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Global Chemicals Outlook Towards Sound Management of Chemicals

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Chapter I: Trends and Indicators Rachel Massey and Molly Jacobs Chapter II: Economic Implications of Trends in Chemicals Production, Trade and Use Louise A. Gallagher Independent Contribution to Chapter II from a financial and insurance perspectives: Risks to the Financial Sector from Chemicals Dr Andrew Dlugoleck Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals Ken Geiser+ and Sally Edwards The way the world manages chemicals will play a key role in the transition towards an inclusive Green Economy and the realization of a sustainable 21st century. Governments across the globe recognize that chemicals are essential in areas from medicine and agriculture to consumer goods, clean technologies and overcoming poverty yet chemicals and the pollution linked with their manufacture, use, and disposal come at a cost. There is increasing recognition among governments, non-governmental organizations and the public that human health and the environment are being compromised by the current arrangements for managing chemicals and hazardous wastes. These concerns take on a new level of urgency as the quantity and range of new and existing chemicals grow rapidly in developing countries and economies in transition. At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, governments agreed on “using and producing of chemicals in ways that do not lead to signifi cant adverse effects on human health and the environment” and set a deadline of 2020 to achieve this goal. This commitment was reaffi rmed at the Rio+20 Summit in Brazil in 2012. This report, Global Chemicals Outlook, which was compiled by UNEP working with international experts, is designed to inform governments and industry on trends in chemicals production, use and disposal while offering policy advice aimed at meeting the 2020 goal. It focuses particularly on the challenges and opportunities facing developing nations. The report, which also supports the work and actions of the three chemical and hazardous waste conventions— Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm—and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, demonstrates the dramatic growth in the industry, which has seen global output climb from $171 billion in 1970 to over $4.1 trillion today. The shift in production from developed to developing countries is underscored by China, which today is the largest consumer of textile chemicals with 42% of global consumption, and South Africa, where spending on pesticides has grown by close to 60 per cent since the late 1990s. The Global Chemicals Outlook states that of the 5.7 million metric tonnes of pollutants released in North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), close to two million were chemicals that are persistent, able to accumulate in humans and animals and are toxic. The report also deemed toxic a further million tonnes of substances that are linked with or have suspected links with cancer. An important aspect of this new report is the economic analysis that compares the benefi ts of action to the costs of inaction in terms of improved management. 2020 is fast approaching. I am sure that this report can provide some much-needed energy, focus and confi dence that what was agreed in 2002 can be met, thus bringing signifi cant benefi ts for the global population and the environmental services upon which each one of us depends for our lives and livelihoods.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
Trends and
changes
Economic
implications
Policy
responses
Health and
environmental effects
Trends and
changes
Economic
implications
Policy
responses
Health and
environmental effects
Towards Sound Management of Chemicals
Synthesis Report for Decision-Makers
Global Chemicals Outlook
2
Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2012
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from the United Nations Environment Programme.
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ISBN: 978-92-807-3275-7
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Printed by: GPS Publishing
Cover and layout design by: GPS Publishing
3
Glossary
ACC American Chemistry Council
BRIICS Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa
CEFIC European Chemicals Industry Council
DALY Disability Adjusted Life Year
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEF Global Environment Facility
GHG Greenhouse Gas
IOMC Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ILO International Labour Offi ce
IPEN International POPs Elimination Network
MEA Multilateral Environment Agreement
NGO Non Governmental Organization
ODA Overseas Development Assistance
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
PCBs Polychlorinated Biphenyls
POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants
PRTR Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
REACH Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals
SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management
SME Small and Medium-sized Enterprise
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Programme
UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
WHO World Health Organization
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
4
Acknowledgements
This synthesis report for decision-makers describes the main fi ndings and conclusions of the full report: “Global Chemicals Outlook:
Towards Sound Management of Chemicals.” The report was developed by UNEP in collaboration with the WHO. It was also
developed in collaboration with the OECD and other institutions forming the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management
of Chemicals (IOMC) and refl ects the work of the Global Chemicals Outlook Steering Committee composed of representatives of
governments, private sector, civil society and academia.1
The Global Chemicals Outlook synthesis report was coordinated by Kaj Madsen and Pierre Quiblier, Chemicals Branch, UNEP,
under the guidance of Sylvie Lemmet, Director, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, UNEP; Tim Kasten, Head, Chemicals
Branch, UNEP; Per Bakken, UNEP (retired); Fatoumata Keita-Ouane, Head, Assessment Branch, Division of Early Warning and
Assessment (DEWA), UNEP; and Ludgarde Coppens, Programme Offi cer, DEWA, UNEP. This report is the product of a stakeholder
convening process in which Steering Committee members developed framing papers to highlight key questions. Rachel Massey
coordinated the activities of the Steering Committee in this fi rst phase of the project. The editing and the publication were coordinated
by Cyrille-Lazare Siewe, with the administrative guidance of Ardeshir Zamani both from Chemicals Branch, UNEP. UNEP wishes
to thank the Governments of Norway and Sweden for their funding and the following individuals whose efforts made this synthesis
report possible.
1 The Steering Committee met fi ve times over two years. Its mandate was to review the detailed work plan, provide substantive input, and ensure the coherence,
consistency and comprehensiveness of the report.
5
Authors and Co-authors of the Three Chapters:
Chapter I: Trends and Indicators
Rachel Massey* and Molly Jacobs**
* Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts Lowell
** Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell
Chapter II: Economic Implications of Trends in Chemicals Production, Trade and Use
Louise A. Gallagher
Independent consultant for UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE
Contribution to Chapter II from a fi nancial and insurance perspectives: Risks to the Financial Sector from Chemicals
Dr Andrew Dlugolecki
Principal, Andlug Consulting, assisted by Dr Laura Cochran, Deveron Cochran Ltd
Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals
Ken Geiser+ and Sally Edwards++
+ Department of Work Environment and Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell
++ Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell
Participants in the meetings of the Steering Committee
Governments
Ms. Ingela ANDERSSON, Director, Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI).
Mr. Christopher BLUM, Scientifi c Offi cer, German Federal Environment Agency, International Chemicals Management.
Ms. Maria DELVIN, Senior Advisor, Swedish Chemical Agency (KemI).
Mr. Lars DRAKE, Ph.D., Scientifi c Advisor, Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI).
Mr. Idunn EIDHEIM, Director General, Norwegian Ministry of Environment.
Mr. Atle FRETHEIM, Deputy Director General, Norwegian Ministry of the Environment.
Ms. Johanna LISSINGER PEITZ, Policy Assistant, Swedish Ministry of the Environment (KemI).
Ms. Monika LUXEM-FRITSCH, Deputy Head, German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
Ms. Abiola OLANIPEKUN, Assistant Director, Nigerian Federal Ministry of Environment.
Mr. Long RHITIRAK, Deputy Director General, Cambodian Ministry of Environment.
Ms. Sezaneh SEYMOUR, Division Director, U.S. Department of State, Division of Air Pollution and Chemicals.
6
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Mr. Pavan BAICHOO, Technical Offi cer, International Labor Offi ce (ILO).
Mr. Mark DAVIS, Programme Coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Ms. Nathalie DELRUE, Test Guideline Programme, Administrator, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Mr. Sebastian GIL, Delegated Representative, European Commission.
Mr. John HAINES, Ph.D., Senior Special Fellow, United Nations for Training and Research (UNITAR).
Mr. Dadan Wardhana HASANUDDIN, Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Basel Convention, United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP).
Mr. Jonathan KRUEGER, Programme Offi cer, Programmes in Chemicals, Waste and Environmental Governance, United Nations
Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).
Mr. Heinz LEUENBERGER, Director, Energy and Cleaner Production Branch, United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO).
Ms. Katarina MAGULOVA, Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention, United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP).
Mr. Tomas MARQUES, Associate Programme Offi cer, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Business and Industry Unit,
Sustainable Consumption and production Branch, DTIE.
Ms. Helen MCCARTHY, Delegated Representative, European Commission.
Mr. Michihiro OI, Administrator, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Ms. Annette PRUSS-ÜSTUN, Scientist, World Health Organisation (WHO).
Ms. Carolyn VICKERS, Team Leader, Chemical Safety Evidence and Policy on Environmental Health, World Health Organisation
(WHO).
Mr. Ron WITT, GRID Manager, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA)
Global Resource Information Database (GRID), DTIE.
Private Sector
Ms. Birgit ENGELHARDT, Representative to the UN, International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA).
Mr. Arthur FONG, Program Manager, Chemical Management and Senior Scientist, IBM Corporation.
Ms. Véronique GARNY, Director, Product Stewardship, European Chemicals Industry Council (CEFIC).
Mr. Michael GRIBBLE, Scientifi c Offi cer, Science Industries Switzerland (SCGI Chemie Pharma Schweiz), representing ICCA.
Mr. Thomas JACOB, Principal, T.R. Jacobs & Associates, International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) and American Chemistry
Council (ACC).
Ms. Lena PERENIUS, Executive Director, Product Stewardship, International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA).
7
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
Ms. Judith CARRERAS GARCIA, Project Coordinator, Sustainlabour International Labour Foundation for Sustainable Development.
Mr. Joseph DIGANGI, Ph.D., Senior Science and Technical Advisor, International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN).
Mr. David HANHARAN, Ph.D., Director of Global Operations, Blacksmith Institute.
Ms. Lora VERHEECKE, Policy Assistant, International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).
Academia
Mr. Babajide ALO, Ph.D., Director, Centre for Environmental Human Resources Development.
Mr. Ricardo BARRA, Ph.D., University of Concepción.
Mr. Hendrik BOUWMAN, Ph.D., Scientifi c and Technical Advisory Panel of the GEF, School of Environment Sciences and
Development
North-West University.
Mr. Richard CLAPP, Ph.D., Professor, Boston University School of Public Health.
Mr. Leonardo TRASANDE, Ph.D., Faculty Member in Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine and Health Policy, New York University.
Consultants
Mr. Thomas CONWAY, Ph.D., President, Resource Future International.
Mr. Andrew DLUGOLECKI, Ph.D., Principal, Andlug Consulting.
Ms. Louise A. GALLAGHER, PhD., Consultant, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Mr. Kenneth GEISER, Ph.D., Co-director Lowell Center for Sustainable Production and Professor of Work Environment, University of
Massachusetts Lowell.
Ms. Khanam JAUHAN, Consultant, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Ms. Sharon KHAN, Consultant, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme, (UNEP).
Ms. Rachel MASSEY, MPA, MSc, Senior Associate Director and Policy Program Manager, Toxics Use Reduction Institute, University of
Massachusetts Lowell.
Mr. Armand RACINE, Consultant, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
UNEP Secretariat
Mr. Pierre QUIBLIER, Programme Offi cer, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Mr. Kaj MADSEN, Senior Programme Offi cer, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Mr. Cyrille-Lazare SIEWE, Scientifi c Affairs Offi cer, Chemicals Branch, DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
8
Foreword
The way the world manages chemicals will play a key role in the transition towards an inclusive Green Economy and the realization
of a sustainable 21st century.
Governments across the globe recognize that chemicals are essential in areas from medicine and agriculture to consumer goods, clean
technologies and overcoming poverty yet chemicals and the pollution linked with their manufacture, use, and disposal come at a cost.
There is increasing recognition among governments, non-governmental organizations and the public that human health and the
environment are being compromised by the current arrangements for managing chemicals and hazardous wastes.
These concerns take on a new level of urgency as the quantity and range of new and existing chemicals grow rapidly in developing
countries and economies in transition.
At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, governments agreed on “using and producing of chemicals in ways that
do not lead to signifi cant adverse effects on human health and the environment” and set a deadline of 2020 to achieve this goal.
This commitment was reaffi rmed at the Rio+20 Summit in Brazil in 2012.
This report, Global Chemicals Outlook, which was compiled by UNEP working with international experts, is designed to inform
governments and industry on trends in chemicals production, use and disposal while offering policy advice aimed at meeting the
2020 goal. It focuses particularly on the challenges and opportunities facing developing nations.
The report, which also supports the work and actions of the three chemical and hazardous waste conventions— Basel, Rotterdam and
Stockholm—and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, demonstrates the dramatic growth in the industry,
which has seen global output climb from $171 billion in 1970 to over $4.1 trillion today.
The shift in production from developed to developing countries is underscored by China, which today is the largest consumer of
textile chemicals with 42% of global consumption, and South Africa, where spending on pesticides has grown by close to 60 per
cent since the late 1990s.
The Global Chemicals Outlook states that of the 5.7 million metric tonnes of pollutants released in North America (United States,
Canada and Mexico), close to two million were chemicals that are persistent, able to accumulate in humans and animals and are
toxic. The report also deemed toxic a further million tonnes of substances that are linked with or have suspected links with cancer.
An important aspect of this new report is the economic analysis that compares the benefi ts of action to the costs of inaction in terms
of improved management.
2020 is fast approaching. I am sure that this report can provide some much-needed energy, focus and confi dence that what was
agreed in 2002 can be met, thus bringing signifi cant benefi ts for the global population and the environmental services upon which
each one of us depends for our lives and livelihoods.
Achim Steiner
UNEP Executive Director
United Nations Under-Secretary General
9
INTRODUCTION
Chemicals are an integral part of daily life in today’s world. There is hardly any industry where chemicals are not used and there is
no single economic sector where chemicals do not play an important role. Millions of people throughout the world lead richer, more
productive and more comfortable lives because of the thousands of chemicals on the
market today. These chemicals are used in a wide variety of products and processes
and while they are major contributors to national and world economies, their sound
management throughout their lifecycle is essential in order to avoid signifi cant and
increasingly complex risks to human health and ecosystems and substantial costs to
national economies.
Industries which produce and use chemicals have a signifi cant impact on employment,
trade and economic growth worldwide, but chemicals can have adverse effects on
human health and the environment. A variety of global economic and regulatory
forces infl uences changes in chemical production, transport, import and export, use
and disposal over time. In response to the growing demand for chemical-based
products and processes, the international chemical industry has grown dramatically
since the 1970s. Global chemical output (produced and shipped) was valued at
US$171 billion in 1970. By 2010, it had grown to $4.12 trillion.
The OECD’s Environmental Outlook to 2050 notes that while annual global chemical sales doubled over the period 2000 to 2009,
OECD’s share decreased from 77% to 63% and the share of the BRIICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, and South
Africa) increased from 13% to 28%. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the growth of chemical industry output over time, broken out by country
or region.
Many national governments have enacted laws and established institutional structures with a view to managing the hazards
of this growing volume of chemicals. Leading corporations have adopted chemical management programs and there are now many
international conventions and institutions for addressing these chemicals globally. However, the increasing variety and complexity
of chemicals and the ever longer and more intricate chemical supply chains and waste streams exposes serious gaps, lapses and
inconsistencies in government and international policies and corporate practices. Consequently, international concerns are growing
over the capacity to achieve the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation goal that, by 2020, chemicals will be produced and used in
ways that minimize significant adverse effects on the environment and human health.
These concerns are important to all countries, but are particularly salient in industrializing economies that face pressing needs to
achieve development, national security and poverty eradication objectives. One obstacle to integrating the sound management of
chemicals into the broader sustainable development agenda is the tendency to address and consider chemicals on a case-by-case
basis separate from the economic development agenda. To protect human health and the environment and to fully benefit from the
value that chemicals can yield, all countries must include in their economic and social development priorities the means to manage
chemicals soundly.
The exact number of chemicals on
the global market is not known but
under the pre-registration requirement
of the European Union’s chemicals
regulation, REACH, 143,835 chemical
substances have been pre-registered.
This is a reasonable guide to the
approximate number of chemicals in
commerce globally.
10
This synthesis report for decision-makers highlights the main findings and conclusions of the full report: Global Chemicals
Outlook: Towards Sound Management of Chemicals. The Global Chemicals Outlook report assembles scientific, technical and
socio-economic information on the sound management of chemicals. It is targeted to decision makers in order to build capacity and
to implement policy change to protect the environment and human health. As such, the Global Chemicals Outlook covers three broad
inter-linked areas building upon the findings of existing and concurrent studies:
1. Trends and indicators for chemical production, transport, use and disposal, and associated health and environment impacts;
2. Economic implications of these trends including costs of inaction and the benefits of action; and
3. Instruments and approaches for sound management of chemicals, including promotion of safer alternatives and guidance
to accelerate the achievement of SAICM goals by 2020.
Figure 1. Chemical Industry Output: Developed Regions*
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Output (Billions USD)
Figure 1: Chemical Industry Output:
Developing Regions*
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Output (Billions USD)
Figure 2: Chemical Industry Output:
Developing Regions* & Countries with Economies in Transition
Japan, Korea, Australia
Western Europe
North America
1
970
1
980
1
990
1
998
2
000
2
010
2020 (ES
T
.
)
Year
Central & Eastern Europe
Africa & Middle East
Central & South America
Other Asia
India
China
1
970
1
980
1
990
1
998
2
000
2
010
2020 (ES
T
.
)
Year
Figure 2. Chemical Industry Output: Developing Regions* & Countries with Economies in Transition
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Output (Billions USD)
Figure 1: Chemical Industry Output:
Developing Regions*
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Output (Billions USD)
Figure 2: Chemical Industry Output:
Developing Regions* & Countries with Economies in Transition
Japan, Korea, Australia
Western Europe
North America
1
970
1
980
1
990
1
998
2
000
2
010
2020 (ES
T
.
)
Year
Central & Eastern Europe
Africa & Middle East
Central & South America
Other Asia
India
China
1
970
1
980
1
990
1
998
2
000
2
010
2020 (ES
T
.
)
Year
*As categorized by UN Statistics Division, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm, accessed 24 November, 2011, with the exception of the
Republic of Korea. 1970-1990 Source: U.S. Chemical Manufacturers Association (1998). U.S. Chemical industry Statistical Handbook. Chemical Manufacturers
Association, Inc. 2000-2010 Source: American Chemistry Council (2011). “Global Business of Chemistry: Global Chemical Shipments by Country/Region (billions
of dollars).” Retrieved from: http://www.americanchemistry.com/Jobs/EconomicStatistics/Industry-Profi le/Global-Business-of-Chemistry. Accessed: 11 August, 2011.
2020 Estimation Source: American Chemistry Council, Mid-Year 2011 Situation & Outlook, June 2011.
11
sackhom38-Free DigitalPhotos.net
13
I - GLOBAL PRODUCTION, TRADE, USE AND DISPOSAL OF CHEMICALS
AND THEIR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: AN INCREASING
CHEMICAL INTENSIFICATION2 OF THE ECONOMY
Both the continuous growth trends and the changes in global production, trade and use of chemicals point toward an increasing
chemical intensifi cation of the economy. This trend affects all countries but will particularly exert an added chemicals management
requirement on developing countries and countries with economies in transition that often have limited capacities to deal with such
complex challenges.
This chemical intensifi cation of the economy derives largely from three factors: 1) the increased volume and a shift of production and
use from highly industrialized countries to developing countries and countries in economic transition; 2) the penetration of chemical
intensive products into national economies through globalization of sales and use; 3) the increased chemical emissions resulting from
major economic development sectors.
1) Increased volume of chemical production and imports and shift of chemical production and use from
highly industrialized to developing countries
Studies, projecting trends to 2050, forecast that global chemical sales will grow about 3% per year to 2050. However as chemical
production, trade, use and disposal continue to expand worldwide, this expansion is not evenly distributed geographically. Chemical
manufacturing and processing activities, once largely located in the highly industrialized countries, are now steadily expanding
into developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Chemical use in developing countries is infl uenced both by
countries’ needs for additional production domestically, and by production related to trade. Factors infl uencing the location of growth
of chemical use in manufacturing include proximity to raw materials, proximity to fi nal markets and a suite of other factors. The
worldwide expansion of the chemicals industry has been driven in large part by the emergence of multinational chemical companies
as OECD-based companies invested in production facilities in non-OECD countries.
2 Chemical intensification of economy is used in this report as an analytical framework to better capture the trends and changes in the volume of chemicals
produced, used and disposed throughout their lifecycle and the penetration of chemical intensive products into national economies.
Chemical intensifi cation includes:
1. Products of the chemical industry that are increasingly replacing natural materials in both industrial and commercial products. Thus, petrochemical
lubricants, coatings, adhesives, inks, dyes, creams, gels, soaps, detergents, fragrances and plastics are replacing conventional plant, animal and
ceramic based products.
2. Industries and research institutions which are increasingly developing sophisticated and novel nanoscale chemicals and synthetic halogenated
compounds that are creating new functions such as durable, non-stick, stain resistant, fire retardant, water-resistant, non-corrosive surfaces, and metallic,
conductive compounds that are central to integrated circuits used in cars, cell phones, and computers.
Chemical intensification is not just a measure of the chemical production and use but reflects changes in functions of chemicals and the importance of
chemicals in all aspects of economic development. It also incorporates the increased complexity of chemicals themselves and the ever lengthening
and more intricate chemical supply chain. The potential for negative effects on environment and human health of the chemical intensification of
the economy if unregulated shows the importance of advancing the sound management of chemicals now. The concept of chemical intensification,
possible indicators and ways to measure it, is still under development.
14
Table 1. Chemical Production: Predicted Growth, 2012-2020
Percent change, 2012-2020
North America 25%
United States 25%
Canada 27%
Mexico 28%
Latin America 33%
Brazil 35%
Other 31%
Western Europe 24%
Emerging Europe 35%
Russia 34%
Other 36%
Africa & Middle East 40%
Asia-Pacifi c 46%
Japan 22%
China 66%
India 59%
Australia 23%
Korea 35%
Singapore 35%
Other 44%
Source: Percentages calculated based on projections for the regions and for selected countries by Swift, Thomas Kevin et al., (June 2011).
“Mid-Year 2011 Situation & Outlook,» American Chemistry Council.
OECD member countries as a group still account for the bulk of world chemical production, but developing countries and countries with
economies in transition are increasingly signifi cant. Over the last decade, chemical production in the BRICS countries has far exceeded
the growth rates of the OECD countries (Figures 1 and 2). For example, from 2000 to 2010, chemical production in China and India
grew at an average annual rate of 24% and 14%, respectively, whereas the growth rate in the United States, Japan and Germany was
between 5 and 8%.
In 2001, the OECD issued projections that by 2020, developing countries would be home to 31% of global chemical production, and
33% of global chemical consumption. Recent forecasts from the American Chemistry Council (ACC) also predict signifi cant growth in
chemical production in developing countries in the period to 2021 and more modest growth in developed countries (Table 1).
15
During just the fi rst quarter of 2010, worldwide
shipments of personal computers were estimated to total
84.3 million units, an increase of 27% from the fi rst
quarter in 2009.
Worldwide sales of mobile phones were estimated to
total 314.7 million units in the fi rst quarter of 2010, a
17% increase from the same period in 2009.
2) Penetration of chemical intensive products into national economies
Many countries are primarily importers of chemicals and are not signifi cant producers. Agricultural chemicals and pesticides used in
farming were among the fi rst synthetic chemicals to be actively exported to developing countries.
Today, as consumption of a wide range of products increases over time, these products themselves become a signifi cant vehicle
increasing the presence of chemicals in developing and transition economies (Table 2). These include liquid chemical personal
care products for sale directly to consumers; paints, adhesives and lubricants; as well as chemically complex articles ranging from
textiles and electronics, to building materials and toys. Emissions from products pose different management challenges from those
associated with manufacturing, as they are diffused throughout the economy, rather than being concentrated at manufacturing
facilities.
Increasingly, articles are important vehicles of the global transport of chemicals with potentially signifi cant impacts at every stage of
the product life cycle. For example, trade in articles has been identifi ed as a signifi cant driver of global transport of lead, cadmium,
mercury and brominated fl ame retardants. In some instances, the most signifi cant human and environmental exposures occur through
product use and disposal, and are added to those occurring during manufacturing.
It is often the case that electrical and electronic equipment, which contain hazardous or toxic substances, are purchased in developed
countries before being disposed of or recycled in unsafe and unprotected conditions in developing or countries with economies in
transition. Products such as cell phones and laptops are being purchased and used in regions of the world recently thought to be too
remote. Increasing consumer demand for electrical/electronic goods and materials, along with rapid technology change and the
high obsolescence rate of these items have led to the increasing
generation of large quantities of obsolete and near end of life
electronic products. These trends contribute to global electronic
waste generation estimated at 40 million tons per year. These
trends are expected to rise with the increased use and disposal
of electronic products by developing countries and countries with
economies in transition.
16
Table 2. Examples of Toxic Substances in Articles
Article Chemical & health effects Pathways of Exposure
Automobiles
Automotive switches Mercury. Effects include neurotoxicity, including
developmental neurotoxicity (methyl mercury) as well as
organ damage.
Mercury can be released when automobiles with mercury-containing
switches are crushed or shredded. Elemental mercury can be
transformed into methylmercury, which is bioaccumulative. Humans
can be exposed through consumption of contaminated fi sh and other
routes.
Tires Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); 1,3-butadiene.
Effects include the following: some PAHs are carcinogenic,
and 1,3-butadiene is a known human carcinogen.
Highly aromatic oils containing PAHs are used to make the rubber
polymer easier to work and to make the tire tread soft. Rubber particles
containing PAHs can wear off tires over time, dispersing PAHs into the
environment.
Wheel weights Lead. Effects include neurotoxicity, including developmental
neurotoxicity; high blood pressure; organ damage.
Lead wheel balancing weights fall off car wheels, then are run over by
other cars and dispersed into the environment.
Electronic Products
Electronic products Lead, mercury, cadmium, brominated fl ame retardants.
Effects of cadmium include carcinogenicity; possible damage
to fertility; possible fetal damage; organ damage. Effects of
brominated fl ame retardants include neurotoxicity; thyroid
disorders. Effects of lead and mercury are listed above.
Heavy metals and brominated fl ame retardants are released during
disposal or recycling of electronic wastes. Developing countries and
countries with economies in transition bear a particularly large burden
from unsafe disposal and recycling of these articles.
Batteries Lead. Effects of lead are listed above. The major use for lead globally is in lead-acid batteries. In many countries,
recycling of batteries/car batteries is a common source of human and
environmental exposure to lead.
Children’s products
Toys Lead, cadmium, phthalates. Effects of some phthalates
include endocrine disruption, effects on fertility, and possible
effects on sexual development. Some phthalates are possible
carcinogens. Effects of lead and cadmium are listed above.
Toys and children’s jewelry can contain lead in the form of lead paint
and metal clasps, chains or charms. Lead is also used as a stabilizer
in some toys and other children’s items made from PVC plastics. Lead
can leach out of these products during use.
Phthalates are used as plasticizers (i.e., chemical agents that make
plastics soft and fl exible) in toys made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastics. These substances leach out of toys during use.
Adapted from: Massey, R., Becker, M., Hutchins, J. (2008). Toxic Substances in Articles: The Need for Information. Swedish Chemicals Agency.
17
3) Increased chemical emissions resulting from major economic development sectors
Individual industries that are users of chemicals
or that emit signifi cant amounts of chemicals as
unintentional by-products also contribute to the
chemical intensifi cation of national economies.
As developing countries and those in economic
transition increase their economic production,
related chemical releases have raised concerns
over adverse human and environmental effects.
Chemical contamination and waste associated with
industrial sectors of importance in developing countries include
pesticides from agricultural runoff; heavy metals associated with
cement production; dioxin associated with electronics recycling;
mercury and other heavy metals associated with mining
and coal combustion; butyl tins, heavy metals, and asbestos
released during ship breaking; heavy metals associated with
tanneries; mutagenic dyes, heavy metals and other pollutants
associated with textile production; and toxic metals, solvents,
polymers, and fl ame retardants used in electronics manufacturing.
An added concern includes the direct exposure resulting from the
long range transport of many chemicals through environmental
media that deliver chemical pollutants which originate from
sources thousands of kilometres away.
Economic forecasts in these sectors suggest that emissions will
continue to increase. In many developing countries, agriculture
is the largest economic sector, and
accounts for the most signifi cant
releases of chemicals in the economy.
Agricultural chemicals, including
fertilizers and pesticides, are among
some of the largest volume uses
of chemicals worldwide. World
consumption of fertilizers is estimated
to grow 2.6% per year in the period
2010 to 2014. While over 500 different chemicals are used
in electronics manufacture, electronic production has grown
globally and is expected to continue to grow with an increasing
percentage in developing countries and those with economies
in transition. China is the largest consumer of textile chemicals
with 42% of global consumption, and its consumption of textile
chemicals - along with other Asian countries (excluding Japan) -
is expected to increase 5% per year over the period 2010 to
2015. Global consumption of cement is anticipated to increase
4% per year to 3.5 billion metric tons in 2013. Sixty-nine percent
of world cement consumption in 2013 is predicted to be in China
and India. Africa and the Middle East are predicted to be the
next largest consumers, accounting for 12% of global demand in
2013.
Total pesticide expenditures
in South Africa rose 59%
over the period 1999 to
2009, and are projected
to rise another 55% in the
period 2009 to 2019.
c.siewe/d.sidibe
c.siewe/d.sidibe
19
The release of chemicals continues to affect all aspects of natural
resources including the atmosphere, water, soil and wildlife.
Chemicals released to the air can act as air pollutants as well
as greenhouse gases and ozone depleters and contribute to
acid rain formation. Chemicals can contaminate water resources
through direct discharges to bodies of water, or via deposition
of air contaminants to water. This contamination can have
adverse effects on aquatic organisms, including fi sh, and on the
availability of water resources for drinking, bathing, and other
activities.
It is common for soil pollution to be a direct result of atmospheric
deposition, dumping of waste, spills from industrial or waste
facilities, mining activities, contaminated water, or pesticides.
Soil contamination impacts include loss of agricultural
productivity, contamination of food crops grown on polluted
soil, adverse effects on soil microorganisms, and human
exposure either through food or through direct exposure to
contaminated soil or dust.
Persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals are found as
widespread contaminants in wildlife, especially those that
are high in the food chain. Some of these chemicals cause
cancers, immune system dysfunction, and reproductive disorders
in wildlife. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are
among the chemicals that have been documented at high levels
in wildlife. As measures have been taken to reduce the presence
of these contaminants in the environment, others have taken their
place. For example, while levels of dioxins and PCBs in wildlife
have gradually decreased in most areas, levels of brominated
ame retardants and perfl uorinated compounds have increased.
Some halogenated organic compounds have been identifi ed
as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm
Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The fi rst chemicals
listed as POPs under the Stockholm Convention were aldrin,
chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene,
mirex, toxaphene, PCBs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-
p-furans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF).
Additional chemicals were added to the list more recently:
alphahexachlorocyclohexane; beta hexachlorocyclohexane;
chlordecone; technical endosulfan and its related isomers;
hexabromobiphenyl; hexabromodiphenyl ether and
heptabromodiphenyl ether (commercial octabromodiphenyl
ether); lindane; pentachlorobenzene; perfl uorooctane sulfonic
acid, its salts and perfl uorooctane sulfonyl fl uoride; and
tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether
(commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether).
Environmental effects of the chemical intensifi cation of the national
economies are furthermore compounded by the trans-boundary
movement of chemicals through the air or water. In some
countries this occurs because they lie downriver or downwind
from the polluting industries of neighbouring countries. In other
countries, the runoff of pesticides and fertilizers from agricultural
elds or the use of chemicals in mining in neighbouring countries,
may leach into ground water, or run into estuaries shared across
national boundaries. Throughout the globe, atmospheric air
currents deliver chemical pollutants which originate from sources
some thousands of kilometres away.
Whilst each chemical-intensifi cation factor contributes to a small
share of the environmental burden of each country and nation
Of the 5.7 million metric tons of pollutants released
or disposed of in North America in 2006, 1.8 million
metric tons were of chemicals considered persistent,
bioaccumulative or toxic, 970,000 metric tons were
known or suspected carcinogens and 857,000
metric tons were of chemicals that are considered
reproductive or developmental toxicants.
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES:
AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX CHALLENGE
20
CHEMICAL IMPACTS ON FISHERIES
Fisheries, an important source of protein and of economic value for populations around the world, can be severely affected by
chemicals. Persistent organic pollutants can accumulate in fi sh, especially those high in the food chain. As a result, the value of
this otherwise excellent protein source is diminished or lost completely.
Industrial and agricultural run-off can lead to large-scale fi sh kills, and lower-level chemical contamination of water bodies can
decimate fi sh populations over time. Chemical contamination is also associated with disease in fi sh populations, including
cancers and increased vulnerability to infectious agents.
state, when combined, these together can form an increasingly
signifi cant and complex overall mix of chemicals not present fi fty
years ago. As this chemical intensity increases, the prospects
for widespread and multifaceted exposures of humans and the
environment to chemicals of high and unknown concern also
arise.
Of the tens of thousands of chemicals on the market, only a
fraction has been thoroughly evaluated to determine their effects
on human health and the environment. Even as progress is being
made to develop better information on the effects of chemicals,
for example through data submission under the European Union’s
REACH programme, United States Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA), Canada’s Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) and the
Japanese Chemical Substances Control Law, this data remains
limited to individual chemicals. Real-life exposures are rarely
limited to a single chemical and very little information is available
on the health and environmental effects of chemical mixtures.
Nevertheless, many of these chemicals in widespread use have
been associated with well-established risks to human health
and the environment. Exposure to toxic chemicals can cause or
contribute to a broad range of health outcomes. These include
eye, skin, and respiratory irritation; damage to organs such as the
brain, lungs, liver or kidneys; damage to the immune, respiratory,
cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive or endocrine systems; and
birth defects and chronic diseases, such as cancer, asthma, or
diabetes. The vulnerability and effects of exposure are much
greater for children, pregnant women and other vulnerable groups.
Workers in industries using chemicals are especially vulnerable
through exposure to toxic chemicals and related health effects.
These include an increased cancer rate in workers in electronics
facilities; high blood lead levels among workers at lead-acid battery
manufacturing and recycling plants; fl ame retardant exposures
among workers in electronic waste recycling; mercury poisoning
in small-scale gold miners; asbestosis among workers employed
in asbestos mining and milling; and acute and chronic pesticide
poisoning among workers in agriculture in many countries.
Toxicological research has also revealed that for a range of
chemicals, very low levels of exposure can infl uence disease
risk and that both dose and timing of exposure are important.
For example, human exposure to certain chemical toxicants at
low levels during periods of rapid growth and cell differentiation
(e.g., foetal life through puberty) can be important factors that
infl uence disease risk. Individuals living in poverty are particularly
vulnerable, both because their exposures may be particularly
high, and because poor nutrition and other risk factors can
increase susceptibility to the effects of toxic exposures. Due to
their size, children’s responses to small doses of toxic chemicals
are disproportionately large compared to adults. Because their
metabolic pathways are immature, children are also slower to
detoxify and excrete many environmental chemicals and thus
toxins may remain active in their bodies for longer periods of
time (table 3). Research has also made clear that the elderly
are among those particularly susceptible to health effects from a
range of chemical contaminants.
21
Table 3. Studies of Reproductive & Developmental Health Effects Associated with Chemicals: Examples from Developing & Countries in
Economic Transition
Conception, pregnancy and foetal and child development are complex processes that research has shown can be adversely affected by industrial chemicals.
This table provides a sampling of a few examples from developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
Health Outcome Country Example
Reproductive
effects China Reduced sperm concentration was signifi cantly associated with the urine phthalate metabolite, monomethyl phthalate among
a cohort of Chinese men from Chongqing exposed to phthalates in the general environment.
China In rural China, elevated placental concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants, including o,p’-DDT and metabolites,
-HCH, and PAHs were associated with increased risks of neural tube defects. Strong associations were observed for expo-
sure to PAHs—placental concentrations above the median were associated with a 4.5 fold increased risk for any neural
tube defect.
Sudan In central Sudan, hospital-and community-based case control studies revealed a consistent and signifi cant two-fold elevated risk
of perinatal mortality associated with pesticide exposure. The risk was over three-fold among women engaged in farming.
Developmental
Disorders Mexico A group of children exposed to high levels of pesticides in an agricultural area showed neurodevelopmental defi cits (dimin-
ished short-term memory, hand-eye coordination, and drawing ability) compared with children living in otherwise similar
communities but with low or no pesticide exposure.
Ecuador Ecuadorean school children whose mothers were exposed to organophosphates and other pesticides during pregnancy demon-
strated visuospatial defi cits compared with their unexposed peers.
Ecuador Families living in La Victoria are involved in producing ceramic roof tiles or ceramic objects glazed with lead salts made
from melting batteries. Children as young as 6 years of age are engaged in the trade. A small study found very high blood
levels in children aged 6-15 years (23 µg/dl to 124 µg/dl, with a mean of 70 µg/dl). Half of the children had repeated
one or more years of school.
Note: There is a vast literature on all these health endpoints. Much of the evidence comes from developed countries. For a recent review of the literature see:
Stillerman, K.P., Mattison, D.R., Giudice, L.C., et al., (2008). Environmental exposures and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review of the science. Reproductive
Sciences.15, 631-650.
Research undertaken recently in developed countries has indeed
led to some detailed information concerning the presence of
industrial chemicals in the human body. Less research of this kind
has been conducted in developing countries, but it is reasonable
to conclude that to the extent that people are exposed to the
same chemicals, the results will be similar. A 2009 study by the
United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) found that of
212 chemicals studied, all were detected in some portion of
the US population. Findings from the report indicate widespread
exposure to some industrial chemicals; 90 to 100%” of samples
assessed had detectable levels of toxic substances including
perchlorate, mercury, bisphenol-A, acrylamide, multiple
perfl uorinated chemicals, and the fl ame retardant polybrominated
diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47).
22
Despite ubiquitous exposure to chemicals in both developed
and developing nations, little is known about the total disease
burden attributable to chemicals. In 2011, the World Health
Organization (WHO) reported that globally, 4.9 million deaths
(8.3% of total) and 86 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
(5.7% of total) were attributable to environmental exposure and
management of selected chemicals in 2004 for which data were
available. This fi gure includes indoor smoke from solid fuel use,
outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke, with 2.0, 1.2 and
0.6 million deaths/year. These are followed by occupational
particulates, chemicals involved in acute poisonings, and
pesticides involved in self-poisonings, with 375,000, 240,000
and 186,000 deaths/year respectively.
Estimates for selected chemicals (including pesticides) involved
in unintentional acute and occupational poisonings, a limited
number of occupational carcinogens and particulates and lead,
correspond to a total of 964,000 deaths and 20,986,153
DALYs, corresponding to 1.6% of the total deaths and 1.4% of
the total burden of disease worldwide.
To compare, among the global top ten leading causes of death
in 2004, HIV/AIDS caused 2 million deaths, tuberculosis caused
1.5 million deaths, road traffi c accidents caused 1.27 million
deaths, and malaria caused 0.9 million deaths (WHO, 2008).
This global estimate is an underestimate of the real burden
attributable to chemicals. Only a small number of chemicals
were included in the WHO analysis due to limitations in data
availability. Critical chemicals not incorporated in the analysis
due to data gaps include mercury, dioxins, organic chlorinated
solvents, PCBs, and chronic pesticide exposures as well as health
impacts from exposure to local toxic waste sites.
22
23
Matt_Roe
25
II - ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS: UNRECOGNIZED
AND SUBSTANTIAL COSTS AND BENEFITS
The fi nancial cost of chemical exposure on national economies
and the public are often unrecognized and substantial. Efforts to
overcome the challenging task of quantifi cation indicate that risks
associated with a poorly resourced, fragmented and ineffective
approach to policy are considerable.
Debates about resource allocations have frequently posited a
trade-off between the economic gains associated with industrial
development, on the one hand, and the costs imposed by
regulation on the other. What is lost in this formulation is recognition
that sound chemicals management can yield signifi cant benefi ts
in terms of economic development, poverty reduction, human
health and environmental quality. Conversely, the absence of
sound chemicals management can impose large economic
costs. Preventive approaches to chemical risk management can
also create additional benefi ts beyond ‘avoided costs’ in the
form of improved production and resource effi ciencies, trade and
investment, innovation and employment impacts.
Many countries have the fundamentals of law to manage
chemicals; but the implementation is poorly resourced and often
fragmented and ineffective. Moreover, weak chemical regulation
in developing countries and countries with economies in transition
occurs while greater expansion of chemical production and/or
use is taking place. Many chemical risks of concern in developing
countries exist in developed countries though most are managed
more effectively due to greater regulatory infrastructure, fi nancial
resources, and techniques learned over time. What is needed
is to facilitate the exchange of experience and lessons learned
in managing chemical risks between countries. As such, policy
responses to keep up with the pace of economic development
and related trends in chemical production, transport, import,
export, consumption and disposal require further investment in
policy development and implementation; and transfer of relevant
management experience.
Financial costs to the chemicals and related industries: Higher insurance costs, loss of productivity,
reputation impacts
A report from the United Nations Environment Programme,
Risks to the Financial Sector from Chemicals, 2012; explores
the way in which the fi nancial sector (insurance, banking and
asset management) interacts with the chemical sector. The
study concludes that poor management of chemicals across
lifecycles contributes to ineffi ciencies in the chemicals industry,
with increased risks leading to higher insurance costs, loss of
productivity and signifi cant reputation impacts. It also stresses
the following implications related to the chemical intensifi cation
of developing countries economies. With no progress in policies
and regulations, fi nancial risks may increase even further:
a) The scope for unintended incidents is growing rapidly (fi gure
3); this is compounded by the introduction of numerous
novel compounds, e.g., nano-scaled and genetically
synthesized chemicals which may, by themselves, or in
combination with others, generate new risks. While it is
not possible to give an economic estimate of the global
chemical risks to the fi nance sector, the costs incurred
in a few specifi c cases demonstrate that they can be
signifi cant. Examples include asbestos (over $100
billion globally), contaminated dry wall ($25 billion), the
Bhopal disaster ($3.5 billion), RC2 toys ($500 million).
26
Figure 3. Growing incidence of environmental accidents as reported to the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP)
of the People’s Republic of China (2002-2009)
0
20
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Total number of unexpected environmental
incidents reported to the MEP
Other (or human) factors - 10%
Natural disasters - 13%
Industrial pollution - 17%
Traffic accidents - 18%
Production safety incidents
(including chemicals
production) - 42%
Year
Note: Generated based on data contained in two presentations by Professor Zhao Jinsong, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University Research Center of
Accident Prevention and Emergency in Chemical Process i) “Analysis on Hazard and Operability”, UNEP SCP APELL Workshop 26-27 April, 2010, Zhangjiagang. The
Offi ce of Emergency Command Leading Group at the Ministry of Environmental Protection compiled the underlying data in 2008 and 2009. The percentages relate to
data for 2008 that was used as the baseline for all years; and ii) “Process Safety and HAZOP” UNEP’s Global APELL 25th Anniversary Forum held in Beijing, China on
14-18 November 2011.
Three examples of the cost of industrial accidents in the EU and US
Pasadena, Texas October 1989. A series of explosions at the Phillips Houston Chemical Complex (HCC) killed 23 and
injured 314 others. It cost an estimated US$1,5 million in 1996 US dollar terms. A large portion of these costs are attributed
to additional business disruption.
• Toulouse, France 21 September 2001. An explosion of ammonium nitrate causing 30 fatalities and an estimated 10,000
injuries. Estimated damage costs of approximately 1.5 billion (US$1.8 billion in 2011 terms).
• Buncefi eld, United Kingdom December 2005. The Buncefi eld oil storage depot incident was the biggest explosion and re in
peace-time Europe. 200 people required immediate medical attention and 3,408 litigants subsequently demanding damages.
The total cost of the incident was estimated at £1 billion (US$1.5 billion in 2011 dollar terms). A four month trial concluded in July
2010, with fi ve companies being found guilty and ordered to pay a total of £9.5 million (US$14.6 million) in fi nes and costs.
Note: Fewtrell and Hirst (1998)
Note: http://www.grida.no/publications/et/ep3/page/2607.aspx
Note: British Government website on the Buncefi eld disaster: http://www.buncefi eldinvestigation.gov.uk/index.htm; Hiles (2010)
27
b) Disastrous incidents make the headlines, but the true
costs of chemical mismanagement are dispersed and
hidden throughout the population and over time. Such
costs are typically carried by a nation’s social welfare
system and individuals.
c) The chemical intensifi cation of
developing country economies has
the potential to make this situation
worse. The supply chain is now
longer and therefore harder to
manage; products are more likely
to fail to meet standards, and
recourse from those parties originally
responsible for failure is more
diffi cult to obtain, thus necessitating
remediation from those who are
‘downstream’, or from public bodies
in the end-markets. Producers or
importers/exporters may be held
legally liable for harm caused
by poor quality products and
services, but in many cases it is their
reputation value amongst consumers
and investors that is at stake.
d) The insurance sector has been working with the
public sector to develop ‘safety nets’ in the sphere
of fi nancial support for large segments of society,
through innovative products and services for health
care, income replacement, and death-related
compensations, but so far these are not seen
as part of the solution for handling externalities
due to chemical mismanagement. In terms of
direct risk transfer, insurers are cautious about
involvement with ill-defi ned risks with potential
for major costs. However, shares in chemical
companies are a signifi cant element of global
stock markets, and therefore movements in
their value are of major concern to institutional
investors. Further, it is becoming clear that
chemical risks affect a much broader range of
companies than simply the chemical sector. In
recent years, there have been approaches by
socially responsible investments (SRI) actors in
alliance with NGOs, to policymakers seeking
to create a more comprehensive regulatory
framework for chemicals of high concern.
COSTS OF ACCIDENTS
US$ 19 million reported
profi t made by Trafi gura
for the 2006 ship leased
“Probo Koala” with
a shipment of coker
gasoline. Total costs
paid out by Trafi gura
to date for waste
dumping incident equal
approximately
US$ 250 million.
US$ 600 million to date:
treatment of contaminated
sludge from the Minamata
mercury pollution incident;
Over 47,600 people
likely to be compensated
in the legal process.
28
Figure 4. Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) risk profi les for quoted companies
Furniture
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Medium Risk
Low Risk
High
Risk
Source: MSCI ESG Research, ChemSec’s SIN List 2.0 (May 2011 )
Batteries
Watches, Clocks
Wood
Metals
Electronics
Personal Care
Construction
Leather products
Sporting goods, gear, accessories
Transportation
Paints & pigments
Home/office articles
Textile and clothing
Plastics & rubber (incl. toys)
Household Chemicals
# of potential SVHCs in each product category
Insurance and environmental liability benefi ts of improved environmental management
The steadily rising cost and impact of environmental risk liability are related to several factors, including past operational
activities, current operational activities, business transactions, and fi nancial and reporting obligations. Many private companies
and public agencies have found that a sound environmental/chemical management system, such as ISO 14000, is an effective
tool for managing their environmental liabilities. Although the primary purpose for the adoption of environmental/chemical
management systems is improving environmental performance, insurance companies such as Swiss Re note that such practices
can result in substantial economic benefi ts in terms of insurance. These insurance benefi ts include the securing of insurability
(ability to acquire insurance coverage), lower deductibles, higher limits insured, broader coverage, and more favorable premium
rates. For example, following the development and implementation of a pilot environmental management system program, the
Port of Houston Authority benefi ted from a 20% reduction in insurance cost.
Source: Swiss Re. (1998). Environmental management systems and environmental impairment liability insurance. http://www.swissre.com/resources/
c63dd180455c7cfeb76cbf80a45d76a0-environmental_eng.Paras.0006.File.pdf.; Kruse, C.J. (2005). Environmental management systems at ports – a new initiative. In
Proceedings of the 14th Biennial Coastal Zone Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, Jul 17-21, 2005.
29
The UNEP Cost of Inaction Report (2012) gathered and
examined available primary data containing relevant monetized
or quantifi ed external cost information related to chemical
mismanagement. The vast majority of human health costs linked
to chemical production, consumption and disposal are not
borne by chemical producers, or shared down the value-chain.
Uncompensated harm to human health and the environment are
market failures that need correction. The study indicates that
these ‘spillover’ costs of inaction on chemicals policies are large
and draws the following conclusions:
US$ 236.3 billion: global
environmental external costs
from ‘global human activity’
producing VOCs;
US$ 22 billion: global
environmental external costs
from mercury emissions.
US$ 90 billion:
Projected total costs of
illness and injury for
pesticides users in the
sub-Saharan African
region from 2015 to
2020.
a) Poor management of chemicals
across their lifecycles comes with
a price paid for by individuals,
important economic sectors and
public budgets, including through
poor health and degraded
ecosystem health and productivity.
For example, one study suggests
that the major economic and
environmental losses due to the use
of pesticides in the United States
amounted to USD $1.5 billion
in pesticides resistance and USD
$1.4 billion in crop losses, and
USD $2.2 billion in bird losses,
amongst other costs. Another
study in China cites the effect of
acute water pollution incidents on
commercial fi sheries which has
been estimated at approximately USD $634 million (4
billion Yuan) for one year.
b) Health care in many
low- and middle-income
countries is hospital-centered
and focused on patients who
have reached the point of
acute stress or have long-term
complications. Given the rising
chemical intensity in these
countries and the epidemic of
chronic diseases, especially
in children, that emerged
contemporaneously
with increasing use
of chemicals in the
developed countries,
this is liable to be an
increasingly expensive
approach to public health administration in the future.
New evidence on health costs from pesticides in sub-
Saharan Africa gives an indication of just how large.
UNEP Cost of Inaction Report (2012) used available
data to make a conservative estimate for pesticide users on
smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa. It reveals that the costs
of injury (lost work days, outpatient medical treatment, and
inpatient hospitalization) from pesticide poisonings, in this
region alone, amounted to USD $4.4 billion in 2005. This
is an underestimate as it
does not include the costs
of lost livelihoods and
lives, environmental health
effects, and effects of
other chemicals. In 2009,
Overseas Development
Assistance (ODA) to health
in sub-Saharan Africa
amounted to USD $10.3
billion. Excluding HIV/
AIDS, total assistance
to basic health services
approximated USD $4.8
billion.
US$2.1billion:
Disability-Adjusted
Life Years (DALYs)
costs of children’s
exposures to lead
in Africa, Latin
America and South
East Asia;
US$108 billion: IQ-
based lost economic
productivity due
to childhood lead
exposures in the
same regions.
External implications and cost of inaction for human health and environment: large with heavy burden
on individual and public budgets
A conservative projection
of the 2005 estimate to
2009 shows costs of
injury due to pesticide
poisoning in sub-Saharan
Africa to be USD $6.2
billion. This suggests that
the total ODA to general
healthcare is exceeded by
costs of inaction related
to current pesticide use
alone.
30
c) The costs of public environmental management are set to rise in the developing and emerging economies experiencing the most
rapid increase in chemical intensifi cation. For example, the Africa Stockpiles Programme calculates that to clean up the 50,000
tonnes of obsolete pesticides in Africa will cost around US $150-170 million. At the same time, production underpinned by
ecosystem services – typically key in these types of economies – is likely to be undermined if the transition to increased chemical
production, transport, importation, exportation, consumption and disposal is not well managed.
This ‘costs of inaction’ data demonstrates a broad pattern of costs
that can be avoided through improved chemical management
efforts. In addition, sound management of chemicals will benefi t
countries and regions beyond cost savings alone. UNEP’s Green
Economy Report (2011), makes the economic and social case
for investing just 2% of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP),
or around USD $1.3 trillion, in greening ten central economic
sectors resulting in “improved human well-being and social
equity, while signifi cantly reducing environmental risks and
ecological scarcities”.
The production, transport, import, export, consumption and
disposal of chemicals are important factors in six of the ten
central economic sectors - agriculture, water, energy (effi ciency
and supply), fi sheries, waste, and industry. The chemical sector
contributes to economic development mainly through the value
of products and products containing chemicals (technological
contribution) and direct employment. Sound management
principles and action help to maximize this contribution, paving
the way for a green economy to emerge.
Examining the potential effect of sound management of chemicals
on national development the UNEP Cost of Inaction Report
(2012) concludes that investment in improved management of
chemical production, import, export, use and disposal, equates
to investment in industrial development, health, education and
other priority areas while poor management detracts from making
progress on these fronts and more. The following tangible and
potential economic benefi ts have been reported:
a) Sound chemicals management approaches and strategies
can enable greater resource productivity through
chemical recycling, recovery of valuable materials from
the waste stream, energy supply and other innovations
gains. Chemical leasing is an innovative service-oriented
approach to reduce ineffective use and overconsumption
of chemicals and helps companies to enhance their
economic performance. It includes value-oriented,
instead of volume-oriented, pricing and decouples
the payment from the consumption of chemicals. This
results in better chemicals management and encourages
innovation. UNIDO has launched a global programme
and promotes the application of chemical leasing in
industry in 10 developing countries and countries with
economies in transition in close cooperation with the
respective Cleaner Production Centres.
The benefi ts of action: above cost savings, sound management of chemicals policies for national
development paves the way for a thriving green economy
31
Increased potato yields from integrated pest management in Ecuador
Pesticides were introduced in the northern highlands of Ecuador in the 1940s, boosting yields and incomes. However,
subsequently the region suffers from one of the highest pesticide poisoning rates in the world.
Farmers use highly hazardous pesticides such as carbofuran and methamidophos. Implementation of integrated pest management
(IPM) techniques reduced the number of pesticide applications from 12 (in conventional plots) to 7 (in plots that used IPM
techniques). The IPM fi elds yielded as many or more potatoes, but production costs decreased from USD$104 to USD$80.
Researchers attribute the success of the project to capacity building of an expanded repertoire of farming techniques as well as
a decrease in neurological effects among farmers which illustrated the link between health and agricultural productivity.
Note: Full version of this case study is available at: http://web.idrc.ca/en/ev-29128-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html.
Note: Further information of economic impacts of integrated pest management in developing countries are available at: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/
etd-05252009-231519/unrestricted/Hristovska_Masters_Thesis.pdf
b) The global chemical industry supports some types of
regulation and voluntary measures that seek to stabilize
markets and set harmonized standards. The ICCA
Global Product Strategy (GPS) (2011) commits global
companies to promote the safe use of chemical products
and enhance product stewardship throughout the value
chain – and is particularly aimed at Small and Medium
Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries. The
strengthening of environmental regulations has been
shown to stimulate innovation in fi rms. Green chemistry,
recognized as an important approach to achieving
sustainability in the design of chemical compounds and
processes, encompasses the principle of substitution in
sound management of chemicals.
UNIDO Chemicals Leasing and Solvents in Egypt
The Egypt National Cleaner Production Centre (ENCPC), coordinates chemical leasing activities in Egypt under the Technology
Transfer and Innovation Council (TTICs) of the Ministry of Industry and Foreign Trade. The ENCPC aims to enhance competitiveness
and productivity of Egypt’s industry through Cleaner Production. Egypt’s industrial sector accounts for 35% of national GDP and
employs approximately 25% of the national workforce. There are eight main industrial sectors: food, chemical, textile, metal,
engineering, wood, pharmaceutical and non-metallic minerals. About 270,000 companies (95%) are classifi ed as small and
medium sized enterprises.
The hydrocarbon solvent supplier supervises the application of the solvent in the process of cleaning equipment at General
Motors Egypt and receives payment per vehicle produced instead of solvents sold. When the cleaning process is completed,
the supplier takes back the solvent waste for recycling at its plant. This model has achieved cost reductions of 15% related
to reduction of solvent consumption from 1.5 L per vehicle to 0.85 L per vehicle. Part of this reduction was achieved from
preventing using the hydrocarbon solvent for purposes other than that of cleaning of equipment (e.g., washing worker hands,
cloths). Other aspects of cost savings include avoided costs for solvent waste disposal. Other economic benefi ts cited by
partners include sharing liability and benefi ts and the creation of a long term business relationship.
Source: UNIDO case studies available at http://www.chemicalleasing.com/index.htm.
32
c) Sound management of
chemicals is not a ‘no-cost’
proposition; but outlays
are likely to be far less than
the benefi ts of progressing
on chemical management.
Benefi ts from eliminating
lead in gasoline on a
global scale have been
estimated to range from
USD $1 to $6 trillion per
year with a best estimate of USD $2.45 trillion per
year, or 4% of global GDP. With such large social
benefi ts, the removal of lead from gasoline is a highly
cost-effective measure. In the United States alone, the
benefi ts of phasing out lead were estimated
to outweigh the costs more than ten times.
The economic benefi ts from sound management of
chemicals will vary from country to country depending
upon volume of production and import, the level of
economic development, the character of chemical use
and exposure, and how well chemical policies are
implemented and enforced (Figure 5). However, the economies
of all countries are becoming more chemically intensive and all
would benefi t from improved chemical management.
Demonstrating the economic benefi ts of sound chemicals
management proves that this is as valid
an area for investment as education,
transport infrastructure, direct health
care services and other essential public
services and could foster the creation
of many green, decent and healthy
jobs and livelihoods for developed
and developing countries. Effective
long-term management of chemicals
and wastes lays the foundations for a thriving Green Economy
and a fairer distribution of
development benefi ts across
societies.
US$120,000: initial capital
investment in mercury-free
gold processing in Mongolia.
US$14,070: current price
value for 250g of gold
produced on a daily basis
US$35: potential return to
miners per day.
45%: increase in revenue per
unit from recycling desktop
computers achieved using
best practice recycling
technologies in Ghana.
US$100 billion:
estimated value of
the global green
chemistry market
in 2020
Figure 5. A regional analysis of green chemistry patents
0.018
# green chemistry patents # chemistry patents
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Japan
World
US
Europe
0
Source: Nameroff et al., (2004) cited in Oltra et al., (2008)
33
c.siewe/d.sidibe
35
Many nations throughout the world
have created legal structures and
competent authorities for managing
chemicals in their different forms as
commodities, constituents of products,
environmental pollutants, occupational
and public health hazards and wastes.
Many businesses and NGOs have
developed new methods and tools
to further strengthen these efforts. The
Strategic Approach to International
Chemicals Management (SAICM)
and the chemicals related multilateral
agreements now provide voluntary and
legally binding frameworks for promoting
the sound management of chemicals
and many industrialized countries have
adopted a range of legal, economic,
technical and voluntary instruments and
approaches for managing chemicals.
Signifi cant progress has been made,
particularly over the past forty years,
in developing international, national,
and local capacities for managing
chemicals safely and soundly (Table 4).
A broad survey of government,
business and civil society initiatives
demonstrates the wide range of
instruments and approaches as
well as methods and tools that are
now available for promoting sound
chemicals management. Developing
countries and countries in economic
transition, faced limited resources
while confronting a steady increase
of chemical intensity of their national
III - INSTRUMENTS AND APPROACHES FOR THE SOUND MANAGEMENT
OF CHEMICALS: A CALL FOR A COMPREHENSIVE, MULTI-STAKEHOLDER
AND PREVENTIVE STRATEGY
Table 4:
National instruments and Programs for the Sound Management of Chemicals
Goal of instrument
Timeframe Legal Technical Voluntary
Controlling Chemical Pollution
Air quality and emission control
Ambient water protection and waste water control
Drinking water protection
1970s+ X
X
X
Remediating Contaminated Sites and Managing Waste Chemicals
Emergency response and spill management programs
Hazardous waste site remediation
Hazardous and municipal waste management
Legacy chemicals and stockpile management
1970s+
X
X
X
X
Controlling Dangerous Chemicals
Food and drug safety
Pesticide regulation and management
Workplace health and safety
Chemical regulation and restriction
1970s+ X
X
X
X
Preventing Chemical Pollution
Pollution prevention and waste reduction
Cleaner production programs
Chemical accident prevention programs
Sustainable agriculture and Integrated Pest/Vector Management
1980s+ X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Managing Chemical Information
Chemical testing programs
Hazard communication and Right-to-Know
Product ingredient disclosure/Product declaration
Pollutant Release and Transfer Inventories (PRTRs)
National Chemical Profi les
Globally Harmonized System for Classifi cation and Labeling
1980s+ X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Managing Chemicals in Products
Eco-labeling programs
Eco-design programs
Product safety (Cosmetics, Biocide, Toys) directives
Product Stewardship/Extended Producer
Responsibility (EPR) Programmes
Environmentally Preferred Purchasing Programmes
1990s+ X
X
X
X
XX
X
X
X
Generating Safer Chemicals and encouraging resource effi ciency
Green and sustainable chemistry programs
Green engineering programs
Chemicals Leasing
2000s+ X
X
X
X
X
X
Source: Global Chemicals Outlook: Towards Sound Chemicals Management. Chapter III: Instruments and
Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Ken Geiser and Sally Edwards, UNEP. 2012
36
economies have to be strategically discerning and clear on goals
and objectives in selecting appropriate instruments and approaches.
Despite the progress made, more work must be done by
governments, corporations and civil society to develop
comprehensive, multi-stakeholder and preventive policies that
address chemical management across chemicals and through
the product life cycle.
Comprehensive chemical policies need to be closely linked with national, social and economic policies
and programmes
A comprehensive chemical strategy addresses all chemicals
across their lifecycle and must not focus solely on chemicals.
Because chemicals are fundamental to national economies there
is a strong relationship between safe chemical management and
sustainable social and economic development. A comprehensive
strategy assumes that the most effective means of reducing the risks
of dangerous chemicals is to design an economy that promotes the
value of safer chemicals while reducing the risks and inappropriate
uses of harmful chemicals.
Countries with emerging or transitional economies have an
opportunity to leapfrog the fragmented sector-by-sector chemical
management approaches (in workplaces, emissions, wastes,
products, etc.) that have characterized conventional chemical
policies in developed countries. Adopting a more comprehensive
strategy allows governments to integrate and coordinate legal
regimes and institutional structures so as to address chemicals
more holistically.
Multi-stakeholder approaches to coordinate government policies and instruments with corporate and
civil society’s skills and resources
The limited attention to chemical safety in national planning derives in part from the lack of coherent risk reduction strategies among
the various government authorities responsible for chemicals and wastes. To develop more coherent risk management strategies, cross
sector coordination is needed on chemical management among these agencies. In addition, it is important to ensure clear roles for
both government and the private sector. In many countries corporations have good information on chemicals and wastes management
and the technical capacity to launch effective strategies. Many global corporations actively propagate effective chemical strategies
and techniques along their value chain and within related industries. By making chemicals and product manufacturers and importers
the fi rst line of sound chemicals management, the responsibility and costs for social and economic development are more effectively
shared between private and public sectors (Table 5).
Table 5: Responsibilities of National Governments and Enterprises in Promoting the Sound Management of Chemicals
Responsibilities of Enterprises
assessing the hazards, potential exposures and risks of chemicals to be marketed and used
providing chemical information and safe practices to customers, governments and the public
assuring safe use, storage, and transport and appropriate disposal of chemicals
Responsibilities of Governments
enacting laws, policies and regulations on the sound management of chemicals
collecting and verifying information and setting standards and priorities
negotiating permits, licenses and agreements on chemical management
monitoring and inspecting enterprises to assure compliance
Source: Global Chemicals Outlook: Towards Sound Chemicals Management. Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Ken
Geiser and Sally Edwards, UNEP. 2012
37
The governments of developing countries and countries with
economies in transition can develop proactive and preventive
policies anticipating risks, promoting safer alternatives and
adopting measures to prevent accidents and unintended
outcomes. These policies can be designed fi rst to prevent,
rather than control or remediate risks. Therein lies the critical
opportunity for demonstrating how joint actions on environment
and health within the broader development context can promote
economic and social benefi ts. Thus, laws regulating chemicals
use can be paired with programmes for clean technology
transfer, programmes to reduce industrial chemical exposure
can be aligned with programs for preventing workplace injury
and disease, and programmes for managing pesticides can
be partnered with supports for sustainable agriculture. Cleaner
production programmes can be integrated into industrial
development strategies and tailored to meet the needs of
industrial parks and economic development zones. Systems for
providing public information on chemical releases and transfers
can be aligned with requirements for product labeling and public
information and education.
Preventive, proactive policies which anticipate risk, and promote safer alternatives
An integrated and multi-stakeholder spectrum approach to chemicals management is inherently inclusive, knitting together and
coordinating government policies and instruments with industry and its stakeholders (from investors to retailers) skills and resources and
linking in the participation of civil society and non-governmental organizations.
National capacity building: Strengthening the economic arguments
In many countries a full range of government institutions has
not been established, important legal instruments have not
been adopted, and suffi cient fi nancial resources have not
been allocated. Capacity development needs to be seen in
the context of national economic development goals and must
have regard to the stability of government institutions, the rule
of law, an effective judicial system, the promotion of a culture
of transparency and accountability, the development of trained
and qualifi ed professionals, the cooperation of the business
community, the encouragement of civil society organizations,
and the development of stable and suffi cient fi nancial resources.
National budgets provide the most conventional sources of funding
for national authorities. However, countries may augment these
resources with the use of economic instruments. A clear allocation
of responsibilities between public and private actors is also essential
for the division of the costs. Economic instruments can be used to
internalize the costs of chemicals management and create fi nancial
incentives to improve chemical safety. If these instruments are well
crafted they may reduce the public cost and also generate public
revenues needed to fund agency programmes (Table 6).
Governments in developing countries and countries with economies
in transition have a range of opportunities for cost recovery and
revenue generation in managing chemicals. However, for many
countries the use of economic instruments alone will not provide the
necessary revenues to cover the costs. Financial assistance from
developed countries and international agencies and donors will
still be needed to fully seize the opportunity to generate tangible
and long term results.
Governments in developing countries and countries with
economies in transition need to promote innovation and the use of
safer chemicals in order to attract and retain private investments.
A comprehensive chemical strategy linking chemical innovation
to economic development can attract the private capital that
generates employment opportunities and reduces worker injury
and lost productivity. Chemical leasing and chemical management
services offer innovative avenues for assuring commercial and
technical accountability for chemical use. Chemical innovation can
support the development of new enterprises and new “greener”
export oriented products and services.
38
Case Study: Mainstreaming in Uganda
With funding from the Quick Start Programme (QSP) and support from the UNDP/UNEP Partnership Initiative, the National
Environmental Management Agency of Uganda brought together the Ministries of Environment, Health and Planning and
Finance with industry and civil society organizations to integrate chemical management priorities into the new Five Year National
Development Plan (NDP). Recognizing that Uganda’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) provided the basis for the NDP,
the participants broke into two efforts--one fast track team to integrate short-term chemical priorities into the PEAP, and the other
team to identify needs and gaps in the current chemical management infrastructure that could be staged into the longer term
NDP plans and programs.
Table 6. Economic Instruments for the Sound Management of Chemicals
Category Instruments
Price Instruments Fees, taxes and user charges on production inputs, emissions, outputs or consumption
User-charges on natural resource inputs, i.e. water charges
Removal/reduction of perverse subsidies
Subsidies or environmental funds for environmentally preferable activities
Tax adjustments/breaks
Chemical leasing, deposit-refund systems, tax-subsidy, refunded emissions fees
Liability Instruments Environmental fi nes
Liability systems
Extended producer responsibility (EPR)
Procurement Instruments In-house environmentally preferable procurement (EPP)
Guidelines for market preferences
Information Instruments Labeling for market creation and product differentiation
Certifi cation for market creation and product differentiation
Environmental reporting
Information disclosure
Eco-design and green chemistry awards
Source: Global Chemicals Outlook: Towards Sound Chemicals Management. Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Ken
Geiser and Sally Edwards, UNEP. 2012
39
Table 7:
Methods and Tools developed by Corporations for Chemical Hazard Assessment and Identifi cation of Preferred Chemicals and Products
Name of method/tool Developed by Purpose
Restricted substance lists (RSLs) Many corporations Screen out chemicals of concern in supply chains and products
Life Cycle Assessment Formalized by ISO 14040 Identify environmental impacts of a chemical or material across its life cycle
Greenlist™ S.C. Johnson Screen out hazardous chemical ingredients and compare alternatives
Green WERCS™ The WERCS Evaluate the human health and environmental hazards of chemical ingredients in
products
SciVera Lens™ SciVera Evaluate the human health and environmental hazards of chemical ingredients in
products
3E GPA™ 3E company Evaluate the human health and environmental hazards of chemical ingredients in
products
iSustain™ iSustain Alliance Assessment tool for scientists in the research and development phase of a product life
cycle - generates a sustainability score for chemical products and processes based on
12 Principles of Green Chemistry
Sustainability Product Assess-
ment Tool Boots UK Assess product sustainability during the development process by evaluating
20 attributes across 5 life cycle stages – raw materials/sourcing, production,
distribution/retail, use, end of life
Responsible Care/ Global
Product Stewardship Canadian Chemical Producers Association Global initiative to drive continuous improvement in the chemical industry in the areas
of health, safety and the environment
International Council of
Chemical Associations (ICCA) Global initiative to drive continuous
improvement in the chemical industry in the
areas of health, safety and the environment
Compare sustainability of products and processes - evaluates raw materials
consumption, energy consumption, land use, air and water emissions and solid
waste, toxicity potential, and risk potential from misuse
Eco-Effi ciency Analysis Tool BASF Compare sustainability of products and processes - evaluates raw materials
consumption, energy consumption, land use, air and water emissions and solid
waste, toxicity potential, and risk potential from misuse
BASTA Swedish building companies, NCC,
Skanska, JM and Peab, in association with
the Swedish Construction Federation
Help contractors and designers select building products that do not contain chemicals
of concern. Suppliers determine chemical constituents of products, ensure that they
meet BASTA criteria, and register products
Eco-Check Bayer Technology Services Holistic assessment of products and processes, considering economy, health,
environment, life cycle, technology and public value
Environmental Product
Declaration (EPD) Numerous corporations An EPD is a standardized (ISO 14025/TR) and Life Cycle Assessment based tool
used to communicate the environmental performance of a product or system
Apparel Index Sustainable Apparel Coalition Tool to assess the environmental performance and human health and safety for textile
(clothing) products
Corporate and civil society organization responses
Governments are not alone in developing new instruments and approaches for the sound management of chemicals. Many
enterprises and business associations incorporate sound management of chemicals in their corporate policies and practices (Table 7).
Source: Global Chemicals Outlook: Towards Sound Chemicals Management. Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Ken
Geiser and Sally Edwards, UNEP. 2012
40
Similarly, many civil society organizations have developed
methods and tools to assist government, enterprises and the
public in chemical management (Table 8). A broad survey of
these initiatives demonstrates the enormous range of instruments
and approaches as well as methods and tools that are now
available for promoting sound chemicals management. However,
the range is so broad and diverse that it diminishes the potential
for cross-enterprise learning or assessment and makes it diffi cult
for government policy-makers to integrate them into a broader
strategy. In this regard, it would be useful to develop assessments
of the effi cacy and value of these measures that compares them in
terms of potential goals and identifi es strategies where some or a
combination of these might be most effective.
Table 8: Methods and Tools developed by CSOs and NGOs for Chemical Hazard Assessment and Chemical and Product
Prioritization
Name of method/tool Developed by Purpose
RISCTOX Spanish Trade Union (ISTAS) Provide information about risks to human health and environment
from chemicals in the workplace
Trade Union Priority List European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) Contribute to REACH implementation by proposing substances of
very high concern (SVHC) which, from a trade union perspective,
should have priority for inclusion in the candidate list and potentially
in the authorization list.
Black List of Chemicals Spanish Trade Union (ISTAS) Identify chemicals of high concern to be avoided or strictly con-
trolled
SIN List ChemSec Identify chemicals that meet the REACH criteria for SVHC and
therefore may be subject to restriction currently or in the future
Green Screen Clean Production Action Compare chemical alternatives and identify preferred chemicals
P2OASys Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute Help companies conduct systematic environmental and worker
health and safety analyses of pollution prevention and toxics use
reduction options
Ecolabels and Certifi cations Many organizations Provide voluntary certifi cation for a range of product groups
Pharos Healthy Building Network Help commercial buyers evaluate product content, certifi cations
and other relevant data about building materials against key health,
environmental and social impact benchmarks
Skin Deep cosmetics database Environmental Working Group Help consumers assess the chemical hazards of personal care
products
GoodGuide GoodGuide Help consumers evaluate products for their health, safety, environ-
mental and social impacts
CleanGredients GreenBlue Encourage the design of cleaning products that are safer for human
health and the environment. Provide information on physical and
chemical properties of ingredients
Source: Global Chemicals Outlook: Towards Sound Chemicals Management. Chapter III: Instruments and Approaches for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Ken
Geiser and Sally Edwards, UNEP. 2012
41
International response: defi ning the integrated and mutually reinforcing approaches
The commitment to a comprehensive, multi-stakeholder and
preventive strategy for chemical management does not apply only
on the national level. As international trade and the globalization
of markets drive the increasing chemical intensifi cation of all
economies, achieving sound chemicals management requires a
well-coordinated international response. National governments
cannot assure the sound management of chemicals alone.
Case Study: African Stockpiles Program (ASP) as Regional Partnership
The ability to address the estimated 50,000 tons of obsolete and unwanted pesticides stored across Africa is beyond the capacities
of many nations. Beginning in 2005 a regional, multi-stakeholder partnership was created uniting the African Union, World Bank,
FAO, CropLife and the Pesticide Action Network. With commitments for a 15 year program the ASP is working country by country to
develop plans, build capacity and implement collection, treatment and disposal projects. The ASP has focused on raising community
and government awareness of pesticide risks and the construction and improvement of long term storage facilities for unwanted
pesticides. Recognizing that managing obsolete pesticide stockpiles would not succeed unless better pesticide management practices
were developed, the ASP has helped to draft new pesticide legislation and encourage Integrated Pest Management training programs
for current farmers.
The laudable efforts to better coordinate the activities and
functions of the United Nations agencies responsible for
chemicals needs to be further strengthened in integrating sound
chemicals management into the international organizations
charged with social and economic development. While several
global agreements and other comprehensive programmes have
been established, their implementation remains challenging.
Strengthening international environment governance specifi cally
in the fi eld of chemicals and wastes is therefore essential.
Recently, efforts have taken place among the Parties to the Basel,
Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions to pursue the advantages
associated with synergies among different MEAs in this area and
to bring coherence to international environmental governance. A
comprehensive approach to the sound management of chemicals
does not require a single strategy, but it does require that agency
approaches be integrated and mutually reinforcing. The success
of an international comprehensive approach will be defi ned by
its capacity to convince international organizations, agencies for
national development, multilateral aid programmes and fi nancial
partners that funding sound management of chemicals is critical
to economic development and is cost effective.
42
Achieving the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation goal that, by 2020, chemicals will be produced and used in ways that minimize
signifi cant adverse impacts on the environment and human health will require a more concerted effort by international agencies,
national and local governments, business and civil society organizations. Corporations will need to assume more responsibility for
safe chemical production and sound management all along the value chain. Governments will need to adopt and more effectively
implement instruments and approaches, defi ne responsibilities and improve administrative and strategic coordination. This also
requires providing developing countries and countries with economies in transition with technical assistance, technology transfer,
institutional capacity building and training on the new methods and tools that are being used today by developed countries, private
sector and civil society.
The absence of effective chemical management by governments, corporations and international bodies leads to market uncertainties
in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. It inhibits risk aware fi nancial institutions in the investment and
banking sectors from making investment that support strong economic development. Additional fi nancing for chemical management
may come from economic instruments for cost integration and recovery within countries. Such funding has to be triggered and
complemented by international fi nancing from national and international development assistance programmes. To be effective and
suffi ciently funded and sustainably maintained, sound chemicals management must be comprehensively mainstreamed into national,
social and economic planning and be coordinated internationally.
Sound chemicals management is a vital element that underpins each aspect of a Green Economy and should be integrated not
only by investments in natural capital in the realm of agriculture, fi sheries, forest and water, but also in the investment in energy and
resource effi ciency, manufacturing, waste management, building and urban design, tourism and transportation. Sound chemicals
management must become a national and international environmental, public health and economic and business development
priority.
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations are made with a view to raise the awareness and attention of policy-makers and key stakeholders
in order to strengthen the implementation of SAICM and of the chemicals related conventions and accelerate the achievement of the
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation goal that, by 2020, chemicals will be produced and used in ways that minimize signifi cant
adverse impacts on the environment and human health.
Two sets of recommendations emanate from the key fi ndings and conclusions of the report. The fi rst set provides general
recommendations on institutional, economic and development policy related issues. The second set focuses on more specifi c,
technical and managerial types of recommendations to address the main challenges raised in this report related to trends and
indicators, economic implications and instruments and approaches.
43
CONCLUSION General recommendations
1. Develop and implement comprehensive, multi-stakeholder and prevention-
oriented chemical management strategies tailored to the economic
and development needs of the developing countries and countries with
economies in transition.
2. Mainstream sound chemicals management into national public health,
labour, social and economic development programmes.
3. Regulate and reduce the use of chemicals of highest concern and substitute
with safer alternatives.
4. Integrate and coordinate regional, international and intergovernmental chemical
management programmes to promote synergies and increase effectiveness.
5. Develop and implement national, regional and international approaches
to fi nancing adequate capacity and resources to support sound chemicals
management.
Specifi c recommendations on responses to
address identifi ed challenges include:
Trends and indicators
1. Develop coherent approaches for monitoring of chemical exposures
and environmental and health effects that allow spatial assessments and
establishment of time trends.
2. Include as baseline information on chemicals not only data on chemical
exposure and health and environment effects but also on chemicals
throughout their lifecycle.
3. Develop and strengthen global, regional and national integrated health
and environment monitoring and surveillance system for chemicals to make
timely and evidence-based decisions for effective information management
of environmental risks
to human health.
Economic implications
4. Further analyse the economic cost of chemical effects.
5. Increase the capacities of health and environment agencies to use economic
analysis in the development of sound chemicals management policies.
6. Integrate sound chemicals management in social and economic development
processes through greater use of decision-making economic tools and
m
ethodologies.
Instruments and approaches
a) National and regional level
7. Build capacity at national level for mainstreaming sound chemicals
management into national development plans and processes.
8. Adopt and implement legal instruments that defi ne the responsibilities of the
public and private sector for chemical control and improve administrative
coordination for compliance and enforcement.
9. Adopt a full policy chain of instruments and approaches that stretch across
the lifecycle from the entry of chemicals onto the market to the management
of chemicals at their disposal.
10. Use regional approaches to increase the effi cient use of resources for risk
assessment and management of chemicals and to prevent illegal traffi cking.
11. Strengthen national capacity to facilitate the appropriate use of economic
instruments to internalize the cost of chemical management and create
nancial incentives to improve chemical management strategies and
promote safer alternatives.
12. Strengthen or develop a single national coordinating chemical management
entity.
b) Corporate level and civil society
13. Foster the incorporation of sound management of chemicals in corporate
policies and practices.
14. Involve small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the sound managem ent
of chemicals and encourage industry to cooperate with governments to fairly
share the responsibility and costs for social and economic development.
15. Industry should generate and make public an appropriate baseline set of
health and environmental effects for chemicals in commerce.
16. Further develop and improve chemical management programmes throughout
the value chain including communication about chemical hazards and risks,
both for chemicals as such and chemicals in articles.
17. Encourage industry to provide the public with all health and safety
information and all but the most business sensitive chemical information to
effectively reduce the related risks.
18. The fi nancial sector should evaluate more thoroughly the chemical risks
inherent in the activities and corporations which it fi nances, and work with
other stakeholders to reduce them.
19. Encourage civil society organizations to participate in government
policymaking and to develop activities to access, assess and widely
communicate chemical information on chemical safety to the public.
20. Civil society organizations should participate actively and meaningfully in
decision-making processes on chemical safety at all levels.
21. Civil society organizations should actively participate in the implementation,
and monitoring, of chemicals and wastes regulatory policies including
national, regional, and global agreements and facilitate their enforcement.
c) International level
22. Further promote synergies among Multilateral Environmental Agreements
(MEAs) in terms of administrative, logistical and programmes integration.
23. Strengthen international and national chemical control activities including
legislation to address gaps in current chemicals related MEAs.
24. Mainstream sound chemicals management into multilateral and bilateral
economic assistance programmes.
25. Facilitate the assessment of the effi cacy and value of corporate and civil
society organizations’ methods and tools, compare them in terms of potential
goals and identify strategies where some or a combination of these might be
most effective.
26. Foster public private partnerships to promote the implementation of sound
chemical management policies and strategies as a contribution to economic
development plans and processes.
The Global Chemicals Outlook assesses the status of health, environmental, economic and institutional
factors related to the production, use, and disposal of chemicals, with a focus on issues relevant to
developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Alerting Ministers and decision-ma-
kers on the most pressing challenges related to the changes and trends in the production and use of
chemicals, the Global Chemicals Outlook makes a convincing economic case for investing in sound
chemicals management.
Achim Steiner
UNEP Executive Director
United Nations Under-Secretary General
United Nations Environment Programme
P.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, 00100 Kenya
Tel: (254 20) 7621234
Fax: (254 20) 7623927
E-mail: uneppub@unep.org
web: www.unep.org
www.unep.org
ISBN: 978-92-807-3275-7
Job Number: DTI/1543/GE
... Moreover, the implementation of the Stockholm Convention into national regulations is shaped around the interest of each country (Giesy et al. 2014), production and usage are often shifted to less developed nations (Galt 2008), and emissions continue from regulated use of products and via the release from storage and disposal facilities of both currently used and outdated products (Breivik et al. 2002, Wagner & Timmins 2009). Reducing the use of POPs is further challenged as new POPs are being developed as a replacement for older chemicals or to fulfil new purposes (Gallagher 2013). Some chemicals have now also been signalled as potential POPs, referred to as "emerging" POPs. ...
Thesis
Sea turtles can accumulate organic pollutants for extended periods and across large spatial scales matching their extensive oceanic migrations. Upon reaching sexual maturity, these pollutants can be transferred via egg yolk to subsequent generations, thereby exposing developing embryos to potentially high doses of organic pollutants. This thesis investigates the exposure, internal distribution and maternal transfer of organic pollutants in relation to ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat preferences, the process of vitellogenesis, and the interaction between physiological properties of tissues and the chemical structure of pollutants.
... The serious pollution caused by the excessive use of chemicals has been listed by the United Nations Environment Programme as one of the major global environmental problems affecting human survival and development (Gallagher, 2012). The latest data from Global Chemicals Outlook II show that 2.3 billion tonnes of chemicals is produced globally each year (Francisco & Daniel, 2019), and more than 296,000 chemicals are widely used in commerce. ...
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The overuse of chemicals has been causing serious global pollution. Toxicity assessment and screening of chemicals effectively contribute to individualised management and control of toxic and harmful chemicals that are released into the environment. Moreover, they can protect the ecological environment and human health from the effect of these substances. This study is researching for A Textile Company in Suzhou, China, and uses the USEtox consensus model to calculate the toxic effects of pollution emissions on the ecological environment. In addition, the pollutants that should be controlled first are screened and identified through comprehensive analysis of accounting results. Results show that heavy metals are a major source of potential ecotoxicity and pollutants to be prioritised. Considering the total ecotoxicity ranking, category ranking and rankings within categories of pollutants discharged by A company, copper, nickel and manganese in heavy metals; tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in chlorinated chemicals; and nonylphenol/branched-4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol in alkylphenols should be primarily controlled. From the perspective of terminal control, the study puts forward that the objects of corporate environmental management should be transformed from ‘medium management (wastewater, waste gas and waste residue)’ to ‘substance management (chemical)’ and provides empirical evidence for the management and control of toxic and hazardous substances from ‘comprehensive pollutant management’ to ‘single pollutant management’. The research results can provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for scientific decision-making in order to achieve priority management and control of pollutants and reduce the ecotoxic effects of chemical pollutants.
... Most of the products manufactured by the chemical industry using fossil fuels as raw materials usually come from seven simple building-block molecules (mainly natural gas and crude oil) called fossilderived base chemicals which are produced by distillation and by catalytic reforming view Table 1 (Straathof and Bampouli 2017). Each year, the production of base chemicals exceeds 10 million tons and in 2010, more than 360 million tons were produced (Gallagher 2012). ...
Article
Platform molecules were defined by the US Department of Energy, as bio-based or bio-derived chemicals whose constituting elements totally originated from biomass and could be used as building blocks for the production of commodity and refined chemicals. These chemicals can subsequently be converted into a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Today, there is a growing urge for the discovering of a cheaper and cleaner way for the environment to produce platform molecules from renewable substrate such as carbon. Succinic acid (SA) is considered as a key platform chemical since it is used as a precursor for other valuable chemicals and has aroused interest worldwide with its wide applications. This review aims at highlighting the currently available information about the mechanisms involved in the production of platform molecules, especially the SA production. In this review, the processing technologies used in the production of platform molecules are described, in addition to the information regarding the optimization of key parameters, the mechanisms of genetic engineering and finally the redox potential and purification processes which are known as alternative cost-competitive providers of fossil fuels.
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Background: In the next 25years, transformative changes, in particular the rapid pace of technological development and data availability, will require environmental epidemiologists to prioritize what should (rather than could) be done to most effectively improve population health. Objectives: In this essay, we map out key driving forces that will shape environmental epidemiology in the next 25years. We also identify how the field should adapt to best take advantage of coming opportunities and prepare for challenges. Discussion: Future environmental epidemiologists will face a world shaped by longer lifespans but also larger burdens of chronic health conditions; shifting populations by region and into urban areas; and global environmental change. Rapidly evolving technologies, particularly in sensors and OMICs, will present opportunities for the field. How should it respond? We argue, the field best adapts to a changing world by focusing on healthy aging; evidence gaps, especially in susceptible populations and low-income countries; and by developing approaches to better handle complexity and more formalized analysis. Conclusions: Environmental epidemiology informing disease prevention will continue to be valuable. However, the field must adapt to remain relevant. In particular, the field must ensure that public health importance drives research questions, while seizing the opportunities presented by new technologies. Environmental epidemiologists of the future will require different, refined skills to work effectively across disciplines, ask the right questions, and implement appropriate study designs in a data-rich world.
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Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.
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We elaborate the need for a quality-controlled chemical speciation model for seawater and related natural waters, work which forms the major focus of SCOR Working Group 145. Model development is based on Pitzer equations for the seawater electrolyte and trace components. These equations can be used to calculate activities of dissolved ions and molecules and, in combination with thermodynamic equilibrium constants, chemical speciation. The major tasks to be addressed are ensuring internal consistency of the Pitzer model parameters (expressing the interactions between pairs and triplets of species, which ultimately determines the calculated activities), assessing uncertainties, and identifying important data gaps that should be addressed by new measurements. It is recognised that natural organic matter plays an important role in many aquatic ecosystems, and options for including this material in a Pitzer-based model are discussed. The process of model development begins with the core components which include the seawater electrolyte and the weak acids controlling pH. This core model can then be expanded by incorporating additional chemical components, changing the standard seawater composition and/or broadening the range of temperature and pressure, without compromising its validity. Seven important areas of application are identified: open ocean acidification; micro-nutrient biogeochemistry and geochemical tracers; micro-nutrient behaviour in laboratory studies; water quality in coastal and estuarine waters; cycling of nutrients and trace metals in pore waters; chemical equilibria in hydrothermal systems; brines and salt lakes.
Article
To follow time trends in exposure to environmental chemicals, three successive campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS) have recruited and sampled in total 5825 participants between 2002 and 2014. Cord samples from newborns, urine and blood samples from 14-15 years old adolescents and from adults between 50 and 65 years old were analysed in geographical representative samples of the Flemish population. The data of the different campaigns were considered per age group and per biomarker after adjustment for predefined covariates to take into account differences in characteristics of the study populations over time. Geometric means were calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate time trends. The concentration of serum biomarkers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as marker polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE), the major metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) expressed per g lipid, decreased significantly with time. The levels of DDE in all age groups and those of PCBs in cord and adolescent serum samples were almost halved in a time period of ten years. HCB levels were reduced by a factor of 4 in adolescents and in adults. Mean serum concentrations of the more recently regulated perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were significantly lower in cord samples of 2013 compared to samples of 2007. The decline was more pronounced for PFOS than for PFOA. In the same period, mean metabolite levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) decreased significantly in urine samples of adolescents with sharper declines for DEHP than for DBP. Cadmium and lead levels in cord and adolescent blood samples were significantly lower in the recent campaigns than 10 years before. Also the mean urinary cadmium level in adults was 35% lower compared to adult samples of 2002. Such favourable trends were not observed for arsenic and thallium measured in cord blood. Similar, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was not lower in urine from adolescents sampled in 2013 compared to 2003. In contrast, concentrations of t,t‘-muconic acid, a marker of benzene exposure, showed clearly reduced levels. The FLEHS programme shows that concentrations of well-regulated chemicals especially traditional POPs and cadmium and lead are decreasing in the population of Flanders. Response to regulatory measures seems to happen rapid, since concentrations in humans of specific regulated perfluorinated compounds and phthalates were significantly reduced in five years time. Biomarker concentrations for arsenic, thallium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons are not decreasing in this time span and further follow up is warranted.
Article
Dynamically tracking flows and stocks of problematic chemicals in products (CiPs) in the global anthroposphere is essential to understanding their environmental fates and risks. The complex behavior of CiPs during production, use and waste disposal makes this a challenging task. Here we introduce and describe a dynamic substance flow model, named Chemicals in Products - Comprehensive Anthropospheric Fate Estimation (CiP-CAFE), which facilitates the quantification of time-variant flows and stocks of CiPs within and between seven interconnected world regions and the generation of global scale emission estimates. We applied CiP-CAFE to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), first to evaluate its ability to reproduce previously reported global-scale atmospheric emission inventories and second to illustrate its potential applications and merits. CiP-CAFE quantifies the pathways of PCBs during production, use and waste disposal stages, thereby deducing the temporal evolution of in-use and waste stocks and identifying their long-term final sinks. Time-variant estimates of PCB emissions into air, water and soil can be attributed to different processes and be fed directly into a global fate and transport model. By capturing the international movement of PCBs as technical chemicals, and in products and waste, CiP-CAFE reveals that the extent of global dispersal caused by humans is larger than that occurring in the natural environment. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the model output is most sensitive to the PCB production volume and the lifetime of PCB-containing products, suggesting that a shortening of that lifetime is key to reducing future PCB emissions.
Chapter
Nowadays, more than 30,000 chemicals (including pharmaceuticals, biocides and pesticides) are estimated to be of relevance for the aquatic environment. Wastewater has to be treated to meet the required quality for its reuse. Many approaches for the assessment of water quality are used or are under development. It is now widely accepted that none of these approaches is suitable to assess all the (micro)biological and chemical contaminants. Many processes for water and wastewater treatment have been proposed and researched, and some of them are already applied in routine treatment. Unfortunately, these are not able to completely remove most of the contaminants. In contrast, most often, each of them removes only a minor percentage. Some processes may even result in the formation of transformation products of widely unknown fate and effects. This clearly demonstrates the serious limitations of such end-of-pipe approaches like effluent treatment. Therefore, in the future, more attention has to be paid on the prevention of the introduction of such contaminants into the water cycle, i.e., by measures that have to be taken at the beginning of the pipe. Approaches helpful in this direction are presented here.
Technical Offi cer, International Labor Offi ce (ILO)
  • Mr
  • Pavan
  • Baichoo
Mr. Pavan BAICHOO, Technical Offi cer, International Labor Offi ce (ILO).
Programme Coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • Mr
  • Davis Mark
Mr. Mark DAVIS, Programme Coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Test Guideline Programme, Administrator, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • Ms
  • Delrue Nathalie
Ms. Nathalie DELRUE, Test Guideline Programme, Administrator, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Senior Special Fellow
  • Mr
  • Haines John
Mr. John HAINES, Ph.D., Senior Special Fellow, United Nations for Training and Research (UNITAR).
Dadan Wardhana HASANUDDIN, Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Basel Convention
  • Mr
Mr. Dadan Wardhana HASANUDDIN, Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Basel Convention, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Programme Offi cer, Programmes in Chemicals
  • Mr
  • Krueger Jonathan
Mr. Jonathan KRUEGER, Programme Offi cer, Programmes in Chemicals, Waste and Environmental Governance, United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).
Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention
  • Ms
  • Magulova Katarina
Ms. Katarina MAGULOVA, Programme Offi cer, Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Associate Programme Offi cer
  • Mr
  • Marques Tomas
Mr. Tomas MARQUES, Associate Programme Offi cer, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Business and Industry Unit, Sustainable Consumption and production Branch, DTIE.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • Mr
  • Oi Michihiro
  • Administrator
Mr. Michihiro OI, Administrator, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) Global Resource Information Database
  • Mr
  • Witt Ron
  • Grid Manager
Mr. Ron WITT, GRID Manager, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) Global Resource Information Database (GRID), DTIE.