acid, to be transformed into quinides, compounds known to alter blood glucose levels. Coffee consumption may also mediate levels of gut peptides (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1), hormones intimately involved in the regulation of satiety and insulin secretion. Finally, coffee may have prebiotic-like properties, altering gut flora and ultimately digestion. In summary, it is evident that a better understanding of the role of coffee in the development and prevention of T2D has the potential to uncover novel therapeutic targets and nutraceutical formulations for the disease.
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Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are cinnamic acid derivatives with biological effects mostly related to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) are the main CGA found in nature. Because green coffee is a major source of CGA, it has been used for production of nutraceuticals. However, data on the bioavailability of CGA from green coffee in humans are inexistent. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and apparent bioavailability of CGA in plasma and urine of 10 healthy adults for 8 h after the consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract containing 170 mg of CGA. Three CQA, 3 diCQA, and caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids were identified in plasma by HPLC-Diode Array Detector-MS after treatment. Over 30% (33.1 +/- 23.1%) of the ingested cinnamic acid moieties were recovered in plasma, including metabolites, with peak levels from 0.5 to 8 h after treatment. CGA and metabolites identified in urine after treatment were 4-CQA, 5-CQA, and sinapic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, dihydrocaffeic, caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids, totaling 5.5 +/- 10.6% urinary recovery of the ingested cinnamic and quinic acid moiteties. This study shows that the major CGA compounds present in green coffee are highly absorbed and metabolized in humans.
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Coffee drinking has been associated with increased serum cholesterol levels in some, but not all, studies. A Medline search of the English-language literature published prior to December 1998, a bibliography review, and consultations with experts were performed to identify 14 published trials of coffee consumption. Information was abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. With a random-effects model, treatment effects were estimated by pooling results from individual trials after weighting the results by the inverse of total variance. A dose-response relation between coffee consumption and both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was identified (p < 0.01). Increases in serum lipids were greater in studies of patients with hyperlipidemia and in trials of caffeinated or boiled coffee. Trials using filtered coffee demonstrated very little increase in serum cholesterol. Consumption of unfiltered, but not filtered, coffee increases serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol.
Article
Coffee drinking has been associated with increased serum cholesterol levels in some, but not all, studies. A Medline search of the English-language literature published prior to December 1998, a bibliography review, and consultations with experts were performed to identify 14 published trials of coffee consumption. Information was ed independently by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. With a random-effects model, treatment effects were estimated by pooling results from individual trials after weighting the results by the inverse of total variance. A dose-response relation between coffee consumption and both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was identified (p < 0.01). Increases in serum lipids were greater in studies of patients with hyperlipidemia and in trials of caffeinated or boiled coffee. Trials using filtered coffee demonstrated very little increase in serum cholesterol. Consumption of unfiltered, but not filtered, coffee increases serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol.
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