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Between Local Innovation and Global Impact: Cities, Networks and the Governance of Climate Change, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 19(3): 288-307

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Global climate governance conducted in settings such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Major Economies Forum, and Group of Twenty (G20) has proven incapable, to date, of generating an effective response. Greenhouse gas emissions have steadily increased since the issue was added to the global agenda in the early 1990s and prospects appear slim for a single, all-encompassing international legal agreement. Outside the formal regime, however, there are signs of dynamism as non-nation state actors engage in a variety of climate governance experiments. Cities, and city-networks such as the C40 Climate Leadership Group, represent important sources of innovation in the broader system of global climate governance: they challenge prevailing norms regarding who should govern climate change, and how coordinated governance responses can be generated. This paper presents a brief history of the C40, and assesses, drawing on ideas from network theory, some of the opportunities and limitations of networked climate governance. Recognizing that cities, and city-networks, exist within a broader multi-level governance context, the paper concludes with some thoughts related to updating Canadian federal climate policy in order to leverage and enable innovative city-network governance initiatives, address gaps in current federal climate policy, and link climate change to other, pressing issues, on the urban agenda.
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... 1 However, as the term was originally applied to climate governance, a shift in meaning occurred and widened the terminology into a broader context. This shift can partly be traced back to the work by Betsill and Bulkeley (2006) which applied an MLG framework by Hooghe and Marks (2001), Hooghe and Marks (2003) to the empir- from both perspectives, as Figure 1 demonstrates (e.g., Jordan et al., 2015;Gillar et al., 2017;Gordon, 2013;Paavola, 2016 For the standardized literature review (see Kivimaa et al., 2015, p. 6), the EBSCO database was searched for the keyword combination "'climate governance' AND 'multi-level governance' OR 'polycentric governance'." Additional criteria were applied to the search results: ...
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... For a discussion of the term decision-making centers seePeters & Pierre, 2016. 3 Other authors also use the term relationships or self-organized relationships(Ostrom, 2010a;Sovacool & van de Graaf, 2018;Amundsen et al., 2010;Gordon, 2013). ...
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