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How do consumers perceive a/an logotype/emblem in the advertisements: an eye tracking study


Abstract and Figures

Logotype and emblems are the signatures of the brands which often lead consumers to recognize the brands before even getting exposed to any marketing communication messages. The logotype/emblem's design used on marketing communication materials are usually decided by graphic designers and brand managers, depending on mostly instinct not to the scientific evidences. This study aims to understand not the self-reported but evidential level of perception of the 24 participants who had seen series of TV commercials that the logotypes of the advertising brands are located at the pack shot. The emblems are located on left, on top and right hand side of the logotypes. The study had different logotype/emblem combinations from automobile, appeal, telecommunication and banking sectors. The eye tracking results show that, some positions for emblems are hard to see for the consumers, while the others do have a better position.
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International Journal on Strategic Innovative Marketing
Vol. 01 (2014) DOI:10.15556/IJSIM.01.04.002
How do consumers perceive a/an
logotype/emblem in the
advertisements: an eye tracking study
Yener Girisken1, Diren Bulut2,a
1Marketing Communications Department, Bilgi University & ThinkNeuro Consulting, Istanbul,
2Marketing Department, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
a)Corresponding author:
Abstract: Logotype and emblems are the signatures of the brands which often lead
consumers to recognize the brands before even getting exposed to any marketing
communication messages. The logotype/emblem’s design used on marketing
communication materials are usually decided by graphic designers and brand managers,
depending on mostly instinct not to the scientific evidences. This study aims to understand
not the self-reported but evidential level of perception of the 24 participants who had seen
series of TV commercials that the logotypes of the advertising brands are located at the
pack shot. The emblems are located on left, on top and right hand side of the logotypes. The
study had different logotype/emblem combinations from automobile, appeal,
telecommunication and banking sectors. The eye tracking results show that, some positions
for emblems are hard to see for the consumers, while the others do have a better position.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Logotype, Emblem, Brand Recognition, Eye Tracking,
Neuromarketing, Applied Consumer Neuroscience, Pre-test, Biometric Measurement
1. Introduction
Brand communication activities are usually difficult to measure and also very
essential for the companies that depend on the perceived brand equity. While the
media and integrated marketing communication budgets are raised, the
effectiveness gains even more importance. Brands plan and try to control every
message they are sending for the potential or real customers while what part of the
messages perceives by the customers or if the messages perceived correctly or not
are not that easy to be measured.
Classical marketing communication measurements use the claimed data of the
customers or the sales figures. The sales figures can be affected by number of
variables and the communication activity results might not be sudden. On the other
hand, generating sales are not the only aim of the marketing communication
activities. Creating strong emotional bonds with the customers and brands are also
critical for marketing communication activities. In order to influence customers.
logotype and emblems, ambassador of the brand are used commonly, hope to get
the exposure of the brand and brand identity as much as possible.
The goal of this study is to understand how the consumers see the logotypes
and emblems when there have been different placement alternatives and discuss the
best placement for the brand ambassadors while distributing the marketing
communication messages. Locating emblem and logotype with the advertising
message should be very well balanced, so all of the elements can be perceived clearly
and none of the pieces should be lost through the communication. This study aims
to figure out the best alternative to offer emblem, logotype and the advertising
message in an advertising pack shot.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Brand logotype/emblem
Brand concept has many different dimensions, seen and unseen. Foley and
Kendrick defines brand as “…a set of promises, associations, images, and emotions
that companies create to build loyalty with their customers” [1]. As brands have been
defined over and over again, the sensual elements identifying the brand are always
included. Color, logotype, emblem, scent etc. are all included in the brand package.
Logotype can be defined as the typical characteristic font and shape used to
write the brand’s name continuously. Logotype also includes the decorative and
design attribute of the typeface, where the color and the placement also get the
importance as the typography [2]. As a result a representative logotype has a
differentiating, unique style and color of writing. Even though the logotype by name
includes the meaning of owning and representing the whole brand name, it is a term
that is generally confused with emblem. Emblem on the other hand is a
representation of a brand with shapes color and design but without any typography.
Logotype and emblem, from the brand identity design point of view, are
complementary elements of visual short presentation of brand, which aims to
symbolize all the value and promises a brand has to offer to its potential customers
[3]. This study focuses on not only on the brand signature perspective of the
logotype but also the usage of emblem as an advertising element.
2.2. Brand measurements
Brand and marketing communication efforts are usually high budget efforts,
which require marketers to evaluate the results very carefully and qualitatively.
Advertising effectiveness measurements are especially crucial for marketing
communication companies to secure the proof of their effectiveness.
Pre-test and post-test approaches for integrated marketing communication
measurements have been widely used since 1950. These marketing communication
effectiveness measurements focus on four different steps: awareness, information
(interest), attitude and action [4].
Measurement actions differ from the other marketing communication
measurements with the data source. Some companies review the sales results to see
the short term and long term effects of the marketing communication activities.
Even though this method has many problems, companies tend to find sales, market
share and profit figures more understandable than the attention, interest and
attitude measurements.
Classical brand awareness measurements are depending their theoretical
ground on the assumption that if the brain receives stimuli, it processes and stores
the data in the memory. This assumption relies on the conscious process of
observational learning. Short-term or long-term memories differ with the stimulus
and the connections are built by brain while storing it [5]. The problem of this kind
of attention and learning measurements are that these kinds of studies need a
starting base for comparison since measurements are over the recall process.
Classical brand interest and brand attitude measurements are more complex
than the attention measurements. The methods usually use requires the researcher
to ask directly to the customer about their interest or attitude. This might not be
always the best way to gather the information, since the customers might not know
or not willing to answer. This also depends on the assumption that the marketing
communication process causes a conscious learning path and the consumers are
aware of all the information that they receive.
Attention studies on the other hand have been evaluated with mechanical base
measurements for some time now. The pupil or pulse measurements are tested and
accepted as the signs of increased attention and even interest [6] [7]. Marketing and
consumer science are recently borrowing other technology from medicine and use
EEG, MRI and other medical diagnostic equipment to understand how the
consumer/people response to marketing stimulants.
2.3. Eye tracking
Eye tracking is simply the methodology in which the eye movements are
observed. The gaze and the head pose are the two main criteria for distinguishing
the direction a human is looking at [8] and this gaze is usually the interest of the
psychology and neurobehavioral studies. There are three different muscle pairs
which allow the human eye to move to sides, up and down and rotate. Eye
movements are not just limited to the muscles but also have a different dimension
with the eye pupils. [9].
There are different types of eye movements, which are modeled to understand
the relation with the eye movement, attention, interest, learning and memory.
Conjunctive movements include movements where both eyes are parallel in
movement, while disjunctive movements define where two eyes have different
directions and movements [10]. Conjunctive movements are more meaningful to
evaluate while processing different information coming from two different optical
sources is not always very easy and healthy. The major eye movements which base
the eye tracking measurement models and systems are these three;
-Fixation is one of the most important conjunctive movement, where the eye
remains still on a certain point between 150-600 milliseconds. Fixation is the only
period where the visual data could be processed in the brain [10]. Fixation remains
on the basis of the eye tracking studies, which relate to memory since it is the only
eye movement, which allows the brain to process the data. Even though the fixation
refers to a single point, human eye fovea covers an angle of 2° which makes the
fixation point a bit larger than a single location but an area. The fixation center is
still the center of attention but the fixation impact is larger than this point itself [11].
That usually allows researchers to build a fixation area map. Some models focus on
fixation duration to understand the main attention element while some of the
models focus on the fixation points themselves. [9]
-Saccades could be defined as the movements in-between fixations. Eye
movements are continuous but the direction point can be changed with outer
stimuli or conscious processes [10]. These shifts take very short periods but still
could be measured and allow researchers to see the eye tracking paths.
-Pursuit movements are possible during dynamic scenes and include moving
material on a static background or moving background itself.
The studies on eye tracking, especially on eye fixation are aimed to understand
the stimuli which have captured the respondents’ attention. Defining the attention
map or the object could help the researcher to understand how to capture one’s
attention while it is intended. Neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience studies
aim to understand the ways to capture the attention of customers with advertising,
web sites or at the point of purchase. The result of the logotype placement studies
could help the marketers to change the logotype place and make it more attractive
for the customers [12] or measure the degree to which consumers focus on any
stimuli related to the brand [13]. For point of purchase eye tracking studies fixation
on a product considers as evaluation process of a product purchase by those
consumers [14]. As it can be seen the fixation is not only a measurement of
attention but also can be modeled to link to the memory [15].
Web sites are another very widely used field of eye tracking measurements.
Studies show that, text typo, size and color has a significant correlation with
saccade duration [16]. When the image features gain importance for websites these
features should be considered important for the other visual stimuli. The eye
tracking studies show that especially at the web site interaction, people have the
tendency to choose a “reference point” for themselves to navigate in the system and
decide on their eye movements. [17]. Most of the time, the design of the web site
helps people to find their reference points easily but if there is not a significant
reference point people tend to develop “F style gaze”, which focuses the fixation on
top left and decreasing level of fixation while viewing to the right and to the bottom
of the web page [18] [19].
2.4. Eye movement evaluation models and usage
The relation of the eye movements with the stimuli creates different attention
models. Le Muer et. al. [20] summarize and group the attention models under two
different titles:
Bottom up or stimuli driven attention models are based on the external effect. In
this model the attention is created with the incoming source of data, not intended by
the responder. The main idea is that the stimuli are sensory driven and the selective
process of data evaluation is non-existent.
Top-down or goal driven attention model includes both the external stimuli and
the internal goal altogether to form a cognitive and intentional attention model. In
the top-down attention model the respondent is not just objected to a stimulus but
also has a purpose of processing those stimuli voluntarily [20].
These two models have very different outcomes of eye tracking modeling. When
the eye tracking measurements are evaluated fixation is usually associated with the
attention point/s of the respondents. If the searching or evaluating kind of behavior
(like visiting a web page or processing brand on a store shelf etc.) has an end
purpose, then the researcher needs to define his/her model as a top-down model
and also needs to include the success of the intended outcome for the research.
3. Research methodology
The aim of this study is to understand the eye movement (gaze) of the
participants and define the best location for a brand logotype/emblem. The eye
tracking study aims to understand if the bottom up (with no search intention)
reviews of pack shots (brand message at the end of the advertising including brand
logotype and emblem) show any significant pattern for emblem placement or not.
The study uses nine different brands from different industries. Advertisements
are shown to the participants and the pack shot scene remains available for 5
seconds after every advertisement. During this period the participants’ eye
movements are measured and mapped.
The sample of the study consists of 24 volunteers (12 males and 12 females)
between the ages of 18-32. All of the brands are familiar to the participants, prior.
The participants take a short survey to make sure that they have no prior negative
perception towards any brands.
Participants are asked to sit down in a homey living room environment where
they would not feel extra agitated because of the measurement. The eye tracking
device is set in front of them while they view the advertisements. All of the
participants have the same distance to the monitor and the eye tracking devices are
adjusted for their posture and height.
After the eye tracking measurements, collected data is analyzed and average
gaze plot of all 24 participants are reported as heat map results.
4. Results
The accumulated results of the eye tracking fixation points for each
advertisement pack shot are shown in each figure (Figure 1-Figure 9). The Mapping
focused on the hot spots, which means more fixated points. Higher fixated areas are
shown with red, less with yellow and the least with green, whereas the other parts
shown in the pack shots clearly did not get any fixation.
Figure 1. Eye Tracking Results for “Arçelik” Brand
Figure 1 shows Arcelik a house goods brand from Turkey. As seen in Figure 1
the emblem (red rectangular shape) received no fixation while the logotype and even
the website address received some fixation. The hot spot for this pack shot is almost
the center of the image.
Figure 2 is a pack shot of a bank advertisement of Garanti Bank brand. The
clover emblem had no hot spots while the brand logotype and the message had
different hotspots on the image.
Figure 2. Eye Tracking Results for “Garanti Bank” Brand
Figure 3. Eye Tracking Results for “Turkcell” Brand
Figure 3 shows Turkcell brand a Turkish GSM operator’s advertising pack shot
with several small hot points on the logotype where there were no hot spots on the
emblem. As shown in Figure 1-3, all of the emblems for these pack shots were
placed on the left beginning of the logotypes an did not get any fixation.
Figure 4 shows the pack shot of another bank, with a left emblem placed on the
right hand side, after the logotype. Denizbank brand logotype receives small hot
spots on the logotype while the emblem has a relatively larger hotspot.
Figure 5 belongs to Turkish Airlines company advertisement’s pack shot where
the logotype and emblem both received the hotspots. The beginning logotype has a
greater fixation area compared to the emblem.
Figure 4. Eye Tracking Results for “Denizbank” Brand
Figure 5. Eye Tracking Results for “Turkish Airlines” Brand
Figure 6. Eye Tracking Results for “Timberland” Brand
In Figure 6, Timberland brand appeal and outdoor accessories company pack
shot also has the emblem placed on the right hand side of the logotype. The hot spot
of fixation is on the emblem. The logotype has fever hot spots.
Figure 7 belongs to automobile company Renault brand’s pack shot, in which
the emblem was placed on the top. The hot spots are placed on the emblem.
Figure 7. Eye Tracking Results for “Renault” Brand
Figure 8. Eye Tracking Results for “Fiat” Brand
Figure 8 shows Fiat Doblo brands pack shot where the major hot spots are
located on the logotype + emblem and the message of the pack shot. Additionally,
there is another logotype and emblem which represents the distributor of the brand
in Turkey on the left bottom side of the pack shot. Logotype (on the right) receives
hot spots while the emblem receives no fixation.
The last figure shows the pack shot of Toyota brand. The emblem is located on
the top of the pack shot and receives the hottest point of the fixation, while logotype
and message also receives hot spots.
Figure 9. Eye Tracking Results for “Toyota” Brand
The results shot different positions of different emblems, right, left and the top
on the pack shots. The hot spot locations show easy to recognize positioning of
differences between right and left emblem positioning. Top positioning also shows
differences compared to right-left positioning.
5. Conclusion
The aim of this study is to understand the bottom-up fixation points of the pack
shot and understand if the consumers see emblem located on the left, right and the
top of the logotypes differently. The stimuli as the pack shot are mapped to
understand the fixation points and how these fixation points are related to the
brands’ logotype, emblem or message in the pack shot.
The participants could not get fixated to the emblems that are on the left hand
side of the logotypes. Even though the general understanding refers to “people read
from left to right”, these results show that the left side of the logotype is a blind spot
and are not detected by the participant. The main reason is the people read from left
to right do not see
On the other hand, the right hand side emblem placements receive an
important part of the eye fixation. These three (Figure 4-Figure 6) pack shots also
show readability of logotype. More area of fixation gives the brand communication a
better chance of effectiveness.
Placement of the emblem on the top of the logotype has more covered area
compared to both right and left hand side emblem placement. Putting the emblem
on the top successfully ends up participants to cover and even fixate almost all the
material on the pack shots. These results show that the installation of the emblem
on the top of the advertising materials produces the best result to achieve the
maximum exposure of the whole material. Figure 8 has an exception of “Doblo”
brand logotype which should also be separately studied.
The sample size of 24 people and lack of numerical analyses of the eye tracking
data could arguably seem like an obstacle of the study to be generalized. But the
results show the pure human behavior which is limited to very small proportions of
time and cannot be manipulated. The results of these studies divert the advertising
and marketing practitioners to another direction. The results should be tested with
different additional features, like color, size, movement etc. to get a better
Another limitation of this study is the lack of information regarding the
beginning familiarity of the participants with the logotypes/emblems. Dreze and
Hussherr’s research (however it was focused on the internet advertising) concludes
that the repetition is more important than the size, shape, color, animation or the
message of the advertising. In this study the level of participants’ interaction with
the logotype/emblem or the brand communication cannot be known and should be
regarded while evaluating the results [21].
For further research, it is recommended to evaluate different demographic
groups separately and compare them since the literature suggests that the eye
tracking results may differ for these different groups [22][21]. The fact that people
are using social media in their communication activities in different transactions
and sectors (bank, tourism sector) [23] [24] [25] opens the way of examining the way
advertising messages are perceived in online communication media and platforms.
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... In Turkey the actual number of published empirical neuromarketing studies with collaboration of commercial companies are very few. Interaction with commercial companies such as Vodaphone, Turkcell, Turkish Airlines, Denizbank etc. demonstrate that the global tendency and rising interest for discovering new methods are there for topics such as advertisement performance, brand loyalty, brand personality, packaging, consumer decision making (Girişken and Bulut, 2014;Çakır, Çakar, Girişken, 2015) however how this studies are translated into marketing strategies, how these are performed and what the related results can not be exemplified. ...
... Advertisers and academics have analyzed the key factors that influence effective print advertisement such as element location (Garcia et al., 2000;Girisken and Bulut, 2014), advertisement size (Pieters and Wedel, 2004), images (Gakhal and Senior, 2008;Cook et al., 2011;Bastiaansen et al., 2016;Tomaselli Fidelis et al., 2017), exposure duration (Elsen et al., 2016) and messages (Thomsen and Fulton, 2007). However, the complexity of visual images and their impact on print advertising have been poorly studied until Phillips and McQuarrie's (2004) research, which provides a significant theoretical review on aspects of visual complexity by analyzing visual rhetoric in advertising. ...
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Horowitz, Fine, Fencsik, Yurgenson, and Wolfe (2007, this issue) investigated the relation between microsaccade congruency (MC, the congruency between the direction of the microsaccade and the location of the target) and reaction time (RT) in a spatial cuing paradigm and concluded that “fixational eye movements are not an index of covert attention.” We show that microsaccade direction is a reliable on-line measure of attention that potentially indexes effects beyond those reflected in RT.
The aim of this paper is to create an e-branding model which could also be applied for place branding in small central rural regions of Central Europe based on the innovative methodology of rural tour marketing. It was based and went beyond the European program of transnational cooperation, INTERREG IIIB CADSES. The region of Carinthia, Austria was set as a case study for the application of interrelating scientific theories of marketing, place branding and place identity in relation to and in connection with national identity. The paper succeeds in making a practical and theoretical contribution on the process of the creation of branding, which consists of a holistic approach of the management of every business operating in the region. Virtual reality was promoted since it may provide a direct and international impact via the creation of a virtual community appealing to a broad number of potential visitors. This latter, is the contribution of this paper since it proposes a model of creating e-branding, first applied to the virtual community; as the virtual space/time precedes the real one and is used to implement and succeed in the design of the rural marketing of the European research programme in this region.
The attractiveness of a “pure” measure of individual response to marketing stimuli has given rise to the use of a variety of physiological measures of advertising response. Unfortunately, such measures are neither “pure” nor, to date, of demonstrable usefulness for management decisions.
Click-through rates are still the de facto measure of Internet advertising effectiveness. Unfortunately, click-through rates have plummeted. This decline prompts two critical questions: (1) Why do banner ads seem to be ineffective and (2) what can advertisers do to improve their effectiveness? To address these questions, we utilized an eye-tracking device to investigate online surfers' attention to online advertising. Then we conducted a large-scale survey of Internet users' recall, recognition, and awareness of banner advertising. Our research suggests that the reason why click-through rates are low is that surfers actually avoid looking at banner ads during their online activities. This implies that the larger part of a surfer's processing of banners will probably be done at the pre-attentive level. If such is the case, click-through rate is an ineffective measure of banner ad performance. Our research also shows that banner ads do have an impact on traditional memory-based measure of effectiveness. Thus, we claim that advertisers should rely more on traditional brand equity measures such as brand awareness and advertising recall. Using such measures, we show that repetition affects unaided advertising recall, brand recognition, and brand awareness and that a banner's message influences both aided advertising recall and brand recognition.
The number of brands in the marketplace has vastly increased in the 1980s and 1990s, and the amount of money spent on advertising has run parallel. Print advertising is a major communication instrument for advertisers, but print media have become cluttered with advertisements for brands. Therefore, it has become difficult to attract and keep consumers' attention. Advertisements that fail to gain and retain consumers' attention cannot be effective, but attention is not sufficient: Advertising needs to leave durable traces of brands in memory. Eye movements are eminent indicators of visual attention. However, what is currently missing in eye movementresearch is a serious account of the processing that takes place to store information in long-term memory. We attempt to provide such an account through the development of a formal model. We model the process by which eye fixations on print advertisements lead to memory for the advertised brands, using a hierarchical Bayesian model, but, rather than postulating such a model as a mere data-analysis tool, we derive it from substantive theory on attention and memory. The model is calibrated to eye-movement data that are collected during exposure of subjects to ads in magazines, and subsequent recognition of the brand in a perceptual memory task. During exposure to the ads we record the frequencies of fixations on three ad elements; brand, pictorial and text and, during the memory task, the accuracy and latency of memory. Thus, the available data for each subject consist of the frequency of fixations on the ad elements and the accuracy and the latency of memory. The model that we develop is grounded in attention and memory theory and describes information extraction and accumulation during ad exposure and their effect on the accuracy and latency of brand memory. In formulating it, we assume that subjects have different eye-fixation rates for the different ad elements, because of which a negative binomial model of fixation frequency arises, and we specify the influence of the size of the ad elements. It is assumed that the number of fixations, not their duration, is related to the amount of information a consumer extracts from an ad. The information chunks extracted at each fixation are assumed to be random, varying across ads and consumers, and are estimated from the observed data. The accumulation of information across multiple fixations to the ad elements in long-term memory is assumed to be additive. The total amount of accumulated information that is not directly observed but estimated using our model influences both the accuracy and latency of subsequent brand memory. Accurate memory is assumed to occur when the accumulated information exceeds a threshold that varies randomly across ads and consumers in a binary probit-type of model component. The effect of two media-planning variables, the ad's serial position in a magazine and the ad's location on the double page, on the brand memory threshold are specified. We formulate hypotheses on the effects of ad element surface, serial position, and location. The model is applied in a study involving a sample of 88 consumers who were exposed to 65 print ads appearing in their natural context in two magazines. The frequency of eye fixations was recorded for each consumer and advertisement with infrared eye-tracking methodology. In a subsequent indirect memory task, consumers identified the brands from pixelated images of the ads. Across the two magazines, fixations to the pictorial and the brand systematically promote accurate brand memory, but text fixations do not. Brand surface has a particularly prominent effect. The more information is extracted from an ad during fixations, the shorter the latency of brand memory is. We find a systematic recency effect: When subjects are exposed to an ad later, they tend to identify it better. In addition, there is a small primacy effect. The effect of the ad's location on the right or left of the page depends on the advertising context. We show how the model supports advertising planning and testing and offer recommendations for further research on the effectiveness of brand communication. In future research the model may be extended to accommodate the effects of repeated exposure to ads, to further detail the representation of strength and association of memory, and to include the effects of creative tactics and media planning variables beyond the ones we included in the present study.