ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This study was undertaken to assess the antifungal potential of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. The hydrodistilled leaf essential oil of M. scandens was analysed by GC–MS. Twenty-four compounds representing 97.45% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which b-caryophyllene (16.98%), d-cadinene (12.22%), a-cubebene (11.33%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (10.17%), caryophyllene oxide (7.74%), b-himachalene (4.68%), T-cadinol (3.98%), tetratetracontane (3.83%), 1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (3.56%), b-farnesene (3.08%) etc. were the major compounds. The essential oil and extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of M. scandens were tested for antifungal activity, which was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination methods. The essential oil and various extracts displayed a great potential of antifungal activity as a mycelial growth inhibition against the tested phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 (IB) KACC 40111, R. solani AG-2-2 (IV) KACC 40132, Pythium graminicola KACC 40155, Tricoderma harzianum KACC 40791 and Fusarium oxysporum KACC 40052, in the range of 40.0–75.4% and the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 125 to 500 lg/ml. The present results demonstrated that M. scandens mediated oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect crops from fungal diseases.
Content may be subject to copyright.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Chemical composition and antifungal properties of
the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania
scandens (L.) Willd
Shah Alam Siddiqui
a
, Rafiquel Islam
a
, Rezuanul Islam
b
, A.H.M. Jamal
b
,
Tanzima Parvin
a
, Atiqur Rahman
a,
*
a
Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh
b
Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh
Received 28 April 2012; accepted 25 July 2013
KEYWORDS
Mikania scandens (L.);
Essential oil;
GC–MS;
Different extracts;
MIC;
Antifungal activity
Abstract This study was undertaken to assess the antifungal potential of the essential oil and var-
ious extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. The hydrodistilled leaf essential oil of M. scandens was
analysed by GC–MS. Twenty-four compounds representing 97.45% of the total leaves oil were
identified, of which b-caryophyllene (16.98%), d-cadinene (12.22%), a-cubebene (11.33%), 1,2-ben-
zenedicarboxylic acid (10.17%), caryophyllene oxide (7.74%), b-himachalene (4.68%), T-cadinol
(3.98%), tetratetracontane (3.83%), 1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (3.56%), b-farnesene (3.08%)
etc. were the major compounds. The essential oil and extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate and meth-
anol) of M. scandens were tested for antifungal activity, which was determined by disc diffusion and
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination methods. The essential oil and various
extracts displayed a great potential of antifungal activity as a mycelial growth inhibition against
the tested phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 (IB) KACC 40111, R. solani
AG-2-2 (IV) KACC 40132, Pythium graminicola KACC 40155, Tricoderma harzianum KACC
40791 and Fusarium oxysporum KACC 40052, in the range of 40.0–75.4% and the minimum inhib-
itory concentration ranging from 125 to 500 lg/ml. The present results demonstrated that M. scan-
dens mediated oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect crops from
fungal diseases.
ª2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
1. Introduction
Mikania scandens (L.), a medicinal plant is popularly used as a
herbal remedy for various ailments in Bangladesh. The genus
Mikania is a member of the family Asteraceae (Compositae).
Within that family, Mikania is a member of the tribe Eupator-
ieae of the subfamily Asteroideae. Some species of Mikania are
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +88-071-74910-20x2252/2266; fax:
+88-071-74905.
E-mail addresses: marahman12@yahoo.com,atiq@acct.iu.ac.bd
(A. Rahman).
Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.
Production and hosting by Elsevier
Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013) xxx, xxxxxx
King Saud University
Arabian Journal of Chemistry
www.ksu.edu.sa
www.sciencedirect.com
1878-5352 ª2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
Please cite this article in press as: Siddiqui, S.A. et al., Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various
extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
M. scandens,Mikania cordifolia (L. f.) Willd, Mikania cordata
(Burm. f.) B. L. Robins. In Bangladesh, M. scandens is known
as ‘‘Jarmany lota’’ (Moon et al., 1993). Besides, this vining spe-
cies can be found in the southeast corner of Missouri. The
plant is very easy to identify in the field because of its vining
habit, opposite, sagittate leaves, and umbels of whitish flower
heads. This is a weedy species which can grow very long very
quickly. It is probably not the best choice to plant around a
water garden. The plant is, however, frequently visited by
many different types of flying insects. The genus Mikania is
a large cosmopolitan genus confined mostly to the tropics.
Fungi have long been recognized as causal agents of plant
diseases such as root rot symptom (Rhizoctonia solani), pyth-
ium root rot (Pythium Graminicola), soil green mould (Trico-
derma harzianum), and vascular wilt (Fusarium oxysporum)
(Hakuno et al., 2002;Waterhouse and Waterston, 1964;
Harman et al., 2004; Agrios, 1988). Chemical fungicides are
made up of many different volatile compounds and have been
shown to possess fungicidal properties (Ahmet et al., 2005).
Essential oils and plant extracts are gaining increasing interest
because of their relatively safe status, their wide acceptance by
consumers and their exploitation for potential multi-purpose
functional uses. So, essential oils and plant extracts are one
of the most promising groups of natural compounds for the
development of safer anti-fungal agents. M. scandens leaf is
used as its analgesic and antioxidant properties (Hasan et al.,
2009). However, there is no report available in the literature
on the detailed analyses of the essential oil of M. scandens
and its antifungal property. Therefore, we undertook investi-
gations of the chemical composition of the essential oil by
GC–MS and the antifungal properties of the essential oil and
extracts from M. scandens occurring in Bangladesh and the
results are reported in this communication.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Plant materials
The leaves of M. scandens (L.) were collected from the local
area of Muksudpur, Gopalganj, Bangladesh, in June and July
2010. The taxonomic identification of the plant was confirmed
by Dr. Oliur Rahman, Professor, Department of Botany, Uni-
versity of Dhaka, and a voucher specimen (DACB 37894) has
been deposited at the Bangladesh National Herbarium.
2.2. Isolation of the essential oils
The air-dried leaves (250 g) of M. scandens were subjected to
hydro distillation for 3 h using a Clevenger type apparatus.
The oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and pre-
served in a sealed vial at 4 C until further analysis.
2.3. Preparation of organic extracts
The air-dried leaves M. scandens were first pulverized into a
powdered form. The dried powder (50 g) was then extracted
with chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol separately at
room temperature for 7 days and the solvents were evaporated
by a vacuum rotary evaporator at a temperature of 50 C. The
extraction process yielded chloroform (6.2 g), ethyl acetate
(7.4 g) and methanol (6.5 g) extracts, respectively. Solvents
(analytical grade) for extraction were obtained from commer-
cial sources (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).
2.4. GC–MS/MS analysis
The GC–MS was carried out using a total ion monitoring
mode on Varian 3800 gas chromatograph interfaced to a Var-
ian Saturn ion trap 2200 GC–MS spectrometer. The tempera-
tures of transfer line and ion source were 280 and 275 C,
respectively. Ions were obtained by the electron ionization
mode. The ZB-1 capillary column (30 m length, 0.25 mm
I.D. and 0.25 lm film thickness) was used. A 20% split injec-
tion mode was selected with a solvent delay time of 3 min with
an injection volume of 0.2 ll. The initial column temperature
was started at 50 C for 1 min, programmed at 8 C/min–
200 C and heated until 280 Cat10C/min. The injection
port was set at 250 C. Helium was used as the carrier gas at
a constant flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Molecular ions (mass
range: 40–500 m/z) were monitored for identification. The rel-
ative percentage of the oil constituents was expressed as per-
centage by peak area normalization. The identification of
components of the essential oil was based on their retention
indices, relative to a homologous series of n-alkane (C
8
–C
20
)
on the ZB-1 capillary column under the same operating condi-
tions and computer matching with the GC–MS spectra from
the Wiley 6.0 MS data and literature data (Adams, 2007).
2.5. Microorganisms
The plant pathogenic fungi used in the experiment were
R. solani AG-1 (IB) KACC 40111, R. solani AG-2-2 (IV)
KACC 40132, P. graminicola KACC 40155, T. harzianum
KACC 40791 and F. oxysporum KACC 40052. The fungal
pathogens were kindly provided by Prof. Yong Se Lee,
Department of Bioresource Technology, College of Agricul-
ture and Environmental Science, Daegu University, Korea.
Cultures of each fungal species were maintained on potato-
dextrose agar (PDA) slants and stored at 4 C.
2.6. Preparation of spore suspension and test samples
The spore suspension of R. solani AG-1, R. solani AG-2-2,
P. graminicola,T. harzianum and F. oxysporum was obtained
from their respective 5–10 day old cultures, mixed with sterile
distilled water to obtain a homogenous spore suspension of
10
5
spore/ml. Essential oil, chloroform, ethyl acetate and
methanol extract of M. scandens were dissolved in methanol
separately to prepare the stock solution with their respective
known weights, which were further diluted to prepare test
samples.
2.6.1. Determination of antifungal activity of essential oil and
crude extracts
Petri dishes (9 cm diameter) containing 20 ml of PDA medium
were used for antifungal activity assay, performed in solid
media by the disc diffusion method (Duru et al., 2003). Sterile
Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were pierced in the
agar plates, equidistant and near the border, where the essen-
tial oil 10 ll (1000 lg/disc) and all extract samples 15 ll
2 S.A. Siddiqui et al.
Please cite this article in press as: Siddiqui, S.A. et al., Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various
extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
(1500 lg/disc) were used separately. A disc of fungal inocu-
lums 6 mm in diameter was removed from pre-grown cultures
of all the fungal strains tested and placed upside down in the
centre of the Petri dishes. The plates were incubated at
28 ± 2 C for 7 days, until the growth in control slates reached
the edges of the plates. Growth inhibition of each of the fungal
strains was calculated as the percentage of inhibition of radial
growth relative to the control along with antifungal effect on
fungal mycelium. The plates were used in triplicates for each
treatment. Growth inhibition of treatment against control
was calculated by percentage, using the following formula:
Inhibition ratio (%) = {1mycelium growth of treatment
(mm)/mycelium growth of control (mm)} ·100
2.6.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil and
crude extract was determined by the twofold dilution method
(Murray et al., 1995). Samples were dissolved in methanol
according to their respective known weights. The solutions
were serially diluted with methanol and were added to PDB
to final concentrations of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 lg/ml,
respectively. A 10 ll spore suspension of each test strain was
inoculated in the test tubes in PDB medium and incubated
for 5–7 days at 28 ± 2 C. The control tubes containing
PDB medium were inoculated only with fungal suspension.
The minimum concentration at which no visible growth was
observed was defined as the MIC, which was expressed in
lg/ml.
2.7. Statistical analysis
The essential oil and different organic extracts were assayed
for antifungal activity. Each experiment was run in triplicate,
and mean values were calculated. The statistical analysis was
carried out employing a one way ANOVA (p< 0.05). A statis-
tical package (SPSS version 11.0) was used for the data
analysis.
3. Results
3.1. Chemical composition of essential oil
GC–MS analyses of the oil of M. scandens (L.) led to the iden-
tification of twenty-four different compounds, representing
97.45% of the total leaf oil. The identified compounds are
listed in Table 1 according to their elution order on a ZB-1
capillary column. The oil contains a complex mixture consist-
ing of mainly oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons. The major compounds detected in the essential
oil were b-caryophyllene (16.98%), d-cadinene (12.22%),
a-cubebene (11.33%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (10.17%),
caryophyllene oxide (7.74%), b-himachalene (4.68%), T-cadi-
nol (3.98%), tetratetracontane (3.83%), 1H-cycloprop-
a[a]naphthalene (3.56%) and b-farnesene (3.08%).
3.2. Antifungal activity of essential oil and crude extracts
The oil of M. scandens exhibited a moderate to high antifungal
activity against all the tested fungi except R. solani (AG-1). A
low inhibition effect was observed against R. solani (AG1-1).
At the concentration of 10 ll (1000 lg/ml), the essential oil
showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of R. solani
(AG1-1 (62.8–63.4%), R. solani (AG-2-2) (53.2–54.6%),
P. graminicola (70.3–71.3%), T. harzianum (54.8–56.0%) and
F. oxysporum (74.9–75.9%) as shown in Table 2. Also, the
crude chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract
(1500 lg/ml) showed mycelium growth inhibition against some
of the phyto-pathogens but not for all. According to the results
reported in Table 2, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lower
antifungal effect than essential oil against R. solani (AG-1)
(53.1–54.7%), P. graminicola (56.4–57.4%) and F. oxysporum
(53.2–54.6%). The crude methanol, chloroform and ethyl
acetate extract did not show any inhibitory effect against
R. solani (AG-2-2). Besides, the chloroform extract showed
moderate antifungal activity against some of the fungi tested.
Also, the chloroform extract showed relatively better anti-
fungal effect against F. oxysporum (54.7–56.1%) as compared
to ethyl acetate extract.
3.3. Minimum inhibitory concentration
According to the results given in Table 3, MIC of essential oil
was found more effective against P. graminicola and F. oxyspo-
rum (125 lg/ml) as compared to those of R. solani (AG-1) and
T. harzianum (250 lg/ml). The ethyl acetate extract displayed
potent antifungal activity against F. oxysporum,P. graminicola
and R. solani AG-1 with MIC values of 250–500 lg/ml,
whereas the F. oxysporum and P. graminicola were 250 lg/
ml. Besides, the MIC values of chloroform and methanol ex-
tract against F. oxysporum,P. graminicola and R. solani AG-
1 were found within the range of 250–500 lg/ml.
4. Discussion
The increasing social and economic implications caused by
fungi means there is a constant striving to produce safer food
crops and to develop new antifungal agents. In general,
plant-derived essential oil is considered as non-phytotoxic
compounds and potentially effective against plant pathogenic
fungi. In recent years, interests have been generated in the
development of safer antifungal agents such as plant-based
essential oils and extracts to control phytopathogens in agri-
culture (Costa et al., 2000). Several publications have docu-
mented the antifungal activities of essential oil and plant
extracts (Rahman et al., 2010, 2011). Thus essential oil is a
promising natural antifungal agent with potential applications
in agro-industries to control plant pathogenic fungi causing
severe destruction in crops. The hydro distillation of the
M. scandens (L.) gave dark yellowish oil with the major com-
ponents having oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes,
and their respective hydrocarbons. In recent years, several
researchers have reported that monoterpene and sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives are the major
components of essential oil of plant origin, which have enor-
mous potential to strongly inhibit microbial pathogens (Cakir
et al., 2004). The essential oil of M. scandens showed a remark-
able antifungal effect against all the fungi which could be
attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds and oxygen-
ated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (Guillen
and Manzanos, 1998). In our opinion, major components of
M. scandens essential oil such as b-caryophyllene (16.98%),
d-cadinene (12.22%), a-cubebene (11.33%), 1,2-benzenedi-
Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania 3
Please cite this article in press as: Siddiqui, S.A. et al., Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various
extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
Table 3 Minimum inhibition concentration of the essential oil and various leaf extracts of Mikania scandens (L.).
Fungal strains Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
a
Essential oil
b
Leaf extracts
c
CHCl
3
MeOH EtOAc
Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 (IB) KACC 40111 250 500 500 500
Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 (IV) KACC 40132 nd nd nd nd
Pythium graminicola KACC 40155 125 500 250 250
Tricoderma harzianum KACC 40791 250 nd nd nd
Fusarium oxysporum KACC 40052 125 250 500 250
nd: not detected.
a
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
b
MIC of essential oil (values in lg/ml).
c
MIC of various leaf extracts of CHCl
3
(chloroform), MeOH (methanol), EtOAc (ethyl acetate) (values in lg/ml).
Table 1 Chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Mikania scandens (L.).
Sl. No. Compound RI
a
%RA
b
Identification
c
1. O-Decylhydroxylamine 1100 1.95 RI, MS
2. Myrtenol 1201 1.40 RI, MS
3. Dodecamethyl cyclohexasiloxane 1321 tr RI, MS
4. a-Cubebene 1351 11.33 RI, MS
5. Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-dime 1353 tr RI, MS
6. a-Copaene 1379 1.82 RI, MS
7. b-Caryophyllene 1414 16.98 RI, MS
8. 1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalene 1417 3.56 RI, MS
9. cis-b-Farnesene 1448 0.70 RI, MS
10. c-Muurolene 1460 1.24 RI, MS
11. d-Cadinene 1524 12.22 RI, MS
12. Caryophyllene oxide 1578 7.74 RI, MS
13. 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl 1601 1.04 RI, MS
14. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid 1603 10.17 RI, MS
15. Humulene epoxide-II 1607 1.67 RI, MS
16. b-himachalene 1614 4.68 RI, MS
17. T-Cadinol 1634 3.98 RI, MS
18. T-Muurolol 1641 2.47 RI, MS
19. b-Farnesene 1672 3.08 RI, MS
20. Tonalide 1850 1.34 RI, MS
21. Nonadecane 1900 2.64 RI, MS
22. Phthalic acid, butyl hexyl ester 1970 1.19 RI, MS
23. (-)-Spathulenol 2464 1.92 RI, MS
24. Tetratetracontane 4395 3.83 RI, MS
Total identified 97.45%
a
Retention index relative to n-alkanes on ZB-1 capillary column, tr: trace amount (<0.30%).
b
Relative area (peak area relative to the total peak area).
c
Identification: MS, comparison of mass spectra with MS libraries; RI, comparison of retention index with bibliography.
Table 2 Antifungal activity of the leaves essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.).
Fungal strains Radial growth inhibition
Essential oil CHCl
3
MeOH EtOAc
Percent
a
Percent
a
Percent
a
Percent
a
Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 (IB) KACC 40111 63.1 ± 0.7
b
40.0 ± 0.6
b
nd 53.9 ± 0.8
b
Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 (IV) KACC 40132 53.9 ± 0.7
b
nd nd nd
Pythium graminicola KACC 40155 70.8 ± 0.5
b
52.3 ± 0.6
b
nd 56.9 ± 0.5
b
Tricoderma harzianum KACC 40791 55.4 ± 0.6
b
nd nd nd
Fusarium oxysporum KACC 40052 75.4 ± 0.5
b
55.4 ± 0.7
b
nd 53.9 ± 0.7
b
nd: not detected of antifungal activity. Solvents (Chloroform, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate).
a
Percentage of radial growth inhibition.
b
Values are given as mean ± S.D. (n= 3), and considered to be significantly different at P< 0.05.
4 S.A. Siddiqui et al.
Please cite this article in press as: Siddiqui, S.A. et al., Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various
extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
carboxylic acid (10.17%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.74%)
have the key roles for their antifungal activities (Cheng
et al., 2004; Gazim et al., 2008; Tolouee et al., 2010; Ogunlesi
et al., 2009; Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). Also, the components such
as b-himachalene (4.68%), T-cadinol (3.98%), tetratetracon-
tane (3.83%), 1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (3.56%) and
b-farnesene (3.08%) contributed to the antifungal activity of
the oil (Daoubi et al., 2005; Cheng et al., 2006; EL Mehalawy,
2004; Guo et al., 2008).
5. Conclusion
Therefore, it would also be interesting to study the effects of
essential oil and different extracts of M. scandens (L.) against
other important fungi for developing new antifungal agents
to control serious fungal diseases in plant, animal and human
beings. Thus, M. scandens could become an alternative to syn-
thetic fungicides for use in agro-industries and also to screen
and develop such novel types of selective and natural fungi-
cides in the treatment of many microbial plant pathogens caus-
ing severe destruction to crop, vegetable and ornamental
plants.
References
Abi-Ayad, M., Abi-Ayad, F.Z., Lazzouni, H.A., Rebiahi, S.A.,
Ziani_Cherif, C., Bessiere, 2011. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 5433–5436.
Adams, R.P., 2007. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas
Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, fourth ed. Carol stream,
Illinois, Allured Publishing Corporation, USA.
Agrios, G.N., 1988. Plant Pathology, third ed. Academic Press, Inc.,
New York (p. 803).
Ahmet, C., Saban, K., Hamdullah, K., Ercan, K., 2005. Biochem. Syst.
Ecol. 33, 245–256.
Cakir, A., Kordali, S., Zengin, H., Izumi, S., Hirata, T., 2004. Flavour
Frag. J. 1, 62–68.
Cheng, S.S., Wu, C.L., Chang, H.T., Kao, Y.T., Chang, S.T., 2004. J.
Chem. Ecol. 30, 1957–1967.
Cheng, S.S., Liu, J.Y., Hsui, Y.R., Chang, S.T., 2006. Bioresour.
Technol. 97, 306–312.
Costa, T.R., Fernandes, O.L.F., Santos, S.C., Oliveria, C.M.A., Liao,
L.M., Ferri, P.H., Paulo, J.R., Ferreira, H.D., Sales, B.H.N., Silva,
M.R.R., 2000. J. Ethnopharmcol. 72 (1–2), 111–117.
Daoubi, M., Herna
´ndez-Gala
´n, R., Benharref, A., Collado, I.G., 2005.
J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (17), 6673–6677.
Duru, M.E., Cakir, A., Kordali, S., Zengin, H., Harmandar, M.,
Izumi, S., Hirata, T., 2003. Fitoterapia 74, 170–176.
EL Mehalawy, A.A., 2004. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 06 (2), 310–316.
Gazim, Z.C., Rezende, C.M., Fraga, S.R., Svidzinski, T.I.E., Cortez,
D.A.G., 2008. J. Microbiol. 39, 61–63.
Guillen, M.D., Manzanos, M.J., 1998. Flavour Frag. J. 13, 259–262.
Guo, L., Wu, J.Z., Han, T., Cao, T., Rahman, K., Qin, L.P., 2008.
Molecules 13, 2114–2125.
Hakuno, F., Soejima, A., Kunoh, H., 2002. J. Jpn. Soc. Turfgeass Sci.
30 (2), 105–114.
Harman, G.E., Howell, C.R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I., Lorito, M., 2004.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (1), 43–56.
Hasan, S.M.R., Jamila, M., Majumder, M.M., Akter, R., Hossain,
M.M.K., Mazumder, M.E.H., Alam, M.A., Jahangir, R., Rana,
M.S., Rahman, M.A.S., 2009. Am J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 4 (1), 1–
7.
Moon, M., Rattray, M.R., Putz, F.E., 1993. Funct. Ecol. 7 (5), 610–
615.
Murray, P.R., Baron, E.J., Pfaller, M.A., Tenover, F.C., Yolke, R.H.,
1995. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, sixth ed. ASM, Washing-
ton, DC.
Ogunlesi, M., Okiei, W., Ofor, E., Elizabeth, O.A., 2009. Afr. J.
Biotechnol. 8 (24), 7042–7050.
Rahman, A., Hossain, M.A., Kang, S.C., 2010. Control of phyto-
pathogenic fungi by the essential oil and methanolic extracts of
Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P.. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 128, 211–
219.
Rahman, A., Al-Reza, S.M., Kang, S.C., 2011. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.
88, 573–579.
Tolouee, M., Alinezhad, S., Saberi, R., Eslamifar, A., Zad, S.J.,
Jaimand, K., Taeb, J., Rezaee, M.B., Kawachi, M., Shams-
Ghahfarokhi, M., Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., 2010. Int. J. Food
Microbiol. 139 (3), 127–133.
Waterhouse, G.M., Waterston, J.M., 1964. IMI Des. Fun. Bac. 4, 38.
Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania 5
Please cite this article in press as: Siddiqui, S.A. et al., Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various
extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.050
... Natural triterpenoids are present in herbal medicines and some of them give evidence concerning the antifungal activity of natural sources [18,27]. Several publications have documented the antifungal activities of essential oil and plant extracts [28,29]. ...
... (a) (b) As an example of the calculation, from Figure 2 The crude extracts concentrations play a key role in growth inhibition. Variation in results could be observed, which may be due to various factors such as environmental factors, the sample concentration, investigation methods, extraction methods, fraction used, the composition of plant content, and geographical origin and seasonal variation of the plants [29]. In contrast, inhibition given by chemical drugs mostly will reveal reproducible results due to the highest impurity and reliability. ...
Article
Some antifungal drugs that are used to treat candidiasis and dermatomycosis can change the life cycle and growth patterns of fungi, leading to resistance. To avoid this, alternative medicines such as medicinal plants are needed. Medinilla speciosa Blume is a plant originating from Mount Muria, Kudus, Central Java, Indonesia, which has been used by the community to treat diarrhea, inflammation, and bacterial infections, but there is no information about its antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of M. speciosa Blume fruit extracts against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28188. This research was performed by plant determination and sample preparation, sample extraction by gradually maceration, phytochemicals screening, TLC profile assay, antifungal activity test, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) determination, and comparative antifungal activity study against Ketoconazole. The results showed that all of the extracts indicated no antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231, but methanol extract showed the strongest activity against T. rubrum ATCC 28188, followed by ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts. MIC and MFC of methanol extract against T. rubrum ATCC 28188 were 391 and 781 ppm, respectively. The comparative antifungal activity value of methanol extract against Ketoconazole was 4621.68: 1. With regard to the results of phytochemical screening and TLC profile, the antifungal activity of methanol extract may be due to the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, quinones, and saponins.
... Previous studies revealed that the aerial parts of M. cordata exerted central antinociceptive, locomotors depressant, muscle relaxant and sedative potential effect which, in turn, leads to the conclusion that the aerial parts of this species has some central nervous system depression properties (Dey et al., 2011). Moreover, Siddiqui et al. (2017) stated that monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds are predominant in essential oil composition, while De Sousa (2011) showed that the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes played very important role as analgesic compound in essential oils. Furthermore, the analgesic role of flavonoids (Rao et al., 1998), tannin and alkaloids (Goyal et al., 2013) in different plant species has been well established, and this particular species M. cordata has been claimed to possess flavonoid, steroid, tannin, and saponin as predominant compounds (Hasan et al., 2009;Nayeem et al., 2011). ...
... The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of the oil and extracts found in this study is not so clear as like as antinociceptive activities. However, our previous study revealed that essential oil of M. cordata is a rich source of various mono-and sesquiterpenes, e.g., b-caryophyllene, d-cadinene, b-himachalene, T-cadinol, b-farnesene as well as other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (Siddiqui et al., 2017). It has already been shown that the b-caryophyllene and d-Cadinene can inhibit the biogenesis of leukotriene B2, prostaglandin E2, and other arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammation pathway (Kamatou et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mikania cordata is widely used for the treatment of cuts, wounds, and dengue fever in Bangladesh. In the present study, essential oil (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and two extracts, viz., chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (200, 400, 800 mg/kg b.w.) were tested for peripheral and central anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method, respectively. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay and yeast-induced hyperthermia assay were also carried out to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of oil and extracts, respectively at aforesaid doses. The essential oil (50 mg/kg), chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) showed potent peripheral antinociceptive activity having 47.33%, 29.33% and 16.65% of writhing inhibition, respectively, comparable with standard diclofenac (52.0%). Essential oil (50 mg/kg), chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) presented promising central anti-nociceptive activity as well having 95.86%, 79.18% and 42.37% elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of essential oil, ethyl acetate extract and 60 min after administration of chloroform extract. In anti-inflammatory activity screening, the essential oil (50 mg/kg) produced the highest 72.80% edema inhibition at 4 h after administration of carrageenan which was comparable with that of standard phenylbutazoe (87.87%). On the other hand, chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) showed up to 34.31% and 15.27% of edema inhibition, respectively, at 4 h after administration of carrageenan. In antipyretic assay, the essential oil and chloroform extract displayed a strong antipyretic effect in yeast induced rats, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had no antipyretic activity. The present study revealed anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of M. cordata which could be the therapeutic option against fever, inflammations as well as painful conditions and confirmed the traditional use of M. cordata.
... Previous studies revealed that the aerial parts of M. cordata exerted central antinociceptive, locomotors depressant, muscle relaxant and sedative potential effect which, in turn, leads to the conclusion that the aerial parts of this species has some central nervous system depression properties (Dey et al., 2011). Moreover, Siddiqui et al. (2017) stated that monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds are predominant in essential oil composition, while De Sousa (2011) showed that the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes played very important role as analgesic compound in essential oils. Furthermore, the analgesic role of flavonoids (Rao et al., 1998), tannin and alkaloids (Goyal et al., 2013) in different plant species has been well established, and this particular species M. cordata has been claimed to possess flavonoid, steroid, tannin, and saponin as predominant compounds (Hasan et al., 2009;Nayeem et al., 2011). ...
... The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of the oil and extracts found in this study is not so clear as like as antinociceptive activities. However, our previous study revealed that essential oil of M. cordata is a rich source of various mono-and sesquiterpenes, e.g., b-caryophyllene, d-cadinene, b-himachalene, T-cadinol, b-farnesene as well as other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (Siddiqui et al., 2017). It has already been shown that the b-caryophyllene and d-Cadinene can inhibit the biogenesis of leukotriene B2, prostaglandin E2, and other arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammation pathway (Kamatou et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mikania cordata is widely used for the treatment of cuts, wounds, and dengue fever in Bangladesh. In the present study, essential oil (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and two extracts, viz., chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (200, 400, 800 mg/kg b.w.) were tested for peripheral and central anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method, respectively. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay and yeast-induced hyperthermia assay were also carried out to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of oil and extracts, respectively at aforesaid doses. The essential oil (50 mg/kg), chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) showed potent peripheral anti-nociceptive activity having 47.33%, 29.33% and 16.65% of writhing inhibition, respectively, comparable with standard diclofenac (52.0%). Essential oil (50 mg/kg), chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) presented promising central anti-nociceptive activity as well having 95.86%, 79.18% and 42.37% elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of essential oil, ethyl acetate extract and 60 min after administration of chloroform extract. In anti-inflammatory activity screening, the essential oil (50 mg/kg) produced the highest 72.80% edema inhibition at 4 h after administration of carrageenan which was comparable with that of standard phenylbutazoe (87.87%). On the other hand, chloroform extract (800 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (800 mg/kg) showed up to 34.31% and 15.27% of edema inhibition, respectively, at 4 h after administration of carrageenan. In anti-pyretic assay, the essential oil and chloroform extract displayed a strong antipyretic effect in yeast-induced rats, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had no antipyretic activity. The present study revealed anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of M. cordata which could be the therapeutic option against fever, inflammations as well as painful conditions and confirmed the traditional use of M. cordata. Ó 2018 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
... The CNS depressant activity with potential antioxidant properties of M. cordata was found (Hasan et al., 2009), while crude ethanolic extract of M. cordata presented analgesic, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities (Nayeem et al., 2011). Very recently, chloroform extract of the aerial parts of M. cordata was found very bioactive in nature (Siddiqui et al., 2017). To provide scientific support to traditional and folklore usage of M. cordata in Bangladesh for the treatment of different ailment, in this study, we aimed to explore and identify the chemical compound(s) from M. cordata and evaluate the role of the compounds behind bioactivities of the species. ...
... Among all the chemicals and secondary metabolites produced in a plant the preferred choice by academician and the researchers is the essential oils. Plant essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids extracted from different parts of medicinal and aromatic plants (Pawar & Thaker 2007), and several essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial, antifungal and insecticidal properties (Chutia et al., 2009;Siddique et al. 2017). Furthermore, antifungal activities of several essential oils are reported by various researchers (Beg & Ahmad 2002;Deng et al., 2013;Tejeswini et al., 2014;Rath & Mohapatra 2015). ...
... The CNS depressant activity with potential antioxidant properties of M. cordata was found (Hasan et al., 2009), while crude ethanolic extract of M. cordata presented analgesic, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities (Nayeem et al., 2011). Very recently, chloroform extract of the aerial parts of M. cordata was found very bioactive in nature (Siddiqui et al., 2017). To provide scientific support to traditional and folklore usage of M. cordata in Bangladesh for the treatment of different ailment, in this study, we aimed to explore and identify the chemical compound(s) from M. cordata and evaluate the role of the compounds behind bioactivities of the species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aerial parts of extensively used ethnomedicinal plant Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) Robinson growing wild in Bangladesh were investigated to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for the bioactivities of the plant. In the present study, a new derivatives of betulinic acid, 16-hydroxy betulinic acid [3β,16-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic] was isolated and the structure of the compound was determined by NMR spectroscopic means and comparing with available literature data. The isolated compound was then investigated for different pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential employing different methods. The compound showed potent antibacterial activity with inhibition zone of diameter ranging from 12.0 to 17.5 mm and antifungal activity with mycelial growth inhibition ranging from 37.6 to 54.5%. The MIC values for antibacterial and antifungal activities ranged from 31.5-125 and 250-1000 μg/mL respectively. The compound (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) showed potent peripheral and central analgesic activity with 55.19% and 41% of writhing inhibition at 90 min after administration of the compound and the highest 55.98%, 79.18% elongation of reaction time, respectively. In anti-inflammatory activity screening, the compound (100 mg/kg b.w.) revealed the highest 77.08% edema inhibition at 4 h after administration of carrageenan. In antipyretic assay, 16-hydroxy betulinic acid displayed a strong antipyretic effect in yeast-induced rats. From the present study it is apparent that 16-hydroxy betulinic acid might play vital role to establish M. cordata as ethnomedicinal plant to treat wound, cuts and fever.
... In our current study, we also obtained that Phytopthora sp., Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger were susceptible to M. scandens crude extract at the dose of 150 µg/disc with (18.33 ± 0.58) mm, (18.67 ± 1.53) mm, (21.00 ± 1.00) mm inhibition zones, respectively. It was also reported by Siddiqui et al. 18 that essential oil of M. scandens leaf has antifungal effect against Pythium graminicola, Fusarium oxysporum at the dose of 125 µg/disc and Tricoderma harzianum was susceptible at the dose of 200 µg/disc. All the fungal strains were strongly susceptible to standard antibiotic Nystatin (10 µg/disc) except Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
p>Biological activities of the methanolic leaf extracts of Coccinia indica and Mikania scandens were observed through antimicrobial assay, cytotoxic assay and antioxidant activity through DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay with a comparison of IC50 values of extracts with standard antioxidant BHT (butylatedhydroxytoluene). In case of crude extract of Coccinia indica , antimicrobial assay showed that Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli were susceptible at a dose of 150μg/disc out of five tested bacteria. Again, out of five fungi strains, Phytopthora sp., Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger were sensitive against 150 μg/disc containing crude extract . In the case of Mikania scandens, antimicrobial assay showed that Pseudomonas sp., Rhizobium for Vigna mongu ( RVM), Rhizobium for Cicer arietinum (RCA)were susceptible at a dose of 150 μg/disc, while Escherichia coli was susceptible at only 75 μg/disc. Furthermore, out of five fungi strains, Phytopthora sp., Penicillium notatum were sensitive against 150μg/disc while Aspergillus niger was sensitive against 100 μg/disc and 150 μg/disc of M. scandens crude extract. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of C. indica leaf extract displayed that it was capable of scavenging the 50% DPPH at the dose of 130 μg/ml and itindicated that the plant extract had moderate to high antioxidant activity. However, Mikania scandens , the IC50 value was 125μg/ml which indicated that M. scandens leaf extract had strong antioxidant potentialities than the leaf extract of C. indica. Cytotoxic assay showed that the methanolic leaf extracts of C. indica and M. scandens were highly toxic for the aquatic organisms at the concentrations of above 104.60 and 89 μg/ml, respectively. Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 16(1): 87-93, 2017 (June)</p
... Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were taken for the anti-fungal activity test. Cultures of each fungal species were maintained on potatodextrose agar (PDA) slants and stored at 4 o C and performed by disc diffusion method (Siddiqui et al., 2013). On the other hand, the organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for antibacterial activity test. ...
Article
Full-text available
The research work was involved in rapid and efficient procedure for the attachment of barbituric acid with arylidene acetophenone under microwave irradiation (MWI) and conventional heating. The result showed that the time was reduced from the conventional 24 hours to 5-10 minutes. In conventional heating, the yield of the compounds 2a-2e were very poor (75-81%), but in MW methods the yields were observed 96.48-98% which was comparatively too high. The structures of the compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectral data. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the synthesized compounds were also investigated. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed the zone of inhibition were 6-12 mm where sample concentration was 100 μg/disc. However, cytotoxic analysis, the mortality 47-95% were appeared when sample concentration were 0.78-25 (μg/ml) and more than 50 (μg/ml) concentration showed 100% mortality. The presence of a reactive and unsaturated ketone function in synthesized compounds was found to be responsible for their potential antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Article
Full-text available
Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
Article
Full-text available
The composition of spine essential oil of Aleppo pine tree from Ghazaouet (Tlemcen) extracted by hydro-distillation (yield: 0.3%) was investigated by GC_MS. Twenty-two compounds, representing 93.38% of the essential oil were identified. The main constituents are caryophyllene oxide (52%), thumbergol (9%), and humulene oxide (7.2%). The antifungal activity of this essential oil against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer was evaluated by the disc diffusion method.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the leaves of Pistacia vera, Pistacia terebinthus, Pistacia lentiscus and the resin of Pistacia lentiscus were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol were found to be the major components. The antifungal activities of the above oils and P. lentiscus resin (total, acidic and neutral fractions) against the growth of three agricultural pathogens, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium sambucinum were evaluated. Some doses of P. terebinthus, P. vera and P. lentiscus leaf oils and total and neutral fraction of P. lentiscus resin significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani. However, all samples did not show antifungal activity against P. ultimum and F. sambucinum, but increased the growth of F. sambucinum.
Article
Full-text available
Trichoderma spp. are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. Recent discoveries show that they are opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts, as well as being parasites of other fungi. At least some strains establish robust and long-lasting colonizations of root surfaces and penetrate into the epidermis and a few cells below this level. They produce or release a variety of compounds that induce localized or systemic resistance responses, and this explains their lack of pathogenicity to plants. These root-microorganism associations cause substantial changes to the plant proteome and metabolism. Plants are protected from numerous classes of plant pathogen by responses that are similar to systemic acquired resistance and rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma spp. also frequently enhances root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses and the uptake and use of nutrients.
Article
1. Mikania scandens plants of three stem-length classes: small ( 10 cm), were transplanted into flooded or drained soil. After six weeks the relative growth rates (RGR), based on both dry weight and stem elongation, of the small plants under flooded conditions were 50% greater than those in drained soil. For the medium and large classes, the RGR values of the drained and flooded plants were similar. 2. Stem and root cross-sections revealed that flooded plants had two- and threefold respectively more aerenchyma tissue, with the amount in the stem decreasing in an acropetal direction. The stem surface contained stomata, not lenticels. The mean number of stem stomata was 267 and 57 for flooded and drained plants respectively on the 21 cm stem section above the water or soil line. 3. In root tissue ethanol and malic acid were below detectable concentrations, suggesting that anaerobic respiration was not an important component of metabolism under flooding. 4. Rather, M. scandens acclimatized anatomically with an increase in aerenchyma tissue and stem stomata, which would facilitate oxygen diffusion to the roots. Unlike other herbaceous, wetland species that use leaf stomata, the oxygen appeared to be derived from stem stomata. In this vine, insufficient oxygen diffusion down the long internodes probably necessitates use of stem stomata near the water-line. 5. These results indicate that M. scandens is flood-resistant, and may partially explain why it becomes a weed problem in flooded areas of Florida.
Article
The efficacy of the essential oil and methanolic extracts of Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P. was evaluated for controlling the growth of some important phytopathogenic fungi. The hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Thirty one compounds representing 95.3% of the total oil were identified, of which β-caryophyllene (24.0%), α-humulene (14.5%), 1,8-cineole (9.0%), eugenol (7.2%), globulol (7.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.2%), δ-cadinene (5.0%), α-copaene (4.9%) and widdrol (2.0%) were the major compounds. Thus, the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant portions of the oil. Essential oil and methanol extract of E. ramosus and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate were tested for anti-fungal activity, which was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination methods. The oil (1,000ppm) and methanolic extracts (1,500ppm) displayed great potential of anti-fungal activity as a mycelial growth inhibition against the tested phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 41083), Phytophthora capsici (KACC 40157), Colletotricum capsici (KACC 410978), Fusarium solani (KACC 41092), Rhizoctonia solani (KACC 40111), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (KACC 41065) and Botrytis cinerea (KACC 40573), in the range of 49.3–70.3% and minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 125–500μgml-1. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new anti-fungal agents to protect the crops from fungal diseases. KeywordsAnti-fungal activity-β-Caryophyllene- Erigeron ramosus -Essential oil-Phytopathogenic fungi
  • G N Agrios
Agrios, G.N., 1988. Plant Pathology, third ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York (p. 803).
  • C Ahmet
  • K Saban
  • K Hamdullah
  • K Ercan
Ahmet, C., Saban, K., Hamdullah, K., Ercan, K., 2005. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 33, 245-256.