Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence

Article · January 2015with52 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12135
Abstract
In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process.
  • Article · Jun 1968
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two studies were conducted which provided evidence that ageism (the differential association of negative traits with the aged) has an “automatic” cognitive component. Experiment 1 found that the incidental learning of trait descriptors was different depending upon whether they were encountered in questions concerning “old” persons or “young” persons; in an unannounced memory test, more negative traits were recalled when they had been encoded with reference to an “old” person, and positive traits were retrieved more often when they had been encountered in a question about a “young” person. Experiment 2 showed that the labels “old” and “young” had the effect of increasing the accessibility of associated traits in semantic memory. Subjects were found to make decisions concerning negative traits more quickly after being primed with “old” than after being primed with “young” (the reverse being true for positive traits). These age biases can be unintentional annd unconscious. The semantic priming effects were obtained despite the fact that the labels “old” and “young” were visually “masked” so as to be outside of the subject's conscious awareness.
    Article · May 1990
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The N400 is an endogenous event-related brain potential (ERP) that is sensitive to semantic processes during language comprehension. The general question we address in this paper is which aspects of the comprehension process are manifest in the N400. The focus is on the sensitivity of the N400 to the automatic process of lexical access, or to the controlled process of lexical integration. The former process is the reflex-like and effortless behavior of computing a form representation of the linguistic signal, and of mapping this representation onto corresponding entries in the mental lexicon. The latter process concerns the integration of a spoken or written word into a higher-order meaning representation of the context within which it occurs. ERPs and reaction times (RTs) were acquired to target words preceded by semantically related and unrelated prime words. The semantic relationship between a prime and its target has been shown to modulate the amplitude of the N400 to the target. This modulation can arise from lexical access processes, reflecting the automatic spread of activation between words related in meaning in the mental lexicon. Alternatively, the N400 effect can arise from lexical integration processes, reflecting the relative ease of meaning integration between the prime and the target. To assess the impact of automatic lexical access processes on the N400, we compared the effect of masked and unmasked presentations of a prime on the N400 to a following target. Masking prevents perceptual identification, and as such it is claimed to rule out effects from controlled processes. It therefore enables a stringent test of the possible impact of automatic lexical access processes on the N400. The RT study showed a significant semantic priming effect under both unmasked and masked presentations of the prime. The result for masked priming reflects the effect of automatic spreading of activation during the lexical access process. The ERP study showed a significant N400 effect for the unmasked presentation condition, but no such effect for the masked presentation condition. This indicates that the N400 is not a manifestation of lexical access processes, but reflects aspects of semantic integration processes.
    Article · Dec 1993
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On the basis of theorizing that proposes that category representations include a variety of associations and not simply trait information, two studies investigated whether the automatic activation of stereotypic traits following category priming is a necessary mediator of automatic social behavior. The results across both studies demonstrated an automatic behavior effect; participants primed with the elderly responded more slowly to general lexical decisions than participants not primed with the elderly. The results also provide evidence for automatic stereotypic trait activation; participants primed with the elderly responded faster to stereotypic than nonstereotypic traits. Moreover, consistent with the view that stereotypes are multicomponential, category priming predicted automatic social behavior in ways independent of mediation-by-trait activation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studied the relation between need for closure and group perception. Dispositional need for closure (NFC) was measured with a scale developed by D. M. Webster and A. W. Kruglanski (see record 1995-07984-001). In Exp 1, 27 undergraduates were presented with behavioral information about a group of soccer hooligans and were asked to form an impression of this group. Ss high in NFC recalled relatively more stereotype-consistent information, while Ss low in NFC recalled relatively more inconsistent information. Ss high in NFC judged the target group more stereotypically and perceived the group as more homogeneous compared with Ss low in NFC. In Exp 2, in which 30 undergraduates judged a target group of nurses and in which the stimulus set was more complex, most of the results of Exp 1 were replicated. It is concluded that dispositional need for closure is an important determinant of the way social groups are perceived and judged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · May 1996
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experiments in this article were conducted to observe the automatic activation of gender stereotypes and to assess theoretically specified conditions under which such stereotype priming may be moderated. Across 4 experiments, 3 patterns of data were observed: (1) evidence of stereotype priming under baseline conditions of intention and high cognitive constraints; (2) significant reduction of stereotype priming when a counterstereotype intention was formed even though cognitive constraints were high; and (3) complete reversal of stereotype priming when a counterstereotype intention was formed and cognitive constraints were low. These data support proposals that stereotypes may be automatically activated, as well as proposals that perceivers can control and even eliminate such effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · Jun 1996
Show more
Article
August 2017 · International Journal of Psychophysiology · Impact Factor: 2.88
    As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants... [Show full abstract]
    Article
    April 2015 · Acta Psychologica Sinica
      Ample previous studies have provided behavioral and electrophysiological evidences about stereotype activation. It is an open question whether stereotype activation is an unintentional process and what the characteristics of brain activity in this process are. Adopting priming Stroop paradigm, the present study aimed to investigate the pattern and the neural correlates of unintentional... [Show full abstract]
      Discover more