Conference PaperPDF Available

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure in Higher Education Institution: Energy Efficiency as an Application of Green Computing

Authors:

Abstract

With the incredible development in computer technology in recent times, the personal computers have become so powerful that most of the users are not using the entire capabilities of a computer for their regular work. Because of this one can utilise the excess capabilities in one computer and share it with many other users. The concept of desktop virtualisation implements this sharing of capabilities with the help of thin client machines which not only reduces the cost of infrastructure but also introduces green computing by limiting energy consumption and e-waste. A similar concept is implemented in St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), Kolkata and is used extensively by the students. The present paper is an effort to establish the green benefits of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure.
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure in Higher Education Institution : Energy Efficiency
as an application of Green Computing
Shalabh Agarwal
St. Xavier’s College
[Autonomous], Kolkata, India,
shalabh@sxccal.edu
Rana Biswas
St. Xavier’s College
[Autonomous], Kolkata, India,
rana.xaviers@gmail.com
Asoke Nath
St. Xavier’s College
[Autonomous], Kolkata, India,
aseokejoy1@gmail.com
AbstractWith the incredible development in computer
technology in recent times, the personal computers have
become so powerful that most of the users are not using the
entire capabilities of a computer for their regular work.
Because of this one can utilise the excess capabilities in one
computer and share it with many other users. The concept of
desktop virtualisation implements this sharing of capabilities
with the help of thin client machines which not only reduces
the cost of infrastructure but also introduces green computing
by limiting energy consumption and e-waste. A similar concept
is implemented in St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Kolkata
and is used extensively by the students. The present paper is an
effort to establish the green benefits of Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure.
Keywords- desktop virtualization; VDI; e-waste, green
computing
I. INTRODUCTION
Green is used in everyday language to refer to
environmentally sustainable activities. Green computing
encompasses policies, procedures, and personal computing
practices associated with any use of information technology
(IT). People employing sustainable or green computing
practices make every effort to minimize greenhouse gases
and waste, while increasing the cost effectiveness of IT, such
as computers, local area networks and data centres. More
directly it means using computers in ways that save the
environment, save energy and save money. Today's PCs are
so powerful that we no longer need one PC per person. We
can utilise the excess capabilities in one PC and share it with
many users. Desktop virtualisation thin client devices do just
that and use just 1 to 5 watts, last for a more than 10 years,
and generate very little e-waste. Not only is this a simple
solution to a complex problem, it is also very efficient.
Desktop virtualisation saves 75% on hardware, and since
they draw very less power, we can reduce nearly 90% energy
footprint per user. These devices produce practically no heat,
reducing the need for air conditioning, which in turn saves
power consumed by such cooling solutions. Such solutions
can be implemented with Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
which reduces the total cost ownership and also introduces
Green Computing.
II. VIRTUAL DESKTOP INFRASTRUCTURE
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is similar to the
mainframe concept of centralized computing where the users
are connected to the mainframe computer through dumb
terminals which do not have any computing or storage
facilities. Similarly in a Virtual Desktop environment, the
user is connected to the server through thin clients or zero
clients which utilise the computing capabilities of the server.
However the user gets the full experience of personal
computing as each user retains his or her own instance of
desktop operating system and applications, but that stack
runs in a virtual machine on a server -- which users can
access through a thin client similar to a dumb terminal.
A thin client is a client computer or client software in
client-server architecture networks which depends primarily
on the central server for processing activities, and mainly
focuses on conveying input and output between the user and
the remote server. In contrast, a thick or fat client does as
much processing as possible and passes only data for
communications and storage to the server. Besides being
more secure and easier to deploy, manage, and maintain
(than their PC counterparts) thin clients boast a longer life
expectancy because they have no moving parts, small
footprint on the desktop, lower power consumption, and
server-centralized data storage. Desktop virtualisation is an
implementation of thin client concept and is defined as a
computing environment in which some or all components of
the system, including operating system and applications,
reside in a protected environment, isolated from the
underlying hardware and software platforms. The
virtualisation layer controls interactions between the virtual
environment and the rest of the system. Essentially, servers
host desktop environments specific to each user and stream
applications and operating systems to the desktop. Desktop
virtualisation separates software from the basic hardware that
provides it, putting the focus on what is being delivered,
making the user unaware and unconcerned about how it is
being delivered or from where it is coming. Virtualisation
separates the fundamental operating system, applications and
data from an end user’s device and moves these components
into the central server where they can be secured and
centrally managed. This approach allows users to access
their “virtual desktop” with a full personal computing
experience across devices and locations. Desktop
virtualisation takes the efficiencies offered through a
centralized processing environment and merges it with the
flexibility and ease of use found in a traditional PC. It is the
concept of isolating a logical operating system instance from
the client that is used to access it. There are several different
conceptual models of desktop virtualization, which can
broadly be divided into two categories based on whether or
not the operating system instance is executed locally or
2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies
978-1-4799-3070-8/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/CSNT.2014.250
601
2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies
978-1-4799-3070-8/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/CSNT.2014.250
601
remotely. It is important to note that not all forms of desktop
virtualization involve the use of virtual machines which lead
to more efficient use of computing resources, both in terms
of energy consumption and cost effectiveness. Host-based
forms of desktop virtualization require that users view and
interact with their desktops over a network by using a remote
display protocol. Because processing takes place in a server,
client devices can be thin clients, zero clients, smartphones,
and tablets. Client-based types of desktop virtualization
require processing to occur on local hardware; the use of thin
clients, zero clients, and mobile devices is not possible.
In this paper, all the references to desktop virtualisation
are related to host-based forms of desktop virtualisation
where the client does not require any processor, memory or
storage facilities. The solution can be implemented in a LAN
as well as WAN environment. Whereas in the WAN
scenario, the bandwidth and the speed becomes an important
driving factor.
Desktop virtualisation using N-Computing
III. GREEN BENEFITS OF VIRTUALISATION:
A. Affordable to all
With virtualisation, the investment on PCs can be
maximized by adding users for a small fraction of the cost.
The client access devices are mostly thin or zero computing
devices which are nearly 3 times cheaper than a PC.
B. Compatible
The implementation of desktop virtualisation supports
multiple operating system platforms like Microsoft Windows
and Linux. So the current applications can be used in the
same environment without the need of any migration of
technology.
C. Easy to manage
Once deployed, desktop virtualisation solutions centralize
management and enable easy software updates and security
and patch rollouts. They also improve security and provide
users with options like self-help and desktop mobility.
Desktop virtualization, creates a single “golden” image of
the OS on a server and each user takes advantage of the same
golden image. So, in effect, there is a need to manage only a
single image, not hundreds or thousands. It is also a simple
matter to create multiple such images for different groups,
each setup with the applications that users in that group need.
D. Efficient to operate
The efficiency of the virtualisation solution goes beyond
getting more from the PC resources. The virtual desktop
devices save space in the work area and save electricity by
drawing substantially less power than a typical PC.
E. Simple to deploy
Every virtualisation software and hardware product is
designed to be easy to set up, secure, and maintain by people
with basic PC skills. The virtual desktops require no
maintenance and do not contain sensitive components such
as hard drives and fans. And with fewer PCs to manage,
there will be fewer support issues.
IV. GREEN BENEFITS OF VDI
Green Computing refers to environmental friendly use of
computers and related technologies. Green computing
includes policies, procedures, and personal computing
practices associated with any use of information technology
so as to have minimum impact on the environment. The main
goal of sustainable or green computing is to minimize energy
consumption and e-waste, while increasing the cost
effectiveness of IT infrastructure. More directly it means
using computers in ways that save the environment, save
energy and save money. Efforts to reduce the energy
consumption associated with personal computers are often
referred to as “green computing,” which is the practice of
using computing resources efficiently and in an
environmentally sensitive manner. “Green IT” refers to all IT
solutions that save energy at various levels of use. These
include (i) hardware, (ii) software and (iii)services. The
focus is into two distinct areas. One is on the technology of
green computing, which includes low-power / energy-
efficient hardware, software techniques to reduce power
consumption. The other focus area is on the reduction of e-
waste through dematerialisation and online deployment of
various services and training.
One of the best ways to reduce energy consumption is to
consider use of thin client technology. This can be
implemented through desktop virtualisation where one
physical computer runs several workstations in the same way
that several server instances can be run on one physical
server box using virtualisation tools. This approach has been
made possible by the increased power of modern computers.
The computer hardware improvements in terms of faster
processors and larger memory have enabled delivering a
faster and richer experience to the user. The increased
potential of modern PCs has provided an option to run many
workstations from one computer base unit and save energy
and cost. The average person uses less than 5% of the
capacity of their PC. The rest is simply wasted. The Desktop
Virtualisation solution is based on this simple fact that
today’s PCs are so powerful that the vast majority of
602602
applications only use a small fraction of the computer’s
capacity. Virtualisation tap this unused capacity so that it can
be simultaneously shared by multiple usersmaximizing the
PC utilisation. Each user’s monitor, keyboard, and mouse
connect to the shared PC through a small and highly reliable
virtualisation access device. These access devices use the
concept of thin client or zero client. The zero client access
device has no CPU, memory, or moving parts. Electricity
consumption of a thin/zero client is less than 10% that of a
PC. Hence virtualisation can reduce electricity consumption
as well as cooling requirements, thus reducing both carbon
emissions and cost.
Virtualisation reduces carbon emissions and has a
significantly smaller footprint, with some solutions using less
than one twentieth of the materials required for a traditional
PC, which results in far less e-waste filling landfills. The
elimination of the physical desktop PC lessens the landfill
issues as zero-clients contain no processor, memory or other
moving elements like hard disks.
Additionally, zero-client desktop virtualisation solutions
can have a useful life more than twice the length of a
traditional PC because they do not have an operating system,
software or moving parts on the device which can fail or
quickly become outdated or obsolete. Zero-clients can last
for 8-10 years as opposed to 3-4 years of a conventional PC.
Hence in case of Desktop virtualisation, e-waste reduction,
as opposed to e-waste recycling, is definitely a grand step
towards greener environment. PCs typically weigh about 10
kilograms and are disposed of in landfills after three to five
years. Desktop virtualisation access devices weigh about 150
grams, and easily last eight years or more, for a 98%
reduction in electronic waste. So there’s less e-waste that
will find its way to a landfill.
V. IMPLEMENTATION OF VDI TO SAVE POWER
In order to harvest the benefits of VDI, it is important to
understand and estimate the capability of the required server
with the number of connected clients. The VDI based
computing solution is deployed in St. Xavier's College
Kolkata (SXC) with the help of N-Computing solutions
which provide hardware and software to create virtual
desktops in order to enable multiple users to simultaneously
share a single operating system instance.
In SXC a server (Intel Xeon E3 - 1220v (Quad Core) 3.1
Ghz , 12 GB RAM / 500GB HDD) was connected to 20
numbers of zero-clinet devices (N-Computing - Model-
L300) under Windows OS. Eventually, the power
consumptions for the VDI solution with zero-client and
Desktop PC environment (Core i3, 2 GB RAM, 500 GB
HDD) was compared to establish the fact that the energy
consumption in case of desktop virtualisation is nearly 16%
of a stand alone PC.
Table-1: Power Consumption Table
Sl.No
Device
Power
Consumption
Amperes
1.
Server
0.205
2.
N-Computing Client
0.023
3.
Stand Alone PC
0.190
4.
Monitor - 15"
0.102
5.
Monitor - 18.5"
0.114
Table-2: Power consumption and power savings
Comparison table of power consumption and savings.
Power consumption in watts
%age Comparison with power consumption of N
Computing device w.r.t. a PC
Server
N Computing
Device
No of
terminals
total
per terminal
power consumed
power saving
45.1
5.06
5
70.40
14.08
33.68
66.32
45.1
5.06
6
75.46
12.58
30.09
69.91
45.1
5.06
7
80.52
11.50
27.52
72.48
45.1
5.06
8
85.58
10.70
25.59
74.41
45.1
5.06
9
90.64
10.07
24.09
75.91
45.1
5.06
10
95.70
9.57
22.89
77.11
45.1
5.06
20
146.30
7.32
17.50
82.50
45.1
5.06
30
196.90
6.56
15.70
84.30
45.1
5.06
40
247.50
6.19
14.80
85.20
45.1
5.06
50
298.10
5.96
14.26
85.74
Power consumption of a PC
41.8
From the above table it can be understood that with 20 to 50 clients the power saving is nearly 85%. The server of this
capacity can effortlessly support 50 terminals.
603603
From the above graph it is clear that the power
consumption and the savings become more or less constant
with 20 terminals and above.
Diagrammatic representation of VDI at SXC
Power consumption measurement using Clamp Meter
Consumption of a server: 0.205 amps
Consumption of a N Computing Client: 0.023 amps
VI. VDI TO REDUCE E-WASTE
As discussed earlier, the thin client or Virtual Desktop
devices have very little electronics parts and circuits
compared to a desktop. The N-computing device consists
very little electronic parts and chips compared to a desktop.
It only has a System On Chip and a few capacitors,
resistances and transistors. Since it does not have any storage
devices, memory, processor etc, the e-waste generated by
this device minimal compared to a standard PC. Moreover
the life of such a device is projected to be at least 10 years.
Hence it can be used for a much longer period of time. Since
this device connects to the server and does not have any
processor or memory, there is no need for any up gradation
or disposal due to advancement in technology. All these
features help to use the device for a longer period of time
without any maintenance or up gradation and hence reduce
the land fill and save the environment in turn.
Inside a N-computing device
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We are very much grateful to UGC for the MRP which
has enabled us to carry our the research. We are also obliged
St. Xavier's College to give us opportunity to carry out our
research. We are also grateful to our fellow professors and
colleagues for their support and constant encouragement.
REFERENCES
[1] Shalabh Agarwal, Archana Vimal, Saima Ghosh, Asoke Nath,Green
Computing Endeavor in Higher Educational Institutes a noble
initiative towards Sustainable IT Infrastructure, Journal of
Computing(USA), Vol 4, issues 5, May, ISSN- 9617, Page-217-222,
2012
[2] Shalabh Agarwal, Archana Vimal, Saima Ghosh, Asoke Nath, “Green
Computing - a new Horizon of Energy Efficiency and Electronic
waste minimization”: a Global Perspective, Shalabh Agarwal,
Archana Vimal, Saima Ghosh, Asoke Nath, Proceedings of IEEE
CSNT-2011 held at SMVDU(Jammu) 03-06 June 2011, Page 688-
693(2011).
604604
[3] Shalabh Agarwal and Asoke Nath, Desktop Virtualization and Green
Computing Solutions, The Second International Conference on "Soft
Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012)" published in the
proceedings of the conference SocPros 2012 held in December 28 -
30, 2012 and will be published in Conference proceedings in AISC
series of Springer.
[4] Shalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath, A Study on implementing Green IT in
Enterprise 2.0, International Journal of Advanced Computer
Research, Vol-3, No.1, Issue-3(march),pp. 43-49(2013).
[5] Chiranjeeb Roy Chowdhury, Arindam Chatterjee, Alap Sardar,
Shalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath, A Comprehensive study on Cloud
Green Computing : To Reduce Carbon Footprints Using Clouds,
International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, Vol-3, No.1,
Issue-3(march),pp. 78-85(2013).
[6] Aritra Mitra, Riya Basu, Avik Guha, Shalabh Agarwal,Asoke Nath,
Application of Green computing in Framing Energy Efficient
Software Engineering, International Journal of Advanced Computer
Research, Vol-3, No.1, Issue-3(march),pp. 117-121(2013).
[7] Shantanu Ray, Nabaraj Sengupta, Koustav Maitra, Kaushik
Goswami, Shalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath, Green Software
Engineering Process : Moving Towards Sustainable Software Product
Design, Journal of Global Research in Computer Science(ISSN-2229-
371X), Vol-4, No.1, pp.25-29(2013).
[8] Shalabh Agarwal, Shreya Goswami, Asoke Nath, Green Computing
and Green Technology in e-Learning, Corporate, Business and IT
Sectors, International Journal of Computer Applications(IJCA), Vol
76, No.7, (August), Pp. 35-41(2013).
[9] Shalabh Agarwal, Kaustuvi Basu, Asoke Nath ,Green Computing and
Green Technology based teaching learning and administration in
Higher Education Institutions: Bidhusundar Samanta, International
Journal of Advanced Computer Research, Vol-2, Number-3, issue-11,
Sept, pp 295-303(2013).
[10] "Thin Clients 2011 - Ecological and economical aspects of virtual
desktops", a study conducted by Fraunhofer Institute of
Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT
[11] “Green Computing - a new Horizon of Energy Efficiency and
Electronic waste minimization”: a Global Perspective, Proceedings
of IEEE CSNT-2011 held at SMVDU(Jammu) 03-06 June 2011, Page
688-693.
[12] Shalabh Agarwal and Asoke Nath, Cloud Computing is an
application of Green Computing a new horizon of Energy
Efficiency and its beyondShalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath
proceedings of International conference ICCA 2012 held at
Pondechery Jan 27-31, 2012.
[13] "Thin Clients 2011 - Ecological and economical aspects of virtual
desktops", a study conducted by Fraunhofer Institute of
Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT
605605
... It can minimize downtime, and provide the ability to run legacy applications in newer, incompatible platform and it simplifies data center management with high efficiency and resource utilization [2,3] involves policies, procedures, and personal computing practices allied with the utilization of IT systems. The proponents of sustainable or green computing practices maintain a commitment to curtailing greenhouse waste while reducing the cost of IT to save environment, energy, and money [9]. The newer generation of personal computers (PCs) are so powerful, hence the one-to-one relationship between a user and a PC no longer gives a justifiable return on investment. ...
... These devices produce virtually no heat, reducing requirement for air conditioning, which in turn saves power expended by such cooling solutions. As a result, VDI reduces the total cost ownership and introduces green computing impeccably [9]. ...
... There are several approaches can be found in literature that justifies the implementation feasibility of VDI in university laboratory. Agrawal et al. [5] designed the VDI infrastructure to establish energy saving green computing within low cost. For these they showed experimental statistics to prove the institutional and economic reasons of VDI in education industry. ...
... Power saving and consumption detailsConsumption and savings of VDI with respect to a typical Lab (PCs)[5] ...
Article
Full-text available
Computing laboratories of universities face a crucial challenge due to technology upgradation. Generally, hardware and software have a few years of lifetime and get outdated after a certain period of time. Especially, the hardware lifespan is too short. Moreover, the maintenance and usage efficiency of the university laboratory is not up to the mark due to resource constraints. To cope up with the software and hardware upgradations, investing again and again for the same laboratory is very tedious and cost inefficient, especially for a developing country like Bangladesh. This paper recommends utilization of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) under a cloud-based environment to improve the efficiency and maintenance of a computing laboratory. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based network map for the university computing laboratory alongside with its implementation. Several experiments were conducted to identify the energy efficiency, cost, and performance parameters statistics of the proposed solution. The experimental result establishes the proposed recommendation as a cost effective and efficient approach to tackle the aforementioned challenges as well as it increases the versatility of computing in university laboratories.
... Gaspar et al. (2008aGaspar et al. ( , 2008bGaspar et al. ( , 2008c review the past, present, and future in the adoption of virtualization. Agrawal et al (2014) report the implementation of virtualization on thin client/server architecture as an application of green computing. While consolidation through virtualization on the server side is not new technology, recently with the rise of workstation and desktop computing power, we can talk about consolidation at the client (particularly desktop) side as a natural consequence of the advances in computing technology. ...
... • Dynamic migration: Dynamic migration allows the service provider to transfer the ongoing task in a VM without any halt from one DC to another and the primary objective of this process is to hide the process from the client-side. The benefit of dynamic migration is downtime, which is not visible to the user with a speedy network [4,7,15]. ...
... Several studies have been conducted and ideas have been published in the literature about the measures that need to be taken by educational institutes in order to improve the practice of green computing [51,52,53]. An overview of some measures is provided in Table 2. ...
Article
The upsurge in global warming and release of greenhouse gases are major issues that intensified over the past years due to the increasing usage of technological resources in our daily routines. That is why a call for going green in the technological field is highly recommended. This paper reviews various approaches of green computing in five main areas-software engineering, cloud computing, mobile computing, data centers, and the educational sector. Povzetek: V tem članku so predstavljeni različni pristopi zelenega računalništva po petih glavnih področjih-programsko inženirstvo, računalništvo v oblaku, mobilno računalništvo, podatkovni centri in izobraževalni sektor.
... Shalabh Agarwal [25] presented all the references based on Desktop Virtualization which are related to host-based forms of desktop virtualization that the client doesn't need any processor, memory and storage facilities. The proposed solution can be implemented in both LAN and WAN environments where the bandwidth and speed became an important driving factor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green computing is considered to the procedure of designing, manufacturing, using the products and managing them in a correct way to minimize the hazards from the environment. Ewaste has become an emerging concern in the whole environment. The utilization of e-waste has become a nonavoidable problem that the environment and ecology face. This paper focuses on the description of e-waste management for implementing green computing. This paper helps out the reader to get knowledge about e-waste management and green computing and how they can influence each other in the activation process. Therefore, E-waste management is working as an approach to green computing.
... S. Agarwal [35] presented all the references based on Desktop Virtualization which are related to host-based forms of desktop virtualization that the client doesn't need any processor, memory and storage facilities. The proposed solution can be implemented in both LAN and WAN environments where the bandwidth and speed became an important driving factor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green computing is considered to the procedure of designing, manufacturing, using the products and managing them in a correct way to minimize the hazards from the environment. Ewaste has become an emerging concern in the whole environment. The utilization of e-waste has become a nonavoidable problem that the environment and ecology face. This paper focuses on the description of e-waste management for implementing green computing. This paper helps out the reader to get knowledge about e-waste management and green computing and how they can influence each other in the activation process. Therefore, E-waste management is working as an approach to green computing.
... On base the mentioned, it can be said that there is a close relationship with the concept of centralized computing, where users are connected to the host computer through terminals without intelligence that do not have processing or storage capabilities [1]. For this reason, it is essential to know the architecture on which the VDIs are executed, which consists of six components [8]: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the advancement of technology and unlimited access to information through the Internet, traditional teaching models are evolving to become centralized in the student. The objective is to offer personalized education that overcomes any spatial-temporal barrier, achieving a continuous transfer of knowledge. However, under this scenario arises the need for equipment with high performance hardware and software. On the one hand, educational institutions, in most cases, do not have enough capital to migrate to new infrastructures; while, on the other hand, students encounter problems linked to licensing and lack of own resources. Overall, this translates into an impediment for teachers to design innovative activities. Hence, the concept of virtual desktop infrastructure (VDIs) is born, which relies on cloud computing techniques to provide access to remote machines pre-configured according to different storage, processing, network and software requirements. This paper presents an open source VDI solution based on OpenNebula, since the costs associated with using the services of large cloud providers could represent a considerable investment. Among the tests carried out, a pilot experiment stands out that demonstrates the benefits of deploying local VDIs, as well as a comparison of the savings they represent in relation to commercial solutions.
... Users can access their desktop applications and work with them using any device (BYOD concept). Virtualization technology offers advantages such as ease of management, mobile computing, flexibility, data security and reduced total costs for business owners, for example, thin client devices designed to access a virtual desktop, use 1 to 5 watts [2]. In addition, these devices do not emit much heat and, as a rule, operate without a fan. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents a comparison of genetic algorithm and the linear programming method approaches for solving the optimization problem. The comparison is performed on the example of the task of server hardware recourses optimization when placing Virtual Machines (VMs) during Virtual Desktop Infrastructure implementation
Chapter
Die Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz ist ein Nachhaltigkeitsziel im Rahmen der SDGs (9.4.1). Die Zielerreichung basiert sowohl auf technischen Maßnahmen als auch auf Verhaltensänderungen. Hochschulen können das Thema „Energieeffizienz“ in allen Handlungsfeldern Lehre und Forschung, beim Betrieb der Hochschule sowie bei Transferaktivitäten (Third Mission) adressieren, wobei die einzelnen Handlungsfelder einander bedingen. Am Beispiel der Steigerung des Übergangs von individuellen Arbeitsplatzrechnern zu virtuellen Maschinen wird die Methodik zur Ermittlung der Energieeffizienz erläutert sowie die Ergebnisse vorgestellt. Im Ergebnis werden Berechnungen zu erreichbaren Einsparpotenzialen vorgenommen. Das gewählte Fallbeispiel aus dem Handlungsfeld „Hochschulbetrieb“ soll auch Eingang finden in Praktika bei Studierenden der Automatisierungstechnik und Informatik, beim Orientierungsstudium sowie für weitere Team- und Projektarbeiten (Handlungsfeld „Lehre“).
Article
Full-text available
The Software development lifecycle (SDLC) currently focuses on systematic execution and maintenance of software by dividing the software development process into various phases that include requirements-gathering, design, implementation, testing, deployment and maintenance. The problem here is that certain important decisions taken in these phases like use of paper, generation of e-Waste, power consumption and increased carbon foot print by means of travel, Airconditioning etc may harm the environment directly or indirectly. There is a dearth of models that define how a software can be developed and maintained in an environment friendly way. This paper discusses the changes in the existing SDLC and suggests appropriate steps which can lead to lower carbon emissions, power and paper use, thus helping organizations to move towards greener and sustainable software development.
Article
Full-text available
Due to tremendous growth in Internet technologies in last couple of years now the Web information has been transformed to shared and collaborative web. This has happened because of the emergence of social networking websites like Facebook and Linkedin. Collaborative efforts like Wikipedia has made the web the basis of world's knowledge-sharing, and collaborative computing platform. Before 10-15 years from now the business houses were not so keen to use web technology in their day to day routine work but now in the present scenario the knowledge of web is almost essential in any business house. Various organisations are taking the advantage of Web 2.0 and related technologies to boost their business. With the use of ICT and Web 2.0 as the main tool for communication and interaction, the organisations are also contributing to the sustainability of the environment by utilizing optimal IT resources in a more efficient way. Enterprise 2.0 is bringing Web 2.0 into the office and thus it integrates the social and collaborative tools of Web 2.0 into the office environment. Ultimately this brings beneficial changes in the business process and communication. In the present paper the authors have given an effort to explore the various business functions and utilities of Enterprise 2.0 and try to implement the concept of Green IT in Enterprise 2.0.
Article
Full-text available
Cloud computing and Green computing are two most emergent areas in information communication technology (ICT) with immense applications in the entire globe. The future trends of ICT will be more towards cloud computing and green computing. Due to tremendous improvements in computer networks now the people prefer the Network-based computing instead of doing something in an in-house based computing. In any business sector daily business and individual computing are now migrating from individual hard drives to internet servers. The concept of cloud computing has dramatically changed the classical method of computation. To save space, time and money, the people perform computation in Internet server instead of doing computation on a desktop or a laptop. The main issue in cloud computing is to save resources, time, cost and duplication of same data. Instead of upgrading software in a standalone machine, one can use the software in the cloud in web and save energy and money. In the present paper the authors tried to analyze the energy consumption of Cloud Computing by studying the clouds maintained by certain organizations and observing the energy benefits that they derive. The authors have also made study by which the carbon footprint can be reduced through Green Cloud Computing.
Article
Full-text available
Green computing and energy saving is now a very important issue in Computer science and information technology. Due to tremendous growth in information technology now the big challenge is how to minimize the power usage and how to reduce the carbon foot print. Green computing is now a prime research area where the people are trying to minimize the carbon footprint and minimum usage of energy. To minimize the usage of energy there are two independent approaches one is designing suitable hardware and the second one is to redesign the software methodology. In the present paper the authors have tried to explore the software methodologies and designs that can be used today to save energy. The authors have also tried to extend mobile platform battery time as well as the various tools that support the development of energy-efficient software.
Article
Full-text available
Computers are one of the fastest growing electrical loads in the Educational and Business world. Each year more and more computers are procured and put to use. But it's not just the number of computers that is driving energy consumption upward. The way that we use computers also adds to the increasing energy burden. Research reveals that most personal desktop computers are not being used the majority of the time they are running and many personal computers worldwide are needlessly left on continuously. Increasing awareness of climate change and concern for the environment, has forced a variety of industries including the educational institutes to review their environmental credentials. Colleges and universities throughout the world are now paying more attention to Green Computing as an initiative towards a greener environment and cost savings. Institutions of higher education (IHEs) can decrease their carbon footprints and save costs when they embed energy-saving programs in their IT policy. Many institutions have chosen to include information on their websites about green computing efforts and how to reduce carbon footprints. In addition use of thin-client and virtualization is also being adapted as efforts towards sustainable computing. This article discusses the ways that individuals and institutions can decrease energy use with sensible use of computers and IT infrastructure.
Article
Full-text available
E-learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn something anywhere and anytime. The delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means involves the use of a computer or electronic device such as a mobile phone in some way to make available training, educational or learning material. E-learning methods have drastically changed the educational environment and also reduced the use of papers and ultimately reduce the production of carbon footprint. E-learning methodology is an example of Green computing. Green Computing or Green IT refers to the study and practice of using computing resources in an eco-friendly manner in order to tone down the environmental impacts of computing. It is the practice of using computing resources in an energy efficient and environmentally friendly manner. To reduce unnecessary energy consumption due to hazardous materials has become a major topic of concern today. In the present paper the authors have discussed how Green Computing can be incorporated into different institutions, corporate/business sectors or may be in various IT companies.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to tremendous growth of Industrial activities throughout the globe, the climate of the earth is gradually changing. The Increase awareness of climate change and more concern for the environment, has forced the big industries to review their environmental credentials. The Global IT sector, for example, accounts for between two and three percent of the world's total carbon dioxide emissions which contribute towards global warming and climate change. So if the IT companies are increasing exponentially then the global warming will be more and more. Keeping all these facts the companies throughout the world are now paying more attention to Green IT as an initiative towards cost savings and a greener environment. However, a significant percentage of total population of the globe unaware of the various good practices in ICT towards Green IT. In the present work the authors tried to make a systematic study on the issues of climate change and also explore green computing from the business and IT perspective, and also to find the best practices of green computing into the users of ICT.
Article
Greecomputing is now more than just being environmentally responsible. It is also the exercise of utilizing optimal IT resources in a more efficient way. It is realized by the computer professionals and also by the Scientists that one of the key enablers of Green computing is virtualisation. Virtual computing and management will enable toward environmentally sustainable ICT infrastructure. The desktop virtualisation enables to utilise the untapped processing power of today’s high-power PCs and storage devices. The same or improved performance can be delivered with reduced operating expenses, a smaller carbon footprint and significantly curtailed greenhouse gas emissions. In this work the authors have made a complete study on Desktop virtualisation, Thin client architecture, and its role in Green computing.
Green Computing and Green Technology based teaching learning and administration in Higher Education Institutions: Bidhusundar Samanta
  • Shalabh Agarwal
  • Kaustuvi Basu
  • Asoke Nath
Shalabh Agarwal, Kaustuvi Basu, Asoke Nath,Green Computing and Green Technology based teaching learning and administration in Higher Education Institutions: Bidhusundar Samanta, International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, Vol-2, Number-3, issue-11, Sept, pp 295-303(2013).