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... To our knowledge, there is a lack of studies concerning vitality and the relationships with burnout and work-family conflict. Despite this, research focused on healthcare professionals revealed that emotional demands required for these professions were associated with subjective vitality when personal or job resources are available [61,62]. In one hand, it is well-supported that these emotional demands could affect the balance work-family [63], as the excess of demands at work might lead an inter-role conflict [64], and in turn, impact on subjective vitality levels. ...
... On the other hand, burnout is considered as a negative outcome derived from the increase in job demands when personal/job resources are not enough to accomplish them [43], generally negatively related to vitality in healthcare contexts [65]. In this regard, identifying the daily and short-term antecedents of vitality is especially relevant [61,66], since healthcare professionals are currently experiencing high levels of exhaustion and fatigue [4,67,68]. In addition, high levels of subjective vitality and energy have been associated with greater proactivity at work, goal attainment [69], organizational citizenship behavior [70], and with a better job performance [71]. ...
... When health professionals are unable to balance their personal life and work, they have low vitality scores, as well as feelings of frustration at not being able to adequately manage both relevant spheres in their lives, which has implications for the performance of their work on a daily basis. Work-family conflict may also be causing difficulties in resting or relaxing, as well as difficulties in recovering from stress [61]. If work-family conflict is a friction that is produced between the pressures exerted by the work and by the family that are incompatible [39], leaving may be the only option available to the health professional to solve the conflict if health services management does not intervene to support the professional to find work related approaches to ease the stress. ...
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Abstract: There is an intensification of work in global health systems, a phenomenon that could increase work-family conflict, exhaustion, and intentions to leave among healthcare workers. The main objective of this study is to analyze if daily work-family conflict and burnout could explain the daily leaving intentions and vitality of healthcare workers. This is a diary study, which employs an experience-sampling methodology (ESM). A total of 56 physicians, nurses, and nursing aides from intensive care and nephrology units filled out various quantitative scales during 5 working days (56 × 5 = 280 observations). Multilevel hierarchical analysis showed that daily work-family conflict and burnout were significantly associated with higher daily intentions of leaving the profession, and with lower levels of daily vitality. In addition, those workers who experienced more work-family conflict and depersonalization on a daily basis were those who showed more intentions to leave and less daily vitality, showing an interactive effect. The results highlight the importance of examining the psychosocial risks experienced by healthcare workers by employing experience-sampling methodologies, which could help us to deepen our understanding of the proximal antecedents of their intentions to leave and their psychological well-being. Citation: Blanco-Donoso, L.M.; Moreno-Jiménez, J.; Hernández-Hurtado, M.; Cifri-Gavela, J.L.; Jacobs, S.; Garrosa,
... In another study conducted with 54 nurses, it was found that ER strategies such as rumination and refocus on planning were associated with lower burnout (specifically in terms of depersonalization) (Bamonti et al., 2022). In other contexts of formal care (e.g., hospitals), ER difficulties were associated with higher emotional exhaustion at work, and higher fatigue and negative affect at home (Blanco-Donoso et al., 2017), while higher ER abilities were associated with more motivation at work and well-being at home even when they faced high emotional demands at work (Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015). Also, in one study with formal caregivers of people with dementia, difficulties in ER were associated with poor physical and mental health (Bassal et al., 2016). ...
... Previous studies have already established associations between ER and mental health of workers (Bamonti et al., 2022;Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015Katana et al., 2019) and between work engagement and employees' mental health (Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2012;Imamura et al., 2016;Innstrand et al., 2012;Kanste, 2011;Leijten et al., 2015). However, there are no studies exploring a more comprehensive and processual approach to these links, especially in the context of geriatric care, which leads to our mediational hypothesis. ...
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Background: This study examined whether work engagement mediated the association between emotion regulation and mental health of professionals working in long-term care institutions for older adults in Brazil. Participants and procedure: A cross-sectional study with a total of 104 professionals working in 13 long-term care facilities for the elderly in Brazil was conducted. Emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), work engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption), and mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) were measured using self-report scales. Multiple me-diation models were used to test the mediating role of engagement. Results: Expressive suppression was associated with more vigor, which in turn was associated with less anxiety and stress; cognitive reappraisal was associated with more vigor, which in turn was associated with less anxiety and stress. No indirect effects were found for depression. Conclusions: Expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategies to regulate emotions seem to be associated with more vigor in terms of resilience and persistence to deal with work demands in these professionals. These results seem to suggest that workers who are more capable of regulating their emotions (using both expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal in a flexible way according to work demands) are more likely to be resilient, invest in their profession, and be persistent in the face of difficulties. This, in turn, contributes to protecting them from experiencing anxiety and stress.
... When one is competent for the work, and gets positive feedback from the patients, the dignity is confirmed and the vitality is strengthened. Also, Donoso et al. [26] suggest that emotional demands from the nursing profession have positive effects on motivation and well-being. All job demands do not have negative effects on workers' well-being. ...
... All job demands do not have negative effects on workers' well-being. Emotional job demands can be a challenge for nurses, which promotes motivation and well-being [26]. ...
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Background and aim Vitality is described as ‘life energy’, ‘inner strength’ and ‘inner health resource’ and is the essence of health. Especially during the ageing process, it is of fundamental importance that an individual's health resources are strengthened to support work ability. The need for health services increases as the population ages and meanwhile the workforce in health care is also ageing. The aim of the study was to explore what is giving vitality to older workers in health care to continue at work until retirement age and maybe even an extended working life. Informants, methodology and methods A qualitative interview study was conducted. A total of 15 people aged 59–65 participated in the study, all of them working in the health care sector. Five participants were administrative personnel and ten were nurses. One man and fourteen women took part in the study. Qualitative content analyses were used. Findings The results show that meaningful work, possibilities to use one's knowledge, relationships and work community are promoting vitality. Vitality is affected by work conditions, benefits, personal values and own health. Conclusion Plans about continuing at work seem to depend on both external and internal reasons. Knowledge of what influences older employees’ vitality resources makes it possible to improve their work situation so that vitality and work ability can be maintained by occupational health and employers despite the ageing process.
... When performed for altruistic reasons, emotional labor can be a source of satisfaction; if not, it can threaten the wellbeing of nurses. For example, nurses who have difficulty managing the emotional demands of the job tend to report elevated levels of emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment and general fatigue [4]. ...
... As indicated, its reading grade level is 4, meaning that even individuals in the fourth grade can read and understand the developed Nurse Emotional Labor Scale. They were separated into 3 different subscales (Surface acting, Deep acting, Genuine acting) and re-numbered (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) according to the highest number of their factor loads. There are 5 items in each category. ...
... When performed for altruistic reasons, emotional labor can be a source of satisfaction; if not, it can threaten the wellbeing of nurses. For example, nurses who have difficulty managing the emotional demands of the job tend to report elevated levels of emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment and general fatigue [4]. ...
... As indicated, its reading grade level is 4, meaning that even individuals in the fourth grade can read and understand the developed Nurse Emotional Labor Scale. They were separated into 3 different subscales (Surface acting, Deep acting, Genuine acting) and re-numbered (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) according to the highest number of their factor loads. There are 5 items in each category. ...
Article
Emotionally demanding patient interactions, when coupled with organizational directives to focus on exemplary customer service, can prompt nurses to express feelings and emotions that are not genuine and involves a great deal of emotional labor. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool that measures emotional labor of nurses. The measured variables were taken from the underlying structures of nurse emotional labor based on scholarly literature and respondent's feedback. By virtue of their near-constant contact with patients and families, it is more difficult for nurses than for other healthcare professionals to escape emotional labor, and recharge their batteries for the next encounter.
... Accordingly, the nurses with high workloads in palliative care units, who encounter intense human relationships and go through many emotional processes, make an extra effort and display emotional labor while displaying the attitudes and emotions expected of them (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13). In palliative care, the increase in the conflict between the emotions felt and expressed by the nurses also increases the level of emotional labor spent while caring for patients with both physical and mental labor (4,12,14,15). Studies have demonstrated that the emotional labor behaviors of the nurses are affected by the personal and professional factors (age, education, duration of professional experience, department, the number of patients they care for, etc.). ...
... It is a five-point Likert-type scale consisting of 26 questions. The scale consists of three sub-dimensions including organization (5,8,15,16,19), resources (6,7,13,14,24) and clinicians (20,21). Organization sub-dimension measures the facilitators or barriers found in the environment of the clinic where nurses work for palliative care practices. ...
... Cognitive demands "require workers to expend sustained mental effort in carrying out their duties" (Viotti & Converso, 2016, p. 441), whereas emotional demands consist in handling intense emotional situations at work while caring for people (Donoso et al., 2015). Both demands can be important sources of burnout, and their functioning is quite complex. ...
... These unexpected findings can be ascribed to the fact that cognitive demands and emotional demands are characterized by complex functioning, which-for some professionals (Bakker & Sanz-Vergel, 2013) and under certain circumstances-are appraised as challenging demands that, despite requiring a large amount of energy expenditure, can also elicit positive emotions (Tadić et al., 2015). We also think that the lack of statistical significance in the association between emotional demands and EE may be due to the nature of the nursing profession itself, given that nurses' education makes them well suited to deal with situations involving high emotional demands (Donoso et al., 2015). This finding may also be related to the reasons for choosing a nursing career. ...
Article
Background Emotional exhaustion is the most important component of burnout syndrome, which is a threat to nurses' psychological well-being. Objectives The study investigated the impact of job demands - workload, cognitive demands, emotional demands, role conflict - and perceived leader-follower interaction frequency on emotional exhaustion among nurses. Methods This study was conducted at three hospitals in northern Italy through an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered to 560 nurses. Multiple hierarchical regression was performed. Results Workload and role conflict were positively related to emotional exhaustion, whereas cognitive demands and perceived leader-follower interaction frequency were negatively related. Emotional demands displayed a non-significant relationship with emotional exhaustion. Further analyses were performed to comment on the unexpected outcome of cognitive demands. A critical role of the perception of “distance” in leader-follower relationships on burnout was found. Conclusions This study provides novel insights into the relationship between job demands and burnout, and much needed empirical evidence on leader-follower relationships among nurses, pointing to the important role played by leader distance in nurses' well-being at work. Findings highlight the importance of training head nurses in managing their working relationship distance from their followers in order to help them soothing emotional exhaustion.
... In addition, the emotional demands for a collective such as health professionals can be perceived as challenging (Bakker & Sanz-Vergel, 2013). In this sense, the presence of high emotional demands may be satisfying the personal need that these workers may have to face this type of task, and therefore can be considered as an experience that generates positive, comforting emotions, and not necessarily an unpleasant experience that provokes high activation (Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015). This result would be in line with Bono et al. (2013), who showed how both the occurrence of positive work experiences and thinking about them after the day helps to reduce stress thanks to their ability to satisfy human needs. ...
... Emotional demands are not inherently negative. For example, they can have positive motivational effects (Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015). Moreover, with sufficient material and personal resources, these demands would not necessarily affect the worker's well-being. ...
Article
The objective of this study is twofold: first, to analyze whether the daily level of energy in terms of vigor at work could explain the way in which workers psychologically detach from their work, relax, practice challenging activities, and have the feeling of having control over their leisure time when arriving home. Second, to check if the daily emotional job demands could hinder that relationship, reversing the positive effect of vigor in recovery. For this purpose, a multilevel study with a diary methodology was designed. In total, 94 nurses from various hospital and primary care centers in Madrid and Basque Country (Spain) participated in this study. They completed daily questionnaires twice a day (in the afternoon after work and at night before going to bed) for five consecutive workdays from Monday to Friday (N = 94*5 = 470). The results revealed that on days that vigor at work was high, nurses experienced more psychological detachment, relaxation, feelings of mastery, and time control at home. Moreover, on days that emotional job demands were high, vigor was more negatively related to psychological detachment and time control at home. Additionally, vigor was more positively related to all recovery experiences at home in days that emotional demands were low. Therefore, daily vigor can act as an energy resource that helps the worker to recover. However, this effect can occur in situations in which stressors are not present in high intensity. These results have clear practical implications for both health organizations and workers. https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/BRZ4EXIB2HXCVK5JBC25/full?target=10.1080/00223980.2020.1870910
... When job demands overshadow job resources, the long-term consequence is burnout (Bianchi et al., 2015;Demerouti, et al., 2001). Within job resources, internal strategies such as emotional regulation (ER) may be deployed in response to stress in the workplace to mitigate the effect of job demands and reduce burnout (Demerouti et al., 2001;Donoso, et al., 2015). Yet, there is limited research examining the impact of emotion regulation strategies on burnout (Bamonti et al., 2019). ...
... Thus, certain work demands may serve to increase energy rather than deplete energy reserves when emotion does not interfere with work performance. This finding is particularly salient for the burnout subscale, Emotional Exhaustion, that is characterized by emotional fatigue and physical exhaustion (Donoso et al., 2015). Garrosa et al. (2010) found that task overload predicted emotional exhaustion above and beyond active coping and avoidance (which were not significant). ...
Article
Objectives Burnout contributes to high turnover rates, medical errors, and poor patient satisfaction in geriatric nursing staff. Nurses’ cognitive emotion regulation (ER) strategies are emerging as an important personal resource related to burnout that are modifiable with intervention. This study examined the association between cognitive ER strategies and burnout among geriatric nursing staff. Methods Participants were 54 nurses (RNs, LPNs, CNA/UWs) with a mean age of 43.1 years (SD = 12.2), majority female (96.3%), and racially diverse: Black (20.4%), White (63.0%), and Other (13.0%). Results After controlling for CVs, cognitive ER strategies accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, but did not account for unique variance in emotional exhaustion or personal accomplishment. Rumination was associated with greater depersonalization, and greater refocus on planning was associated with lower depersonalization. Conclusions Findings suggest that depersonalization may be most impacted by ER; however, other ER strategies may be important that were not included in the current study (e.g., experiential avoidance, mindfulness). Future research is needed with additional ER strategies and larger samples. Clinical Implications Findings support the use of person-centered interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based techniques, to improve stress management and decrease depersonalization.
... Some studies have shown that EW can generate emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and psychological strain (Mann & Cowburn, 2005). Other studies have found that EW has positive effects on well-being because it can also lead to rewards, such as client satisfaction, which can increase employee satisfaction (Donoso, Demerouti, Garrosa Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, & Carmona Cobo, 2015;Humphrey, Ashforth, & Diefendorff, 2015). According to Grandey and Melloy (2017), these mixed effects may depend on the availability of personal and/or situational resources to cope with the EL process. ...
... They must cope with pain and death, and these situations trigger a large number of spontaneous emotions (e.g., compassion, sadness, hope) whose management is often automatic and therefore is perceived as effortless. Although nurses can sometimes enjoy the advantages of EW (Donoso et al., 2015), what happens when patients or their relatives become angry and show aggression through offensive words, personal attacks, and sarcastic comments about nurses' professionalism? Lanctôt and Guay (2014) showed that anger, sadness, fear, and disgust were frequently mentioned by victims of workplace verbal aggression in the health care sector. ...
... In recent years, several studies have shown the importance of having proper emotional management and socioemotional skills to successfully face stressful and complex situations and to be satisfied both in the professional context and in the private sphere (Wang et al. 2011;Koydemir & Schutz 2012;Donoso et al. 2015). For this reason, recently we have assisted a strong proliferation of emotional management programs designed to help participants to cope with different professional problems or situations (Cabello et al. 2016;Gilar-Corbi et al. 2018;Li et al. 2019,). ...
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The following study shows the main qualitative results obtained by means of a two follow up study with a group of telephone interpreters who previously participated in an ad hoc emotional regulation program designed according to their specific needs. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of the intervention program in the long term. The results demonstrated the positive effect of the program on the interpreters’ lives and on their emotional management. The need of verifying the effect of this kind of programs in order to totally measure their impact through the time is discussed.
... Indeed, a detriment of the professional quality of life of healthcare personnel can have important consequences on their personal wellbeing (Koh et al., 2015;Sansó et al., 2020). In order to avoid such detriment, it is imperative for the development of optimal states of wellbeing that health professionals have work and personal resources to turn work demands into a source of learning and professional and personal growth that gives meaning to the work done (Donoso et al., 2015;Smith et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Healthcare workers’ professional quality of life has been increasingly under the spotlight, even more so during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has posed a genuine challenge for them. This study aims to describe the professional quality of life profiles of a sample of Spanish palliative care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic, encompassing aspects such as work satisfaction, burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction; while studying the relationships between these profiles and sociodemographic variables, clinical situations experienced during the pandemic, protectors of professional quality of life, the quality of care delivered, and the professionals’ wellbeing. Data from a survey of Spanish palliative care professionals were used. The variables measured were professional quality of life, sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19-related experiences, protectors of professional quality of life, wellbeing, and quality of care. Our research included latent profile analyses, along with chi-squared and t-tests. The results suggested two profiles of professional quality of life, namely low (32.78%) and high (67.22%). The following profile displayed a higher likelihood of having a low professional quality of life: younger professionals, registered nurses, with a decrease in their teamwork, without specific training in palliative care, in coping with death and stress or emotional training and with lower levels of self-care and self-compassion, whose patients were unable to die a dignified death. Similarly, a low professional quality of life profile was associated with reduced wellbeing and poorer quality of care offered. In conclusion, providing professionals with education and training to improve their ability to handle end-of-life care and stress, maintaining cohesive teams and promoting self-care and self-compassion are pivotal to maintaining the quality of life and wellbeing of palliative care professionals and the quality of care that they provide.
... Moreover, for daily measures, we used the same response categories as for the general measure. This method of developing state-level analogues of general measures has been used successfully in the past (Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015;Nezlek, 2012;Parker et al., 2020). Table 1 shows means, standard deviations, zero-order correlations between study variables, as well as the means of Cronbach's alphas averaged across the days of data collection. ...
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The present study seeks to build on burnout research by examining daily fluctuations of role stress and work incivility, and their impact on employees’ energy loss. Optimism and recovery (i.e., psychological detachment and relaxation), two mechanisms that allow workers’ self-care and self-defence from these toxic conditions when faced by these job stressors, were included. In a daily study, 117 service sector workers completed surveys three times a day, over a period of one working week. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed work incivility as predictor of daily emotional exhaustion. Optimism and recovery play different roles in protecting workers from daily energy loss. Daily optimism increased employees’energy and decreased emotional exhaustion and negative affect at night. It also moderated the relationship between work incivility and positive affect at night. The results on psychological detachment supported the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag, 2010), in which psychological detachment from work during nonworking time is not only a direct predictor of increased energy, but could similarly buffer the negative impact of role stress and work incivility. Relaxation basically showed main effects in predicting emotional exhaustion (inversely) and positive affect (directly). Our findings suggest two main implications: (1) the necessity for implemention of workplace policies to prevent role stress and work incivility in reducing daily loss of energy. (2) Training workers in self-care programmes focusing on optimism and recovery can provide early steps toward organizational change and employee daily well-being.
... En la literatura, se identifica con los conceptos de felicidad, experiencias o ideas positivas, satisfacción con la vida, placer y prosperidad. Incluye aspectos como la conciencia de la condición física, la reducción del estrés, la responsabilidad con el cuidado y las estrategias para lograr el bienestar, actitudes que ayudan a las personas a alcanzar nuevas formas de comprender y controlar sus vidas (59). ...
Article
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Introducción: El cuidado paliativo se ha convertido en un desafío para los gobiernos por las repercusiones para pacientes, familias y sistemas de salud. La enfermería tiene un rol preponderante en ofrecer una práctica que dé respuesta a las necesidades de los pacientes en situación paliativa, es por este motivo que es necesario avanzar en el análisis de propuestas disciplinares, tal como la de Willis, Grace y Roy, quienes proponen un enfoque central unificador para la disciplina de la enfermería. Metodología: se realizó una revisión exploratoria a través de los siguientes descriptores: cuidado paliativo; enfoque unificador y disciplina de enfermería y sus dimensiones: humanización, significado, elección, calidad de vida y acompañamiento en el proceso de vivir y morir. Al respecto se utilizaron bases de datos, diccionarios, libros de autores icónicos, y páginas de internet relacionadas con la salud en el periodo comprendido entre 2000 y 2020. Se privilegiaron como idiomas el español, el inglés y el portugués. Se analizaron 45 artículos. Resultados: surgieron a partir de las categorías a priori, mencionadas anteriormente, las cuales hacen parte del enfoque unificador disciplinar y que a la vez permiten avanzar en la comprensión de cómo los cuidados paliativos se conciben como parte de ellas, lo que facilitó la reflexión y el avance en propuestas disciplinares desde un componente ontológico. Conclusión: la práctica de enfermería implica aspectos relacionados con: la humanización, el significado, la elección, la calidad de vida y el acompañamiento en el proceso de vivir y morir. Estos aspectos se amplían desde una mirada epistemológica del cuidado, lo que facilita el avance en el entendimiento y en su aplicación. Es prioritario aplicar estos asuntos disciplinares en la práctica del cuidado paliativo, donde la interdisciplinariedad es una necesidad y una realidad.
... (3) As subjective age is an important variable in the second half of life , especially in the wake of trauma (e.g., Hoffman et al., 2016a), the current resource-stress model paves the way for potential interventions. Instead of focusing only on trauma symptoms (e.g., CBT, Dinnen et al., 2015), one can apply interventions to decrease stress levels (e.g., exercise, Milani et al., 2009), increase coping resources (emotional regulation, Donoso et al., 2015), or interventions that do both (e.g., mindfulness, Grover et al., 2017). Such tailoring of interventions would endow older adults with more opportunities to overcome challenges presented by stressors whilst dealing with aging. ...
Chapter
This closing chapter discusses the major advances in theory, research, and practice to show that the field of subjective views of aging (VoA) has indeed reached a qualitatively new developmental stage. At the theoretical level there is an increasing consensus that a lifespan developmental perspective may be most appropriate to study VoA across the adult years and into late life. This perspective can serve as a unifying framework with important implications for the integration of diverse literatures and increased methodological diversity and sophistication. Specifically, the impact of greater methodological diversity and sophistication is seen at the level of empirical research, including the greater diversity in study designs, the emerging focus on multilevel investigations (e.g., the concomitant study of biological, psychological, and social processes), and the translation into areas of intervention and prevention. All these advances bode well for the future of the field of VoA research and lay the foundation for promising future directions.
... (3) As subjective age is an important variable in the second half of life (Montepare, 2009), especially in the wake of trauma (e.g., Hoffman et al., 2016a), the current resource-stress model paves the way for potential interventions. Instead of focusing only on trauma symptoms (e.g., CBT, Dinnen et al., 2015), one can apply interventions to decrease stress levels (e.g., exercise, Milani et al., 2009), increase coping resources (emotional regulation, Donoso et al., 2015), or interventions that do both (e.g., mindfulness, Grover et al., 2017). Such tailoring of interventions would endow older adults with more opportunities to overcome challenges presented by stressors whilst dealing with aging. ...
Chapter
Adverse life events, such as trauma or stress, along with subjective perceptions regarding the aging self, constitute two issues that influence late-life development. Yet, earlier literature paid less attention to the ways in which these aspects may intersect in old age. The current chapter focuses on what studies of trauma teach us about subjective views of aging (VoA). Two VoA (subjective age and subjective estimated time to death, SETtD) are reviewed in the context of diverse traumatic events that may occur across the life span. This literature review along with application of meta-analytical techniques, suggests that these VoA, in addition to measuring aspects of age identity, also measure a ratio of resources to stressors, either in the past/present (subjective age) or with regard to the future (e.g., SETtD). Namely, having more past resources than past stressors would reflect a younger subjective age, similarly, having more estimated future resources than estimated future stressors would reflect a longer SETtD. One implication of this resource/stress model of VoA is that the same young subjective evaluation reflecting the same resource-stress ratio, may stem from different patterns, e.g., high resources with slightly lower stress or from low resource levels coupled by even lower stress. Additional issues are also clarified by this conceptualization, along with unresolved issues awaiting future research that are discussed. This proposed theoretical outlook leads to novel theoretical and practical implications.
... Socioemotional skills should also be included in the curricula of teaching staff's initial training and should offer specific content geared towards developing such skills [17,38,40,41]. Implementing socioemotional education in teachers' initial and ongoing training will enable them to recognize their limitations and to deal effectively with the challenges posed by their profession [29,42]. ...
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Emotional intelligence is the key to students’ psychological-social well-being and academic performance, and teachers must provide socioemotional education in the classroom. To achieve this, teachers must display high levels of socioemotional skills that ensure their own personal, social, and career well-being and, as a result, that of their students. This study seeks to gain an insight into the levels of socioemotional skills of emotional perception, emotional understanding, and emotional regulation and how these are linked to the sociodemographic and career profile of teachers in infant and primary education. For this, we surveyed 351 teachers—310 female and 41 male—aged between 20 and 69. We used the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) together with a questionnaire (ad hoc) to determine the sociodemographic and career profile of participating teachers. Statistical analysis of the data showed that gender impacts on emotional regulation and emotional perception, while age and number of the children were also seen to have significant difference on emotional regulation and emotional perception. In contrast, professional qualifications were only seen to affect emotional perception. The variable reflecting the level at which staff teach showed significant difference on emotional perception and emotional understanding, while administrative posts held by teachers also demonstrated significant difference on their emotional understanding. The results confirm that sociodemographic and work-related variables impact the level of socioemotional skills of infant and primary education teachers. These aspects should be taken into account in the structure and planning of training aimed at developing socioemotional skills in order to ensure their success.
... Penelitian ini juga didukung oleh Sani dan Pratiwi (2017) menemukan bahwa sebagian besar perawat memiliki motivasi lemah dalam melakukan hand hygiene. Dari hasil kuesioner digambarkan bahwa adanya pengaruh variabel intrinsic seperti tanggung jawab membawa dampak positif dalam peningkatan motivasi tentang five moments hand hygiene (Donoso, Demerouti, Hernández, Moreno-Jimenez, & Cobo, 2015). Sedangkan faktor ekstrinsik seperti adanya role model dalam melakukan hand hygiene pemimpin dan adanya dukungan dari teman sejawat (perawat)juga mempengaruhi motivasi perawat. ...
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Latar Belakang: Tatanan rumah sakit merupakan tempat yang memiliki resiko tinggi terjadinya Healthcare Associated Infection (HAIs). Kepatuhan perawat dalam melaksanakan cuci tangan sangat berpengaruh terhadap timbulnya HAIs. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan motivasi dan beban kerja dengan tingkat kepatuhan perawat dalam melaksanakan cuci tangan di Irna 2 RSUD Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang. Metode: Jenis penelitian menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional study, dengan pendekatan korelasi. Populasi pada penelitian ini adalah semua perawat di IRNA 2 RSUD Dr Saiful Anwar Malang, dengan sampel 15 responden. Hasil: Hasil penelitian diperoleh keeratan hubungan antara motivasi dengan tingkat kepatuhan perawat dalam mencuci tangan sebesar 62.3%, hubungan tersebut signifikan (p=0.013). Keeratan hubungan yang antara beban kerja dengan tingkat kepatuhan perawat dalam mencuci tangan sebesar 44.7%, hubungan tersebut tidak signifikan (p=0.095). Kesimpulan: Hampir separuh responden yaitu 7 responden (46,7%) memiliki tingkat motivasi dalam kategori tinggi, lebih dari separuh responden yaitu 8 responden (53,3%) memiliki tingkat beban kerja dalam kategori sedang.
... Research on various samples of nurses has highlighted that prolonged exposure to these demands is associated with stress, burnout, and compassion fatigue (Hunt et al., 2017). Nevertheless, caring for patients is a source of challenge, satisfaction, and motivation (Morgan & Lynn, 2009), since some positive outcomes (e.g., work engagement, creativity, work motivation) have been observed only when emotional demands are high (Bakker & Sanz-Vergel, 2013;De Jonge et al., 2008) and when these demands are associated with more competent emotion regulation abilities (Donoso et al., 2015;Mauno et al., 2016). For example, while the ability to empathize is fundamental for nurses, an empathic response to suffering can result in emotional distress. ...
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In spite of the importance of emotion regulation for nurses' well-being, little is known about which strategies nurses habitually use, how these strategies combine in order to regulate their emotional distress, and how these are related to their caregiving orientations. The current study aimed to explore the emotion regulation repertoires that characterize health-care providers and to investigate the association between these repertoires and caregiving orientations in a sample of nurses. Firstly, a confirmatory factor analyses was run to test the suitability of the Regulation of Emotion System Survey for the assessment of six emotion regulation strategies among health-care providers. Subsequently, the latent profiles analysis was employed to explore emotion regulation repertoires. Three repertoires emerged: The Average, the Suppression Propensity and the Engagement Propensity profiles. The participants of the last two groups relied on Expressive Suppression and Engagement, respectively, more often than others. Nurses were more likely to be placed within the Engagement Propensity group when compared to the first responders, and higher levels of hyperactivation of the Caregiving System were associated with this repertoire. A greater reliance on Expressive Engagement among nurses was discussed in terms of the fact that nurses usually have a longer and more care-oriented relationships with patients than first responders.
... The relationship between patient-family and professional underpins all palliative care (Donoso et al., 2015). This relational connection is key when considering the impact of both the challenges and rewards of caring for terminally ill patients and their families (Sapeta et al., 2021). ...
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Providing palliative care can be both challenging and rewarding. It involves emotionally demanding work and yet research shows that burnout is lower than in other fields of health care. Spontaneous expressions of gratitude from patients and family members are not uncommon and are highly valued. This study explored the experience of Spanish palliative professionals who received expressions of gratitude from their patients and families. A phenomenological approach was used to better understand the role of receiving gratitude in participants' lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a phenomenological approach to analysis was undertaken using macro-thematic and micro-thematic reflection. Two team members independently engaged in this reflection with an inductive approach. The analysis was shared and discussed at periodic meetings to identify the key themes and sub-themes of the gratitude experience. Ten palliative professionals were interviewed. Participants engaged in a process of recognizing, internalizing, and treasuring the expressions of gratitude which they then used for reflection and growth. These expressions were a powerful and deeply meaningful resource that the palliative professionals revisited over time. Receiving expressions of gratitude invited a stronger sense of the value of one's self and one's work that was motivational and protective, particularly during challenging times.
... The image Sandra provided of the emotional toll of nursing under the duress of the pandemic, which she equated to walking through water, highlights the intense contact with patients, delivery of compassionate care, and emotional labour, involving both the performance of managed emotions to ease the fear and distress of their patients, whilst hiding other emotions expected of nurses ( Hochschild, 2003 ;Kinman and Leggetter, 2016 ). Previous research has indicated that the performance of such emotional labour can threaten nurses' wellbeing ( Donoso et al., 2015 ). Laura's expression of 'not having patience for patients', and Sandra's reduced level of empathy, can be viewed as depersonalisation, where individuals develop an indifferent or distant attitude ( Kilroy et al., 2020 ). ...
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Background Pre-COVID-19 research highlighted the nursing profession worldwide as being at high risk from symptoms of burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide. The World Health Organization declared a pandemic on 11th March 2020 due to the sustained risk of further global spread of COVID-19. The high healthcare burden associated with COVID-19 has increased nurses’ trauma and workload, thereby exacerbating pressure on an already strained workforce and causing additional psychological distress for staff. Objectives The Impact of COVID-19 on Nurses (ICON) interview study examined the impacts of the pandemic on frontline nursing staff's psychosocial and emotional wellbeing. Design Longitudinal qualitative interview study. Settings Nurses who had completed time 1 and 2 of the ICON survey were sampled to include a range of UK work settings including acute, primary and community care and care homes. Interviewees were purposively sampled for maximum variation to cover a broad range of personal and professional factors, and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including redeployment. Methods Nurses participated in qualitative in-depth narrative interviews after the first wave of COVID-19 in July 2020 (n=27) and again at the beginning of the second wave in December 2020 (n=25) via video and audio platform software. Rigorous qualitative narrative analysis was undertaken both cross-sectionally (within wave) and longitudinally (cross wave) to explore issues of consistency and change. Results The terms moral distress, compassion fatigue, burnout and PTSD describe the emotional states reported by the majority of interviewees leading many to consider leaving the profession. Causes of this identified included care delivery challenges; insufficient staff and training; PPE challenges and frustrations. Four themes were identified: (1) ‘Deathscapes’ and impoverished care (2) Systemic challenges and self-preservation (3) Emotional exhaustion and (4) (Un)helpful support. Conclusions Nurses have been deeply affected by what they have experienced and are forever altered with the impacts of COVID-19 persisting and deeply felt. There is an urgent need to tackle stigma to create a psychologically safe working environment and for a national COVID-19 nursing workforce recovery strategy to help restore nurse's well-being and demonstrate a valuing of the nursing workforce and therefore support retention.
... Although no diary studies use ESM to explore the effects of daily social support on nurses' wellbeing, this topic is awakening interest in researchers. In fact, the study conducted by Blanco-Donoso et al. (2015) revealed that day-level emotional demands at work had a direct relationship with nurses' vigour at work and their vitality at home. Therefore, nurse managers that promote social support practices within the workgroup might have direct benefits on hospital nurses' wellbeing. ...
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Aim The present study investigated the adverse effects of daily experienced incivility and the positive role of daily social support during the workday in predicting daily emotional exhaustion after work and vitality and positive affect at bedtime. Background Despite the broad knowledge of the impact of experienced incivility in different occupations, little is known about day-to-day nurse incivility, much less in the hospital context. Method After completing a general questionnaire, hospital nurses (n = 96) completed a diary questionnaire twice a day for five consecutive workdays (n = 480 diary observations). The diary design had two levels: 5-day repeated measures (Level 1, day-level) nested in persons (Level 2, person-level) using an experience-sampling methodology. Results Multilevel hierarchical analyses showed that incivility during the workday increased emotional exhaustion after work (t = 3.00*) and reduced vitality (t = -2.48*) and positive affect (t = -2.23*) at bedtime. However, daily social support during the workday was a crucial job resource that directly benefited hospital nurses’ daily wellbeing (t = 5.19** vitality; t = 4.89** positive affect) and buffered the adverse effects of daily workplace incivility (t = -2.33*). Conclusion The within-person approach of our findings suggests that supportive practices can reduce day-to-day incivility spirals. Implications for Nursing Management Nurse managers can promote a civility culture within their units using in service training programs at work.
... For example, some studies have classified role conflict as a hindrance demand [19], while others have considered it a challenge demand [20]. Similarly, emotional demands have been considered a hindrance demand by some [21,22] and a challenge demand by others [23]. Hence, regarding job demands, the observations, opinions, categorization, and conclusions are not always the same in the scientific literature, and the same job demands are not consistently classified as either hindrances or challenges. ...
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The job characteristics literature has revealed that job demands can be differentiated into hindrance and challenge demands. However, there has been little consensus on this categorization. Additionally, studies have revealed that job demands can be perceived as hindering and challenging at the same time. The present study aims to bring nuance to this topic by investigating two job demands (i.e., time pressure and emotionally demanding situations) and to what degree they are appraised as challenging and hindering for two occupational groups (i.e., nurses and real estate agents). This study also investigates the impact of emotional dispositions on demand appraisals. A convenience sample (N = 851 Norwegian students) read vignettes and reported their appraisals for six different job situations. A factor analysis revealed that our measures of demand appraisals differed from those reported in previous studies. We therefore labeled the two kinds of appraisals as hindrance-like and challenge-like since they overlap without being identical to the previously reported labels of hindrance and challenge, respectively. Furthermore, we found that job demands were appraised as hindrance-like and challenge-like at the same time but to different degrees. Job demands for core tasks were typically appraised as more challenge-like than hindrance-like. Job demands for non-core tasks were typically appraised as more hindrance-like than challenge-like. Positive trait emotions predicted challenge-like appraisals. By documenting how imagined job demands appear as hindrances and challenges, our study supports previous studies showing that challenge-like demands may play a role in the motivational process in the job demands-resources model. Limitations to vignette studies are discussed.
... At the same time, they witnessed residents' suffering due to isolation from their loved ones and accompanied them through illness and death. This explanation is congruent with previous studies on how, in healthcare professions, emotional demands can be associated with positive indicators of work motivation, especially when healthcare workers have the emotional competence to face the demands(Blanco-Donoso et al., 2015;Slocum-Gori et al., 2013). Similarly, the association could reflect experiences of 'compassion satisfaction', which stems from the emotional rewards of caring for others in a healthcare context(Slocum-Gori et al., 2013). ...
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Nursing home workers have been exposed to great physical and mental burdens during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Although this has generated high levels of exhaustion, it may also have contributed to feelings of professional satisfaction. The objective of this study was to explore the levels of satisfaction among nursing home workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic, as well as the role of job demands, resources and emotional experiences in explaining their levels of satisfaction. This cross‐sectional study was conducted in Spain between March and May 2020. Three hundred and thirty‐five nursing home workers participated. A quantitative analysis was conducted, as was a content analysis of the responses to an open‐ended question about the respondents' perceptions of job demands and resources during the crisis. The results showed that workers had very high levels of satisfaction. Social pressure from work, contact with death and suffering, and emotional exhaustion were negatively associated with satisfaction. Moreover, under conditions of extensive contact with suffering people and great fear of contagion, social support at work was shown to promote professional satisfaction. In conclusion, nursing home workers in Spain experienced high rates of satisfaction during the COVID‐19 crisis despite the high job demands, lack of job resources, fear of contagion and exhaustion. The main practical implication of this study is the importance of ensuring optimal working conditions in the nursing home sector in order to guarantee professional satisfaction, prevent burnout, reduce turnover and promote post‐crisis resilience.
... As pointed out in this study, a detriment to the quality of professional life of healthcare personnel can have important consequences on their personal wellbeing (Koh et al., 2015;Sansó et al., 2020). In this sense, health professionals can develop optimal states of wellbeing as long as they have work and personal resources to turn work demands into a source of learning and professional and personal growth that give meaning to the work done (Donoso et al., 2015). It is worth highlighting the importance of studying wellbeing in healthcare personnel, as we know that low levels of wellbeing are related to poorer patient safety (Hall et al., 2016). ...
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Health professionals are especially exposed to stress, with consequences on professionals' health and wellbeing. However, palliative care professionals' wellbeing has been the subject of very little research. The aim of this work is to study the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a sample of Spanish palliative care professionals, as well as to study their levels of wellbeing and the relationships of wellbeing with variables such as gender, age, marital status, profession, and professional quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of Spanish palliative care professionals was conducted. The Spanish version of the PWI and the Short version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale were used. Here, 296 palliative care professionals attending patients at the end of life participated in the study. They showed medium to high levels of wellbeing. The PWI showed an adequate internal structure [χ 2 (20) = 116.130 (p < 0.001)]; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.970; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.041; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.140 (0.116, 0.166)] and excellent estimates of reliability [α = 0.879 and Composite Reliability Index (CRI) = 0.923]. Wellbeing was higher for married compared to single and showed no relation with age, gender, and profession. Additionally, a structural equation model was estimated, in which a positive relation was found between wellbeing and compassion satisfaction and a negative one with burnout. The PWI is adequate to measure personal wellbeing in Spanish palliative care professionals.
... Fatigued nurses may also threaten the society outside workplace, if they cause car accidents and home injuries due to tiredness [10]. Additionally, fatigue negatively affects the social life, and physical health [66,67] [52], one of the mainconsequences of fatigue is absenteeism. Absenteeism associated with fatigue may cause nurses to leave their jobs or the profession. ...
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The existing literature demonstrates that work related fatigue can impede the delivery of quality nursing care. There is a need to document and develop fatigue mitigation strategies to protect nursing and patient safety. There is therefore a need to explore and investigate the different types of nursing fatigue, their antecedent factors, and the ideal fatigue management strategies. The focus on nursing fatigue is on their level and prevalence of lethargy and tiredness both on shift and while off shift. The study rationale was to devise strategies and avenues through which fatigue cannot only be mitigated but also proactively addressed. In developing the study, secondary data was used. This was through examining peer-reviewed articles. These were 630 form SCOPUS, 970 from CINAHL), and 247 MEDLINE.After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, only 36 of the articles were retained. Of these 36 articles, A majority were quantitative with the rest being either qualitative or adopting a mixed methodology design. Besides additional findings, the study demonstrated that some of the antecedents to nursing fatigue involve work structure and shift patterns, the nurses' gender, culture, and personal attributes. There are three types of fatigue chronic, acute, and inter-shift. The occurrence and levels of fatigue for the three types was reported as varying from moderate to high. Regarding mitigation, there are three levels, namely the organization, team leader, and individual nurses where intervention is recommended. All stakeholders should contribute in managing and coping with nursing fatigue. Tweetable Abstract Nursing fatigue rise exposes the nurses, their patients, and the public to increased health and safety risks. Contribution of the Paper What is Already Known about the Topic? • Nurses fatigue index impacts on their professional working • Nurse's fatigue has an impact on patients care quality What the Paper Adds • The paper demonstrates the need to mitigate nursing fatigue as a tool for promoting patients and public safety. • Demonstration of the need to create awareness among nurses as personal and individual level initiatives are core in coping with nursing fatigue.
... The challenging of nurses nature of work requires them to cope with a higher level of emotional, sensorial and cognitive demands such as deal with various characters and conditions of patients that influence their work outcome (Sabil, Abu, Kasuma, & Lizzan, 2016). However, the job demands can be managed by having great job resources (Donoso, Demerouti, Hernandez, Moreno-Jimenez, & Cobo, 2015). Due to the issues arise, job resources are required to meet the favourable work outcome. ...
... In contrast, personal emotions, the so-called spontaneous, e.g., frustration, loathing, anxiety, should be expressed with a lot of empathy due to the nature of the performed work and the characteristics of the nursing profession (14). Studies by Donoso et al. indicate that the suppression of emotions so as to reduce emotional expression, e.g., due to working conditions, is a considerable stress factor among nurses (15). ...
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Introduction: Nursing is considered one of the most stressful professions in the world. The high emotional burden associated with excessive workload in qualitative and quantitative terms, exposure to existing and emerging infectious diseases, daily confrontation with the suffering of individuals and their families and low social support leads to the development of numerous stress reactions among nurses, resulting in the development of anxiety, insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Indeed, somatic and mental stress-related disease rates are higher among nurses than in the general population. Aim: To determine the impact of subjective work characteristics on the mental health of nurses in relation to demographic and occupational factors. Material and method: The research was carried out among 558 nurses working in hospitals in Podlaskie Voivodeship, and used the Subjective Work Evaluation Questionnaire (SWEQ) and Goldberg's GHQ-28 Questionnaire. Results: As measured by SWEQ, and as self-assessed by means of the GHQ-28 questionnaire, overall stress negatively affects the nurses' health ( R ² = 18.7%). Among the partial measures of the SWEQ questionnaire, work overload had strong and the lack of rewards, social relations and lack of support had weak negative effect on the overall mental health assessment of nurses ( R ² = 19.2%). The responsibility measure was an exception that had a positive impact on the nurses' well-being. Among occupational and demographic factors, only higher education in relation to secondary education in interactions with the overall stress measure and unpleasant work conditions had a positive effect on the overall mental health self-assessment of nurses ( R ² = 20.7%). Conclusions: The results of our study provide a clear message to the hospital management that improving the work organization and atmosphere of nurses by reducing perceived work overload and increasing the responsibility of nurses can have a positive impact on their mental health. Encouraging nurses to improve their education can result not only in an obvious improvement in staff qualifications, but also in better resistance to stressors in the workplace and, consequently, in better staff well-being. Both measures can have a positive impact on the quality of care provided by nurses and on reducing staff turnover.
... Well-being is the degree of users' needs fulfilment and quality of life enhancement by using technological platforms, namely the Internet and IoT. It has been found that the workrelated well-being can spill over into other life domains and predicts the general and contextfree well-being in the long-term (Donoso, Demerouti, Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, & Cobo, 2015;Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2012). However, the relationship between technology use and the individual's well-being is arguable. ...
Article
The Internet of Things (IoT) describes a promising future in which anyone and anything can be connected at any time and any place. Such connections will make possible a wide range of innovative applications and services. IoT applications can be integrated into the surrounding environment, extending the scope of existing interactions between humans and Internet-based applications. This study aims to explore how the users' Internet-based predispositions could influence their IoT acceptance and if there is a spillover of psychological outcomes such as affect, values and cognitive thoughts. The hypothesised research framework is tested using structural equation modelling with data collected from 615 Internet users. Results show that the challenge emotions, well-being, and the overall value experienced in Internet usage significantly spill over into the users' behavioural intention of IoT usage. Also, IoT acceptance significantly leads to increased perceived value and degree of well-being. This study confirmed the spillover effects from one technological paradigm to the subsequent one, indicating that technology acceptance could be conceptualised as interconnected acceptance events as opposed to isolated and separated ones.
... Emosi yang tidak tepat pada suatu keadaan dapat berdampak pada kesehatan psikologis, kesulitan sosial dan penyakit fisik lain (Gross, 2007). Dengan kemampuan regulasi emosi yang baik dapat meningkatkan motivasi individu dalam bekerja dan kesejahteraan psikologisnya di rumah (Donoso, Demerouti, Garrosa Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, & Carmona Cobo, 2015). Selain itu, kemampuan regulasi emosi yang baik juga dapat menurunkan tingkat stres yang dirasakan seseorang (Prakash, Hussain, & Schirda, 2015). ...
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Inclusive education requires special educators who have good abilities in regulating their emotion. This is because these educators not only educate normal and average intellectual abilities of students, but varies. Differences in the characteristics of students in inclusive classes not only lie on their intellectual abilities, but also it is very possible for these students to have a special condition on communication, social skills, autonomy (living skills), and emotional control. Therefore, in teaching and learning activities, educators’ focus is not solely on academics, but special educators have to share their attention on the non academic behavior of students. Not surprisingly, the feelings or emotions felt by these special educators become varied and tend to be negative, such as annoyance, pity, confusion, sadness and etc. The method implemented was psychoeducation which focus is on lecturing and discussing. Psychoeducation exists to help educators regulate the emotions they feel. The psychoeducation that was carried out gave 52.9% of special educators an increase in emotional regulation, 17.6% decreased, and the rest had no change.
... physicians, nurses and nurse assistants), which involved different shift allocations. Previous diary studies among health professionals support the use of 5 consecutive days as sufficient (Donoso et al., 2015). So, they were asked to start filling in the protocol the day after the initial session, if that start date led to accomplishing 5 consecutive working days (weekdays or weekends). ...
Article
Background: Secondary traumatic stress (STS), a construct formed by compassion fatigue, shattered assumptions, and symptomatology, has been scarcely studied in intensive care units (ICU). In these units, healthcare workers encounter daily work stressors which impact on their health and well-being. Also, previous literature revealed a passion for caring among these workers, finding two types: harmonious passion, which may protect them against negative outcomes, and obsessive passion, which may boost negative consequences. We aim to study whether both types of passion could moderate the relationships between daily work stressors and STS. Methods: In all, 265 assessments were collected at ICUs from different hospitals in Spain through a diary approach (53 health workers 9 5 days at two time points per day). Results: First, daily work stressors were positive predictors of symptomatology; secondly, dispositional harmonious passion was a negative predictor of both compassion fatigue and shattered assumptions, also presenting a buffering effect between daily work stressors and daily shattered assumptions. Finally, dispositional obsessive passion showed positive relationships with both shattered assumptions and symptomatology, also presenting a boosting effect between daily work stressors and daily symptomatology. Conclusions: This study allows us to deepen our understanding of STS in ICUs and to boost preventive proposals. Practical implications are discussed.
... Furthermore, the current study takes a between-person approach, but a within person such as a daily investigation of stressors and rumination, moderated by occupational callings (measured at the between-person level) could reveal different results. For example, one daily diary study found the surprising result that day-level emotional demands at work were positively associated with nurses' well-being at work and at home (Donoso et al. 2015). ...
Article
While much is known about stress experiences in nursing, the role of occupational calling in the stress experiences of nurses is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the association among stressors (organizational constraints, patient suffering, and inadequate preparation), occupational calling, and rumination in nurses, and to test the moderating effect of calling on the stressor-rumination relationship. The sample consisted of 381 patient-care nurses. Results indicated that two stressors, organizational constraints and inadequate preparation, were associated with increased work rumination. Furthermore, there was an interaction between the third stressor, patient suffering, and occupational calling, such that nurses who were high on calling were likely to ruminate regardless of stressor levels, while nurses who were low on calling were more likely to ruminate when exposed to higher levels of patient suffering. The results support the relevance of occupational calling to understanding work stress experiences in nursing. Future studies with more distal outcomes such as burnout will contribute further to this understanding. We also discuss generalizability across other occupations. Finally, this study has practical implications, as interventions aimed at reducing nurses’ work stress can benefit from being tailored to the characteristics of the nurses, particularly their level of occupational calling.
... In contrast, hospital employees whose work involves no direct contact with the patients may be characterized by a lower perception of workload, especially because they are facing lower levels of emotional demands due to their limited, indirect, and/or more sporadic contact with the patients (Fouquereau, Morin, Lapointe, Mokounkolo, & Gillet, 2019). Indeed, although helping people in need is known to be a source of satisfaction and autonomous motivation for health care workers (Donoso, Demerouti, Garrosa Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, & Carmona Cobo, 2015), numerous studies have shown that workload perceptions were positively related to emotional demands (e.g., Andela, Truchot, & Van der Doef, 2016;Gillet, Huyghebaert-Zouaghi, Réveillère, Colombat, & Fouquereau, 2020). ...
Article
The present study examines how the different forms of behavioural regulation proposed by self‐determination theory combine within different profiles of workers and the extent to which these configurations are replicated among four samples of workers from distinct occupational groups (managers, nurses, physiotherapists, and hospital employees). In addition, this research investigates the role of workload (as a job demand), as well as perceived organizational, supervisor, and colleagues support (as job resources) in the prediction of profile membership. Finally, this research also documents the relation between motivation profiles and a series of adaptive (work performance) and maladaptive (presenteeism, turnover intentions, and absenteeism) work outcomes. Latent profile analyses revealed six similar motivation profiles among the four samples (n = 291 managers, 249 hospital employees, 237 nurses, and 373 physiotherapists). The results also showed the highest levels of presenteeism and turnover intentions, and the lowest levels of work performance to be associated with the Externally Driven profile. Moreover, workload predicted a higher likelihood of membership into the Self‐Driven Introjected and Externally Driven profiles relative to the Moderately Intrinsically Motivated , Highly Intrinsically Motivated , and Self‐Driven Hedonist profiles. Finally, perceived colleagues support predicted a decreased likelihood of membership into the Externally Driven profile relative to the five other profiles, whereas higher levels of perceived organizational support predicted an increased likelihood of membership into the Self‐Driven Introjected , Highly Intrinsically Motivated , and Value‐Reward Self‐Driven profiles relative to the Externally Driven and Self‐Driven Hedonist ones. Practitioner points • Employees’ profiles characterized by low levels of self‐determined work motivation were associated with the worst outcomes. • By decreasing employees’ workload or by helping to make it more manageable, organizations may increase employees’ likelihood of displaying more desirable, and self‐determined, motivational profiles. • By improving colleagues support, organizations may also be able to increase employees’ likelihood of displaying more desirable, and self‐determined, motivational profiles.
... The institutional demands regarding the professional performance of employees do not necessarily exert negative stress on the employees. Instead, they may act to motivate them as well as enhance their job satisfaction and willingness to continue employment [22]. ...
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Although promoting healthy work environments to enhance staff members’ health and well-being is a growing trend, no empirical studies on such a model have been conducted in the nursing management field. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate measurement scales and a conceptual model of nurses’ well-being, health-promoting lifestyle, and work environment satisfaction (WHS). A cross-sectional survey was conducted to develop a WHS model and Nursing Health and Job Satisfaction (NHJS) scale. A total of 672 questionnaires were obtained from registered nurses by stratified random sampling for validation analysis. The percentage of total variance explained greater than 92.6%, suggesting a good ability of the scales to explain the variability in participants’ responses. The hypotheses of positive correlations among nurses’ health-promoting lifestyle, well-being, and work environment satisfaction were supported. The WHS model demonstrates the positive correlation with correlation coefficients of 0.57–0.86 among nurses’ health-promoting lifestyle, well-being, and work environment satisfaction. Nurses’ attitudes play a key role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. The most important work environment satisfaction variable for improved sense of well-being is respect from other medical staff. The findings can serve as an instrument for hospital nursing administrators to accurately assess and enhance nurses’ retention rate and health.
... It is also necessary to help nursing staff in adopting constructive emotional regulation strategies so that they could manage their and others' emotions and apply such strategies in their work. Nurses with better emotional regulation skills are more motivated to work and to take care of their well-being at home in situations when they have to face emotionally demanding situations at work, which indicates a spillover effect (30). ...
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Aim: To determine whether there is a difference in the impact of emotion on memory, behaviour, thinking and mood with regard to age, gender, level of education and length of service. Methods: Research included 105 nurses. It was conducted anonymously by a standardized Emotional Regulation and Control Questionnaire (ERIK). Results: Average rating on the scale was somewhat lower for men, respondents under 30 years of age and respondents with a university degree. Average rating on the emotional regulation and control scale were significantly higher for respondents with 31 and more years of service (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.046). Regarding male respondents, there is a significant correlation of age le. Regarding female correspondents, there is no significant correlation between age and their overall score on the emotional regulation and control scale and sub-scales. Considering the age of respondents, results indicate that the decrease in the ability to control emotional reactions is proportional to the increase in age, but not to a significant degree. Regarding elderly respondents, the value of emotional regulation and control is higher in comparison to younger respondents (Spearman's correlation coe Conclusion: Increase in length of service decreases the ability to control emotional reactions and there are no significant differences in emotional control with regard to gender, age and educational background. (Pačarić S, Nemčić A, Farčić N, Trazer V.
... It is also necessary to help nursing staff in adopting constructive emotional regulation strategies so that they could manage their and others' emotions and apply such strategies in their work. Nurses with better emotional regulation skills are more motivated to work and to take care of their well-being at home in situations when they have to face emotionally demanding situations at work, which indicates a spillover effect (30). ...
... Difficulties in emotional regulation exposed ER nurses to high levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. This is consistent with findings from international literature (Donoso et al., 2015) and with a recent Italian study (Masiero et al., 2018) which found a positive correlation between ER nurses' burnout and their difficulties to verbalize and manage own feelings (alexithymia). ...
Article
Undergraduate nursing students show high-stress levels. In students, stress has been linked to adverse physical and psychological health outcomes and academic and clinical demands. To date, there are few studies dealing with psychological predictors of stress amongst nursing students. This study aimed to assess psychological distress in a sample of Italian nursing students and to explore its relationship with sociodemographic and psychological factors, specifically dispositional mindfulness, emotional regulation difficulties, and empathy. A multicenter cross-sectional survey design was employed. Participants were recruited from five teaching hospitals associated with a public university in northern Italy. A sample of 622 undergraduate nursing students was recruited. Participants were recruited on campus and completed a paper-and-pencil survey. More than 70% of nursing students reported meaningful levels of psychological distress. Students with higher dispositional mindfulness scores had lower psychological distress, whereas emotional regulation difficulties and empathic personal distress were positively associated with perceived stress. No gender differences were found in stress levels, but senior students showed lower psychological distress than more junior students. Interventions aimed at increasing mindfulness facets and improving emotional regulation strategies may help to reduce perceived psychological stress in nursing students.
... In a study conducted by Doğanlı and Demirci (2014), of the factors that motivated nurses, their expectations from the management ranked first, followed by a positive working environment with harmonious teamwork and emotional expectations. In their study, Donoso, Demerouti, Garrosa Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, and Carmona Cobo (2015) reported that emotional demands/emotional regulations contributed to nurses' motivation and well-being positively. Emotional solidarity and academic solidarity, which were demonstrated to affect motivation in the present study, could greatly contribute to the establishment of positive working environments for nurses. ...
Article
Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nurses' work-related variables and colleague solidarity on their job motivation. Background: The motivation of nurses is an important measure in effective and efficient provision of healthcare services. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study included 172 nurses working at a private hospital in Turkey. The Colleague Solidarity Scale for Nurses, Nurses' Job Motivation Scale, and Demographic and Work-Related Variables Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and backward multiple regression analysis. Results: There was a positive correlation between the scores on the Colleague Solidarity Scale for Nurses and the Nurses' Job Motivation Scale (r: 0.56, p < 0.001). Of the nine independent variables evaluated in the multiple regression analysis, five had a significant effect on the job motivation of nurses (R2 : 0.39, p < 0.001, Durbin-Watson: 2.12). Conclusion: The results of the study show that the three sub-dimensions of the Colleague Solidarity Scale for Nurses, salary and career opportunities were important factors affecting job motivation. Implications for nursing management: In order to increase nurses' job motivation, nurse managers should work to improve collegial solidarity, create career opportunities, and develop salary policies.
... However, the way professionals face negative emotions will have an impact on different areas of their lives (van Zyl & Noonan, 2018). Nurses' ability to regulate their own emotions-and those of others-influences their well-being (Gross, 2015;Katana, Röcke, Spain, & Allemand, 2019) and is related to a greater motivation at work (Donoso, Demerouti, Garrosa Hernández, Moreno-Jiménez, & Carmona Cobo, 2015;Salvarani et al., 2019). ...
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Aims: to describe nurses' experiences regarding the care relationship built with medical-surgical patients in acute hospitalization units, and the association with their clinical practice. Background: Nurses' commitment to care, and their relationships as well, are the core of quality of care. Nurses consider that the emotional commitment is essential to the profession, thus accepting to be exposed to emotional distress. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experience of 23 nurses from seven Spanish hospitals. Taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to inductive content analysis. Results: Six subcategories emerged from the data analysis: Fulfilling experiences, Feeling the pain of others, Emotional distress, Stepping back, Seeking professional support, and Evolution of emotions, which were combined in two main categories: Nurses' emotions and Nurses' coping strategies. Patient's suffering, work environment, and interprofessional relations influence the care relationship. Conclusions: Positive and negative emotions emerge spontaneously in professional relationships of experienced nurses. Lack of time and high workloads are factors that hinder the nurse-patient relationship. This care relationship is often the reason that fulfils them. Despite their level of expertise and having coping strategies, these are not always effective and, sometimes, nurses need professional help. Implications for nursing management: Nurses will continue performing their job with commitment; therefore, nursing managers should take care of their staff and pay attention to the emotional competence related to patients' relationships. Promoting self-care and a good working environment could improve their coping mechanisms.
Article
Background: One of the factors associated with the incident of self-injury among college students is emotion dysregulation, but many factors, namely self-criticism, daily guilt, and social factors are associated with emotion dysregulation as well. However, little is known about how the process happens and how the emotion regulation relates to other factors associated with the incident of self-injury.Purpose: This study aimed to identify the relationship between emotion regulation and self-injury status among nursing students.Methods: A descriptive correlational study was conducted among 783 nursing students in a public university in Indonesia. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit the samples. The data were collected online using the Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). The univariate analyses in the form of percentage and bivariate analyses with the Point Biserial test were performed for data analysis.Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum scores of emotion regulation in nursing students were 41 and 163, respectively. The mean score and standard deviation of emotion regulation were 96.75 and 20.948, subsequently. As many as one-third (32.6%) of students committed self-injury. The Point Biserial test showed a relationship between emotion regulation and self-injury status (sig. 2-tailed = 0.000).Conclusion: There is a relationship between emotion regulation and self-injury status among nursing students. This study suggests the importance of health promotion and nursing intervention regarding emotion regulation as a prevention and treatment of self-injury among nursing students.
Chapter
Purpose: We test a multi-level exploratory predictive model, examining the relationships between emotional labor (EL) and workers’ affectivity traits at a philanthropic hospital, where EL involves a process of emotional regulation at work involving emotional display rules, regulatory strategies, and emotional performance. Specifically, we test a model of the mediation effects of regulatory strategies and the moderation effects of emotional demands Study design and methods: Participants were 306 workers from 45 different units of a hospital institution, whose performance was evaluated by 30 supervisors. Since workers’ emotional display rules could not be represented as shared, unit-level beliefs, we chose two critical demands to test our hypotheses: (1) demand to express compassion and (2) demand to conceal anger or disapproval. Findings: Using multilevel analysis, we found evidence that deep acting mediates between emotional demands to express compassion and emotional performance. We found further that demands to conceal anger towards co-workers increases the strength of the relationship between negative affectivity and surface acting. Originality/value: Theoretical e practical implications of the study are also discussed.
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The current worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has elicited widespread concerns and stress. Arguably, healthcare workers are especially vulnerable to experience burnout during these times due to the nature of their work. Indeed, high prevalence of burnout was found among healthcare workers during the outbreak. However, the individual differences predicting burnout among healthcare workers during the pandemic have been understudied. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to identify risk and protective factors contributing to the severity of burnout among healthcare workers, above and beyond levels of current psychological distress. The survey was distributed online during the period April 13–28, 2020, approximately two months after the first COVID-19 case was identified in Israel. Ninety-eight healthcare workers completed an online survey administered cross-sectionally via the Qualtrics platform that included questionnaires assessing habitual emotion regulation strategies (i.e., trait worry, reappraisal, and suppression), psychological distress, COVID-19 related concerns, and burnout. A hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that only trait worry and psychological distress were significant predictors of job burnout among healthcare workers. These findings highlight the role of maladaptive emotion regulation tendencies, specifically trait worry, in job burnout among healthcare workers. These findings have implications for both the assessment and treatment of healthcare workers. We discuss potential mechanisms and implications for practice.
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Night work is one of the most recognized responsibilities of security personnel. Feeling vital is a necessary condition for assuring proper development of this function. Thus, the analysis of its effects on physical and mental conditions is a relevant resource for achieving adequate results at individual and organizational levels. Based on a questionnaire applied to 184 private security guards in Colombia, this study examines the subjective vitality of the personnel working during night shifts and its association with self-perceptions regarding their physical and mental health. Additionally, it analyzes the interference that various demographic variables exert on these relationships. By using partial least squares structural equation modeling, the study found that subjective vitality significantly affects night workers’ mental health more than their physical health. That is, subjective vitality among respondents explains 51% of the variability of mental health and 36% of the variability of physical health. A further significant effect of physical health on mental health was also evidenced, in which the former explains the 25% of the latter variability. When comparing results between genders, the study shows that the variability of mental health explained by subjective vitality among women is larger than among men (75% vs. 28%). These results are discussed in light of the theoretical aspects of organizational behavior and are grounded around their potential to address the phenomenon of human resource management in practice. Practical implications include the need for organizational schemes that balance physical and mental health among night workers. AcknowledgmentsThe authors want to acknowledge the 184 Colombian security guards who provided their time to complete the questionnaire for this study.
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Objective The quality of professional life has attracted the attention of many managers owing to its importance, and organizational commitment differs according to work conditions in an organization. As the largest professional group in the healthcare system, nurses face many stressful factors that can endanger their quality of professional life and organizational commitment. Despite their huge importance, these 2 variables have rarely been addressed or evaluated in the nursing profession. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between quality of professional life and organizational commitment in nurses working in the intensive care units (ICUs) and critical care units (CCUs). Methods The present descriptive–analytical study was conducted on 221 nurses working in the ICUs of hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and selected through proportional stratified sampling. The data collection tools comprised demographic questionnaires, the quality of work-life questionnaire by Walton with 8 dimensions, and the valid and reliable organizational commitment scale by Meyer and Allen. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 23 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, United States), using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, including Spearman correlation, Pearson correlation, the Kruskal–Wallis test, the Mann–Whitney U test, the χ ² test, and the independent t test. P < 0.050 was set as the level of statistical significance. Results The mean scores of quality of professional life and organizational commitment were 58.996 ± 14.427 and 93.840 ± 13.900, respectively, in the ICU nurses. The Pearson test showed positive and significant relationships between quality of professional life and organizational commitment ( r = 0.392, P < 0.001). Conclusions Given the positive relationship found in the present study between organizational commitment and quality of professional life, it is recommended that organizational commitment be modified to improve the quality of professional life in nurses.
Chapter
This chapter will help you recognise more about who you are, what your talents are and what self-care needs you may have over time. We highlight a number of factors that affect us when we work in the healthcare professions, and nursing and midwifery in particular, such as the physical, mental and emotional dimensions of care. It is necessary to examine how we are shaped by the work we do and the consequences. We demonstrate that nurses and midwives are at risk of stress-related conditions (Chambers et al., Beating stress in the NHS. Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford, 2003). These may include specific symptoms, burnout, emotional fatigue and physical and mental health problems. We also look at how people can manage the everyday challenges of working in healthcare and what resources they draw on to help maintain equilibrium. Furthermore, we examine how to not only be resilient but also how to maintain your personal excitement and passion. Self-care is about keeping yourself well; it is not a selfish series of activities. This chapter may be for you a ‘cue to action’, a way of recognising that we are all human and that any one of us can suffer from stress-related symptoms. It is essential if we want to keep fresh and available to offer nursing and midwifery care. The bottom line is: If we do not care for ourselves, we are not going to be in the best position to care for others. In this chapter, we deliberately step back and ask you the question ‘what can and do you do, in order to keep yourself in the best possible shape for the work you do’?
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As members of the largest and most trusted healthcare profession, nurses are role models and critical partners in the ongoing quest for the health of their patients. Findings from the American Nurses Association Health Risk Appraisal suggested that nurses give the best patient care when they are operating at the peak of their own wellness. They also revealed that 68% of the surveyed nurses place their patients’ health, safety, and wellness before their own. Globally, several nursing codes of ethics include the requirement of self-care. Often, these codes embed the responsibility to protect and promote one’s own health within the clearly described obligation to provide safe patient care. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses is unique in that it states explicitly that nurses must adopt self-care as a duty to self in addition to their duty to provide care to patients. One of the basic assumptions of Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring is that caring science is the essence of nursing and the foundational disciplinary core of the profession. Watson’s theory of human caring provides support for the engagement in self-care. Two important value assumptions of Watson’s Caritas are that “we have to learn how to offer caring, love, forgiveness, compassion, and mercy to ourselves before we can offer authentic caring and love to others” and we also must “treat ourselves with loving-kindness and equanimity, gentleness, and dignity before we can accept, respect, and care for others within a professional caring-healing model.” Embedded within several caritas processes is an outline for a holistic approach to caring for self and others that can guide nurses to improve their mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual health.
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Recent studies in different countries indicate that PhD students are more vulnerable to psychological disorders compared to the general population. No such data are available for the Spanish population. This study addresses this issue by studying prevalence rates and factors related to a common response to prolonged stress such as burnout syndrome. Burnout, emotional abilities, resilience, satisfaction with the dissertation advisor, and sociodemographic data were collected from 305 PhD students. The results indicated that the burnout rates are high in this group, especially for the emotional exhaustion dimension. Different linear regression models explained between 14% and 41% of the overall burnout scores variance and its dimensions. The psychological variables and the satisfaction with the dissertation advisor were the most relevant predictors. Consistent with what has been found in other countries, the evidence found indicates that the mental state of PhD students in Spain is alarming. The results of this study have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions to alleviate this problem.
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The Spanish version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Gratz y Roemer, 2004) is presented. This scale assesses different features of the emotion regulation process that may have several difficulties associated, including emotional lack of control, life interference, lack of emotional attention, emotional confusion, and emotional rejection. In order to validate the instrument we conducted two studies, a cross-sectional one (N=254) and a longitudinal one (N=60). As for the adapted version of the scale, factor analysis yielded five interpretable factors -one less than the original version. Furthermore, data about internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and incremental validity are reported. All in all, results show evidence of sound psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the DERS.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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Introduction. Studies of affect structure published in the last decade consistently suggest two general factors or dominant dimensions, usually called positive affect and negative affect. Positive affect is a dimension of enthusiasm, activation and alert, High positive affect is a state of high energy, full concentration and pleasurable engagement, whereas low positive affect is characterized by sadness and lethargy. Negative affect is a general dimension of subjective distress and unpleasurable engagement that subsumes a variety of aversive mood states (like anger, contempt, disgust, fear and nervousness). Low negative affect is a state of calmness and serenity. Numerous Positive and negative affect scales have been development and studied. One of them, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule:. PANAS (Watson, Clark y Tellegen, 1988) have demonstrated that is one of the most reliable, valid and efficient means for measuring these dominant dimensions of mood. The PANAS consist of two 10-items scales that: a) Are internally consistent (aphas = 0.86 - 0.90 for positive affect and 0.84 - 0.87 for negative affect), b) Have excellent convergent discriminant correlations with lengthier measures of the underlying mood factors, c) Have demonstrated appropriate stability over a 2-month time period, d) Correlate at predicted levels with measures of related constructs, and show the same pattern of relations with external variables (e.g. "social activity" correlated with positive affect and not with negative affect, or "perceived stress" correlated with negative affect and not with positive affect). PANAS has been translated into German, and a children version was developed (PANAS-C). These versions also demonstrated appropriate psychometric characteristics, The aim of this study was to translate into Spanish and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of positive and negative affect scales (PANAS) in a Mexican population. Method: Three studies were performed. After the translation processes was performed, internal consistency and factor analysis were analyzed in a 321 sample of college students and their families and friends. In the second study, test-retest reliability was determined in 188 subjects (college students and their families and friends), with a 2 week administration interval. In the third study the external validity was determined correlating PANAS with Beck's Anxiety and Depression Inventories. Beck Depression Inventory is a 21-item self-report measure of depressive symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory is a 21-item self report measure of anxiety symptomatology. The psychometric studies of both measures have generally supported their validity and reliability and their use in clinical and research contexts. Results: Fist study: Internal consistency and Factorial Validity The first study sample included 321 subjects, equally divided between men and woman (51.4% females, and 48.6% males), with a mean age of 35.5 ± 14.1 years and 15.8 ± 3.5 years of education (range= 2 - 28 years). The mean for positive affect was 33.5 ± 7.4 and for negative affect was 20.1 ± 7.1. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for two different point-time instructions in both positive and negative scales: 1) "last week" and "generally". Cronbach's alpha coefficients were: a) for positive affect scales (last week and generally) = 0.85 - 0.90, and for negative affect scales (last week and generally) = 0.81 - 0.85. Finally, the factor structure coincided with the English version one. Two dominant factors emerged. Second Study: Test Retest reliability The sample for the second study included 188 subjects, 97 (51.6%) females and 91 (48.4%) males. Mean age were 38.5 ± 14.4 years (range = 16 - 80 years). The intra class correlation coefficient for positive affect was 0.34 - 0.32 and for negative affect 0.31 - 0.42. Third Study: Correlation with depression and anxiety measures The third study were performed with a 32 subjects, 65 (49.20%) males and y 67 (50.8%) females, with a mean age of 31.40 ± 12.15 (range = 17-73 years) and 15.50 ± 3.51 years of education. Coefficients ranging 0.32 and 0.55 were obtained. Discussion: Spanish version of positive and negative affect scales (PANAS) show similar psychometric properties to its English counterpart. Positive and negative scales in both point.-time instructions ("last week" and generally") demonstrated high internal coefficient levels. The factor structured was the expected one. Two factors were obtained. They also demonstrate appropriate stability over a 2 weeks time period for the "last week" instruction. We concluded that these Spanish version of the PANAS scales are valid and reliability measures for measuring the dimensions of mood, and also suggest to evaluate them with other point-time instructions.
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Though research on the demand-induced strain compensation (DISC) model has suggested that the type of job resources people employ to deal with job demands may have serious implications for job stress theory and practice, not much is known about the choices people make regarding the investment of job resources. The aim of this study is to fill this gap in the literature. In line with the DISC model, we were particularly interested in the extent to which people choose job resources that match job demands (i.e., matching job resources) and job resources that do not match job demands (i.e., nonmatching job resources). For that reason, several vignettes were developed to experimentally examine the extent to which people (92 undergraduates) choose cognitive, emotional, and physical job resources; combinations of these specific job resources; and no job resources at all in different hypothetical demanding work situations (i.e., cognitively, emotionally, and physically demanding jobs). As predicted, people generally chose cognitive job resources to deal with cognitive job demands, emotional job resources to deal with emotional job demands, and physical job resources to deal with physical job demands. Further, results showed that nonmatching job resources were particularly chosen as a supplement to matching job resources rather than as a substitute for matching job resources. However, in contrast to our predictions, there seemed to be a dominant role for nonmatching cognitive job resources in this respect, whereas nonmatching emotional job resources were chosen less often than expected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Spanish version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Gratz y Roemer, 2004) is presented. This scale assesses different features of the emotion regulation process that may have several difficulties associated, including emotional lack of control, life interference, lack of emotional attention, emotional confusion, and emotional rejection. In order to validate the instrument we conducted two studies, a cross-sectional one (N=254) and a longitudinal one (N=60). As for the adapted version of the scale, factor analysis yielded five interpretable factors -one less than the original version. Furthermore, data about internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and incremental validity are reported. All in all, results show evidence of sound psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the DERS.
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Drawing from job demands−resources theory (Demerouti et al., 2001), this article investigates the effect of psychological flexibility, relative to surface and deep acting, in the relationship between day-level emotional demands and exhaustion. A total of 170 not-for-profit service workers first filled in a questionnaire and then completed a diary survey over three consecutive workdays. The results of multilevel analyses suggest that person-level psychological flexibility was associated with lower levels of daily emotional exhaustion (measured at bedtime). Moreover, person-level psychological flexibility was found to attenuate, whereas person-level surface acting was found to strengthen, the association between day-level emotional demands and day-level exhaustion. Person-level deep acting had no significant effect on daily exhaustion. These findings extend previous research by demonstrating the role of psychological flexibility in encouraging employees to handle their emotions primarily by accepting them rather than actively regulating (i.e. suppressing or changing) them.
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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We explore the notion of "match". In the context of job design, this is congruence or correspondence between two or more job characteristics (e.g., cognitive demands and cognitive control). This congruence is thought to benefit health, well-being and performance. The origins of the match concept lie in buffering models of work stress, where resources such as workplace social support and job control are thought to attenuate deleterious effects of adverse job characteristics like excessive job demands. We outline the historical developments in work stress research that has led to notions of match, contrast match with the related concept of person-environment fit, explore current conceptualisations and operationalisations of match, and outline how the concept of match can be developed. Accepted for publication
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Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
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The existence of two nearly-orthogonal dimensions of positive and negative affect was established for a ten-item short form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule using confirmatory factor analytic techniques in a large probability sample (n=2651) spanning ages 18 to 79. The factor structure and factor correlations were found to be unchanged with age. A multiple indicators, multiple causes model was used to investigate differences in item responses according to age, sex, education, marital status and financial hardship that could not be accounted for by differences in affect levels between groups. Only one item, excited from the Positive Affect scale, was found to elicit differential responses. While improvements to the Positive Affect scale might be desirable, the Short PANAS can be recommended for use when measures of positive and negative affect are required.
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This study investigated the association between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and life satisfaction in Spanish undergraduate university students. Specially, the predictive and incremental validity of this self-report measure of emotional intelligence was examined. The authors investigated whether PEI would account for variance in satisfaction with life beyond the level attributable to mood states and personality traits. Correlation analysis showed significant associations between Clarity and Repair and higher life satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis confirmed these findings and indicated that Clarity accounted further variance in life satisfaction not accounted for by mood states and personality traits. These findings extend previous studies and provide additional support for the incremental validity of the TMMS suggesting that Clarity contribute to life satisfaction independently from well-known mood states constructs and personality traits.
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This study of 805 Finnish teachers working in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools tested 2 interaction hypotheses. On the basis of the job demands–resources model, the authors predicted that job resources act as buffers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement. In addition, using conservation of resources theory, the authors hypothesized that job resources particularly influence work engagement when teachers are confronted with high levels of pupil misconduct. In line with these hypotheses, moderated structural equation modeling analyses resulted in 14 out of 18 possible 2-way interaction effects. In particular, supervisor support, innovativeness, appreciation, and organizational climate were important job resources that helped teachers cope with demanding interactions with students.
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We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
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The Handbook presents comprehensive and global perspectives to help researchers and practitioners identify, understand, evaluate and apply the key theories, models, measures and interventions associated with employee engagement. It provides many new insights, practical applications and areas for future research. It will serve as an important platform for ongoing research and practice on employee engagement.
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The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social learning and cognitive principles that included cognitive in addition to behav-ioral and emotive targets. Various factors seem to have set the stage for a third wave, including anomalies in the current literature and philosophical changes. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one of a number of new interventions from both behavioral and cognitive wings that seem to be moving the field in a different direction. ACT is explicitly contextualistic and is based on a basic experimental analysis of human language and cognition, Relational Frame Theory (RFT). RFT explains why cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance are both ubiquitous and harmful. ACT targets these processes and is producing supportive data both at the process and outcome level. The third-wave treatments are characterized by openness to older clinical traditions, a focus on second order and contextual change, an emphasis of function over form, and the construction of flexible and effective repertoires, among other features. They build on the first-and second-wave treatments, but seem to be carrying the behavior therapy tradition forward into new territory. Over the last several years quite a number of behavior therapies have emerged that do not fit easily into traditional categories within the field.
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This article conceptualizes the emotional labor construct in terms of four dimensions: frequency of appropriate emotional display, attentiveness to required display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance generated by having to express organizationally desired emotions not genuinely felt. Through this framework, the article then presents a series of propositions about the organizational-, job-, and individual-level characteristics that are antecedents of each of these four dimensions. Frequency of emotional display, attentiveness to display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance are hypothesized to lead to greater emotional exhaustion, but only emotional dissonance is hypothesized to lead to lower job satisfaction. Implications for future theory development and empirical research on emotional labor are discussed as well.
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Nursing is an emotionally complex occupation, requiring performance of both emotional labour (for the benefit of the organisation and professional role) and emotional work (for the benefit of the nurse-patient relationship). According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, such processes can have a significant effect on psychological wellbeing and occupational stress, although little is known about the factors that moderate their effects. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between emotional labour and emotional work on psychological wellbeing and occupational stress in 239 nurses sampled from a South Australian hospital. The multi-component questionnaire study focused on the emotional labour elements of emotion expression and suppression, as well as surface acting and deep acting, and examined the companionship, help, and regulation elements of emotional work. In a multivariate model, emotional work was found to be less strongly predictive of negative psychological outcomes than was emotional labour, but was more strongly predictive of positive outcomes. Social support may moderate or be an antecedent to the performance of emotional labour and emotional work. The findings support the Conservation of Resources Theory with emotional work, rather than emotional labour, enabling the uptake of resources and leading to positive occupational health and wellbeing.
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This two-wave study examined work engagement as a function of personal resources and emotionally demanding conditions at work. We hypothesized that personal resources (self-efficacy and optimism) buffer the effect of emotional demands and emotion-rule dissonance on work engagement. Furthermore, we expected that emotional demands/dissonance boost the effect of personal resources on work engagement. One-hundred sixty-three employees, who provide service to customers, participated at both measurement times. Analyses supported (a) the buffering hypothesis, since emotional demands and dissonance related negatively to work engagement when self-efficacy—but not optimism—was low, and (b) the boosting hypothesis, since self-efficacy—but not optimism—related positively to engagement particularly when emotional demands and dissonance were high. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Over the past decade, experimental and longitudinal research has shown that psychological flexibility is an important determinant of mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace. These findings have been established using a general measure of this psychological process, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire–Revised (AAQ‐II). Consistent with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) theory, psychological flexibility may demonstrate even stronger associations with variables related to a work context (e.g., job satisfaction) if it were assessed using a measure of the construct that is tailored to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we first developed such a measure, the work‐related acceptance and action questionnaire (WAAQ). Findings from 745 participants across three studies reveal that the structure, validity and reliability of the WAAQ are satisfactory. As predicted, the WAAQ, in comparison with the AAQ‐II, correlates significantly more strongly with work‐specific variables. In contrast, the AAQ‐II tends to correlate more strongly with outcomes that are likely to be more stable across different contexts (e.g., mental health and personality variables). These findings are discussed in relation to ACT theory. Practitioner pointsExperimental and longitudinal research has shown that psychological flexibility is an individual characteristic that is an important determinant of mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace.The Work‐Related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (WAAQ) assesses psychological flexibility as it relates to the workplace.Psychological flexibility is a useful individual characteristic for practitioners to assess, as it is stable over time, but interventions can also enhance it, and, as a result, improve mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace.
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