Technical ReportPDF Available

Mozambique marine ecosystems review

Authors:

Abstract

The purpose of the review was to analyse in detail the available information on the broad situation of the marine ecosystems of Mozambique, and highlight the critical gaps in available data or research. The report will enable Fondation Ensemble and its partner the Oak Foundation, or any other interested stakeholder, to deepen their understanding of the broad marine ecosystem situation in Mozambique and help establish intervention priorities for practical field initiatives and/or on research within the areas of marine biodiversity conservation, and/or sustainable fishing. Mozambique is located along the southern coast of East Africa. The 2,470 km coastline and a diverse and productive continental shelf area of about 104,300 km2 are of paramount importance for the country. The Mozambican coastline is characterized by a wide diversity of habitats including sandy and rocky beaches; sand dunes, coral reefs, estuaries, bays, seagrass beds and mangrove forests, which support pristine ecosystems, high biological diversity, high endemism, and endangered species. The coastline can broadly be classified into three regions from north to south, each supporting a variety of marine ecosystems; 1) the coral coast, 2) swamps and 3) parabolic coastal dunes. In addition to these three main regions, the deep-water pelagic and seabed ecosystems contribute to the majority of the country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The various natural resources therein, sustain about half the population of Mozambique living in the coastal zone, help support the country’s economy through fisheries, tourism, industries and communications. There are more than 20 million people living in Mozambique with a growth rate of 2.5% per annum, the majority of which lives below the poverty line and has no access to improved water and sanitation. About two-thirds of the total population resides within the coastal region.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystems Review
Report prepared for:
Maputo, December 2014
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
i
Mozambique Marine Ecosystems Review
Coordination:
Marcos A M Pereira (Centro Terra Viva – Maputo)
Contributors:
Alice Massingue (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane – Maputo)
Boris Atanassov (GreenLight Projects, Lda. – Maputo)
Carlos Litulo (Biodinâmica, S.A. – Maputo)
Filipa Carreira (GreenLight Projects, Lda. – Maputo)
Isabel Marques da Silva (UniLúrio – Pemba)
Jess Williams (Tartarugas para o Amanhã, SU – Tofo)
Marcos A M Pereira (Centro Terra Viva – Maputo)
Miguel Leal (Universidade de Aveiro – Lisboa)
Raquel S Fernandes (Centro Terra Viva – Maputo)
Rodrigo Santos (Biodinâmica, S.A. – Maputo)
Yara Tibibiçá (Associação de Conservação Costeira de Moçambique - Závora)
Review:
Dr Ken Deslarzes (Creocean – Montpellier, France)
Prof. Henrique Queiroga (Universidade de Aveiro – Aveiro, Portugal)
Editing:
Hugo Costa (Biodinâmica, S.A. – Maputo)
Cover:
From left to the right and clockwise: Ponta Dobela, Maputo Province (Marcos Pereira);
Loggerhead turtle at Ponta do Ouro, Maputo Province (Marcos Pereira); Sand banks at the
Bazaruto Archipelago, Inhambane Province (Jess Williams); Dhow at Muelé, Inhambane Province
(Rodrigo Santos); Bowmouth guitar shark at Tofo, Inhambane Province (Jess Williams); Tridacna at
Primeiras and Segundas Islands, Nampula Province (Marcos Pereira).
Suggested citation:
Pereira, M. A. M., C. Litulo, R. Santos, M. Leal, R. S. Fernandes, Y. Tibiriçá, J. Williams, B.
Atanassov, F. Carreira, A. Massingue & I. Marques da Silva (2014). Mozambique marine
ecosystems review. Final report submitted to Fondation Ensemble. 139 pp. Maputo,
Biodinâmica/CTV.
Maputo, December 2014
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
ii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The purpose of the review was to analyse in detail the available information on the broad
situation of the marine ecosystems of Mozambique, and highlight the critical gaps in available
data or research. The report will enable Fondation Ensemble and its partner the Oak Foundation,
or any other interested stakeholder, to deepen their understanding of the broad marine
ecosystem situation in Mozambique and help establish intervention priorities for practical field
initiatives and/or on research within the areas of marine biodiversity conservation, and/or
sustainable fishing.
Mozambique is located along the southern coast of East Africa. The 2,470 km coastline and a
diverse and productive continental shelf area of about 104,300 km
2
are of paramount importance
for the country. The Mozambican coastline is characterized by a wide diversity of habitats
including sandy and rocky beaches; sand dunes, coral reefs, estuaries, bays, seagrass beds and
mangrove forests, which support pristine ecosystems, high biological diversity, high endemism,
and endangered species. The coastline can broadly be classified into three regions from north to
south, each supporting a variety of marine ecosystems; 1) the coral coast, 2) swamps and 3)
parabolic coastal dunes. In addition to these three main regions, the deep-water pelagic and
seabed ecosystems contribute to the majority of the country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The
various natural resources therein, sustain about half the population of Mozambique living in the
coastal zone, help support the country’s economy through fisheries, tourism, industries and
communications. There are more than 20 million people living in Mozambique with a growth rate
of 2.5% per annum, the majority of which lives below the poverty line and has no access to
improved water and sanitation. About two-thirds of the total population resides within the
coastal region.
Legal and Institutional Framework
Mozambique is endowed with a comprehensive environmental and fisheries legal framework,
including conventions and international agreements. The legal framework is widely recognized as
sufficient and progressive; the major challenge being enforcement and compliance. Apart from
local communities represented either by community-based organizations or fisheries community
councils, the main coastal and marine stakeholders include Governmental institutions at various
administrative levels dealing with fisheries (Ministry of Fisheries and subsidiary agencies),
environment (Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs), conservation (Ministry of
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
iii
Tourism), and safety, hydrography and navigation (Ministry of Transport and Communications and
its agencies). Other important stakeholders include academia (Eduardo Mondlane University,
UniLúrio and their departments and schools), the private sector (operating in tourism, fisheries
and aquaculture, consulting), national and international non-governmental organizations and
international bodies (including several United Nations agencies).
Climate
According to the classification of Köppen, the northern and coastal regions have a tropical rain
savannah climate (Aw) and the southern sedimentary terrains a dry savannah climate (BSw). The
coastal region has been divided in three climatic zones: a) north of the Zambezi River (Cabo
Delgado, Nampula and Zambézia provinces), b) a transitional zone in the region of Zambezi River
and c) southern region of Mozambique. Along the coast, mean temperature ranges are from 25 to
30° C during the warmer months. The average annual temperature is 23° C along the southern
region and slightly higher in the northern region (26°C). The average relative humidity is 69%. The
InterTropical Convergence Zone is positioned over the northern part of the country along the
Zambezi River, to the north of Sofala province, bringing 150300mm of rainfall in the Cabo
Delgado and Nampula provinces from November to April, which are the warmer months of the
year. The transitional zone of the Zambezi River in Central Mozambique has the highest average
annual rainfall, 1,200–1,600 mm, and is also mainly restricted to the warm season. South of the
Zambezi River, climate of central and southern Mozambique is influenced by a subtropical anti-
cyclonic zone. This area is dominated by the southeast trade winds and receives easterly
prevailing winds throughout the year. Evaporation reaches about 1,650 mm per year, which
exceeds the precipitation by about 500 mm per year.
Oceanography
Tides of the coast of Mozambique are semi-diurnal (two low waters and two high waters each
day). The tidal range is about 2 m in the south, 3.1 m in the north and about 6.4 m in the centre.
The higher range in the centre is caused by the broad shallow continental shelf fed by sediments
of over 100 rivers, the major ones being the Rovuma, Lúrio and Zambezi in the north, Pungué,
Buzi, Gorongosa and Save in the centre and Limpopo, Incomáti and Maputo in the south. These
rivers drain about 208 km
3
of nutrient-rich water into the coastal waters each year. About 80% of
this water enters the ocean in the vicinity of the Sofala Bank, central Mozambique. The Zambezi
River, the largest river in eastern Africa, contributes approximately 67% of the total river
discharge from Mozambique.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
iv
Biodiversity and Conservation
The wide latitudinal range of the Mozambican coastline, as well as the diversity of habitats and
ecosystems, supports high biodiversity and an array of flagship species. Several ecological areas of
regional and global importance (hotspots) have been identified along the coast. Almost 900
species of reef-associated fishes have been recorded, 122 species of sharks and rays, 400 species
of molluscs, 27 species of marine mammals, including arguably the last viable population of
dugongs in the western Indian Ocean, five species of marine turtles, 270 species of hard and soft
corals, 14 species of seagrasses and ten species of mangroves.
The network of marine protected areas (MPAs) is comprised of five conservation areas (two
national parks, one reserve, one total protection zone, and one environmental protection area).
Currently, MPAs cover a total area of about 20,462 km
2
of which 8,633 km
2
encompass marine
ecosystems. In Mozambique, conservation areas in general and MPAs in particular, are under-
staffed and poorly equipped. Also lacking in most of the MPAs are management procedures and
tools (including management, monitoring and research plans) as well as adequate science to
support them. Several ecosystems and species such as seagrass beds, mangroves, the dugong,
manta rays and the whale shark are still poorly represented in the current MPA network in
Mozambique.
Major threats to the coastal and marine ecosystems of Mozambique include overfishing,
industrial and coastal development, natural resources exploitation, unregulated and damaging
tourism practices, pollution and weather extremes such and storms and cyclones.
Fisheries
There are three main types of fisheries: industrial, semi-industrial and artisanal. The fisheries
sector plays an important role in the economy, contributing about 3% of the Gross Domestic
Product (GDP), and 4% of the global national exports. The level of production in 2012 was 213,436
tons (t) of total products representing an estimated value of 526 million USD. Commercial
fisheries (industrial and semi-industrial) exploit the most important and valuable resources such
as shallow- and deep-water shrimp that occur on the Sofala Banks as well as pelagic fish species
such tuna, billfishes, and sharks.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
v
Artisanal fishery occurs along the entire coast and captures shallow water demersal and pelagic
species using traditional gears. Artisanal landings are, on average, responsible for almost 90% of
the total national production. This sub-sector has a high social importance since it is the most
important source of food and employment for the coastal communities, which represent more
than two-thirds of the population of Mozambique. Data from the last census of artisanal fisheries
conducted in 2012, indicate that there were about 343,000 fishermen and other professionals
involved in this sector, of which 18% were women, all depending directly or indirectly on activities
related to fishing. At present, almost all fisheries are overexploited and facing crisis due to a
declining production and increasing operating costs.
Available Data and Information Gaps
During the past decade, marine scientific research in Mozambique has grown with many authors
paying special attention to corals and associated fishes, marine mammals, seagrasses, mangroves
and associated fauna, and sea turtles. However, limited research has been done in other areas
therefore knowledge on the biology of sharks, seaweeds, seabirds, molluscs, and echinoderms
remains poor. Information relevant to fisheries is also lacking and represents a source of future
challenges. For example, the migratory routes of tuna that recurrently travel to the Mozambican
coast are unknown. Similarly, shark fishing, deep-sea fisheries, reproductive aspects of lobsters,
sea cucumbers, mussels, fishing effort, and catches of the artisanal sub-sector have been poorly
reported.
Additionally there is a need to assess: the use and conservation of coastal resources in the central
region of the country; levels of trace metal pollutants in the coastal environment; effects of the
discharge of untreated urban waste on nutrient dynamics and coastal marine ecosystems;
variations in the spatial distribution of macrobenthos and nutrient dynamics in mangroves and
seagrass; effects of climate change and movement of sediments; the condition of corals;
characterization (to species level) of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities (both intertidal
and deep-sea); migration and population genetics of whales, stingrays, mantas; rehabilitation of
ecosystems degraded such as coastal dunes, reefs, mangroves and seagrass; distribution of sea
turtles and their nesting along the Mozambican coast; the migration routes and nesting areas for
seabirds; assessment of the impact of tourism on shore birds; and mapping of areas that may be
ecologically sensitive to the development of oil and gas reserves recently found in the Rovuma
basin.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
vi
Recommendations
Several recommendations are proposed and pertain essentially to research and monitoring;
management and conservation; networking, dissemination of information and capacity building;
legal and institutional framework; and funding. Ecological indicators for major ecosystems and
flagship species as well as social indicators have also been proposed.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
vii
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND UNITS
AAIW – Antarctic Intermediate Water
ACCM – Association of Coastal Conservation of Mozambique
ACOPS – Advisory Committee on Problems of the Sea
ADNAP – Adminbistração Nacional das Pescas (National Administration of Fisheries)
AFD – Agence Française de Développment
AfDB – African Development Bank
AMAR – Associação de Mergulhadores Activos para os Recursos Marinhos
ASCLME – Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem
BADEA – Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
BIOFUND – Foundation for the Conservation of Biodiversity
CBNRM – Community-Based Natural Resource Management
CI – Conservation International
CI-GCF – Conservation International Global Conservation Fund
CCP – Conselho Comunitário de Pesca (Fishing Community Council)
CONDES – Conselho Nacional para o Desenvolvimento Sustatável (National Council for Sustainable
Development)
CTV – Centro Terra Viva
DANIDA – Danish International Development Agency
DDCA – Direcção Distrital para Coordenação Ambiental (District Directorates for Coordination of
Environmental Affairs)
DFID – United Kingdom Department for International Development
DMI – Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index
DNFP – Direcção Nacional de Fiscalização da Pesca (National Directorate for Fisheries
Surveillance)
DPCA – Direcção Provincia para Coordenação Ambiental (Provincial Directorates for Coordination
of Environmental Affairs)
EACC – East African Coastal Current
EC – European Commission
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP – Environmental Management Plan
ENSO – El Niño Southern Oscillation
EOTH – Eyes on the Horizon
EP – Escola de Pesca (Fisheries School)
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
viii
EU – European Union
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization
FFP – Fundo de Fomento Pesqueiro (Fisheries Development Fund)
GEF – Global Environmental Facility
ha – hectares
ICEIDA – Icelandic International Development Agency
IDB – Islamic Development Bank
IDPPE – Instituto de Desenvolvimento da Pesca de Pequena Escala (Institute for Small Scale
Fisheries Development)
IFAD – International Fund for Agricultural Development
IIP – Instituto Nacional de Investigação Pesqueira (National Institute for Fisheries Research)
INAQUA Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Aquacultura (National Institute of
Aquaculture Development)
INIP – Instituo Nacional de Inspecção de Pescado (National Institute of Fish Inspection)
IO – Indian Ocean
IOC – Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IOD - Indian Ocean Dipole
IODM - Indian Ocean Dipole Mode
IOTC - Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
IPB – International Public Bodies
ISO – Intra-Seasonal Oscillations
ITCZ – Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
ITF – Indonesian through Flow
IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature
JICA – Japan International Cooperation Agency
KfW – Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (German Bank for Development)
km – kilometre(s)
km
2
– square kilometre(s)
m – meter(s)
MICOA – Ministério para Coordenação da Acção Ambiental (Ministry for the Co-ordination of
Environmental Affairs)
MJO – Madden-Julian Oscillations
MMF - Marine Megafauna Foundation
MOZBIO – Conservation Areas for Biodiversity and Development Project
MPA – Marine Protected Area
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
ix
MPR – Maputaland-Pondoland Region
NADW – North Atlantic Deep Water
NE - Northeast
NEMC – Northeast Madagascar Currents
nm – nautical mile(s)
NORAD – Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
ODINAFRICA - Ocean Data and Information Network for Africa
OFCF – Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation of Japan
OPEC – Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
PPF – Peace Parks Foundation
RSW – Red Sea Water
SCUBA – Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
SEMC – Southeast Madagascar Current
SST – Sea Surface Temperature
Sv - Sverdrup
SW – Southwest
SWIOFP - The Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Project
TNC - The Nature Conservancy
TPRM – Tongaland-Pondoland Regional Mosaic
UN – United Nations
UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
USAID – United States Aid
WCS – Wildlife Conservation Society
WIO – Western Indian Ocean
WHO – World Health Organization
WRI – World Resources Institute
WWF – World Wildlife Fund for Nature
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.
PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND ................................................................................................. 1
1.1.1.
Report Organization.............................................................................................................. 1
1.1.2.
Background........................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3.
Marine and Coastal Ecosystems ........................................................................................... 3
1.1.4.
Fisheries................................................................................................................................ 4
1.1.5.
Coastal Communities............................................................................................................ 6
1.2.
METHODOLOGY....................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.1.
Literature and Data Search................................................................................................... 7
1.2.2.
Quantitative and Qualitative State of Data Collection/Availability...................................... 8
1.2.3.
Data Gaps.............................................................................................................................. 9
2.
KEY STAKEHOLDERS........................................................................................................ 10
2.1.
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY ....................................................................................................... 10
2.2.
NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS................................................................................ 11
2.3.
COMPANIES AND CORPORATE FEDERATIONS IN FISHERIES/AQUACULTURE SECTORS........ 13
2.4.
INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC BODIES ........................................................................................... 15
2.5.
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL NGOs ................................................................................ 16
2.6.
PRIVATE SECTOR.................................................................................................................... 18
3.
COASTAL POPULATIONS.................................................................................................. 21
3.1.
MAIN SOCIAL INDICATORS.....................................................................................................21
4.
APPLICABLE LEGISLATION ............................................................................................... 24
4.1.
POLITICAL AND POLICY CONTEXT.......................................................................................... 24
4.1.1.
Environment at Large ......................................................................................................... 24
4.1.2.
Marine Environment........................................................................................................... 25
4.1.3.
Fisheries and Aquaculture .................................................................................................. 27
4.2.
ENFORCEMENT OF MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES ....................................... 30
4.3.
LEGISLATIVE AND/OR EXECUTIVE PROCESSES....................................................................... 31
4.3.1.
Promulgation of new environmental/fisheries laws.......................................................... 31
4.3.2.
Establishment of MPAs or other protected status............................................................. 31
5.
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................... 33
5.1.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER ....................................................................................................... 33
5.2.
PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 35
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xi
5.3.
BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY............................................................................................... 38
6.
MAIN COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE ECOSYSTEMS: CHARACTERISTICS AND HEALTH.............. 41
6.1.
COAST TYPES.......................................................................................................................... 41
6.2.
COASTAL DUNES AND BARRIER LAKES .................................................................................. 44
6.3.
MANGROVES.......................................................................................................................... 48
6.4.
REEFS...................................................................................................................................... 51
6.5.
SEAGRASS BEDS .....................................................................................................................55
6.6.
ESTUARIES AND BAYS ............................................................................................................ 57
6.7.
ROCKY SHORES....................................................................................................................... 60
6.8.
SEAFLOOR .............................................................................................................................. 61
7.
BIODIVERSITY ................................................................................................................. 63
7.1.
LOCATION OF BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS ............................................................................... 63
7.2.
FAUNA.................................................................................................................................... 65
7.2.1.
Sharks and Rays .................................................................................................................. 65
7.2.2.
Reef Fish.............................................................................................................................. 66
7.2.3.
Seahorses............................................................................................................................ 66
7.2.4.
Macro-Invertebrates........................................................................................................... 67
7.2.5.
Dugong (Dugong dugon)..................................................................................................... 68
7.2.6.
Crustaceans......................................................................................................................... 69
7.2.7.
Whales and Dolphins .......................................................................................................... 71
7.2.8.
Marine Turtles .................................................................................................................... 73
7.3.
FLORA..................................................................................................................................... 74
7.3.1.
Flora of the Western Indian Ocean..................................................................................... 75
7.3.2.
Coastal Vegetation.............................................................................................................. 75
7.3.3.
Macroalgae ......................................................................................................................... 76
7.3.4.
Seaweed Farming................................................................................................................ 77
8.
MARINE PROTECTED AREAS............................................................................................ 78
8.1.
TYPES OF MPAs...................................................................................................................... 78
8.2.
EXISTING AND PROPOSED MPAs ........................................................................................... 79
8.3.
MANAGEMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF MPAs..................................................................... 80
9.
FISHERIES ....................................................................................................................... 81
9.1.
PRODUCTION BY FISHERIES (ARTISANAL, SEMI-INDUSTRIAL AND INDUSTRIAL) AND
AQUACULTURE................................................................................................................................. 81
9.2.
CATCH INFORMATION (SPECIES, VOLUMES)......................................................................... 82
9.2.1.
Artisanal Fishery ................................................................................................................. 82
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xii
9.2.2.
Industrial Fishery ................................................................................................................ 85
9.2.3.
Penaeids and Deep-water Shrimp (Gamba) ....................................................................... 86
9.2.4.
Tuna .................................................................................................................................... 88
9.2.5.
Semi-industrial Fishery ....................................................................................................... 89
9.2.6.
Aquaculture ........................................................................................................................ 89
9.3.
LOCAL SEAFOOD MARKET......................................................................................................90
9.4.
SEAFOOD TRADE FLOWS........................................................................................................ 91
9.5.
MANAGEMENT CAPACITY OF FISHERIES ...............................................................................92
9.6.
STATE OF LOCAL AND EXTERNAL ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED FISHING..... 94
10.
MAIN EXISTING AND POTENTIAL THREATS TO MARINE ECOSYSTEMS............................. 96
10.1.
FISHING PRESSURE...............................................................................................................96
10.2.
INDUSTRIAL AND COASTAL DEVELOPMENT........................................................................ 98
10.3.
NATURAL RESOURCES EXPLOITATION................................................................................. 99
10.3.1.
Controlling River Runoff ...................................................................................................99
10.3.2.
Mangrove Exploitation ................................................................................................... 100
10.3.3.
Extraction of Coral Reef Organisms................................................................................ 101
10.3.4.
Coastal Mining ................................................................................................................ 101
10.3.5.
Tourism ........................................................................................................................... 102
10.4.
SOURCES OF POLLUTION................................................................................................... 102
10.5.
WEATHER EXTREMES......................................................................................................... 104
11.
CONSERVATION RECOMMENDATIONS .........................................................................106
11.1.
PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS............................................106
11.1.1.
Mangroves ...................................................................................................................... 106
11.1.2.
Primary Dunes and Sandy Beaches................................................................................. 108
11.1.3.
Seagrass Beds.................................................................................................................. 109
11.1.4.
Bays and Estuaries .......................................................................................................... 109
11.1.5.
Coral Reefs...................................................................................................................... 110
11.2.
PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF FISHERIES................................................................ 111
11.3.
REAL-WORLD SOLUTIONS: INFLUENCE ON LIVELIHOODS OF COASTAL COMMUNITIES... 113
11.4.
INDICATORS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................... 114
11.4.1.
Priority Indicators ........................................................................................................... 114
11.4.2.
Priority recommendations..............................................................................................118
12.
LITERATURE CITED .......................................................................................................120
13.
ANNEX – Table of Authors............................................................................................139
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Location of Mozambique and neighbouring countries of East Africa (source:
GoogleEarth). ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 1.2 – Local fisherman at Pemba bay in wooden canoes, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo:
Boris Atanassov)................................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 1.3 – Local fishing community at Quirimbas; Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Jacques
Rousselot)........................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.1 Administrative division of Mozambique, showing the Provinces and location of main
coastal cities (from http://www.portaldogoverno.gov.mz). ........................................................... 12
Figure 2.2 MozTilapia, an aquaculture project based in Machavenga between Tofo and
Inhambane, Inhambane Province (Photo: Dave Charley)................................................................ 15
Figure 3.1 – Local fisherman at Inhambane Bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo Santos).... 23
Figure 5.1 – The climate of Mozambique after Köppen (source: Cuamba et al., 2006).................. 34
Figure 5.2 Schematic representation of current branches during the summer (southwest)
monsoon: South Equatorial Current (SEC), South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC), Northeast and
Southeast Madagascar Current (NEMC and SEMC), East African Coastal Current (EACC), Somali
Current (SC), Southern Gyre (SG) and Great Whirl (GW) and associated upwelling wedges (green
shades), Southwest and Northeast Monsoon Currents (SMC and NMC), South Java Current (SJC),
East Gyral Current (EGC), and Leeuwin Current (LC). The subsurface return flow of the supergyre is
shown in magenta. Depth contours shown are for 1000 m and 3000 m (grey). Red vectors (Me)
show directions of meridional Ekman transports. ITF indicates Indonesian Throughflow (From
Schott et al., 2009)........................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 6.1 – Mozambique’s coast types........................................................................................... 41
Figure 6.2 Example of a coral coast, an aerial view of Pemba, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo:
Hugo Costa)......................................................................................................................................42
Figure 6.3 – Beach and high dunes in the Manhiça District, Maputo Province (Photo: Marcos
Pereira)............................................................................................................................................. 44
Figure 6.4 – Lake Mwandle, Gaza Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira).............................................. 46
Figure 6.5 – Quissico lakes, Inhambane Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)..................................... 47
Figure 6.6 – Mangroves at Barra, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo Santos) ........................... 51
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xiv
Figure 6.7 – Coral reef at Northern Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira) . 53
Figure 6.8 – Nudibranch (Aegires villosus) in a coral reef at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo:
Yara Tibiriçá)..................................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 6.9 – Seagrass bed at Northern Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
.......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Figure 6.10 – Urchin in seagrass, Inhambane Bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess Williams) .... 57
Figure 6.11 – View of the Morrumbene estuary and Inhambane bay, Inhambane Province (Photo:
Hugo Costa)......................................................................................................................................59
Figure 6.12 – Rocky shore at Palma, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira) .................. 61
Figure 7.1 – Manta ray (Manta sp.) at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo: Yara Tibiriçá) ........... 65
Figure 7.2 – Leopard blenny (Exallias brevis), in the Northern Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province
(Photo: Marcos Pereira)................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 7.3 – Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) at Barra Lagoon, Inhambane Province (Photo: Yara
Tibiriçá)............................................................................................................................................. 67
Figure 7.4 – Nudibranch (Nembrotha purpureolineata) at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo:
Yara Tibiriçá)..................................................................................................................................... 68
Figure 7.5 – Dugong mother and calf, north of Linga Linga, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess
Williams)........................................................................................................................................... 69
Figure 7.6 – Durban dancing shrimp (Rhynchocinetes durbanensis) at Závora, Inhambane Province
(Photo: Yara Tibiriçá)........................................................................................................................ 70
Figure 7.7 Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo:
Yara Tibiriçá)..................................................................................................................................... 71
Figure 7.8 – Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) at Ponta do Ouro, Maputo Province (Photo:
Raquel Fernandes) ........................................................................................................................... 73
Figure 7.9 Coastal dune forest at Dune de Dovela, Inharrime, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess
Williams)........................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 8.1 – Mangroves and estuary, Quirimbas National Park, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo:
Marcos Pereira)................................................................................................................................ 79
Figure 9.1 Evolution of the production of the different fisheries sectors in tons from 2005 to
2012.................................................................................................................................................. 81
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xv
Figure 9.2 Example of a fish trap at Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Jacques
Rousselot)......................................................................................................................................... 82
Figure 9.3 – Artisanal production per resource in 2012 .................................................................. 84
Figure 9.4 – Evolution of catches of penaeid prawns and gamba in tons from 2005 to 2012 ........86
Figure 9.5 – Species composition of the tuna fishery in 2012......................................................... 88
Figure 9.6 – “Vendedeiras” at Morrumbene, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo Santos).........91
Figure 9.7 – Official statistics on import and export of seafood in tons from 2005 to 2012........... 92
Figure 9.8 – Manta rays (Manta sp.) caught in fishing nets at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo:
Yara Tibiriçá)..................................................................................................................................... 93
Figure 10.1 – Shark finning, Tofo Beach, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess Williams) ...................97
Figure 10.2 Examples of industrial and coastal development (from left to the right and
clockwise: i) urban pressure at Tofo, Inhambane Province, ii) Oil&Gas vessels at Pemba Bay, Cabo
Delgado Province, iii) lodges on the dunes in Barra, Inhambane Province, iv) Ponta Techobanine,
Maputo Province) (Photos: Hugo Costa).......................................................................................... 98
Figure 10.3 – Whale shark (Rhincodon typus), Tofinho, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess Williams)
........................................................................................................................................................ 102
Figure 11.1 – Aerial view of Pemba Bay with a significant area of mangroves (several areas being
burned can be seen in the background), Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Hugo Costa)................ 107
Figure 11.2 – Example of driving on beach, Praia do Bilene, Gaza Province (Photo: Hugo Costa) 108
Figure 11.3 – Parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus) at Ponta do Ouro, Maputo Province (Photo:
Raquel Fernandes) ......................................................................................................................... 110
Figure 11.4 – Artisanal fishermen in a dhow, Inhambane Bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo
Santos)............................................................................................................................................ 113
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 – Summary of main NGOs working on marine and coastal issues in Mozambique......... 17
Table 2.2 – Main development areas in each of Mozambique’s coastal provinces that might have
influence on the coastal districts ..................................................................................................... 19
Table 3.1 – Main socio-economic indicators for Mozambique........................................................ 21
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
xvi
Table 4.1 – List of fisheries-related national legislation currently in force in Mozambique............ 28
Table 4.2 – International and regional agreements regarding fisheries ratified by Mozambique.. 29
Table 6.1 – Summary data on reef conditions of selected reefs along the Mozambican coast. Reefs
marked with * are located within MPAs.......................................................................................... 53
Table 7.1 – Biodiversity hotspots in Mozambique........................................................................... 63
Table 7.2 – Cetacean species occurring in Mozambican waters......................................................72
Table 7.3 – Period covered by marine turtle monitoring programs and overall percentage of area
covered............................................................................................................................................. 74
Table 8.1 – Existing MPAs in Mozambique. ..................................................................................... 80
Table 9.1 – Types of fishing gear per province (numbers of gear per Province) ............................. 83
Table 9.2 – Industrial production per resource from 2005 to 2012 (Tons) ..................................... 86
Table 9.3 –Specific composition of bycatch in tons......................................................................... 87
Table 9.4 – Tuna production by foreign fleet in tons from 2005 to 2012........................................ 88
Table 11.1 – Current list of marine protected species in Mozambique (Recreational and Sport
Fishing Regulation).........................................................................................................................112
Table 11.2 – Proposed priority indicators for monitoring marine ecosystems and species and
condition of coastal communities..................................................................................................116
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
1
1. INTROD UC T ION
1.1 . PUR POSE AND BACK G ROU N D
The purpose of this review, as stated in the scope of work, is to analyse in detail the available
information on the broad situation of marine ecosystems in Mozambique, and where necessary,
to draw attention to the critical gaps in available data or research.
The review will help establish intervention priorities for practical field initiatives and/or on
research within the areas of marine biodiversity conservation, and/or sustainable fishing, in order
to enable Fondation Ensemble and its partner the Oak Foundation, or any other interested
stakeholders, to deepen their understanding about the broad marine ecosystem situation in
Mozambique, also taking into account the living conditions of coastal communities, which
necessarily have an impact on the ecosystems.
1.1 . 1. Rep ort Organ izat ion
This report consists of twelve sections. Section 1 gives the reader an understanding of
Mozambican marine ecosystems, fisheries and coastal communities, biological and oceanographic
characteristics of the Mozambican coastal area, literature and data search conducted for this
review, and the qualitative and quantitative data available as well as identified data gaps.
Sections 2 and 3 deliver information on the scientific community, national and local governments,
companies and corporate federations operating in fisheries and aquaculture sectors, international
public bodies, local and foreign NGOs, civil societies and private bodies, and main social
indicators.
Section 4 highlights applicable legislation on the marine environment, fisheries and aquaculture
sectors, the enforcement of main environmental laws and policies, the promulgation of new
environmental and fisheries laws and the establishment of MPAs.
Section 5 summarizes the climate of Mozambique, and its physical and biological oceanography.
Section 6 focuses on the characteristics and condition of main coastal ecosystems, namely dunes
and lagoons, mangroves, reefs, seagrass beds, estuaries and bays, rocky shores, and the seafloor.
Section 7 presents the Mozambican biodiversity hotspots as well as their location.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
2
Section 8 presents the types of MPAs (existing and planned), their management and effectiveness
and human induced impacts on coastal and marine environments focusing on urban, industrial
and tourism impacts.
Section 9 discusses the main and potential threats to Mozambican marine environment.
Section 10 reports on fisheries with emphasis on production by fleet, target species, gear,
management, catch information, local seafood market and trade flows, and illegal and regulated
fishing.
Finally, Section 11 presents conservation recommendations namely applied research and
priorities, protection and restoration of marine ecosystems and fisheries, influence of coastal
ecosystems on livelihood and indicators of condition of marine ecosystems and fisheries.
1.1 . 2. Bac kgro und
Mozambique is located along the southern coast of East Africa, between latitudes 10°27’ S and
26°52’ and longitudes 30°12’ E and 40°51’E (ASCLME, 2012; Bandeira et al., 2002; Motta, 2002).
The country occupies a total surface area of 784,032 km
2
and is divided in 10 provinces. The
country is bordered by the Republic of Tanzania to the north, by Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe
to the west, by South Africa and Swaziland to the south and by the Indian Ocean (Figure 1.1). The
coastline is 2470 km long (CIA, 2013), making it the third longest coastline in the East African
region. Total continental shelf area is about 104,300 km
2
.
There are more than 20 million people living in Mozambique with a growth rate of 2.5% per
annum. Most of the population is concentrated in the southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and
Inhambane and in central and Northern provinces of Zambézia and Nampula. About two-thirds of
the total population resides within the coastal region (ASCLME, 2012; Barnes et al., 1998; Ruby et
al., 2008). According to Motta (2002), the higher coastal population densities are recorded in
Maputo (1,525 persons/km
2
), Beira (625 persons/km
2
), Nacala (409 Persons/km
2
) and
Mozambique Island (13,000 persons/km
2
). The high coastal population density contributes to
coastal erosion, sedimentation, water pollution, over-exploitation of resources, deforestation,
and reduction and modification of biological diversity (Sete et al., 2002).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
3
Figure 1.1 – Location of Mozambique and neighbouring countries of East Africa (source: GoogleEarth).
1.1 . 3. Mar ine a nd C oast al E cosy s tems
The Mozambican coastline is characterized by a wide diversity of habitats including sandy and
rocky beaches; sand dunes, coral reefs, estuaries, bays, seagrasses and mangrove forests
(Bandeira et al., 2002; Duarte, 2012; Hoguane, 2007; SEA ALARM, 2009). The coastal area
supports pristine ecosystems, high biological diversity, high endemism, and endangered species.
There are various natural resources, which include fisheries, coastal and marine fauna, and flora
that sustain about half the population of Mozambique living in these areas, and support the
country’s economy (Hoguane et al., 2012).
The coastline can broadly be classified into three regions from north to south, each supporting a
variety of marine ecosystems; 1) the coral coast, 2) swamps and 3) parabolic coastal dunes. In
addition to these three main regions, the deep-water pelagic and seabed ecosystems (200
nautical miles [nm] offshore) contribute to the majority of the country’s exclusive economic zone
(EEZ). Despite international recognition for its unique marine ecosystems (Nature Conservancy,
Mission Blue & WWF, 2014a; Obura et al., 2012), only 3% of its territorial waters are contained
within MPAs (World Bank, 2014).
Although the majority (86%, Pew 2014a) of Mozambique’s EEZ comprises deep-water habitat,
knowledge on this ecosystem type is really lacking (Marsac et al., 2014). Based upon
oceanographic understanding of the Mozambican Channel, it is a highly productive ecosystem
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
4
characterized by complex upwelling patterns and converging eddy dipoles (Marsac et al., 2014).
This offshore ecosystem supports the commercial harvest of pelagic fish species such as tunas,
mackerel, marlin and sailfish (Pew, 2014b).
1.1 . 4. Fis heri e s
Mozambique is a country with a great fishing potential along its coastline and within an EEZ with
an area of 571,955 km
2
. In this vast marine area there are three main types of fisheries: industrial,
semi-industrial and artisanal.
These fisheries sectors became prominent during the early 1980s, after the independence in
1975. During the majority of the colonial period, artisanal fisheries remained largely subsistence-
based and fish products were imported mainly from Angola. Only the industrial prawn fishery was
developed. In 1977, a civil war erupted and fisheries remained far below their potential but still
the most important economic sector generating exports. In 1990, the Constitution and first
Fisheries Law Act were established. Peace was reached in 1992 and Mozambique began to rebuild
its infrastructures and recover a steady economic growth. Recognizing the strategic importance of
the fisheries sector the government created in 2000 a Ministry fully dedicated to fisheries (MIPE –
Ministry of Fisheries; Blythe et al., 2013).
Actually the fisheries sector plays an important role in the economy, contributing for about 3% of
the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and 4% of the global national exports. The level of production
in 2012 was 213,436 tons (t) of total products representing an estimated value of 526 million USD.
Export of prawns to Europe is one of the most important sources of exportation with revenues of
18.5 million USD placing prawn 13
th
in the ranking of exports commodities (INE, 2013; MIPE,
2013).
Commercial fisheries (industrial and semi-industrial) are exploiting the most important and
valuable resources such as prawn and deep shrimp (gamba) that occurs on Sofala Bank, located in
the centre of the country. Other important offshore resources are tuna, billfish and sharks
(Santana Afonso, 2006).
Artisanal fishery occurs along the entire coast and captures shallow water demersal and pelagic
species using traditional gears. Artisanal landings support, on average, almost 90% of the total
national production (MIPE, 2013). This sub-sector has a high social importance since it is the most
important source of food and employment for the coastal communities, which represent more
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
5
than two-thirds of the population of Mozambique (Figure 1.2). It is crucial for reducing
vulnerability to food insecurity and poverty since fish products contribute to almost half of the
animal protein source accessible for these communities (FAO, 2007). Data from the last census of
artisanal fisheries, conducted in 2012, indicate that there were about 343,000 fishermen and
other professionals involved in this sector, of which 18% were women, all depending directly or
indirectly on activities related to fishing (IDPPE, 2013).
Figure 1.2 – Local fisherman at Pemba bay in wooden canoes, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Boris
Atanassov)
Aquaculture industry is very young but growing very fast, primarily on small-scale production of
freshwater species, and has been promoted throughout the country by the National Aquaculture
Development Institute (INAQUA). Marine aquaculture is represented by some commercial
enterprises dedicated to the farming of prawn, and some species of marine fish and algae in the
provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Zambézia and Sofala. The total production in 2012 was 604
t representing only 0.3% of the national fish production (MIPE, 2013).
Currently, almost all fisheries are overexploited and facing crisis due to a declining of production
and increasing operating costs. Industrial prawn fishery has been especially affected (USAID,
2010).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
6
On the other hand there are offshore resources that are not being fully exploited or being
exploited by foreign fleets. There is now a priority to maximize exploitation of the EEZ fish
resources to support economic development. One very recent move was the acquisition of 24
fishing vessels by the government to develop a national industrial tuna fishery fleet (Portal do
Governo, 2013).
This report includes a general characterization and overview of the different fisheries sectors in
Mozambique, describing current production levels, trends, main species exploited, processing and
market structure, trade flows, legislation, institutional framework, management and the state of
local and external illegal, and unreported and unregulated fishing.
1.1 . 5. Coa stal Comm unit ies
During the war, Mozambique had a large flux of population from inland to the coast (Gervásio &
Lopes, 2003). Nowadays at least 40% of the population is living in coastal districts, including over
half of the urban population (MICOA, 2002; 2007). Urban centres include Maputo, Matola,
Inhambane, Beira, Nacala and Pemba. The majority of the coastal communities depend on marine
resources either directly or indirectly. The level of this dependence is highly influenced by
geographic and biological characteristics, such as the profile of the beach, distance from the reef,
and the quality of the soil for other activities (Whittingham et al., 2003).
Particularly for rural communities, lack of basic needs such as potable water, health care and
access to education are common (Virtanen, 2005). The main sources of income and subsistence
are agriculture and small fisheries (Oceanic Development et al., 2006). However, tourism, harvest
of tidal invertebrates and juvenile stages of fish, trading, charcoal production, seaweed farming
and aquaculture may also play an important role in both community livelihoods and the economy,
depending on the region (Carvalho & Gell, 1998; de Boer et al., 2002; Gervásio & Lopes, 2003).
The combination of declining fish catch, illegal fisheries, exploration of mineral resources, over-
exploitation of tidal ecosystems, global changes and rapid coastal development has caused
several socio-economic changes and challenges (Blythe et al., 2014; Whittingham et al., 2003).
Island communities, small communities, and communities inside protected areas are more likely
to engage in traditional management and co-management of natural resources toward
conservation (e.g. Garnier et al., 2008). Such a participatory approach is important to ensure
sustainable development. However, lack of management is far more common in Mozambique and
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
7
unfortunately due to coastal development, natural resources are being intensively harvested with
little control. For example, in the Inhambane Province, the use of gill nets has increased
dramatically in the last 5 years raising by-catch of protected or key species for tourism, such as
manta rays, whale sharks, and dugongs (Pierce & Marshall, 2008). Now the population is facing a
dilemma – attending to the demands of development without destroying the resources necessary
to sustain such growth (Tibiriçá et al., 2011). Without controls, sustainable development seems
unlikely to be achieved in the majority of coastal areas. In such areas local communities are
tragically trapped in destructive development, in which the “needs of today” threaten the future
viability of the coastal community (Figure 1.3).
Figure 1.3 – Local fishing community at Quirimbas; Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Jacques Rousselot)
1.2 . MET HODO L OGY
1.2 . 1. Lit erat u re a nd D ata S ear c h
Historically, a small group of fisheries research scientists linked to Eduardo Mondlane University
(EMU) Biological Sciences Department pioneered formal marine scientific studies in Mozambique
following the independence of 1975.
Initially, the investigations carried out by the EMU focused on Inhaca Island given that the island
was easily accessible and the Estação de Biologia Marinha da Inhaca was provided with well-
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
8
equipped laboratories and boats. Alongside EMU, the Fisheries Research Institute also conducted
scientific research, since it was receiving aid from Norway, Russia, and Iceland.
To conduct the review of marine ecosystems of Mozambique the project team searched
databases available in electronic and print formats. However, although the country has an
extensive coastline there are few formally published data on its marine ecosystems. There is,
however, a relatively abundant grey literature containing information that should probably be
published.
1.2 . 2. Qua ntit ative and Qua lita t ive Stat e of Data Col lect ion/ Avai l abil ity
The fishery biology field in Mozambique presents more specific information on marine sciences
with special emphasis for deep sea fishing of shrimp and fish (Bamoi et al., 2007; Brito, 2010; Brito
et al., 2007; Brycesson & Massinga, 2002; Cadima & Silva, 1998; Fischer et al., 1990; Gervásio &
Lopes, 2003; Gislason & Sousa, 1985; Gjosaeter & Sousa, 1983; Halare, 2012; Hoguane, 2007;
Hoguane et al., 2012; Machava et al., 2014; Pinto & Lopes, 2001) and some ecological aspects of
commercial shrimps that recruit in mangroves creeks (Macia 2004a,b; Macia et al., 2003;
Ronnback et al., 2002).
During the past decade, marine scientific research in Mozambique has grown with many authors
paying special attention to corals and associated fishes
1
, marine mammals
2
, seagrasses
3
,
mangroves
4
with special attention on fauna
5
, and marine turtles
6
.
However, limited research has been done to document other marine resources. There are few
data on the biological production of the shelf ecosystem (phyto-and zooplankton studies are
virtually absent), as well on the biology of sharks (Pierce et al., 2008), cephalopods, tuna (Chacate
& Mutombene, 2012; Palha de Sousa, 2011), seaweed (Bandeira, 1995, 1998; Bandeira et al.,
2001; Frontier-Mozambique, 1997), seabirds (Le Corre & Jaquemet, 2005), barnacles (Litulo,
1
(Barnes & Bell, 2002; Costa et al., 2005; Motta, 2000; Motta et al., 2000; Muthiga, 1998; Obura et al., 2002; Pereira, 2000a,b; 2002;
Pereira et al., 2001; Pereira & Videira, 2005; Quod, 1999; Rodrigues et al., 1999; Schleyer, 1998; Schleyer et al., 1999; Souter, 2000).
2
(Cockroft et al., 2008; Guissamulo, 1993; Guissamulo & Cockroft, 1996; Guissamulo et al., 2002; Hughes, 1969; Kiszka et al., 2007;
Mendez et al., 2011; Overvest, 1997).
3
(Almeida et al., 1995, 1999, 2001; Bandeira, 1995, 2000, 2002; Bandeira & Bjork, 2001; Bandeira & Nilsson, 2001; Barnes et al., 1998;
Gell & Whittington 2002; Gullstrom & Dahlberg 2004; Gullstrom et al., 2002).
4
(Bandeira et al., 2009; Barbosa et al., 2001; Brauer et al., 2002; Ferreira et al., 2009; Frontier-Mozambique, 1997; Hatton & Couto,
1992; Kalk, 1995; Macnae & Kalk, 1969).
5
(Amaral et al., 2009; Barnes et al., 2011; Cannicci et al., 2009; Ferreira et al., 2009; Flores et al., 2002; Guerreiro et al., 1996; Hartnoll
et al., 2002; Litulo, 2005a,b,c,d; 2006, 2007; Macia et al., 2001, 2004a,b; 2014a,b; Paula et al., 2001a,b; 2003; Penha-Lopes et al.,
2010a,b,c; Silva et al., 2009; Torres et al., 2009a,b).
6
(Brito, 2012; Costa et al., 2007; Fernandes et al., 2014; Frontier-Mozambique, 1997; Garnier et al., 2012; Gove & Magane, 1996;
Louro et al., 2006).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
9
2007), bryozoans (Barnes & Whittington, 1999), gastropods and bivalves (de Boer et al., 2000),
and echinoderms (Walenkamp, 1990), which remains poorly known.
1.2 . 3. Dat a Ga p s
Regarding fisheries, there are many data gaps that could be a source of future challenges. For
example, the migratory routes of tuna that recurrently travel to the Mozambican coast are
unknown. Similarly, shark fishing, deep-sea fisheries, reproductive aspects of lobsters, sea
cucumbers, mussels, the number of fishermen involved in each gear as well as the specific
composition and yield by fishing gear (Fernando et al., 2012) have been poorly reported.
There is a need to assess: the use and conservation of coastal resources in the central region of
the country; levels of trace metal pollutants in the coastal environment; variations in the spatial
distribution of macrobenthos and nutrient dynamics in mangroves and seagrass; effects of climate
change and movement of sediments on mortality of corals; characterization (to species level) and
production of the phytoplankton and zooplankton system; migration and population genetics of
whales, stingrays, mantas; rehabilitation of ecosystems degraded such as coastal dunes, reefs,
mangroves and seagrasses; distribution of sea turtles along the Mozambican coast (ASCME,
2012); the migration routes and nesting areas for seabirds; assessment of the impact of tourism
on shore birds; and mapping of areas that may be ecologically sensitive to the development of oil
and gas reserves recently found in the Rovuma basin.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
10
2. K E Y STA K EH O LDER S
2.1 . SCI ENTI F IC C OMMU N ITY
Research in marine sciences in Mozambique started in the 70s when the country gained its
independence from the Portuguese rule. Soon after independence, research activities were
concentrated on fisheries as the country received financial aid to support this sector from the
Soviet Union and Norway (Bandeira et al., 2002). As mentioned earlier, pioneering marine
research in Mozambique took place at the Marine Biological Station at Inhaca Island, an
institution attached to the Department of Biological Sciences of Eduardo Mondlane University,
the oldest and leading Mozambican university founded in 1962. Sweden has been a key, long-
term partner of the Department as well as the Biological Station at Inhaca, sponsoring high-level
human resources capacity building and equipment.
There are currently five technical institutions operating in marine sciences in Mozambique:
INAHINA – National Institute for Hydrography and Navigation, IIP- National Fisheries Research
Institute, CDS_ZONAS COSTEIRAS - Centre for Sustainable development of Coastal Zones, CEPAM
– Centre for Marine And Coastal Research of Pemba and UEM Eduardo Mondlane University with
the Natural History Museum and the Inhaca Island Marine Biology Research Station. In addition,
the Eduardo Mondlane University also carries out research and teaching in marine sciences
through two institutions: the Superior School of Marine and Coastal Sciences of Quelimane, and
the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science.
The aim of INAHINA is to conduct technical and scientific activities in Mozambican waters under
national legislation ensuring navigation safety and to provide assistance to research and
protection of marine resources. The Fisheries Research Institute was founded in the 60s and
conducts research on fisheries and provides advice on fisheries management.
The CDS-Zonas Costeiras is a public institution created by the Mozambican Ministry of
Environmental Affairs (MICOA). Its main mission is to coordinate and promote studies and their
dissemination: provide technical advice, training and develop pilot activities to manage marine,
coastal and inland (lake) environments; and contribute to the design of policies and legislation,
which promotes the development of the coastal zone.
CEPAM (full name in Portuguese: Centro de Pesquisa do Ambiente Marinho e Costeiro) was
created by the Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs to carry out programs of applied
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
11
research on marine and coastal ecosystems to improve the understanding of their capacity;
contribute to the implementation of the integrated planned actions and good practices of the
management of marine and coastal areas; conduct monitoring activities and regular evaluation of
the marine and coastal ecosystems; reinforce the protection of the marine and coastal
environment; promote environmental training programs and promote scientific exchange with
national and foreign institutions which carry out research activities of the marine and coastal
environment.
The School of Marine and Coastal Sciences of Quelimane (ESCMC) was created under the Faculty
of Sciences of University Eduardo Mondlane in 2005. The ESCMC conducts multidisciplinary
research on marine ecosystems for a better use and management of marine resources;
contributes to an improved knowledge of the marine ecosystems; designs teaching programmes
directed at meeting the country's needs in the many fields of marine sciences; and promotes
communication and collaboration between institutions and individual marine science researchers
(Hoguane, 1998).
The Department of Biological Sciences (DBS) is a teaching department of the Eduardo Mondlane
University, which has been active for more than 25 years. It began its activities in 1986 as the
Faculty of Biology and in 1999 it became a Department of Biological Sciences when it merged with
the large Faculty of Science. Since 2010, the DBS teaches four undergraduate courses (to the
Licenciatura level), one of which focuses on Marine and Aquatic Biology. Since 2008 this
department also teaches a Master of Science Course in Aquatic Biology and Coastal Ecosystems
offering postgraduate training opportunities in Mozambique. Marine research of this institution
includes the ecology of commercial shrimps (nursery grounds), marine botany (mangroves,
seagrasses and taxonomy), ecology and utilization of intertidal resources, marine mammal biology
and ecology, coral reef research, and mariculture of marine invertebrates and aquaculture.
2.2 . NAT I ONAL AND LOC A L G O VERN MENT S
There are seven Provinces and ten main cities along the coast. These are Pemba (Cabo Delgado),
Angoche, Nacala (Nampula), Pebane, Quelimane (Zambezia), Beira (Sofala), Vilankulos, Maxixe,
Inhambane (Inhambane) and Maputo (Figure 2.1). The National Environmental Policy is the main
policy that governs environmental management in Mozambique. The Environmental Law (Decree
20/97, of 1 October) recognizes the need to control the increasing environmental degradation.
The law also establishes specific regulations for sound management and use of coastal resources.
It integrates socio-economic aspects with environmental issues.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
12
Figure 2.1 – Administrative division of Mozambique, showing the Provinces and location of main coastal
cities (from http://www.portaldogoverno.gov.mz).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
13
MICOA’s main responsibility is the preparation of environmental policies and strategies and
coordinating their implementation in the field. It operates at central and provincial level. The
Provincial Directorates of MICOA (DPCA) main activities are inter-sectorial coordination, provincial
planning and management of exploitation of natural resources (ASCLME, 2012; Wingqvist, 2011).
Other authorities in Mozambique that are relevant in the management of coastal and marine
environment include the Mozambique Maritime Authority, which is responsible for overseeing,
monitoring and controlling activities within the marine waters of Mozambique in order to
maintain law and order and territorial integrity. In case of a threat to territorial integrity, the
armed forces would step in.
With regard to ports, the Mozambique Port Authority is responsible for their administration and
management. This includes supervision of port operations and ensuring that port services are
efficient, safe, and environmentally sound.
2.3 . COM P ANIE S AN D CO RPORA TE F EDER ATION S IN
FIS HERI E S/A Q UACU LTUR E SE C TORS
Currently, the fisheries sector in Mozambique is focused on exports as driven by companies
fishing at semi-industrial and industrial levels. Consequently, this sector has received more
attention from the Mozambican government, providing assistance either in terms of access to
funds for the acquisition of equipment and refrigerating systems or assisting with the
development of the fisheries market.
Most companies operating in the fisheries sector in Mozambique focus their efforts on shrimp
and demersal fish that have great commercial value in Asia and European markets. Among the
various companies operating in this sector there are: Sulpesca - Sociedade de Pescas do Sul Lda,
Gambeira - Sociedade de Pesca de Gamba Lda, Krustamoz - Crustáceos de Moçambique, Lda.,
Pescamar - Sociedade de Pescas de Mariscos Lda, Pescas do Sul Lda, Zambézia Pescas Lda., Boa
Hora Comercio e Industria de Productos Alimentares Lda, Companhia de Pesca Industrial Lda,
Efripel - Entreposto Frigorífico de Pescas de Moçambique Lda, Finage Mar Mocambique Lda,
Indicus Pesca Lda, Indicopesca Lda, Mavimbi Lda, Marbar Lda , Moza Fisheries Lda, Pecabom Lda,
Pestrai - Pescaria Transporte Inhassoro Lda, Prapesca - Companhia de Pesca de Moçambique Lda
and Wing Koon, Lda. Up to 90% of the employees of these companies are Mozambicans. In order
to access the EU market, the companies need to adhere to international regulations with regards
to sanitary and public health issues. However, there has been some resistance in applying eco-
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
14
friendly technology (e.g. by-catch reduction devices such as turtle exclusion devices). In general,
the companies grant access to technicians from the National Institute for Fisheries Research (IIP)
to conduct research and monitoring activities aboard their vessels.
The aquaculture sector in Mozambique was initially more focused on the commercial production
of Penaeid shrimps for Asia as the primary export destination. There are currently three
commercial shrimp aquaculture enterprises operating in three Mozambican provinces: Beira (Sol
& Mar, 500 ha), Quelimane (Aquapesca, 1,000 ha) and Pemba (Indian Ocean Aquaculture, 980
ha). All use a semi-intensive farming system in earthen ponds (size range from 5-10 ha) and
import feed from the region (South Africa and Seychelles) or from Asia. Current production is at
4.8 tonnes/ha/year. Water quality is permanently monitored and investment is high. The species
produced are Penaeus monodon, the giant tiger prawn and Penaeus indicus, the Indian white
prawn. All farms use their effluent ponds and mangroves as biofilters. The INAQUA has been
promoting aquaculture projects throughout the country, including the building of ponds in
mangroves. This, without a master plan can prove deleterious for mangroves in Mozambique, as
similarly to what happened in other countries such as Indonesia and Ecuador.
In recent years, there have been a large number of companies producing seaweed in the Cabo
Delgado province with the purpose of exporting carrageenan (linear sulphated polysaccharides
extracted from red algae) to Asian markets (Bandeira et al, 2002; Brycesson & Massinga, 2002).
More recently, fish farming has become an alternate source of animal protein for the whole
country (Figure 2.2). Currently, the largest firms dedicated to large scale aquaculture in the
country are: Aquaquel Lda, Aquapesca Lda, Aquapemba Lda, Mozambi Fisheries & Aquaculture
S.A, Nhangu Lda, Sol e Mar Lda, Peixe Bela-Vista Lda, MozTilapia Lda, Chicoa Fish Farm Lda,
Agropecua-Sumbanini Lda, Xibaha Lda, Aquase Lda, Chicamba Pesca Lda and Ada Verde Lda. The
aquaculture sector can generate an income of about USD $ 6.7 million per year (ASCLME, 2012).
Moreover, it is believed that in general, the sector faces some problems such as poor planning,
inadequate site selection, inappropriate management procedures and lack of attention to
environmental friendly practices. However, information on the environmental impacts of these
projects is scarce.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
15
Figure 2.2 – MozTilapia, an aquaculture project based in Machavenga between Tofo and Inhambane,
Inhambane Province (Photo: Dave Charley)
2.4 . INT E RNA T IONA L PU B LIC BODI ES
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), as well as other major UN bodies, such as the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), and the World Bank (e.g. South-west Indian Ocean Fisheries project), have all
undertaken coastal/marine/oceanographic programs in Mozambique. FAO has been particularly
active in the assessment of marine ecosystems of Mozambique through the EAF-Nansen project
“Strengthening the Knowledge Base for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries
in Developing Countries”, which is a project the FAO conducted in close collaboration with the
Institute of Marine Research of Bergen (Norway) and funded by the Norwegian Agency for
Development Cooperation (NORAD).
UNESCO also has a specific programme associated with the marine environment
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) that has been particularly active in
integrated coastal management in Mozambique (www.ioc-cd.org). An important program of the
IOC is the Ocean Data and Information Network for Africa (ODINAFRICA), as well as the joint
program between the IOC and the Advisory Committee on Problems of the Sea (ACOPS) on
development and protection of the coastal and marine environment in sub-Saharan Africa.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
16
The presence of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is also key to African countries,
particularly in the field of governmental regulation and practices that are, among others,
associated with protection of the marine environment. Additionally, the Global Environmental
Facility (GEF) is the funding agency of the Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem
(ASCLME), which is part of a multi-project, multi-agency programme to institutionalize
cooperative management in the region. The implementing agency of ASCLME is UNDP and the
executing agency is the UN Office for Project Services.
2.5 . NAT I ONAL AND INT E RNA T IONA L NG Os
Pereira (2008a) conducted a national review of the capacity and needs of Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs), dealing with marine and coastal issues in Mozambique, including fishermen
associations. Twenty-four organizations out of a total of 43 distributed throughout the country
were assessed. The study revealed that in general NGOs in Mozambique were relatively young,
understaffed, under-funded, and poorly equipped. Also, it highlighted that whilst an enabling
environment and legal framework for NGO establishment and functioning was established, there
were several procedural difficulties. There was still a lot to be accomplished with regards to
training, communications and networking, and general institutional capacity building in order to
enable the NGOs to perform their roles. In a more recent study focused on fishermen associations
targeting tuna, Pereira et al. (2013), showed that associativism is still a “novelty” in Mozambique
as the majority of the fishermen interviewed (83.0%) were not engaged or anyway associated
with any organization that manages or is part of any decision-making processes.
Prominent national NGOs in the country that deal with marine and coastal issues, including
research, monitoring, conservation and/or lobbying advocacy, include Centro Terra Viva (CTV),
Eyes on the Horizon (EOTH), Associação de Mergulhadores Activos para os Recursos Marinhos
(AMAR), Associação Ambiental Ocean Revolution Moçambique, Associação Bitonga Divers and the
Association of Coastal Conservation of Mozambique (ACCM). In general, NGOs in Mozambique are
primarily funded by foreign aid (both Governmental and private donors), with European countries
and the United States being the most relevant. International NGOs and bodies that operate in
Mozambique include the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF), the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Peace Parks Foundation (PPF), the Marine Megafauna Foundation
(MMF), All Out Africa, Friends of Vamizi Trust, and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). Some
of these organizations work mainly as donors whilst others implement projects in the field or
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
17
provide technical assistance to local partners. Table 2.1 presents further information on these
organizations.
Table 2.1 – Summary of main NGOs working on marine and coastal issues in Mozambique
NGO and Focus Current Projects Weak Points Strong points
National NGOs
CTV Monitoring of good
governance, community land
use rights, marine turtle
conservation and technical
support to conservation
areas
Based in Maputo with
regional offices in Pemba
and Maxixe.
Marine/coastal issues not
an institutional priority
Advocacy,
intervention and
technical capacity
EOTH - to assist on
illegal fishing
Newsletter, lobbying on
illegal fisheries
Under funded, few staff Networking
AMAR divers
association for
marine conservation
Project COAST - Tofo,
Tofinho and Barra
National level but focused
mainly on Tofo/Barra
region
Support from dive
industry and
networking
ACCM – research and
conservation mainly
on Zavora region
Research: Manta ray
population, humpback
whale, marine invertebrates
(nudibranchs). Conservation:
environmental education
and sea turtle patrolling
Under funded, dependent
on volunteers to fund, few
staff and lack of
networking
Field laboratory infra-
structure that could
partner with other
organizations,
support from local
industry and schools
Associação Ambiental
Ocean Revolution
Moçambique
Train people from local
community to become dive
leader and environmental
educators
Mainly focused on Tofo
area
International donors.
Networking
Associação Bitonga
Divers
Sponsors SCUBA dive
training courses, (open
water, dive master and
instructor training), boat
skipper and swim teacher
training courses
Marine conservation
awareness presentations
with local communities
Sponsorship/ traineeship
opportunities are quite
selective/limited/exclusive
Limited opportunity for
beneficiaries to seek
stable permanent
employment post training
(dive industry and
employment is small)
Provides an avenue
for Mozambicans to
become involved in
dive industry;
Strong links to local
fishing communities;
Facilitates
employment
opportunities with
local dive operators
for members who
complete their
dive/skipper training;
Provides beneficiaries
with equipment (dive
gear and computers)
International NGOs
Istituto Oikos
conservation and
development
Protection of marine and
coastal habitats and food
security at the Quirimbas
National Park
Restricted to Cabo
Delgado province
Credibility, integrated
approach
WWF fund and
support protected
Vilankulos-Bazaruto
seascape, Primeiras and
International
recognition, funding
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
18
NGO and Focus Current Projects Weak Points Strong points
areas Segundas, Quirimbas
National Park
IUCN fund and
protected
endangered animals
Dugong Research and
conservation, Vamizi island
International
recognition
PPF management
and conservation of
transfrontier parks
Ponta do Ouro Partial
Marine Reserve
Only supports
transfrontier areas
International
recognition and
credibility
MMF – research and
conservation of
megafauna
Research: manta ray, whale
shark and sea turtle.
Conservation: environmental
education
Lack of networking with
local organizations
Funded by
international donors.
Partnership with
international
universities and
researchers
All out Africa
research and
conservation of
megafauna
Research: whale shark and
manta ray monitoring.
Conservation: environmental
education
Highly depend on tourism
and few qualified staff
Experience on Tofo
area
Friends of Vamizi
Trust funding
projects in Vamizi
Research: coral colonization,
reef sharks, effects of MPA.
Conservation: Community
sanctuary, environmental
education
Partial dependence on
private sector
International donors.
Partnership with
IUCN. Long-term
work with local
community through
the CCP
Several other prominent international NGOs (e.g. Blue Ventures, the Wildlife Conservation
Society) have shown interest in starting projects in Mozambique and in some cases are in the
process of seeking funds for their implementation. Rare’s Mozambique program is guided by the
Fish Forever alliance objectives and aims at supporting sustainable coastal fisheries in
collaboration with the IDPPE. The establishment of a National Forum for Marine and Coastal
NGOs is currently being promoted by the WWF. It will initially include five NGOs based in Maputo
(Livaningo, CTV, WWF, Kuwuka JDA, and ABIODES), and will hopefully expand its membership to
other NGOs in the country.
2.6 . PRI V ATE SECT OR
Several private companies throughout the country, especially those involved in coastal and
marine tourism, closely collaborate with MPAs in data collection, monitoring and conservation
activities. A good example of this collaborative effort is the annual marine turtle monitoring
programme at the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve, where companies from a diverse range
of backgrounds (i.e. marine activities - Dolphin Encounters, accommodations - White Pearl
Resorts - Ponta Mamoli and real state - Machangulo SA), contribute either through supervision of
local monitors, salaries or with materials for the success of the monitoring. A number of
consulting companies involved in the preparation of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs),
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
19
Environmental Management Plans (EMPs), research, monitoring and similar projects deal one way
or another with marine and coastal issues. The main ones are based in Maputo and amongst
other include Impacto Lda., Golder Associates Lda., Cowi Moçambique, Consultec Lda., VerdeAzul
Lda., and Biodinâmica S.A.
Several large-scale projects are currently taking place along the coastal zone in Mozambique and
include amongst other oil and gas exploration, mining and other mega-projects (Table 2.2). These
encompass large investments from multinational companies, which potentially could boost socio-
economic development for the country in general, and for local communities in particular. This
has not been the case so far and community involvement and benefit has been at best marginal,
with several authors (Castel-Branco, 2010; Nhamire, 2014) questioning the real benefits of such
projects for the country’s economy. Oil & Gas projects in the Cabo Delgado province, where the
main natural gas reserves have been found, can potentially cause direct and indirect significant
changes in a considerable part of the coastal area of this province. Further Oil & Gas projects are
expected to happen in other provinces of Mozambique within the next decades.
Apart from the socio-economic issues, environmental concerns have raised with regards to the
non-compliance by large companies of environmental and public safety standards. A recent case
in point, Justiça Ambiental and a coalition of Mozambican NGOs, filed a complaint against BHP
Billiton regarding its decision to operate its Mozal aluminum smelter under a bypass authorised
by the Mozambican Ministry for Environmental Coordination. The bypass allowed the smelter to
operate without exhaust filters for a period of 6 months. The company claims the bypass caused
no damage to the environment and not public health issues. However, this has not been verified
by independent entities.
Table 2.2 – Main development areas in each of Mozambique’s coastal provinces that might have
influence on the coastal districts
Province Type of development Key companies operating in the area
Cabo Delgado Mueda Corridor*, North-South corridor, Oil
& Gas Offshore and Onshore (Areas 1 and
4)**, Logistics, Ports, Mining, Tourism,
Aquaculture
Anadarko, ENI, Petronas, ENH, ENHILS,
Triton Minerals, Rovuma Resources,
Indian Ocean Aquaculture
Nampula Nacala Corridor, North-South corridor,
Ports, Logistics, Mining, Industry,
Aquaculture, Tourism
Vale, Kenmare, Aquapesca, Cimentos
de Moçambique
Zambezia Zambezia Corridor, North-South Corridor,
Ports, Agriculture, Industry, Mining,
Logging, Aquaculture, Industrial Fishing
Aquapesca, EOZ, Grupo Madal
Sofala Beira Corridor, North-South Corridor, Ports,
Logistics, Industry, Agriculture, Aquaculture,
Pescamar, Aquapesca, Krustamoz,
Pescabom
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
20
Province Type of development Key companies operating in the area
Industrial fishing
Inhambane North South-Corridor, Oil & Gas Onshore
and Offshore, Tourism, Agriculture,
Aquaculture
SASOL
Gaza North-South Corridor, Agriculture,
Aquaculture, Heavy sands in Chibuto
Anhui Foreign Economic Construction
Group and Yunnan XinLi Non-ferrous
Metals Co. Ltd
Maputo Maputo Corridor, Libombos Corridor,
North-South Corridor, Industry, Ports,
Logistics, Industrial fishing
MOZAL, CIM, Cimentos de
Moçambique, MPDC
* “Corridors” mean development corridors that are planned for the country
** A new bidding process for Oil & Gas exploration concessions in Mozambique has been released during
the last trimester of 2014, therefore, new Oil & Gas areas are expected in Rovuma (East), Angoche,
Zambeze Delta (Sofala’s Bank region), and near the Pande-Temane and Palmeira concession
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
21
3. COASTAL PO P U L ATIONS
3.1 . MAI N SO C IAL INDI C ATOR S
Two thirds of the 20.8 million Mozambicans live along the coastline (Table 3.1). Fishing,
agriculture, trade and tourism are the largest income generating activities for such communities.
Fishing however is the largest contributor to the livelihoods of such societies. The biggest
concentration of fishing villages is in Zambézia, Nampula, and Cabo Delgado provinces. These
have the largest number of households and inhabitants respectively.
Table 3.1 – Main socio-economic indicators for Mozambique
Indicator Figure Source
Population size (2013) 20.8 Million UNDP 2014
Urban population ratio 31% UNDP 2014
GDP per capita 971 USD UNDP 2014
Population below poverty line (1.25USD/day) 59.58% UNDP 2014
Adult literacy rate 50.6% UNDP 2014
Unemployment rate 22.5% UNDP 2014
Electrification rate (2010) 15% UNDP 2014
Access to improved water 43% UNICEF 2014
Access to improved sanitation 19% UNICEF 2014
There are 53,000 registered artisanal fishing units in 1,586 fishing centres spread throughout the
country that account for 400,000 jobs. These contribute to poverty relief and food security. Men
own 98.9% of fishing units. Fishing is the main source of income for 87% of unit owners, followed
by agriculture. The most common vessels used by these units are canoes (88%) and their biggest
concentration is in the Nampula and Sofala provinces (Jone et al., 2013).
Artisanal fishing is carried out either from a vessel or by foot, and is confined to the coastal
regions and lakes. The gear used includes manual fishing trawls, gillnets, handlines, traps, and
harpoons. Subsistence and artisanal fishers, catch almost 200 t or 91% of all fish caught in
national waters (Ministério das Pescas, 2013). Most of the catch is for local consumption and is
sold in local and regional markets. Fish makes up 50% of the population’s protein consumption in
Mozambique (FAO, 2001). Sixty percent of artisanal fishing takes place in maritime waters, in
beaches and the open sea, while the remaining 40% is carried out in inland waters primarily in
Niassa and Tete Province (Jone et al., 2013).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
22
Artisanal fishing has increased three times its production between 2005 and 2012 reaching over
200,000 t. This increase has contributed to an exponential increase in the living conditions of
fishing communities. Purchasing power has increase by 51.6%, living conditions have improved by
19.7%, 41.9% of fishing communities have access to drinking water, fishing revenue can cover
household expenditures, and 43% of fishing communities have access to latrines (Ministério das
Pescas, 2013).
Electricity is only available in major urban centres, hence only nearby communities have access to
fresh fish. For that reason several conservation methods have been developed: sun drying which
is most common in Nampula, smoking which is most common in Zambézia, Nampula and Cabo
Delgado, and salting and drying which is most common in Sofala, Nampula and Cabo Delgado. In
Maputo and Gaza, 17% and 32% respectively of fish is frozen. Conserved fish is then transported
and sold to inland communities (Degnbol, 2002; IDPPE, 2009).
Women play a very marginal role in the fishing industry, mainly picking shellfish for household
consumption and selling the surplus. For cultural reasons, in the more conservative North and
Centre of the country, women sell any surplus fish locally but are rarely allowed by their husbands
to participate in more formal marketing of fish, as it is believed that this would bring them in to
close contact with other men. In the South women engage in the commercialization of fish,
however it is the men who generally control the money they earn (Degnbol et al., 2002).
Fishing communities along the Mozambican coast (Figure 3.1) witness migration patterns due to
the seasonal fluctuation of resources (Lopes et al., 1997). In the North, shoal movements in the
Quirimbas Archipelago attract fishermen and traders from Tanzania and Nampula (Johnstone,
2004; Santos, 2008), while in the Centre and South, fishermen rotate from one fishing camp to
another (SAL, 2006). Another factor that has influenced the migration patterns in fishing
communities is new protected areas in national parks such as the Bazaruto Archipelago National
Park (SAL, 2006).
These fishing-induced migrations have also had adverse social consequences including the
increased dissemination of HIV/AIDS and communal conflict (Ministério das Pescas, 2007). For
instance, migrant fishermen staying for longer periods of time in certain areas such as the
Quirimbas Archipelago have increased the pressure on fishing resources (SAL, 2006). The seasonal
closing of shrimp fishery has also been met with resistance by some fishermen (Johnstone, 2004).
Another source of conflict is the company fleets invading exclusive marine zones for artisanal
fishing (Santos, 2008). Local conflicts are typically resolved at the fishing centres without the
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
23
interference of local authorities. However, local authorities are sometimes requested to intervene
when conflicts include migrants.
Figure 3.1 – Local fisherman at Inhambane Bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo Santos)
Several socio-economic problems have exerted increasing pressure on fishing communities
resulting in the disruption of the native ecosystems including: inappropriate fishing practices that
make use of mosquito nets; fishing during the closed season and of protected species; cutting of
mangrove trees; overlapping authority; inefficient application of resource management policy;
increasing population density in coastal areas; increasing fishery related conflicts; and weak
control of fisheries (Pereira, 2011).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
24
4. A P P LIC ABL E LEG I S L ATION
4.1 . POL ITIC A L AN D PO LICY CONT EXT
4.1 . 1. Env iron m ent at L arge
The Constitution of Mozambique establishes the right to live in a well-balanced environment and
the right to protect and defend that environment. The state and local authorities are required to
adopt policies to protect the environment and ensure rational and sustainable use of natural
resources. To guarantee the right to a favourable environment while recognising the need for
sustainable development, the state has adopted policies which prevent and control pollution and
erosion, which support integrated environmental objectives in sectorial policies and promote the
integration of environmental values in the education system policy and programmes (Wingqvist,
2011).
The Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) is the government institution
responsible for ensuring the preservation and sustainable use of natural resources, the
coordination of environmental activities including licensing. Provincial Directorates for
Coordination of Environmental Affairs (DPCA) and in some cases District Directorates for
Coordination of Environmental Affairs (DDCA) are the local representatives of MICOA.
In 1997 the Environmental Law was approved by the Parliament (Law 20/97, of 1 October). This
law regulates the use and management of the environment with a vision of promoting sustainable
development. It also includes a number of definitions and establishes principles based on the
constitutional right to a favourable environment. The principles include:
The principle of use and rational management of natural resources;
The principle of recognition and value of community knowledge and traditions;
The principle of environmental management based on preventive systems;
The principle of integrative management;
The principle of citizen participation; and
The principle of responsibility
In addition, the laws urge all stakeholders involved in the environmental activities to:
Prevent and control pollution and erosion;
Integrate the environment objectives in sector policies;
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
25
Promote the integration of environmental values in educational policies and programs,
Ensure the rational use of natural resources within their capacity to regenerate and
bearing mind the rights of future generations (Legal Framework, 2009).
4.1 . 2. Mar ine E nvir onme nt
The Decree 5/2003 of 18 February created the Centre for Sustainable Development of Coastal
Zones established in the Gaza province. This is an institution subordinated to the Ministry of
Coordination of Environmental Affairs. The essential mandate of the Centre is to coordinate and
promote studies, technical assistance, capacity and development of microenvironment coastal,
marine and lacustrine management activities which contribute to elaborate policies, and to
formulate legislation that promotes the development of coastal zones.
The fishery sector in particular contributes significantly to national exports. This sector is
regulated by Law 22/2003 of 1 November (Fisheries Law). The fisheries sector is both nationally
and regionally important. Some aspects of the law are not in conformity with international law
such as delimitation of fishing boundaries and continental shelfs, prohibition of over-night fishing,
the compulsory need to get migration permits for foreign crews fishing in Mozambican waters.
The other pressing issues are over-fishing and the protection of the marine environment.
Aquaculture is a relatively new activity in Mozambique and the industry may be divided into two
broad categories. Namely freshwater aquaculture and coastal aquaculture, which are each
subdivided in subsistence and commercial aquaculture. The national strategy for the development
of aquaculture has three principal objectives:
Increase the supply of fish to the internal market to address the shortage of food in the
country;
Improve the level of employment and increase the fish man yield as well as small scale
producers; and
Increase fish production to enhance exports.
There is a general Aquaculture Regulation that defines all rights and obligations of all
stakeholders. The legislation defines specific norms and requirements for aquaculture farms and
establishes procedures for licensing and parameters for each farming system.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
26
For the offshore oil and gas industry, the National Institute of Petroleum is the institution
responsible for the regulation and funding of all activities related with research, production and
transportation of petroleum, as well as all the adoption of necessary policy in the field. National
Institute of Petroleum manages the petroleum resources of Mozambique and administers the
related operations. This Institution was established by the Decree 25/2004 of 20 August three
years after enacting the Petroleum Law (Law 3/2001 of 21 February), which defines the granting
of rights for oil and gas operations in the Republic of Mozambique.
Article 23 of the Petroleum Law is particularly relevant as it relates to environmental protection
and safety. This law clearly recognizes in article 21, the Law 4/96 of 4 January, Law of the Sea,
which regulates the maritime jurisdiction of petroleum sites located in national waters. The
geology of parts of Mozambique suggests that geological formations could contain both oil and
gas.
Finally, with the new Biodiversity Conservation Law (Law 16/2014 of 20 June), the country has
harmonized the categories of Conservation Areas (including Marine Protected Areas [MPAs]),
which are divided in 2 types and several sub-types:
i) Total Conservation Areas include 3 sub-types – a) the Integral Natural Reserve, b) the
National Park and c) the Cultural and Natural Monument;
ii) ii) Sustainable Use Conservation Areas include 7 sub-types a) Special Reserve, b)
Environmental Protection Area, c) Official Game Reserve, d) Community Conservation
Area, e) Sanctuary, f) Game Farm, g) Municipal Ecological Park.
The first type corresponds to the areas of public domain that are aimed to the conservation of
ecosystems and species without the extraction of resources. Only indirect use of natural
resources is allowed with the exceptions considered in the Law. The second type corresponds to
the areas of public and private domain, aimed to conservation, subject to an integrated
management with permission of resource extraction but respecting sustainable limits according
to the approved Management Plan. In this type, areas can be of National, Province, District and
Municipality level. This law is yet to be regulated and until that has not happened, the former
Conservation Areas cannot be reclassified according to the new categories.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
27
4.1 . 3. Fis heri e s an d Aq uacu l ture
The fisheries sector is administered by the Ministry of Fisheries (MIPE), created by the
Government in 2000. Prior to this, Fisheries and Agriculture was housed under a single ministry.
MIPE is the institution responsible for granting licenses, inspection and management of all fishing
activities. The structure of the Ministry comprises several dependent institutions: the National
Administration of Fisheries (ADNAP), the National Institute of Aquaculture Development
(INAQUA), the National Institute of Fish Inspection (INIP) and Fisheries Development Fund (FFP), a
financial institution with the mandate to provide credit mechanisms for the development of
fisheries. As subordinated institutions: Fisheries Research Institute (IIP), Institute for Small Scale
Fisheries Development (IDPPE) and Fisheries School (EP).
The Fisheries Research Institute is responsible for collecting and processing statistical data on
yield and effort, the periodic assessment of the most important stocks, and provides
recommendations on management measures necessary for appropriate use of resources. The
IDPPE is responsible for promoting the development of small-scale fisheries through development
activities and projects related to socio-economic aspects and fishing technology.
At the local level, the MIPE is represented by Provincial Directorates and delegations of the
institutes in each Province. At the district level, the involvement of the communities through the
co-management of the fisheries is encouraged (MIPE, 2013; Santana Afonso, 2006).
The current development policy is documented in several strategy papers, including the Five-Year
Programme for Government 2010-2014, the Action Plan for the Reduction of Poverty (PARP) for
2011-2014, the Fisheries Master Plan II 2010-2019, and the yearly Economic and Social Plan (PES).
The legal basis of the Mozambican fisheries is given by the Fisheries Law, Law of Sea, and by the
several regulations listed in Table 4.1. The National Directorate for Fisheries Surveillance (DNFP) is
responsible for the compliance of all fishing sectors with the national laws and regulations.
Some of the most important rules are the definition of the mesh minimum size, the duration of
the closed seasons, and the determination of the three-mile zone from the coast exclusively for
artisanal fishing.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
28
Table 4.1 – List of fisheries-related national legislation currently in force in Mozambique.
Law / Decree Description
Law 22/2013 Fisheries Law: defines the legal framework regarding the management and
regulation of fisheries, defines the granting of fishing licenses, defines
measurements to conserve the fisheries resources, and plans the surveillance
actions of fishing, including quality of fishery products intended for export
Ministerial
Decree 62/90
Creates the Fishery School
Law 4/96 Law of Sea: redefines the rights of jurisdiction over the sea along the Mozambican
coast and provides regulation and management of maritime activities in the
country
Resolution 11/96 National Fisheries Policy and Implementation Strategies: was adopted and framed
within the overall development objectives of national economy, which are to
provide food security, sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, increase the net
foreign exchange earnings and reduce unemployment rate.
Decree 62/98 Creates the Institute for Small Scale Fisheries Development (IDPPE)
Decree 63/98 Creates the Fisheries Research Institute (IIP)
Decree 10/98 Defines the Regulation of Inspection and Quality Assurance for Fishery Products
(Replaced by Decree 17/2001)
Decree 51/99 Regulation for Recreational and Sport Fishing: determines what types of fishing
gears and vessels are permitted in the practice of recreational and sport fishing.
Defines the periods and areas for this activity. Defines the species and allowed
quotas. Provides various types of licenses and the rights and duties of fishermen.
Presidential
Decree 01/2000
Creates the Ministry of Fisheries (MIPE)
Decree 17/2001 Approves the Inspection and Quality Assurance for Fishery Products (replaces the
Decree 10/98)
Decree 35/01 General Regulation of Aquaculture determines rules of management and planning
of the activity establishing requirements for local installation and specific
production systems. Creates several types of licenses for the activity and
establishes the minimum conditions of quality of the products. Defines a set of
standards for the protection of the environment and natural resources.
Decree 43/03
General Regulation of Maritime Fisheries (REPMAR) establishes the rules to be
followed while fishing in marine waters of Mozambique. Defines a system of co-
management in fisheries management and for the implementation of management
measures. Sets the fishing gear and the type of requirements of vessels allowed in
maritime waters, as well as surveillance actions of the activity. Addresses the
creation of areas for the preservation of fishery resources (marine parks, marine
reserves and marine protected areas). Sets the obligatory use of devices to protect
endangered species (Turtle Exclusion Devices) and to reduce the by-catch.
Addresses the possibility to create artificial reefs.
Decree 18/05 Creates the National Institute of Fish Inspection (INIP)
Ministerial
Decree 139/06
Integrates the European Commission Regulations for Quality Control of Fish
Products
Decree 28/2008 Creates the INAQUA
Decree 57/2008 Approves the Inland Fisheries Regulation (REPAI)
Resolution
26/2008
Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Fisheries Policy and Implementation Strategy
Decree 58/2009 National Action Plan to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and
Unregulated Fishery
Decree 76/2009 Approves the General Regulation for the Hygiene Control on Food of Aquatic
Origin
Decree 04/2010 Creates the ADNAP
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
29
Besides national laws, there are several international and regional agreements regarding fisheries.
Table 4.2 shows the most important ones ratified by Mozambique.
Table 4.2 – International and regional agreements regarding fisheries ratified by Mozambique
Institution and year of
implementation Description
UN, 1982 (ratified in 1997) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
UNEP, 1985 (ratified in 1996) United Nations Environmental Programme Convention For
the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and
Coastal Environment of the Eastern African.
FAO, 1993 (ratified in 2009) Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations Agreement to
promote the compliance with International Conservation and
Management Measures by fishing vessels on the high seas
UN, 1995 (ratified in 2008) United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement
FAO, 1995 Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations Code of Conduct
for Responsible Fisheries
FAO, 1999 International Plans of Action (IPOA) for Reducing Incidental Catch of
Seabirds in Longline Fisheries
International Plans of Action (IPOA) for the Conservation and
Management of Sharks
International Plans of Action (IPOA) for the Management of Fishing
Capacity
FAO, 2001 International Plans of Action (IPOA) to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
SADC, 2002 Southern African Development Community Treaty Protocol on
Fisheries
NEPAD, 2005 Abuja Declaration: The New Partnership for Africa's Development
Action Plan for Sustainable Development of Fisheries and Aquaculture
in Africa
FAO, 2006 South Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA)
UN 2001, ratified in 2008 The United Nations Agreement for the Implementation of the
Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of
10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of
Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (UNFSA)
SADC, 2008 Declaration of Commitment of the Ministers of Fisheries of Southern
African Development Community in the fight against IUU Fishing
NEPAD, 2009 International Partnership for African Fisheries Governance and Trade
(PAF)
IOTC, 2011 The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Resolution 10/11 on Port State
Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate IUU Fishing
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
30
Institution and year of
implementation Description
IOTC, 2013 The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) Resolutions:
Resolution 13/04 on the conservation of cetaceans
Resolution 13/05 on the conservation of whale sharks
Resolution 13/06 on a scientific and management framework on the
conservation of shark species caught in association with IOTC
managed Fisheries
FAO, 2014 Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations Agreement on
Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate IUU Fishing
In the Southwestern Indian Ocean Region there are several regional fishery bodies of which
Mozambique is a member. One body is the Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission
(SWIOFC) established in 2004 by the FAO to promote the sustainable use of live marine resources
in the region. Another body, specialized in tuna and tuna-like fisheries, is the Indian Ocean Tuna
Commission (IOTC), established in 1996.
The fisheries sector has several aid partners including cooperating countries and international
agencies such as the Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD), Danish International
Development Agency (DANIDA), Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA), Agence
Française de Développement (AFD), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Overseas
Fishery Cooperation Foundation of Japan (OFCF), European Commission (EC), United States Aid
(USAID), United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), International Fund
for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),
African Development Bank (AfDB), Islamic Development Bank (IDB), Arab Bank for Economic
Development in Africa (BADEA), and the World Bank.
4.2 . ENF O RCEM ENT OF M A IN E NVIR ONME NTAL LAW S AND POL I CIES
The National Directorate for Fisheries Surveillance (DNFP) is the structure within the Ministry of
Fisheries which is responsible for the enforcement of the national laws and regulations for all
fishing sectors and aquaculture. Within the framework of the priorities set out in the Government
Five Year Programme, the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Fisheries Policy and the
Implementation Strategy (Resolution 26/08) was approved in 2008.
Industrial fisheries are the most regulated. All licensed fishing vessels are controlled by the VMS
Centre (Satellite Vessel Monitoring System) which monitors in real time the position, direction
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
31
and velocity of each vessel. Foreign vessels are inspected at ports as a condition to get the license.
Surveillance of the entire EEZ is also done with two patrol vessels.
Artisanal Fisheries are difficult to control so the approach that has been used is the involvement
of local communities in the co-management of fisheries, mainly through the Fishing Community
Councils (CCP).
Despite the existing legal and institutional framework, law enforcement has been widely
recognized as poor throughout the country. This is dealt with more details in Chapter 11.
4.3 . LEG I SLA T IVE AND/ O R E XECUT IVE PROC E SSE S
4.3 . 1. Pro mulga tion of new envi r onme ntal /fis h eri es l a ws
Traditionally, the process of promulgating general environmental laws and regulations has been
spearheaded by MICOA. Drafts are produced internally or by consultants, and circulated for
comments. A recent case where civil society played a very important role in drafting and leading
the process was the promulgation of the “Beach Regulation” (Decree 45/2006 of 30 November).
Processes regarding fisheries laws and regulations are usually driven by the Ministry of Fisheries,
and tend to be participatory in nature. Good examples include the recently approved Fisheries
Law, and the current revision of the Recreational and Sport Fisheries Regulation and the
Regulation on General Maritime Fisheries.
Regulations and Laws are then submitted to the National Council for Sustainable Development
(CONDES) and then to the Council of Ministers. Regulations are approved at the Council of
Ministers level. Laws are then submitted to the Parliament, for discussion and approval.
4.3 . 2. Est abli shmen t of MPAs or othe r pr otec t ed s tatu s
Until very recently, the proclamation of MPAs was based on several different legislations: the
Land Law (Law 19/97 of 1 October), the Forest and Wildlife Law (Law 10/99 of 7 July), and the
Regulation for General Maritime Fisheries (Decree 43/2003 of 10 December). This created
discrepancies and redundancy, especially regarding categories and protection rulings. In 2009, the
Conservation Policy and Implementation Strategy (Resolution 63/2009 of 2 November) was
approved by the Council of Ministers, and very recently, the Biodiversity Conservation Law (Law
16/2014 of 20 June) was also approved. These two instruments are deemed fundamental for
biodiversity conservation in Mozambique. The classification of conservation areas (including
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
32
MPAs), mechanisms of funding and management, as well as procedures for their proclamation,
were defined and standardised. There is also a provision for several stakeholders (Governmental
institutions, academia, private sector, NGOs, local communities or municipalities) to submit
proposals of new conservation areas.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
33
5. PH YSIC A L E N V IRO N MEN T
5.1 . CLI M ATE AND WEAT H ER
Climate in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) is mainly controlled by the African and Indian
monsoon systems, which can be separated into northern and southern hemisphere components.
Analysis of daily satellite sea surface wind images near Mozambique, within the period from 2003
to 2007, evidence two distinct regimes, the southwesterly (SW) and the northeasterly (NE)
monsoons (Malauene et al., 2014; van Rampelbergh et al., 2013) that correspond to the southern
extension of the East African monsoon (Biastoch & Krauss, 1999; Saetre & da Silva, 1982 cited by
Malauene et al., 2014).
The SW monsoon occurs during austral autumn-winter from the end of April to July/August and is
characterized by a persistent and strong (14 m/s) SW wind regime, while the NE monsoon occurs
during the austral spring-summer from August to March/April and has a low speed NE wind
regime (10 m/s) (Malauene et al., 2014; van Rampelbergh et al., 2013). The East African Monsoon
System in the north and the Indian Ocean Sub- tropical Anticyclone System in the south influence
rainfall. The annual average rainfall is about 1,100 mm, with about 20 to 40% year-to-year
variability.
The classification of Köppen (Cuamba et al., 2006) is widely used for the identification of
homogeneous climate zones as it considers only rainfall and temperature as the meteorological
variables. According to this classification, the northern and coastal regions have a tropical rain
savannah climate (Aw) and the southern sedimentary terrains have a dry savannah climate (BSw)
(Cuamba et al., 2006). But due to slightly differences in precipitation and temperatures amounts,
Cuamba et al. (2006) subdivided Mozambique coastal region in three climatic zones: a) north of
the Zambezi River (Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Zambézia provinces), b) a transitional zone in the
region of Zambezi River and c) southern region of Mozambique (Figure 5.1).
Along the coast, mean temperature ranges are from 25° to 30° C during the warmer months
(Cuamba et al., 2006). The average annual temperature is 23° C along the southern region and
slightly higher in the northern region (26°C). The average relative humidity is 69% (Sete et al.,
2002).
The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is positioned over the north of the country along the
Zambezi River, to the north of Sofala province, bringing 150-300mm of rainfall in the Cabo
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
34
Delgado and Nampula provinces from November to April, the warmer months of the year
(Cuamba et al., 2006). Saetre & Silva (1979) showed that the transitional zone of the Zambezi
River in Central Mozambique has the highest average annual rainfall, 1200–1600 mm, and is also
mainly restricted to the warm season.
Figure 5.1 – The climate of Mozambique after Köppen (source: Cuamba et al., 2006)
South of the Zambezi River, climate of central and southern Mozambique is influenced by a
subtropical anti-cyclonic zone (Cuamba et al., 2006). This area is dominated by the SE trade winds
and receives easterly prevailing winds throughout the year. Evaporation reaches about 1650 mm
per year, which exceeds the precipitation by about 500 mm per year.
The coastal climate in Mozambique is influenced by several types of intra-seasonal oscillations
(Schott et al., 2009). Extreme weather events that are associated with inter-annual climatic
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
35
variability, namely the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode
(IODM; also called the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode) are reason for concern. Strong IODM events
produce enhanced equatorial and southern-central East African rainfall during September,
October, and November. However, the relationship between the IODM and East African rainfall is
nonlinear. Only IODM extreme events that reverse the zonal SST gradient for several months
trigger high rainfall, suggesting that it is a response to perturbations in the eastern Indian Ocean
(Schott et al., 2009).
Sea level rise has been a great concern during the twentieth century. The mean rate of sea level
rise has been on the order of 1.6–1.8 mm/year and is associated with land ice melt (~55%),
followed by ocean thermal expansion (~30%; Church & White, 2006; Wenzel & Schroeter, 2010).
While the regional sea level trends are mostly of steric origin (i.e. due to thermal expansion and
salinity changes; Levitus et al., 2005) related to ocean circulation changes, deformations of ocean
basins and self-gravitational changes are other causes for seal level changes (Milne et al., 2009;
Mitrovica et al., 2009 cited by Meyssignac et al., 2012; Peltier, 2004). In Mozambique coastal sea
level trend patterns, based on satellite altimetry (1993–2009), show an increase of 2-4 mm/year
(Meyssignac et al., 2012).
5.2 . PHY S ICA L OCE ANOG RAPHY
The Mozambique Channel, which is 400 km wide at its narrowest point, separates Mozambique
from Madagascar Island. Madagascar Island is a barrier to some of the Indian Ocean dynamics
such as the gyres, except at its southern tip (south of latitude 25°S; Massinga & Hatton, 1997) and
northern tip, where Cabo-Delgado is exposed to the direct influence of the Indian Ocean.
The south Indian Ocean is characterized by the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC)
to a large part supplied by the Indonesian Through Flow (ITF; Figure 5.2). SEC splits near the east
coast of Madagascar into northward and southward branches, the Northeast and Southeast
Madagascar Currents (NEMC and SEMC). The NEMC transports about 30 Sv (Schott & McCreary,
2001), supplying water to the Mozambique Channel flow and the East African Coastal Current
(EACC). The SEMC transports about 20 Sv to the southern tip of Madagascar, where it develops a
sequence of eddies and dipoles that migrate to the African coast (De Ruijter et al., 2004; Quartly
et al., 2006). It is likely that these volumes are also subject to seasonal variations. Part of the
SEMC may also retroflect to supply the northeastward flow east of Madagascar.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
36
Along the Mozambique large latitudinal gradient (10°20′S and 26°50′S), two superficial water
masses (upper 100-150 meters depth) are usually identified: the tropical surface water that is
influenced by the warm equatorial branch of the SEC (salinity equal to 35.5) in the northern
region, and the subtropical surface water (with salinity greater than 35.5) derived from the centre
of the subtropical anti-cyclonic vortex of the Indian Ocean in the southern region (Saetre & da
Silva, 1982). This follows Sete et al. (2002) who analysed survey data from 1977 to 1980 and
reported that annual SST was higher in northern part of Mozambique compared to the southern
part.
Figure 5.2 – Schematic representation of current branches during the summer (southwest) monsoon:
South Equatorial Current (SEC), South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC), Northeast and Southeast
Madagascar Current (NEMC and SEMC), East African Coastal Current (EACC), Somali Current (SC),
Southern Gyre (SG) and Great Whirl (GW) and associated upwelling wedges (green shades), Southwest
and Northeast Monsoon Currents (SMC and NMC), South Java Current (SJC), East Gyral Current (EGC), and
Leeuwin Current (LC). The subsurface return flow of the supergyre is shown in magenta. Depth contours
shown are for 1000 m and 3000 m (grey). Red vectors (Me) show directions of meridional Ekman
transports. ITF indicates Indonesian Throughflow (From Schott et al., 2009).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
37
Sub-surface water is characterized by maximum salinity between 150 and 300 meters depth (Sete
et al., 2002). The central water layer stays between 300 and 600 meters depth with a core
corresponding to an oxygen maximum coinciding with a temperature of 11
o
C and a salinity of
35.0 ppt isohaline (Sete et al., 2002).
Two different waters masses can be found below the thermocline, the low salinity Antarctic
Intermediate Water (AAIW) and the relatively salty and low oxygen Red Sea Water (RSW) from
the northern Indian Ocean, (Sete et al., 2002). At 24°S AAIW stands out by a marked salinity
minimum and velocity weakens, ranging between 0.1 and 0.2 m/s, while carrying northward along
the continental slope (Sete et al., 2002).
The deep water core is below 2000 m, where it has maximum equatorward speeds near 0.2 m/s.
This narrow jet carries North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) northward, as assessed from its
relatively high salinity and oxygen concentrations, together with low silica levels (De Ruijter et al.,
2002). The deep undercurrent is still observed in the narrow section of the Channel around 2500
m, but it is much weaker. De Ruijter et al., (2002) estimated the total equatorward transport in
the Mozambique Undercurrent to be about 5 Sv at 24˚S, of which some 2 Sv is in the NADW-core.
Several recent studies have focused on the Mozambique Channel (e.g. De Ruijter et al., 2002;
Donohue & Toole, 2003; Lutjerharm, 2006; Lutjerhams et al., 2012; Ternon et al., 2013) and
showed that the current within the channel flows southward, and is connected upstream to
monsoon-driven circulation in tropical regions and downstream to the interocean exchange
system around South Africa, the Agulhas Current System. The mean volume transport through the
Mozambique Channel has been estimated at 17 Sv from a multiyear moored array (De Ruijter et
al., 2002), hydrographic section analysis (Donohue & Toole, 2003) and in agreement with earlier
inverse model results of 15 ± 5 Sv (Ganachaud et al., 2000). The transport is not carried by a quasi-
laminar boundary current but rather by migrating anticyclonic eddies (Biastoch & Krauss, 1999; de
Ruijter et al., 2002; Lutjerharm, 2006; Saetre & da Silva, 1984; Ternon et al., 2013). The
Mozambique Current, with warm surface water, passes close to the shore near Mossuril and Cabo
das Correntes, attaining its greatest speed during the north-east monsoon (October to
November). Large counter currents occur in the Bights of Sofala and Maputo, forming, in the later
case, the characteristically northward-orientated peninsulas, most notably the Machangulo (Santa
Maria), Inhambane and São Sebastiao (Bazaruto Peninsulas) (ASCLM, 2012; Lutjeharms, 2006;
Saetre & Paula, 1979; Sete et al., 2002).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
38
The anticyclonic eddies have 300 to 350 km diameters and there are on average of 5 to 6 eddies
per year (Backeberg et al., 2008; De Ruijter et al., 2002). The eddies propagate southward at
approximately 3–6 km per day with current speeds reaching up to 2 m/s at their edges (Schouten
et al., 2002; 2003), producing a rectified southward current at the Mozambique side of the
Channel and northward towards the Madagascar side (de Ruijter et al., 2002). According to de
Ruijter et al. (2002), Mozambique eddies may be effective transporters of RSW and its associated
salt towards the Agulhas Current.
Lutjerhams et al. (2012), reported the very short-lived event of a continuous current that was
characterized as atypical, intermittent and highly irregular, with an average duration of 9 days (± 5
days) and a mode of less than 5 days per year (25 year data set; Lutjerhams et al., 2012).
Tides of the coast of Mozambique are semi-diurnal (two low waters and two high waters each
day) with a daily variation of about 10-20 cm in Maputo, Inhambane, Chinde, Quelimane and
Angoche, and about 30-40 cm in Beira, Pebane, Ilha de Moçambique, Nacala, Pemba and
Mocímboa da Praia (Sete et al., 2002). The tidal range is about 2 m in the south, 3.1 m in the
north and about 6.4 m in the centre. The higher range in the centre is caused by the broad (140
km wide) shallow continental shelf (Massinga & Hatton, 1997). Flood tides entering the
Mozambique Channel from the south would, due to the Coriolis force, induce an increment in the
tidal range on the adjacent Mozambican coast.
Mozambique has over 100 rivers, the major ones being the Rovuma, Lúrio and Zambezi in the
north, Pungué, Buzi, Gorongosa and Save in the centre and Limpopo, Incomati and Maputo in the
south. These rivers drain about 208 km
3
of nutrient rich water into the coastal waters each year.
About 80% of this water enters the ocean in the vicinity of the Sofala Banks, central Mozambique.
The Zambezi River, the largest river in eastern Africa, contributes approximately 67% of the total
river discharge from Mozambique (Saetre & da Silva, 1982).
5.3 . BIO LOGI C AL O CEAN O GRA P HY
Phytoplankton communities are essential to the majority of marine ecological processes and
affect the structure of food webs (e.g., primary production), nutrient cycling and the flux of
particles to deep waters. The principal factors that affect horizontal distribution (i.e. latitudinal
and longitudinal) of phytoplankton communities are temperature, salinity and currents, while
vertical distribution (i.e. with depth) is mostly affected by irradiance, nutrients and water column
stability (Barlow et al., 2007; Leal et al., 2009). Therefore, phytoplankton abundance and
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
39
community structure vary among worldwide regions, from tropical to temperate ecosystems (Leal
et al., 2009; 2010; Longhurst, 1998). Some phenomena such as upwelling, that is defined as the
uplift of deeper nutrient richer waters (Quartly & Srokosz, 2004), tides and river runoff are
extremely important to explain nutrient dispersion and concentration.
In Mozambique the more productive waters are found near the coast, due to the influence of
river discharges and upwelling while the warmer offshore waters support a lower plankton
biomass dominated by picoplankton, namely Prochlorococcus (Sá et al., 2013). This group is
adapted to survive in oceanic nutrient-poor waters (Bouman et al., 2011). et al. (2013) also
showed a latitudinal gradient increase in biomass from North to South that was associated with
water temperature. Warmer water in the North is dominated by pico-sized-community and cooler
water dominated by micro-phytoplankton (diatoms). While there is a seasonal signal of
productivity (Tew-Kai & Marsac, 2009), in both northern (10°S–16°S) and southern (24°S–30°S)
regions the variability in the central region (16°S–24°S) is driven by mesoscale dynamics.
The Angoche wind-driven Ekman-type coastal upwelling occurs in the northern region, during the
southward passage of anticyclonic eddies. These eddies form as a response to northeasterly (NE)
monsoon winds that blow poleward, alongshore and parallel to the coast off Angoche, and prevail
between August and March (Sá et al., 2013). In this area the nanoplankton community was more
representative (90%), with the most abundant organisms being the coccolithophores,
Discosphaera tubifera and Acanthoica quattrospina. No diatoms were present.
While in the central region, Sofala Bank (16◦–24◦S) productivity is closely related to rainfall
events, the Zambezi River runoff (Saetre & da Silva, 1982) and the heterogeneity of currents on
the mid-continental shelf waters (Leal et al., 2009). In fact, salinity is known to vary seasonally in
this area, from 20 in the rainy season (Lutjeharms, 2006b) to 34 ppt in the dry season (Sá et al.,
2013). In this study Sá et al. (2013) shows that micro-sized plankton (20µm - 200µm) dominate
this region and through the microscopic analysis confirmed a diatom-dominated assemblage (70%
contribution), where Chaetoceros spp. and Proboscia alata were the most abundant species, with
20% and 16% respectively of all diatom population. The presence of diatoms and dinoflagellates
are usually indicative of mature upwelled waters and water column stability. This study (Sá et al.,
2013) also indicates that Prochlorococcus are not expected to be part of the pico-sized
phytoplankton community present in this coastal shallow region. Tew-Kai & Marsac (2009), who
applied statistical models to satellite data (1997–2004), subdivide the central portion of the
Mozambique Channel (16°S–24°S) in three sub-systems. The first one occupies the northern part,
more specifically the narrow part of the channel, where eddies are at early life stages and the
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
40
spin-up process of cyclonic eddies is associated with nutrient inflow. The second sub-system
stretches out in the median part characterized by eddies becoming mature as they move along
the west coast. The third subsystem is located in the southern part, where eddies enter a spinoff
process with decreasing energy and phytoplankton growth is greatly reduced.
Delagoa Bight is a shallow shelf centered on 34°E, 26°S where a poleward flow passing this bight
generates a cyclonic eddy in the region throughout most of the year inducing upwellings
(Lutjeharms & da Silva, 1988). Incomáti, Umbeluzi, Tembe, Matola and Maputo rivers discharge in
the Delagoa Bight is estimated to vary from 10 m
3
/s to 800 m
3
/s (Sete et al., 2002), having a major
influence on primary productivity (Quartly & Srokosz, 2004; et al., 2013). Therefore,
phytoplankton production is a concomitant result of upwelling, rivers discharge, and current flows
that supply nutrients to the surface layers. Sá et al. (2013) estimates that upwelling contributes to
an increase in silica, which has an average concentration of 8,857 μmol/L in inner shore stations,
favouring the growth of diatoms. This concentration is similar to that reported by other authors
for the western Indian Ocean (WIO) (Barlow et al., 2008; Leal et al., 2009; Paula et al., 1998). Sá et
al. (2013) and Barlow et al. (2008) reported very small nitrate values for Delagoa Bight and
associated this depletion to the prompt consumption of nutrients by diatoms.
Due to the influence of AAIW, it is worth mentioning that the region between 35˚S and 40˚S in the
south-western Indian Ocean is a transitional zone bordered by the Agulhas Frontal system and its
associated return flow with oligotrophic warm waters of the subtropics. The sub-Antarctic front
contributes with more productive waters of the sub-Antarctic zone (e.g. Belkin & Gordon, 1996
cited by Metzl, 2009; Lutjeharms & Valentine, 1984), which is extremely important for some
migratory animals such as whales (blue, fin and humpback) and birds.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
41
6. MA I N C OA S TAL AN D O F F-SH O RE E C O SYSTEMS :
CHA RACT E RISTI C S A N D H E A LT H
6.1 . COA S T TY PES
Mozambique has a high diversity of coastal ecosystems including mangroves, coral reefs, swamps,
subtropical rocky reefs and seagrass banks. Coral reefs are more abundant in the north of
Mozambique, while subtropical rocky reefs occur in the south. Seagrass banks and mangroves
occur along the entire coast of Mozambique but are more abundant in the central area. The main
coastal and offshore ecosystems can be divided in three large Ecoregions (Figure 6.1) (Ministry for
the Coordination of Environmental Affairs, 1997).
Figure 6.1 – Mozambique’s coast types
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
42
a) Coral coast – From the Rovuma River to Pebane (17°20’), it encompasses the protected areas of
Quirimbas Archipelago and the Primeiras and Segundas Archipelagos. This region is characterized
by fringing reefs and island reefs, clear and warm waters (Benayahu et al., 2003; Ministério para
Coordenação de Acção Ambiental, 2002; Obura et al., 2002). These reefs are mainly formed by
calcium carbonate-secreting organisms (including corals) and are extremely important for the
biodiversity and physical protection of the coast (Figure 6.2). They are one of most diverse
ecosystems of the world and have recently been declared as the second most biodiverse area for
coral species in the Indo-Pacific (Obura, 2012). In the most conserved reefs of Mozambique (e.g.
Neptuno Reef, Vamizi), the vulnerable green humphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum),
several reef sharks and the endangered Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) are relatively
common. Strongly associated with coral reefs and mangroves systems, are seagrass ecosystems
with eight of the 12 Western Indian Ocean (WIO) seagrass species occurring in Mozambican
waters. Seagrass meadows can be mono or multi specific and often found in waters <12 meters
(m) deep (Milchakova et al., 2005). Seagrass meadows are important nursery grounds for many
juvenile reef fish and critical habitat for dugongs, marine turtles and commercial fisheries species
(e.g. sea cucumbers). The Quirimbas Archipelago (~2000 hectares [ha]) is the most significant
example of mangrove ecosystems within this region, although extensive mangrove areas occur
along the swamp coast (Harari, 2005).
Figure 6.2 – Example of a coral coast, an aerial view of Pemba, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Hugo
Costa)
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
43
b) Swamp coast Central part of Mozambique, from Angoche (16°14S) to Bazaruto Archipelago
(21°14’S) – in this region, 24 rivers discharge to the ocean, supporting extensive mangroves, soft-
sediment intertidal habitats, large swamps and estuaries. Mozambique contains the second
highest areal coverage of mangrove habitat in the WIO with 2,910 km
2
(Spalding et al., 2010) and
all ten species of the WIO occur in Mozambique (Hatton & Couto, 1992). Often associated around
river mouths, mangroves are essential for retaining and stabilizing marine sediments and
coastlines (LeMarie et al., 2006). The continental shelf is very wide reaching up to 140 km around
Beira (Ministério para Coordenação de Acção Ambiental, 2002). High turbidity limits extensive
coral reefs formations along this section of the coast. This region is most well known for the Sofala
Bank, the country’s most important shallow water shrimp fishery (Sumale, 2005). The swamp
coast includes the only two deltas on the Mozambique coast: the Zambezi Delta and Rio Save
Delta. Deltas are characterized by wide and flat areas with many channels that branch out.
Because of the low gradient in the area, the slow water flow induces the accumulation of sand at
the mouth of the river. This has generated a number of habitats that might be permanently or
seasonally inundated. The dynamics of the delta is fundamental to keep the ecological process
functional. The construction of dams has changed the water flux in the Zambezi Delta. Careful
management is needed to avoid further ecological impacts (da Silva, 1986; Ministério para
Coordenação de Acção Ambiental, 2002). The swamp coast is particularly important for more than
73 species of waterbirds, including several vulnerable and threatened species and the fishery
industry, particularly prawn fisheries (Bento & Beilfuss, 2000).
c) Parabolic dunes coast – The parabolic dune coast (Figure 6.3) stretches from Bazaruto Island
down to the country’s southern boundary at Ponta do Ouro (Louro, 2005). This region is
characterized by steep and tall (up to 120 m high), vegetated parabolic dune systems backed by
salt lakes and closed salt lagoons (Hatton, 1995; Momade & Achimo, 2004). Where lagoons are
open to the ocean, large estuary areas occur which support seagrass meadows. Seagrass
meadows of Bazaruto Archipelago are known to support the largest remaining populations of
dugongs in the WIO (Findlay et al., 2011). The Bazaruto Archipelago is a transitional ecosystem,
which presents both typical tropical coral reefs and submerged rocky reefs. Coral banks (e.g.
Africa Banks) and patchy reef formations are scattered along the dune coast. Corals colonizing
sandstone reef formations are typical, and soft coral species are more predominant than hard
reef building species, the latter being found further north in the coral coast region. Rocky reefs
and intertidal areas are also dispersed throughout. Extensive intertidal reef harvesting occurs,
where local communities collect gastropods, bivalves and other macro-invertebrate species (de
Boer & Longamane, 1996). Sandy beaches throughout this coast provide optimal nesting habitat
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
44
for loggerhead and leatherback marine turtles (Louro et al., 2006). Inland of the dunes, there is a
complex of salt and fresh water lakes. The unique oceanographic characteristics between Závora
and Vilanculos make this area favourable to aggregations of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) and
manta rays (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris; Rohner et al., 2013).
Figure 6.3 – Beach and high dunes in the Manhiça District, Maputo Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
6.2 . COA S TAL DUNE S AN D BA R RIER LAK ES
Coastal dunes occur throughout the Mozambican coastal zone, but are more prominent in the
southern region (Louro, 2005). Coastal dunes provide essential habitats for plants and
invertebrates, as well as feeding and nesting sites for birds and marine turtles (Groom et al.,
2007).
Coastal dunes are divided into two major groups: (1) the inner dunes (secondary) of old oxidation
that in most cases have a red and/or yellow colour (Momade & Achimo, 2004) and (2) the outer
coastal dunes (primary) that occur as a continuous, narrow coastal strand, exposed directly to the
beach except at the mouth of the Limpopo and Incomati rivers (Hatton, 1995; Momade & Achimo,
2004). Depressions sometimes occur behind these dunes, forming coastal lagoons and adjacent
dunes (Hatton, 1995). The dunes are formed by ancient and recent sands, carried by the wind
over the past regressions (Kalk, 1995; Momade & Achimo, 2004). The unconsolidated dune and
plain sand are from recent quaternary sediments and exposed to hydromorphic changes while
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
45
near the mouth of large rivers sediments are mixed with soils of higher textures (alluvium)
(Hatton, 1995; Tinley, 1971).
In the north and central regions of Mozambique, from Mocambo Bay to Sofala province, sandy
beaches and some low parabolic dunes are formed by storm winds occasionally overlying with the
barrier or marshy coast (Hatton, 1995; Tinley, 1971).
The southern coastal region dunes stretch over approximately 850 km from Bazaruto Island (35
o
E, 21
o
S) southward to Ponta de Ouro and beyond to Kwazulo-Natal at Mlalazi River in South Africa
(28° 57'S). This section is characterised by high parabolic dunes, but barchanoids and longitudinal
dunes are also present. Dunes have a dominant SE-NW orientation, consistent with the dominant
wind regime (Kalk, 1995) and some dunes also show blowouts.
Dunes of the Bazaruto Archipelago are more abundant on the east side of Bazaruto Island,
covering 27% of the island. The other islands of the archipelago have vegetated primary dunes
(Nuvunga et al., 1998). Bazaruto dunes can reach 90 m in elevation and are sparsely vegetated
(Cooper & Pilkey, 2002). In the district of Xai-Xai (33
o
19'E, 25
o
18'S), between Praia Velha and
Praia do Chonguene region, primary dunes are smaller in height and width than secondary dunes
(Nuvunga et al., 1998). In the region of Bilene-Macia (33
o
E, 25
o
S), secondary dunes reach heights
of 100 m and are characterized by poorly consolidated red sands and covered by dense
vegetation and the primary coastal dunes reach several tens of meters and are formed by white
sands (Momade & Achimo, 2004). Along the southern coastal region, the dunes have become
quite consolidated, sometimes forming scarps resulting from erosion, particularly in the mouth of
the Bilene Lagoon. Tinley (1971), Hatton (1995) and Massinga & Hatton (1997) reported that the
Ponta do Ouro-Inhaca dune systems attain heights of 120 m and are considered to be the highest
vegetated dunes in the world (Figure 6.4).
Many studies in the southern region (Bandeira et al., 2007; Short, 1999, cited by Schlacher et al.,
2011) show the importance of vegetated dunes in controlling coastal erosion. The vegetation is
mainly classified in four plant communities, including pioneer dune vegetation (eg. Phylohydrax
carnosa, Scaevola plumieri, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Sophora inhambanensis, Canavalia rosea,
Cyperus crassipes, Asystasia gangetica, Launea sarmentosa, Tephrosia sp. and Tragia sp.), young
shrub (e.g. Sideroxylon inerme, Rhoicissus revoilii, Pavetta revoluta, Mimusops caffra and
Diospyros rotundifolia), shaggy dunes (e.g. Diospyros rotundifolia) and forest dunes (e.g. Ochna
natalitia, Mimusops caffra, Rhoicissus revoilii, Psydrax locuples and Gymnosporia sp.), with smaller
vegetation with less than 2.5 cm (eg. Cissus quadrangulares, Sansiviera concinna, Rhus sp.,
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
46
Tricalisia sonderana, Ochna natalitia, Rhoicissus revoilii, Mimusops caffra, Scadoxos sp.,
Erythroxylum sp., Microsseleus scolopendrum, Carissa bispinosa and Deinbollia oblongifolia;
Bandeira et al., 2007; Koning & Balkwill, 1995; Nuvunga et al., 1998; Weisser, 1980).
Figure 6.4 – Lake Mwandle, Gaza Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
Dune ecosystems are protected by law in Mozambique, through the Regulation for the Prevention
of Pollution and Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment (Decree 45/2006, of 30
November), forbidding driving and building on the primary dunes and the beach. Unfortunately
this still occurs where there is no enforcement (Louro et al., 2006). In the past, Casuariana
equisitifolia, an exotic species, was planted in the coastal zone of Mozambique, in Inhaca island,
Barra Falsa, Ponta Caldeira, Bazaruto, Ponta do Ouro, Cabo da Boa Paz, Barra and Závora (Cruz et
al., 2003; Tinley, 1971), in order to erect fences tangent to the wind and the slope of pioneering
exotic plants, to induce natural succession (Cardoso, 1954; Cruz et al., 2003; Gülçur, 1979). Yet,
this exotic species, unlike pioneer vegetation, does not contribute to dune formation and also
damages local biodiversity (Cardoso, 1954; Tinley, 1971).
Coastal barrier lakes, swamps, and temporarily-filled basins that occur behind the coastal dunes
are a conspicuous feature of the coastal zone of southern Mozambique (Hatton, 1995; Massinga
& Hatton, 1997). They occur from Vilankulos to Ponta do Ouro, but extend as far south as Durban
in South Africa (Hart, 1995; Hill, 1975). Hill (1975) described three categories of such areas:
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
47
(i) Drowned valley lakes – which originated from the flooding of river valleys deeply incised
during the last Pleistocene glaciation. These are the largest and most prominent features
behind coastal dunes. Connectivity to the sea varies widely. Examples in Mozambique
include Lake Poelela and Lake Nhambavale (Hart & Boane, 2004; Hill, 1975);
(ii) Inundation lakes – generally not associated with rivers, these originated by the flooding of
low-lying depressions behind long-shore coastal barrier dunes. Known as “barrier lakes”,
they are generally shallow and lack direct surface links with the sea. Most lakes in
southern Mozambique fall in this category. Lake Bilene is somehow a combination of the
two (Hill, 1975);
(iii) Wind-eroded “deflation basin lakes” (Hart & Boane, 2004; Hill, 1975).
André (2012) Hart & Boane (2004) and Hill (1975) described the limnology of the southern
Mozambique lakes (Figure 6.5), with brief accounts of the physico-chemical parameters and socio-
economic uses of the Quissico lakes by Pereira et al. (2010). The lakes are important for
subsistence-level farming, fishing, and salt production (e.g. Lakes Bilene, Quissico, Massava,
Poelela) (Pereira et al., 2010a), as well as the booming tourism industry (Lakes Bilene,
Chidenguele and Nhambavale being prime examples) (Hatton, 1995; Hatton et al., 1997; Massinga
& Hatton, 1997).
Figure 6.5 – Quissico lakes, Inhambane Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
48
6.3 . MAN G ROVE S
Mangroves can be defined as woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea in
subtropical and tropical tidal environments where they exist in conditions of high salinity,
extreme tides, strong winds, adverse temperatures, and muddy/sandy substrates. There is no
other group of plants with such highly developed morphological and physiological adaptation to
extreme conditions on Earth (Elisson & Farnsworth, 2001; Hogarth, 1999; Kathiresan & Bingham,
2001; Omodei Zorini et al., 2004). There is, in addition, a loosely defined group of species often
described as “mangrove associates”, or non-exclusive mangroves species. These comprise a large
number of species typically occurring on the landward margin of the mangrove, and often in non-
mangrove habitats such as rain forests, salt marshes, or lowland freshwater swamps (Hogarth,
1999). Many epiphytes also grow on mangrove trees. Among these, creepers, orchids, ferns, and
other plants, many of which cannot tolerate salt and therefore grow only in the mangrove canopy
(Lugo, 1989).
The muddy or sandy sediments of mangroves are home to a huge variety of epibenthic infaunal or
meiofaunal invertebrates (Cannicci et al., 2008; Olafsson & Ndaro, 1997; Penha-lopes et al., 2010;
Svavarson et al., 2002). These macrofauna form an important link between mangrove detritus at
the base of the mangrove food web and consumers at higher trophic levels, which include birds
and commercial fish species. In addition, channels within the mangrove support communities of
phytoplankton, zooplankton, juvenile fish and shrimps (Macia, 2004a; Macia et al., 2003;
Ronnback et al., 2002), which in turn occupy coral reefs, seagrass beds and the offshore as adults.
African mangrove forests cover an area of approximately 350,000 km
2
of which the greatest part
is located along the west coast with 15 species distributed among 6 families. The Meliaceae are
represented by three species: one species of Conocarpus and two of Xylocarpus; the
Avicenniaceae - often included in Verbenaceae - are represented by two Avicennia species. The
best represented is the order Myrtales with one Sonneratia (Sonneratiaceae), four Rhizophora,
one Bruguiera and one Ceriops (Rhizophoraceae), one Laguncularia and one Lumnitzera
(Combretaceae) species (Bosire et al., 2012; Chavellier, 2012; Hatton & Couto, 1992; Kairo et al.,
2001).
The current estimate of mangrove forest area in Mozambique varies from 368,000 ha (MICOA,
2009) to 290,000 ha depending on the year of assessment and source of information. Based on a
recent assessment, 28% of these mangroves occur in the Zambezi Delta (Fatoyimbo et al., 2008),
which also represents the single largest area of mangrove forests in Africa. Globally, Mozambique
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
49
ranks 13
th
in terms of mangrove coverage which is equivalent to approximately 2.3% of the global
mangrove forest area (Giri et al., 2011). The largest mangroves areas are found within central
Mozambique, and in protected deltas and large rivers estuaries (Barbosa et al., 2001; Sitoi et al.,
2014), such as in Beira and the Save Rivers where the mangrove cover extends up to 50 km inland.
They are scarce in the southern coast due to large dunes except Save River, Incomáti, and Maputo
River as well as around larger bays such as Inhambane and Maputo (especially at Inhaca Island).
Avicennia marina is the most widespread species. It colonizes both inner and outer margins of the
forests. Yet, towards higher latitudes some inner parts are dominated by Sonneratia alba and
Rhizophora mucronata, less tolerant to changes in salinity.
The northern coast is predominantly coraline, with coral reefs normally bordering the clear water
subtidal areas. Mangroves are common in this region of Mozambique and grow in estuaries,
embayments, and some areas protected from direct ocean currents. Extensive mangrove areas
occur in the extensive Quirimbas Archipelago and several embayments near the archipelago (viz
Palma, Ulombi, Mocimboa, Quiretajo; Frontier, 1997; GNBR, 2010). Other important mangrove
areas are Pemba Bay with 33,600 ha (Ferreira et al., 2009) and the coastline of Nampula. In
southern areas mangrove cover is patchy (Sitoi et al., 2014).
In Mozambique, mangrove forests provide numerous goods and services to the communities
living along the coast. They are critical habitats, particularly since they are crucial to the
functioning and integrity of coastal and marine habitats, provide a nutrient-rich environment and
shelter for juvenile fish and marine invertebrates, in particular for commercial prawns that are
harvested in open waters. In addition, mangrove trees are used as construction material,
firewood, and as a source of tannins used to preserve and camouflage fishing gear, stabilize the
coastline by preventing erosion, contribute to detoxification and depuration of waste waters, and
protect inland areas from weather extremes such as storm surge and extreme high tide events
(Bandeira et al., 2009; Paula et al., 2014).
Mangroves are a charismatic habitat of the Mozambican coastline, and there is a considerable
amount of data available. Early descriptions of flora and associated fauna were done by Kalk
(1959) and McNae & Kalk (1969). In contrast, after independence (1975) some researchers
centered their investigations on mangroves of Inhaca Island and associated fauna (e.g. Barbosa et
al., 2001; Cannicci et al., 2009; de Boer, 2002; Flores et al., 2003; Hatton & Couto, 1992; Litulo et
al., 2005, 2010; Litulo, 2004, 2005a,b,c,d; 2006; 2007; MacNae & Kalk, 1995; Paula et al., 2001a,
2003, 2014; Penha-Lopes et al.; 2009, 2010, 2013; Silva et al., 2009, 2013; Torres et al., 2008a,b,
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
50
2009). However, a more accurate account of the recent status of Mozambican mangrove forests is
given by Barnes et al. (2011), Fatoyimbo & Simard (2013), Fatoyimbo et al.(2008), and Ferreira et
al. (2009) using satellite imagery. The total area of mangroves in Mozambique was reduced from
408,000 ha in 1972 to 357,000 ha in 2004 (Marzoli, 2007 cited by Sitoe et al., 2012). Resource use
is not only cause of loss of mangroves in Mozambique: the effects of floods in 2000 also
contributed to a loss of more than half of the mangrove area in the mouth of the Limpopo River
(Sitoe et al., 2012).
The majority of the Mozambican population lives in coastal areas. Moreover, several large cities –
including Maputo, Beira, Quelimane and Pemba – are located in the coastal zone. Urbanization of
the coastal area has caused a high rate of mangrove destruction and degradation in Mozambique
in and around developing cities, where mangrove wood products such as charcoal, firewood and
timber are in high demand. These ecosystems are also cleared for agricultural purposes and salt
extraction, and will probably be affected by the extraction of hydrocarbons and heavy mineral
sands. Mangroves are also diminishing as a result of upstream dam construction (Chavellier,
2013). For example, the Cahora-Bassa Dam has significantly reduced the flow of water in the
Zambezi River, altering water conditions and causing mangrove cover to shrink (UNEP, 2007).
Also, high volumes of crude oil are being shipped through the Mozambique Channel, resulting in
accidental oil spills that have affected mangroves along the coastline. The Maputo Bay area is also
affected by the shipping traffic and resultant pollution.
In Maputo and northern bays, mangroves are also used for boat and house construction and to
produce various household utensils. Those forests located close to major human settlements are
prone to rather heavy anthropogenic pressure (Figure 6.6), while the most remote mangroves
(e.g. Maputo River Estuary, Maputo Special Reserve and Saco forests) are kept in a good, although
not pristine, condition. Land use changes were also responsible for the loss of several hectares of
mangroves. Conversion of mangroves to saltpans (most of them concentrated in the Matola
region) and to shrimp aquaculture ponds have reduced the cover of mangroves. The forest is also
being cleared for urban development. At Costa do Sol, for example, a new upmarket
neighbourhood continues to encroach vital mangroves forests that would otherwise help counter
floods and surge. Mangroves are also exposed to waterborne pollutants discharged in municipal
waters, as well as agricultural and industrial effluents (Maputo Bay holds the biggest industrial
park of Mozambique) (Bandeira et al., 2009; Paula et al., 2014).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
51
Figure 6.6 – Mangroves at Barra, Inhambane Province (Photo: Rodrigo Santos)
There is a need to conduct the following tasks in order to ensure the long-term services
mangroves provide in Mozambique and support good resource management practices:
Analyse and evaluate the range of services and functions mangrove forests provide
Examine the ecological and economic values of mangrove ecosystems and compare them
with the sum of the products they generate.
Study the complex functional linkages and interactions between mangroves and other
ecosystems as well as biophysical processes both upstream and downstream of the
mangrove forest area.
Prevent degradation of the mangrove ecosystems in order to prevent irreversible changes
of local physico-chemical, biological and ecological properties
Document/model coastal currents and sediment transport as a decision-making tool that
supports the prevention of chemical and physical impacts potentially caused by onshore
and offshore commercial shipping and oil and gas activities (e.g. accidental spills,
construction of shore facilities such as terminals and docks).
6.4 . REE F S
Coral reefs have considerable socio-economic importance in Mozambique (Bjerner & Johansson,
2001; Pereira, 2003; Schleyer et al., 1999), supporting tourism and local fisheries throughout the
country. Research on corals and coral reefs dates back to the early 50s although the first
published papers dealing with reef fish and fisheries appeared in 1925 (Fowler, 1925). Two major
reviews have been published (Rodrigues et al., 2000 and Schleyer & Pereira, 2014).
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
52
Coral reefs of Mozambique cover an estimated area of 1,890 km
2
(Spalding et al., 2001). These are
found almost continuously in northern Mozambique as far south as the Primeiras islands, located
north of the Sofala Bank (Rodrigues et al., 2000). These are mainly fringing reefs and result from
biogenic accretion, thus are considered true coral reefs (Schleyer et al., 1999). In general the reefs
occur within a wide depth range (5-40 m) and are dominated by hard corals (Order Scleractinia)
with Acropora, Porites, Pocillopora, Echinopora and Favites as the dominant genera. However, in
some locations, soft corals (Order Alcyonacea) are very abundant and dominate the reef benthos
(e.g. Benayahu et al., 2003; Schleyer, 1999a; Videira & Pereira, 2007), with Sinularia and
Lobophytum (Family Alcyoniidae), nephtids (Family Nephtiidae), and xenids (Family Xenidae)
being particularly conspicuous.
Within the Sofala Bank, no coral reefs are found given the high turbidity and low salinity, resulting
from the discharge of about 28 rivers (Rodrigues et al., 2000). From the Bazaruto archipelago to
Ponta do Ouro, coral communities grow as a thin veneer on late Pleistocene sandstone, which
originated from submerged coastal sand dunes (Ramsay, 1994, 1996); fully formed reefs
originated by biogenic accretion do not occur here. These incipient reefs run parallel to the
coastline 1 to 2 km offshore and can be classified as patch reefs. Coral colonies occur more
sparsely at depths usually greater than 12 m to about 40 m (Pereira, 2003).
In Mozambique, reefs occur in a wide latitudinal range (10
o
30 S – 26
o
50 S), which confers to the
country high levels of biodiversity (Figure 6.7). More than 900 species of reef fish have been
identified (Pereira, 2000a) in 97 families (Tupper et al., 2008 see section 7.2). Although the coral
taxonomy is poorly known and in need of urgent work, at least 149 species of hard corals (in 59
genera) (Sheppard, 1987; Veron, 1993) and more than 50 species of soft corals (belonging to 15
genera) have been identified (Benayahu et al., 2003; Schleyer, 1999; Schleyer & Celliers, 2000).
Recent work (Obura, 2012) identified 220 species of hard corals in Nacala and suggested that the
maximum species richness could be as high as 297 species. These results highlight once again the
need for in-depth taxonomic and ecological work on Mozambican reefs.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
53
Figure 6.7 – Coral reef at Northern Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
While the exposure of reefs of Mozambique to the elements and to human impacts (especially
artisanal/subsistence fishing) may vary, if one considers reefs that are similar in nature (Table
6.1), available data suggests that reefs located within MPAs or in relatively remote areas, appear
to be in better condition. This is even more pronounced if one looks at the fish community, where
protected reefs support considerably higher fish abundance (density and biomass) and diversity
(Motta et al., 2002; Pereira & Videira, in prep).
Table 6.1 – Summary data on reef conditions of selected reefs along the Mozambican coast. Reefs marked
with * are located within MPAs
Location Reef Total live
coral cover Dominant benthos Reference
Palma Quionga1 36.6% Hard coral (35.6%)
Sand, rock and algae, rubble (36.5%)
Fleshy macroalgae (31.0%)
Pereira & Videira
(in prep)
Quirimbas
National Park
Ibo lighthouse* 39.9% Sand, rock and algae, rubble (51.8%)
Total hard coral (25.1%)
Massive hard coral (15.8%)
Pereira & Videira
(in prep)
Quirimbas
National Park
Sencar channel* 37.4% Sand, rock and algae, rubble (53.1%)
Soft coral (27.1%)
Total hard coral (7.6%)
Pereira & Videira
(in prep)
Quirimbas
National Park
Matemo Is.* 39.8% Sand, rock and algae, rubble (35.2%)
Total hard coral (34.2%)
Massive hard coral (10.7%)
Pereira & Videira
(in prep)
Primeiras and
Segundas
Epidendron Is. 54.5% Rock and algae (38.9%)
Hard coral (38.6%)
Pereira &
Rodrigues (in prep)
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
54
Location Reef Total live
coral cover Dominant benthos Reference
archipelago Branching hard coral (18.1%)
Primeiras and
Segundas
archipelago
Mafamede Is. 51.8% Hard coral (40.6%)
Rock and algae (40.6%)
Branching hard coral (18.9%)
Pereira &
Rodrigues (in prep)
Bazaruto
Archipelago
National Park
Two-mile reef* 44.0% Hard coral (42.7%)
Bare reef, sand, rubble (34.5%)
Coralline algae (8.5%)
Schleyer & Maggs
(2007)
Bazaruto
Archipelago
National Park
Lighthouse reef* 50.2% Hard coral (43.4%)
Bare reef, sand, rubble (32.3%)
Dead coral (9.0%)
Schleyer & Maggs
(2007)
Inhambane Anchor bay 10.6% Rock and algae (74.3%)
Sand (11.4%)
Hard coral (9.8%)
Motta et al. (2002)
Inhambane Mike’s Cupboard 17.2% Rock and algae (77.1%)
Hard coral (7.4%)
Sand (3.8%)
Motta et al. (2002)
Inhaca Is. Baixo Danae 38.2% Rock and algae (55.5%)
Hard coral (30.8%)
Soft coral (7.4%)
Motta et al. (2002)
Inhaca Is. Barreira
Vermelha*
42.3% Hard coral (41.9%)
Rock and algae (33.3%)
Dead coral and algae (19.7%)
Motta et al. (2002)
Inhaca Is. Ponta Torres* 36.1% Hard coral (36.1)
Dead coral and algae (18.9%)
Sand (17.4%)
Motta et al. (2002)
Ponta do Ouro
Partial Marine
Reserve
Techobanine 1* 33.3% Rock and algae (40.8%)
Soft coral (26.7%)
Turf macroalgae (12.3%)
Pereira &
Fernandes (2014a)
Ponta do Ouro
Partial Marine
Reserve
Texas* 35.5% Rock and algae (54.3%)
Soft coral (31.9%)
Fleshy macroalgae (6.2%)
Pereira &
Fernandes (2014a)
Reefs of Mozambique are mainly impacted by overfishing, bleaching due to high irradiance and
temperature in summer, coastal erosion, and in selected locations, the ravages of the predatory
crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Rodrigues et al., 2000; Schleyer, 1998; Schleyer et
al., 1999). The collection of invertebrates (Figure 6.8) and reef fish for the curio trade is also
impacting coral reefs in Mozambique (Whittington et al., 2000; Pereira, 2008b), as well as coral
mining, especially in northern Mozambique, where there is a long tradition of its use as building
material. Irresponsible tourism (anchoring, trampling) has taken its toll on the Two-Mile Reef in
Bazaruto, with a drastic reduction of hard coral cover over the years (M. H. Schleyer, pers. com.).
Recreational SCUBA diving has grown tremendously in southern Mozambique and was seen as
potentially detrimental to reef communities (Bjerner & Johansson, 2001), but this was not the
case in Ponta do Ouro (Pereira & Schleyer, 2005), where both reef fish and coral communities,
were largely unaffected by SCUBA diving at the time. The sustainable diving capacity was
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
55
estimated at about 6000 dives per site dive and year (Pereira, 2003), and this figure was proposed
as applicable to typical reefs found in southern Mozambique.
Figure 6.8 – Nudibranch (Aegires villosus) in a coral reef at Závora, Inhambane Province (Photo: Yara
Tibiriçá)
6.5 . SEA G RASS BED S
Seagrasses are marine angiosperms, monocotyledons that are adapted to live permanently
submerged in seawater (den Hartog & Kuo, 2006). Most are entirely marine although some
species can survive in a range of conditions encompassing freshwater and estuarine conditions.
There are relatively few species worldwide, about 60 known species are grouped in 13 genera and
5 families (Short et al., 2001).
The distribution of seagrasses ranges from high intertidal to shallow subtidal soft bottoms, i.e.
sandy bays, mud flats, lagoons and estuaries, where they often form extensive mono- and
multispecific meadows. In the tropics it is common to find seagrass meadows adjacent to other
key ecosystems such as coral reefs and mangroves (Gullströom & Dahlberg, 2004; Ngusaru, 2011).
Of the about 60 species of seagrasses reported worldwide Short et al. (2001), 13 seagrass species
were reported in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region (Bandeira & Bjork, 2001), and an
additional species was recently identified (Duarte et al., 2012) totalling 14 species occurring along
the coastal zone of Mozambique. One species (Zostera capensis) is listed as vulnerable (Bandeira,
2014). According to Ngusaru (2011) the most common genera are Thalassia, Halodule,
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
56
Syringodium, Halophila, Cymodoceae, and Thalassodendron. In Mozambique the largest seagrass
beds can be found at Inhaca and Bazaruto islands in the southern part of Mozambique and in
many parts of Cabo Delgado province (Figure 6.9).
Figure 6.9 – Seagrass bed at Northern Quirimbas, Cabo Delgado Province (Photo: Marcos Pereira)
Seagrasses beds play a unique role in enhancing marine ecosystem process and marine
biodiversity. They have a stabilising effect on shorelines, and provide food and shelter for
numerous juvenile organisms. In addition seagrass beds mixed with some algal species (Halimeda
sp.) are vital to carbonate sand production. They also harbour nitrogen-fixing bacteria and
facilitate mineral circulation between the water and the sediments (Oliveira et al., 2005).
Habitats of seagrasses are known to be highly productive and play an important ecological role as
nursery grounds, foraging areas, as well as refuges from predation for numerous fishes,
invertebrates and other animals (Gell & Whittington 2002; Gullström et al., 2002; Orth et al.,
1984;). They provide economic goods such as an extensive number of fish and invertebrates
harvested by many of coastal communities (Gullströom & Dahlberg, 2004).
As a consequence of the high primary productivity and habitat complexity, the secondary
productivity in seagrass beds is significant (Figure 6.10). Many of the species using seagrasses
during their life stages have a high commercial value. Various species of fish and invertebrates
that are associated with seagrasses are collected by local people as sources of food.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
57
Figure 6.10 – Urchin in seagrass, Inhambane Bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Jess Williams)
Vicente & Bandeira (2014) reported that the most collected invertebrates as a food source in
Maputo Bay include gastropods, bivalves, crabs, and sea urchins. Seagrasses are valuable at local
levels as they contribute to the provision of protein and cash income to the different human
populations (Scarlet, 2005).
6.6 . EST UARIE S AN D BA Y S
An estuary is an inlet reaching into a river while a bay is an inlet bordered by the coastline (Kaiser
et al., 2011). Mozambique has an extensive drainage network that includes about 100 main river
basins and a number of rivers, such as the Rovuma, Zambezi, Save, Limpopo and Incomáti Rivers
(ASCLME, 2012). These rivers end in estuaries, mostly with funnel shape or delta-front
topographies as described in Kaiser et al. (2011). Some estuaries of Mozambique create inlets due
to the surrounding topography, thus creating bays, such as the Lúrio Bay associated with Lúrio
River (approximately 50 km south of Pemba) and the Memba Bay associated with Moculumba
River (located near Mazimingi, Nampula).
North of Pemba is the Rovuma River and Delta which borders Tanzania. This is an important
coastal area with high mangrove cover and biodiversity (TRANSMAP, 2008) that has been
relatively stable, probably due to the preventive effect of the Mnazi Bay-Rovuma Estuary Marine
Park.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
58
Pemba Bay is an important Mozambican bay and it is located on the northeastern coast around
the city of Pemba. Pemba Bay has an area of 150 km
2
and is among the largest bays in the world.
Due to its proximity to the city of Pemba and to shrimp aquaculture, mangrove cover surrounding
the Pemba Bay has been decreasing over time (TRANSMAP, 2008). The Lúrio River flows into the
sea south of Pemba Bay. This river is among the largest of Mozambique.
While the rivers leading to the Mozambique coast drain about 141 km
3
/year of nutrient-rich
water into coastal waters, about 67% of the total river discharge is delivered by the Zambezi
River, which is the largest river in eastern Africa. The water flow from this river is strongly
determined by the Cahora Bassa Dam (Ridderinkhof et al., 2001), which is one of the three major
dams on the Zambezi River system and the largest hydroelectric scheme in southern Africa. This
structure also affects the freshwater input to the coastal area known as Sofala Bank.
The Sofala Bank is the largest shelf area along East Africa and is located off central Mozambique
within the 16
o
S and 21
o
S latitudinal range. Sofala Bank receives 80% of the Mozambique river
runoff (Lutjeharms, 2006a; Sete et al., 2002). Here the continental shelf extends to 140 km
offshore and is one of the most productive shelf regions of East Africa. The morphology of the
coastal zone of Sofala Bank is characterized by flat land fringed by almost continuous mangrove
swamps. These swamps are associated with rivers and with tidal creeks.
The coastal waters of Sofala Bank are estuarine in nature as influenced by the Zambezi, Pungué,
Buzí and Save rivers (Leal et al., 2009, 2010; Saetre & Silva, 1979; Sete et al., 2002). The Sofala
Bank is highly productive given the regional nutrient-rich runoff. Consequently, it is one of the
most important fishery grounds of Eastern Africa, particularly for shallow water shrimp (Bandeira
et al., 2002).
Approximately 500 km south of Beira (Sofala) and 470 km northeast of Maputo is Inhambane Bay,
and the town of Maxixe. This bay is associated with the Morrumbene estuary (Figure 6.11), which
has an area of 193 km
2
and is 20 km long with well-developed mangrove swamps draining into a
broad lagoon (Day, 1974). Other bays of the Mozambican coast include the Fernão Veloso Bay,
Conducia Bay, and Memba Bay near Nacala. However, scientific literature on these coastal
systems is scarce.
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
59
Figure 6.11 – View of the Morrumbene estuary and Inhambane bay, Inhambane Province (Photo: Hugo
Costa)
One of the most notable bays in Mozambique is Maputo Bay, which together with the Sofala
Bank, is one of the main fishery areas that significantly contribute to the economy of
Mozambique. The Maputo Bay is located in the southern part of Mozambique. It is 40 km long
and 30 km wide, thus covering a 1,200 km
2
area (Sete et al., 2002). Five rivers drain into Maputo
Bay: Incomáti River, Umbeluzi River, Tembe River and Matola River. Main features of this bay are
the Espírito Santo Estuary to the west and Maputo River on the southwest side. Main rivers in this
region are the Incomáti, Maputo and Umbeluzi (Sengo et al., 2005).
The areas surrounding these rivers produce substantial agricultural, which runs off into Maputo
Bay (Sete et al., 2002; TRANSMAP, 2008). In addition, the Maputo Bay is next to the city of
Maputo with over 1 million people generating substantial untreated domestic waste. Further, the
main industries of Mozambique are located in Maputo and Matola and industrial runoff drains
directly into the bay. The domestic, industrial and agricultural waste draining into the bay
probably affects water quality, which in turn probably impacts local marine ecosystems.
Adjacent to Maputo bay is Delagoa Bight, one of the largest coastline indentations along the east
coast of Africa (Lamont et al., 2010; Lutjeharms, 2006a). This is a very dynamic region as
influenced by the Agulhas Current and the drainage by the Limpopo River, which sometimes
floods the coastal area during heavy rainfalls (Kyewalyanga et al., 2007). Further, Delagoa Bight is
Mozambique Marine Ecosystem Review Pereira et al. 2014
60
also one of the most productive areas in the southern shelf of Mozambique (Kyewalyanga et al.,
2007).
While the condition of Maputo Bay and the Sofala Bank has been examined over the past
decades, little is known about the health of estuaries and bays of Mozambique. However, it is
known that the river runoff has decreased over the years due to damming, water obstruction and
irrigation in neighbouring countries, as well as modification of stream flow leading to either
freshwater shortage/reduction or excessive runoff during certain periods of the year (ASCLME,
2012). This has lead to physico-chemical changes in the natural systems that may have dramatic
consequences to the health of these coastal systems.
6.7 . ROC K Y SH ORES
Rocky shores are mainly distributed along the coral coast (old intertidal reef formations) and the
parabolic dune coast (Pleistocene sandstone, which originated from submerged coastal sand
dunes; Ramsay 1994, 1996). Apart from a few localized studies, not much attention has been paid
to rocky shores in Mozambique. Margaret Kalk’s work at Inhaca Island (Kalk, 1958; 1995) and in
northern Mozambique (Kalk, 1959), is still the basis