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Nutrition Value of Wild Animal Meat

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One of the most valuable foods is meat, due its nutritional value, largely determined by the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, etc. At the same time, concern needs to be given to health of consumers by used products with less calories, which can be ensured by greater variety of game animals, including also deer grown in captivity. The aim of our investigation was to compare the nutrition value of elk, wild deer, farm deer, roe deer, and wild boar that were killed during hunting in Latvia. Meat samples (m. logissimus lumborum) were collected in the autumn- winter season. The results of the conducted research suggest that game meat samples have higher protein and essential fatty acid content in comparison with domestic animals. The amount of fat in all analysed samples did not differ greatly, although the fatty acid content in wild game meat differed significantly. The fatty acid profile was used to calculate the atherogenicity index (AI), which has a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The formula AI = [C12 : 0 + (C14 : 0 × 4) + C16 : 0 ] / (Total unsaturated fatty acids) was used to calculate the ratio of total saturated fatty acids, ω-6 and ω-3. Regarding the microelement content of meat there were great differences in iron and manganese concentration among animals.
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INTRODUCTION
In recent years, in the Latvian population, public attention
has been paid to the health and the value of it, which can be
achieved using wholesome food. One of the most valuable
foods is meat. In the “food pyramid” meat is one of the
products that needs to be used moderately — about one-
fifth of all food. It provides the organism with wholesome,
highly digestible proteins.
Protein varies among the meat animal species, and its con-
tent ranges between 13 and 23% of the fresh weight (Honi-
kel, 2009). Our body uses 97% meat protein and 25% con-
nective tissue.
The amino acid profile is important because some amino ac-
ids cannot be synthesised by humans and therefore must be
supplied by the diet. Amino acids are divided into two
groups: essential and substitutable. Essential amino acids
are not synthesised in the body and therefore must be taken
with food. If the diet lacks even one of the essential amino
acids (such as tryptophan, lysine, methionine) the required
protein synthesis is not possible. Meat is rich in the so-
called essential or indispensable amino acids — lysine, leu-
cine, isoleucine, and sulphur-containing amino acids — and
in this sense meat has highly-quality protein (Young et al.,
2001). Meat is also rich in B vitamins and is an important
source of iron, phosphorus, copper and manganese. De-
pending on the type of meat fat content is 1–10% fat.
Meat has been identified, often wrongly, as a food having a
high fat content and an undesirable balance of fatty acids. In
fact, lean meat is very low in fat, with a content of 20–50
g/kg (Wood and Enser, 2004). Game animals have a favour-
able balance between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty
acids (P : S) and wild ruminants produce muscle with a de-
sirable w–6:w–3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio.
Wild game meat is considered significant in the diet, and its
share in consumption in recent years has increased. Cur-
rently, among consumers there is increased interest in meat
from animals kept in conditions as close as possible to the
natural ones. Such a requirement is undoubtedly fulfilled by
game that is characterised by high nutritional value and spe-
cific sensory properties desired by consumers (Vergara et
al., 2003; Soriano et al., 2006).
Game animals, such as elk (Alces alces), deer (Cervus
elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus
scrofa scrofa), every autumn and winter provide an excel-
lent investment and diversification of many consumer
meals. The statistics show that there are about 33 000 hunt-
ers in the Latvian register, of which 17 000 are active hunt-
ers. During the annual hunt, about 2789 tons (2712 – auxil-
liary service) of game meat is provided in Latvia (Data on
PROCEEDINGS OF THE LATVIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Section B, Vol. 67 (2013), No. 4/5 (685/686), pp. 373–377.
DOI: 10.2478/prolas-2013-0074
NUTRITION VALUE OF WILD ANIMAL MEAT
Vita Strazdiòa, Aleksandrs Jemeïjanovs, and Vita Ðterna
Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra”, Latvia University of Agriculture,
Institûta iela 1, Sigulda, LV-2150, LATVIA;
sigra@lis.lv
Contributed by Aleksandrs Jemeïjanovs
One of the most valuable foods is meat, due its nutritional value, largely determined by the essen-
tial amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, etc. At the same time, concern needs to be given
to health of consumers by used products with less calories, which can be ensured by greater vari-
ety of game animals, including also deer grown in captivity. The aim of our investigation was to
compare the nutrition value of elk, wild deer, farm deer, roe deer, and wild boar that were killed
during hunting in Latvia. Meat samples (m. logissimus lumborum) were collected in the au-
tumn–winter season. The results of the conducted research suggest that game meat samples
have higher protein and essential fatty acid content in comparison with domestic animals. The
amount of fat in all analysed samples did not differ greatly, although the fatty acid content in wild
game meat differed significantly. The fatty acid profile was used to calculate the atherogenicity in-
dex (AI), which has a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The formula
AI=[C12:0+(C14:0×4)+C16:0]/(Total unsaturated fatty acids) was used to calculate the
ratio of total saturated fatty acids, w-6 and w-3. Regarding the microelement content of meat there
were great differences in iron and manganese concentration among animals.
Key words: hunting animals meat, healthy food.
373
Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Section B, Vol. 67 (2013), No. 4/5.
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number of hunted animals in 2010–2011 are from the State
Forest Service official statistics).
The human body is composed of a broad range of chemical
elements and their combinations, which must be in balance
for us to feel good and be healthy. There are negative con-
sequences for both under-and over-intake of a trace element
(causing immune status and increased susceptibility to in-
fections). The content of a trace elements in domestic meat
products depends on the animal species and the quality of
animal nutrition. Lack of minerals can be caused by animals
age and physiological state, feed intake and housing condi-
tions (Kalafova et al., 2003). In contrast, game animals
move within an unlimited territory, and thus animal prod-
ucts contain all trace elements in sufficient quantities, but
which varies according to the functional status of the body.
The aim of our investigation was to compare the nutrition
value of elk, wild deer, farm deer, roe deer, and wild boar
that were killed during hunting in Latvia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chemical analyses were conducted on a total of 54 meat
samples (m. logissimus lumborum): elk (8), deer (18), roe
deer (16), wild boar (12) collected after hunts throughout
Latvia in the autumn-winter season (2008–2012). The anal-
yses were conducted at the laboratory of Biochemistry and
Microbiology of the Research Institute of Biotechnology
and Veterinary Medicine „Sigra”. In the studied samples,
protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol content and
micronutrient concentrations were determined. Samples
were prepared within 48 hours after slaughtering or hunting.
Meat samples of about 300 g were homogenised with a
BÜCHI B-400 (ISO 3100-1).
Protein concentration was determined as total nitrogen con-
tent by Kieldahl method and using coefficient 6.25 for cal-
culation (ISO 937:1974).
For determination of amino acids concentration, dried,
defatted meat samples were treated with constant boiling
6N hydrochloric acid in an oven at around 110 °C for 23 h.
Hydrolysate was diluted with 0.1% formic acid. Samples (2
ml) were filtered using a siringe filter with a 0.45 mm nylon
membrane. Amino acid concentrations were determined us-
ing a reverse-phase HPLC/MS (Waters Alliance 2695, Wa-
ters 3100, column XTerra MS C18 5 mm, 1 × 100 mm): mo-
bile phase (90% acetonitrile: 10% dejonized water) 0.5 ml
min-1, column temperature. 40 oC. Data acquisition was
conducted using the programme Empower pro.
Intramuscular fat concentration was determined by Sochlet
method with hydrolysis procedure (boiling in hydrochloric
acid) using SoxCap 2047 and SOX TEH 2055 equipment
(FOSS) (LVS ISO 1443:1973).
Cholesterol concentration was determined by Blur colori-
metric method using a spectrometer (Øìàíåíêîâ è Aëèåâ,
1973).
Fatty acid analysis of meat. Homogenised meat samples
were prepared for GLC (gas-liquid chromatography) analy-
sis using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed
by derivatisation with (trimethylsilyl) diazomethane using
the method of Aldai et al. (2006) An ACME, model 6100,
GLC (Young Lin Instrument Co.) equipped with a flame
ionisation detector, and an Alltech AT-FAME analytical
column (fused silica 30 m × 0.25 mm i.d.) was used. The in-
dividual FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) were identified
according to similar peak retention times using standard
mixture Supelco 37 Component FAME Mix.
From the fatty acid profile, the atherogenicity index (IA), a
parameter proposed by Ulbricht and Southgate (1991),
which has a positive correlation with risk of cardiovascular
disorder, was calculated. The calculation was as follows:
AI=[C12:0+(C14:0×4)+C16:0]/(Total unsatu-
rated fatty acids).
The relative proportions of total saturated fatty acids and
unsaturated w-6 and w-3 fatty acids were calculated.
Micronutrient concentrations in meat were measured ac-
cording to ISO 6869-2002. The methods are based on flame
atomic absorption using a spectrometer AAnalyst 200.
The experimental design was randomised and data were
evaluated by analysis using SPSS 17. One-way ANOVA
was used for comparison of mean values. Statistical signifi-
cance was set at P<0.05. The biochemical composition
(protein, fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, amino acids and trace
elements) of wild game meat was determined as the
amounts in 100 g of meat. Beef and pork samples were in-
cluded for comparison (previously determined in the Re-
search Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine
in Latvia SIGRA, unpublished data).
RESULTS
Proteins are an important part of our diet. All animal species
given in Table 1 are excellent high-quality sources of pro-
tein. Protein concentration in game meat samples varied
from 22.36 till 22.92%. The results of the statistical analysis
showed that the total protein concentration in the ruminants
meat did not differ significantly (F= 1.286; P> 0.05).
All of the animal species in the table has a low fat concen-
tration (1.33–1.90%) in meat samples (m. logissimus
Table 1
BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GAME MEAT
Group n Protein, % Fat, % Cholesterol,
mg 100 g-1
Elk 8 22.72 1.33 64.41
Deer 18 22.36 1.90 70.57
Roe deer 16 22.82 1.59 67.92
Wild boar 12 22.92 2.82 95.07
Beef 15 19.61 1.48 76.31
Pork 15 21.32 2.77 67.85
374 Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Section B, Vol. 67 (2013), No. 4/5.
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lumborum), not only in ruminants, but also in wild boar
meat 2.82%.
Cholesterol found in muscles is free cholesterol and it is not
related to that in animal blood, i.e. “good” or “bad” choles-
terol. It is found in both fat and muscle in the range 64.41 to
95.07 mg 100 g-1 among animal species (Table 1). From a
nutritional point of view, in terms of cholesterol, none of ru-
minant meats is superior (preferred) over others. The excep-
tion is wild boar meat, in which higher cholesterol levels
can be explained by the high level of adrenaline under stress
during the hunting season. The cholesterol levels statisti-
cally differed between animals (F = 2.55, P< 0.05)
The human body requires the essential amino acids lysine,
isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, leucine, methionine,
threonine, and valine. Each of these amino acids have a role
in the human body. The concentrations of essential amino
acids in game meat samples are shown in Figure 1.
Game muscle protein contains all essential necessary amino
acids. Wild deer, roe deer and elk meat samples are similar
in the summed concentrations of essential amino acids, sug-
gesting that the diet of ruminants is sufficient in late autumn
to winter (Fig. 1). Wild boar and pork samples,differed
most in the summed concentrations of essential amino ac-
ids: 24.14 and 12.35 g 100 g-1, indicating the relatively
higher biological protein value of wild boar over pork.
Meat contains most of the essential fatty acids. Higher con-
centrations of saturated fatty acids are found in ruminant
meat: 44% in cow and sheep. Lower concentrations of satu-
rated fat are found in pork. These fat content of beef is
greater than moose and roe deer meat (41%) (Rule et al.,
2002).
Composition of dietary fat is more significant for consum-
ers than is total fat content. Therefore, composition of fatty
acids, sum of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsatu-
rated fatty acids was investigated (Table 2).
Results of investigation showed that lowest content of satu-
rated fatty acids has meat samples of wild boar and elk meat
samples — 34.79 and 35.75, respectively. The highest sum
of saturated fatty acids was found in deer meat samples
(42.13%), which is in agreement with Petkov (1986). Satu-
rated fatty acids other than myristic, palmitic, and stearic
acids are found in extremely small amounts in meats.
Conversely, myristic and palmitic acids may have a nega-
tive effect on cardiovascular health (Medeiros et al., 2002).
Thus, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids are the only satu-
rated fatty acids presented in Table 2. Regarding the con-
centrations of myristic acid (C 14 : 0) and palmitic (C 16 :
0), lower concentrations of myristic acid (1.32%) were
found in roe deer meat compared to 4.57% and 3.62% in
deer and beef meat, respectively. Palmitic acid concentra-
tion was the lowest in elk (18.08%), followed by deer meat
(18.72%). Palmitic acid concentration was similar in deer
and beef meat: 21.2% and 21 : 43%, respectively. Results of
statystical analysis confirmed that summed SFA did not dif-
fer significantly (P> 0.05) among animals. The results
showed that the PUFA:SFA ratio in game meat samples
varied from 0.50 to 0.68, and the ratio of ù-6:ù-3 fatty acids
varied from 1.72 to 2.75.
The iron concentration in meat depends on the amount of
fat and blood. Fe compounds in meat are utilised well by
the human body. Meat samples of wild animal species con-
tained iron from 1.300 to 5.04 mg kg-1. Manganese oc-
curred at up to two times in game animal meat (0.006 to
0.27 mg kg-1)than in beef and pork samples (0.09 mg kg-1)
(Fig. 3). The highest concentrations of zinc were observed
in wild boar samples (2.560 to 4.200 mg kg-1 ) (Fig. 2).
Copper concentrations were higher in beef (0.39 mg kg-1)
and pork (0.410 mg kg-1) (Figs. 2, 3). All meats sampled
were found to be excellent sources of trace elements.
DISCUSSION
The results of our investigation are similar with those of
other studies: protein concentration in raw deer meat sam-
ples was reported as 21.7%, in boar meat samples 21.9%
(Paleari et al., 2003). Meat has most of the essential fatty
Fig. 1. Comparison of sums of essential amino acids in meat samples.
Table 2
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MEAT
Fatty acid class Elk Deer Roe
deer
Wild
Boar
Beef Pork
Sum saturated (SFA) 35.75 42.13 37.54 34.79 40.11 37.46
Stearic (C 12: 0) 0.19 0.30 0.01 0.11 0.24 0.15
Myristic (C 14: 0) 2.44 4.57 1.32 2.92 3.62 1.48
Palmitic, (C 1: 0) 18.08 21.02 18.72 23.12 21.43 26.65
Sum mono-unsaturated
(MUFA)
34.09 26.57 28.96 35.63 34.60 50.87
Sum polyunsaturated
(PUFA)
18.97 23.47 25.38 17.25 15.36 5.95
Sum Omega-3* 6.81 6.20 8.23 2.89 2.65 0.44
Sum Omega-6** 11.73 17.05 17.04 13.89 12.71 5.51
Sum unsaturated 53.06 50.04 54.34 52.88 49.96 56.82
w-6 : w-3 1.72 2.75 2.07 4.81 4.8 12.52
P : S ratio 0.53 0.68 0.68 0.50 0.38 0.16
Atherogenicity index AI 0.53 0.79 0.44 0.66 0.82 0.58
*Linoleic and arachidonic acids
** Linolenic acid
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acids. Greater concentration of saturated fatty acids (44%)
is found in ruminant meat — cow, sheep. Less saturated fat
is found in pork. The fat concentration in beef is greater
than in moose and roe deer meat (41%) (Rule et al., 2002).
Wild game meat fats are more favourable to the human
body, as the saturated fatty acid concentration is less, and
polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration is higher (Cordan
et al., 2002).
There are four interrelated factors that have important
health ramifications: (1) the total fat content; (2) distribu-
tion of specific fatty acids; (3) the ratio of PUFA:SFA; and
(4) the ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids. Each of these dietary
lipid elements has been shown to influence the development
of coronary heart disease (Cordan et al., 2002).
All types of meat are excellent sources of monounsaturated
fatty acids, which can reduce cholesterol levels in human
blood. The most important monounsaturated fatty acids in
meat are oleic acid and palmitoleic acid. A diet rich in poly-
unsaturated FA (PUFA), especially long chained w-3 FA
(³C20), has beneficial effects on human health, e.g. in pre-
vention of arteriosclerosis. Game meat is a potential food
source that is both lean and rich in w-3 PUFA (Sampels,
2005). Currently high intakes of fat containing high
amounts of SFA and MUFA in modern Western diets are
associated with adverse effects on human health, such as
cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes (Mann, 2000).
It is not only the amount of PUFA in the food that is impor-
tant, but also the ratio between n-6 and n-3 PUFA, for
which values of 1 to 4 have been recommended (Simo-
poulos, 2002; Anonymous, 2003). In our study, in samples
of game ruminants meat this ratio varied from 1.72 in elk
meat till 2.75 in deer meat, but was higher in wild boar meat
Medeiros et al. (2002) reported a ratio w-6:w-3 in deer meat
of 3.45. In bovine animals (hogs and pigs), the ratio is
above 4. Thus, it can be concluded that wild animal (except
wild boar) is favourable from the point of view of healthy
nutrition, and that it is less associated with a variety of
health problems. Improving the dietary ratio by decreasing
the w-6 fatty acid concentration and increasing the w-3 fatty
acid concentration is essential for brain function and for the
management of cardiovascular disease, arthritis and cancer
(Simopoulos, 2002).
WHO and Wood reported that the recommended ratio
PUFA : SFA must be higher than 0.4 and that in domestic
animals it is too low 0.1 (Wood et al., 2003). High relative
proprtions of PUFA are characteristic of all wild ruminant
muscle tissue, whereas the relative proportion of PUFA in
muscle tissue of wild boar is lower than in wild ruminants.
In the present investigation, the PUFA:SFA ratio was
higher than 0.4 in all game meat samples (range from 0.50
till 0.68). Medeiros et al. (2002) reported that the PUFA:
SFA ration of beef samples was 0.38.
To calculate the atherogenicity index (IA), Ulbricht and
Southgate (1991) used the fatty acid profile. This index has
a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disor-
ders. Increases in dietary levels of saturated fat, particularly
12 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 0 (palmitic acid) have been identified
as the major dietary factor responsible for raising total and
LDL serum cholesterol concentrations (Howell et al.,
1997). Therefore, these fatty acids are included in the for-
mula.
Consumers are interested in the environment and the prod-
ucts which are produced with sustainable farming methods.
Hunting of wild moose, deer, roe deer and wild boar can
provide food that perfectly complements and diversifies the
daily assortment of meat, which is in line with current
health and dietary recommendations, low-fat and high con-
tent of essential amino acids. All meat samples are excellent
sources of trace elements
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The present research is partly funded by the State Research
Programme “Sustainable Use of Local Resources (Earth En-
trails, Forests, Food and Transport) — New Products and
Technologies (NatRes)”, Project No. 3 “Sustainable use of
local agricultural resources for development of increased nu-
trition value food products (FOOD)”, Subproject 3.3 “Pro-
duction of high quality deer farming products under sustain-
able farming conditions”, and the publication was supported
by project “Raising Awareness and Fostering International
Cooperation of the Research Institute of Biotechnology and
Fig. 2. Iron, magnesium, and zinc micronutrients composition of meat.
Fig. 3. Copper and manganese micronutrients composition of meat.
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Veterinary Medicine “Sigra””, agreement
No. 2010/0197/2DP/2.1.1.2.0/10/APIA/VIAA/016.
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SAVVAÏAS DZÎVNIEKU GAÏAS UZTURVÇRTÎBA
Rakstâ analizçts viens no vçrtîgâkajiem pârtikas produktiem — gaïa, tâs uzturvçrtîbu nosaka neaizstâjamâs aminoskâbes, taukskâbes,
vitamîni, minerâlvielas. Darba mçríis bija salîdzinât uzturvçrtîbu nomedîtu savvaïas dzîvnieku — aïòu, savvaïas brieþu, audzçtavâs audzçtu
brieþu, stirnu, meþacûku un mâjdzîvnieku — ar liellopu un cûku gaïas paraugiem (pçtîjumâ tika izmantoti gaïas paraugi no muguras garâ
muskuïa (m. logissimus lumborum)). Veikto pçtîjumu rezultâti liecina, ka savvaïas dzîvnieku gaïas paraugi, salîdzinâjumâ ar mâjdzîvnieku
gaïu, ir ar augstâku olbaltumvielu un bûtiski vçrtîgâku taukskâbju sastâvu. Savvaïâ nomedîtu aïòu, brieþu, stirnu un meþacûku gaïa var
lieliski papildinât un daþâdot ikdienas gaïas sortimentu, saskaòâ ar paðreizçjiem veselîga uztura ieteikumiem — zemu tauku un augstu
neaizvietojamo aminoskâbju saturu. Visi medîjuma gaïas veidi ir lielisks mikroelementu avots.
Received 16 September 2012
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... Differences in the concentrations of individual UFAs in the IMF of does and hinds were reflected in differences between the average total content of MUFAs, PUFAs and UFAs, which was considerably higher in roe deer. In comparison to the results of our own studies, Daszkiewicz and Mesinger [17] showed an increase of 6.85 percentage points and 10.98 percentage points, while Strazdina et al. [67] a decrease of 5.14 and 5.22 percentage points in SFA in the meat of roe deer and red deer, respectively. A lower share of saturated fatty acids in the meat of female compared to male roe deer corroborated the results of Daszkiewicz et al. [44]. ...
... A content of PUFA in the meat of red deer and roe deer similar to our own results was observed by Strazdina et al. [67] and Triumf et al. [68]. In turn, Valencak and Gamsjäger [69] and Valencak et al. [19] report that PUFA account for as much as 65.4-66.3% in roe deer meat and 60.8-63.8% in red deer meat. ...
... Strazdina et al. [67], comparing the fatty acids composition of roe deer and red deer meat with that of other species of wild game and farm animals showed a higher content of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In turn, Valencak et al. [19] found a higher share of PUFAn-3 in red deer and roe deer meat than in wild boar, hare and pheasant meat. ...
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The present studies aimed to analyse and assess the health-promoting properties of the musculus semimembranosus (MS) of roe and red deer harvested in the wild. The experimental materials comprising the carcasses of roe deer (15 does and 15 bucks) and red deer (15 hinds and 15 stags) were selected for analysis based on the following criteria: age of animals at harvest—3–4 years; time that passed from the harvest of animals to carcass cutting—48–54 h. After chilling the carcasses for 24 h at +2 °C, the haunches were cut from the carcasses and transported to the laboratory in isothermal ice-packed containers. Samples of the musculus semimembranosus were analysed to determine the chemical composition (proximate components, energy value, Fe, Pb, Cd, fatty acids). More (p ≤ 0.05) dry matter and total protein and less (p ≤ 0.05) crude fat was found in the musculus semimembranosus of roe deer in comparison to red deer. No significant influence of the animal’s sex was observed in the content of the evaluated nutrients, apart from crude fat content, which was increased in the haunch of females from both species. The energy content in the muscle of roe deer was 10% higher than the energy value of MS in red deer (p ≤ 0.05). The content of iron was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher (6.64 mg/kg) in the meat of red deer compared to the meat of roe deer (31.68 mg/kg). Roe deer haunch contained more lead but less cadmium than red deer haunch. Irrespective of sex, the lipid fraction of red deer muscle contained more saturated fatty acids (SFA). Intramuscular fat (IMF) in roe deer meat contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) index values were significantly lower in roe deer haunch, and the hypocholesterolaemic-to-hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids ratio (HH) was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in red deer meat. To sum up, the evaluated roe deer and red deer haunch featured high dietary value as it contained a high protein and low fat content and had an advantageous fatty acids composition. As regards the content of cadmium and lead, roe deer and red deer haunch can be considered safe for consumers.
... For positive net protein balance to occur, EAA's must be provided through dietary intake and available in sufficient amounts [10]. Free-range wild game is naturally high in EAA's [11]. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is used to assess protein quality and monitor protein adequacy of foods sold to consumers [12]. ...
... According to origins inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences, reindeer and caribou represent a species of deer that vary in size and distribution throughout northern Europe, Siberia, and North America [18]. While precise descriptions of nutrient composition data on free-range reindeer are scarce to non-existent, forage composition in free-range reindeer and caribou in Alaska are very similar; positively influencing the total amount of essential amino acids/total weight [11,19]. Therefore, we used the Nutritiondata.self.com ...
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Wild game consumption has been associated with health benefits but the acute influence on human protein metabolism remains unknown. We compared feeding-induced responses of equivalent amounts of free-range reindeer (FR) and commercial beef (CB) on protein kinetics using stable isotope methodology. Seven participants (age: 40 ± 14 years; body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg/m²) completed two randomised studies, ingesting 2 oz of FR or CB. L-[ring ²H5]phenylalanine & L-[ring ²H2]tyrosine were delivered via primed, continuous intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected during the basal period and following consumption of FR or CB. Feeding-induced changes in whole-body protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and net protein balance (NB) were determined via plasma sample isotope enrichment analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry. Plasma post-prandial EAA concentrations were higher with FR compared to CB (P < 0.05). The acute feeding-induced PS response was not different, but PB was reduced and contributed to a superior level of NB (P < 0.00001) in FR compared to CB. Our results demonstrate that FR may influence more favourable protein metabolism than CB. These data support potential health benefits of wild game onf whole-body protein. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; DIAAS: digestible indispensable amino acid score; CB: commercial beef; EAA: essential amino acids; FR: free-range reindeer; Ra: rate of appearance; UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks; USDA: USA Department of Agriculture
... Game meat differs from the meat of domestic animals in terms of physical and chemical characteristics and nutritional value [1,2]. As game meat is lean, high in protein (20%), low in fat (1-5%), and has a favorable fatty acid profile, it is a good source of valuable nutrients and can have human health promotion benefits [2,3]. ...
... Game meat differs from the meat of domestic animals in terms of physical and chemical characteristics and nutritional value [1,2]. As game meat is lean, high in protein (20%), low in fat (1-5%), and has a favorable fatty acid profile, it is a good source of valuable nutrients and can have human health promotion benefits [2,3]. ...
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Although game meat quality has been under the spotlight in numerous studies, the quality of brown bear (Ursus arctos) meat is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sex and age on the proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and lipid indices of brown bear meat. Nine (n = 9) females and nine (n = 9) males were hunted during the Croatian spring hunting period in 2018. Based on age, bears were divided into two groups: <3 years (n = 9; five females and four males) and 4–6 years (n = 9; four females and five males). For analysis purposes, samples of M.semimembranosus were collected. Age was shown to have an effect on the traits analyzed, while sex-related differences were not found. Brown bear meat has a high fat content (average 6.12%), especially in older bears (~9%). The contents of protein, dry matter, and ash were similar to those of other game species. Monounsaturated fatty acids made up approximately 50% of all fatty acids, with the most abundant being C18:1n-9. More favorable profiles of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in younger bears. The ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids was closer to the recommended ratio than the ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lipid indices were favorable. Further research is needed to determine seasonal changes in brown bear meat quality.
... The European retail market has recorded a significant increase in people opting for meat-free days (FIBL, 2021). Despite declining demand for farmed meat, there is a growing consumption of wild game meat in European countries as in the UK (Magee, 2020), largely for ethical reasons and its nutritional value (Strazdina et al., 2013). Niewiadomska et al. (2020) concluded that the most important motive to change to game meat related to health care issues, and that consumers for whom the crucial attributes of quality were taste, nutritional value, and low-fat content, might more often include game in their future diet. ...
... Females assimilate protein differently and tend to accumulate more fat than males, and have a higher percentage of fat at any chronological age [20]. Despite the fact that numerous studies on the fatty acid composition of wild boar meat have been conducted in various parts of the world [21][22][23][24], no studies on wild boar meat hunted in Romania and used as a raw material for industrial processors have been done. ...
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The present study evaluates the influence of gender and age-class on the carcass traits, meat chemical composition, and fatty acid profiles of randomly hunt-harvested wild boars from Romania’s Frasin District hunting area, which is an important part of the stock density management strategy. Only 76 wild boars were chosen to participate in the experimental design from a total of 94 wild boars hunted over seven winter seasons, based on two main criteria: right carcass part intact and animal health status (suitable for human consumption) as determined by the veterinary health notice issued by the Food Safety Authority, with all wild boars being evaluated before slaughtering. After sanitary inspection and within the first 24 h postmortem, meat samples were taken in duplicate from the right side of wild boar carcasses (m. Biceps femoris). The aim of this study was to compare the carcass characteristics, chemical composition, and fatty acid profile of wild boar Biceps femoris muscle obtained from the right side of carcasses, as well as the effects of gender, age-class, and their interaction on these traits, in a context where venison is frequently regarded as organic food by consumers due to the natural habitat in which wild animals live. The age of the animals had an effect on the postmortem undressed warm and cold carcass weights (p ≤ 0.05). Considering the proximal chemical composition, only the intramuscular fat (IMF) content was higher in adult meat samples compared to young animals. C18:1 n-9 was the most abundant fatty acid in wild boar meat, followed by C16:0, C18:2 n-6, and C18:0. For IMF content, gender, age class, and their interaction influenced mainly MUFA fatty acids, in particular C16:1 n-9, C20:1 n-9 and C22:1 n-9, and also PUFA fatty acids C18:3 n-6, C20:3 n-3, C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:4 n-6, and C22:5 n-6. The appropriate amounts of individual fatty acids in the muscles of the wild boars translate into a ratio of P/S acids that promotes health as a bio-alternative resource of meat.
... [59][60][61][62]), not all red meats have the same nutritional profile. Wild meat and game that could be acquired through hunting may provide higher levels of essential fatty acids and protein [63,64], which could provide dietary quality benefits. ...
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Background Home food procurement (HFP) (i.e. gardening, fishing, foraging, hunting, backyard livestock and canning) have historically been important ways that people obtain food. Recently, some HFP activities have grown (e.g. gardening), while other activities (e.g. hunting) have become less common in the United States. Anecdotally, COVID-19 has sparked an increase in HFP evidenced by increased hunting licenses and shortages in seeds and canning supplies. HFP may have positive benefits for food security and diet quality, though research beyond gardening is especially limited in high-income countries. Methods We examine HFP activities since the COVID-19 pandemic began, and their relationship to food security and dietary quality using multivariable logit models and matching analysis with a statewide representative survey ( n = 600) of residents of Vermont, United States. Results We find 29% of respondent households classified as food insecure since COVID-19, and higher prevalence of food insecurity among those experiencing a negative job change since COVID-19, households earning less than $50,000 annually, Hispanic and multi-race respondents. Nearly 35% of respondents engaged in HFP activities since the COVID-19 pandemic began; the majority of those gardened, and more than half pursued HFP activities more intensely than before the pandemic or for the first time. Food insecure households were more likely to pursue HFP more intensely, including more gardening, fishing, foraging, and hunting. Respondents who were food insecure, Black, Indigenous, People of Color, those with a negative job disruption, and larger households all had greater odds of increased intensity of HFP during the COVID-19 pandemic. HFP was significantly associated with eating greater amounts of fruits and vegetables; however, this effect was only significant for food secure households. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that HFP activities have increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be an important safety net for food insecure households. However, HFP for food insecure households does not translate into the same higher fruit and vegetable intake as found among food secure HFP households, suggesting this population may be trying to maintain intake, or that they may have potential important resource or technical assistance needs. Long-term, HFP activities may have important food security and diet quality impacts, as well as conservation implications, which should be more thoroughly explored. Regardless, the increased interest and intensity of HFP demonstrates opportunities for educational and outreach efforts.
... [58][59][60][61]), not all red meats have the same nutritional profile. Wild meat and game that could be acquired through hunting may provide important micronutrients and protein [62,63], providing important dietary quality benefits. ...
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Background: Home food procurement (HFP) (i.e. gardening, fishing, foraging, hunting, backyard livestock and canning) have historically been important ways that people obtain food. Recently, some HFP activities have grown (e.g. gardening), while other activities (e.g. hunting) have become less common in the United States. Anecdotally, COVID-19 has sparked an increase in HFP evidenced by increased hunting licenses and shortages in seeds and canning supplies. HFP may have positive benefits for food security and diet quality, though research beyond gardening is especially limited in high-income countries. Methods: We examine HFP activities before and since the COVID-19 pandemic, and their relationship to food security and dietary quality using multivariable logit models and matching analysis with a statewide representative survey (n=600) of residents of Vermont, United States. Results: We find 29% of respondent households classified as food insecure since COVID-19, and more prevalence among those experiencing a negative job change since COVID-19, households earning less than $50,000 annually, Hispanic and multi-race respondents. Forty-two percent of respondents engaged in HFP activities; the majority of those gardened, and more than half pursued HFP activities more intensely than before the pandemic. HFP was more common among food insecure households, who were more likely to fish, forage, hunt and have backyard livestock. Respondents who were food insecure, Black, Indigenous, People of Color and/or Hispanic, those with a negative job disruption, and larger households all had greater odds of increased intensity of HFP since COVID-19. HFP were significantly associated with eating greater amounts of fruits and vegetables, especially if gardening and canning, while respondents hunting or having backyard livestock were significantly more likely to have higher red meat intake. Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that HFP activities have increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be an important safety net for food insecure households, and provide diet quality impacts. Long-term, HFP activities may have important food security and diet quality impacts, as well as conservation implications, which should be more thoroughly explored. Regardless, the increased interest and intensity of HFP demonstrates multiple opportunities for educational and outreach efforts.
... for cattle, 2.7-12% for sheep, and 1-9% for chickens [42,46]. In game, the values are 2.82%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 1.3% for wild boar, roe deer, red deer, and moose, respectively [47]. Moreover, the energy value of livestock meat is higher than that of crayfish meat. ...
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The aim of the study was to present a comprehensive characterisation of crayfish meat, which is crucial to assess its potential usefulness in the food industry. To this end, we assessed the yield, basic chemical composition (protein, fat, minerals), nutritional value (amino acid and fatty acid profiles, essential amino acid index (EAAI), chemical score of essential amino acids (CS), hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio (h/H), atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices), as well as culinary value (lab colour, texture, sensory characteristics, structure) of the meat of spiny-cheek crayfish (Faxonius limosus) (n = 226) from Lake Sominko (Poland) harvested in May–September 2017. Crayfish meat, especially that from the abdomen, was shown to have high nutritional parameters. It is lean (0.26% of fat), with a favourable fatty acid profile and a very high quality of fat (PUFA (sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids):SFA (sum of saturated fatty acids), n-6/n-3, h/H, AI, TI) and protein (high CS and EAAI). It is also a better source of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Cu than meat from slaughter animals. Hence, crayfish meat can be an alternative to livestock meat in the human diet. Owing to its culinary value (delicateness, weak game flavour, and odour), it meets the requirements of the most demanding consumers, i.e., children and older people.
Article
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the influence of the storage method on the physicochemical characteristics and microbial growth of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), m. biceps femoris (BF) and m. vastus lateralis (VL) of wild boar. Muscles were stored in a vacuum (VAC), in a modified high-oxygen atmosphere (MAP) or meat seasoning cabinet (DRY-AGED) for 21 days. RESULTS: Wild boar meat was characterised by a high protein and low fat content and a good amount of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) pH values were noted for DRY-AGED muscles stored for 21 days (up to 5.89 for VL). On day 21, a significant decrease in pH was noted for all MAP muscles (down to 5.23 for BF). Storage losses due to desiccation and water loss were significantly higher for DRY-AGED samples and ranged from 25.63% to 32.89% on day 21. MAP affected protein and lipid oxidation, which was also reflected in Warner–Bratzler shear force VAC and DRY-AGED had positive results regarding tenderness, whereas on day 21 the MAP-stored meat had toughened significantly (from 35.3 N to 50.7 N in LTL). Lipids were oxidised much faster than proteins during prolonged storage in MAP. Compared to the other methods, DRY-AGED had the best effect on microbial growth. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the recommended methods for the storage of wild boar meat are either vacuum packing or dry ageing. The high oxygen content of MAP negatively affected the quality of wild boar meat and carried a risk of increased protein carbonylation.
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The aim of this study is to examine the effect of sex and age on proximate chemical, fatty acid, amino acid and mineral content of axis deer (Axis axis Erx.) meat. Sixteen (n = 16) animals were hunt-harvested and assigned to groups according sex and age (sub-adult and adult). All analyses were made on m. longissimus thoracis sampled between the 9th and 13th ribs. Minor differences in nutritional composition of axis deer meat were found between analysed sex and age groups. Axis deer meat has a high protein (22.8%) and low fat (1.39%) content. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 44.97% and polyunsaturated for 29.66% of the total fatty acids. Ratios of fatty acids were within the recommended values. Glutamic and aspartic acid were the most abundant non-essential, and lysine and leucine the most common essential amino acids. The ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was <1. Potassium and phosphorous were the dominant macro-minerals, while iron and zinc were the dominant micro-minerals. The results of this study show that regardless of sex or age, axis deer meat can be considered a good source of basic macro- and micro-nutrients, and can be recommended as a substitute for red meat from domestic animals.
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SUMMARY - The balance between polyunsaturated (P) and saturated (S) fatty acids in sheepmeat is unfavourable according to nutritionists. However, sheepmeat has significant concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids whose health benefits are now recognised. Furthermore these can be increased by feeding dietary ingredients which contain high levels naturally, such as grass and linseed (high in 18:3 n-3, the precursor of the n-3 series) or fish oil (high in the long chain n-3 fatty acids). The P:S ratio can be rectified by feeding dietary lipid sources that are "protected" from rumen biohydrogenation. Fatty acids have important roles in meat quality, for example in regulating fat firmness, shelf life and flavour. Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids occurs naturally to benefit meat quality although excessive production of lipid oxidation products may impact adversely. Tissue antioxidant status is a major factor regulating oxidation, with vitamin E playing a central role. Grass feeding boosts vitamin E levels to the benefit of meat quality and possibly also the wellbeing of the animal.
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This study examines the effect of three types of modified atmospheres, each with a different gas composition (A:40% CO(2)+60% N(2); B:80% CO(2)+20% O(2); C:80% CO(2)+20% N(2)), on the development of meat quality of Cervus elaphus in order to suggest a gas composition that best preserves this type of meat. Meat quality was assessed by examining pH, colour as L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values, drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF). In samples of group A, pH values tended to be higher in all storage periods than those packed with 80% CO(2) and significant differences (P<0.001) among the groups were found at 16 d of storage. Gas composition affected a(∗) and b(∗) parameters (P<0.001), in samples packed with O(2), the b(∗) values were higher than in other groups, while the opposite was true in a(∗) values. Similar values of DL and CL were observed for all treatments and both parameters increased over time. SF values decreased with ageing, with similar values observed for all treatments.
Article
The optimisation and validation of a gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed by a derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane was carried out trying to overcome all the difficulties posed by the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids (FAs) in animal fat tissues. The presented method allowed sensitive, selective and simultaneous determination of a wide range of different FAs, including short-chain FAs, branched-chain FAs and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in the same GLC run along with other well known saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. To demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure, the total FA profile of beef meat was characterised.
Article
In order to contribute to typifying delicatessen made with game meat, the proteolysis, physicochemical characteristic and free fatty acid composition were determined in 10 commercial dry sausages, chorizos and saucissons, made with deer or wild boar meat. The aw and pH values were similar for all the samples; however, the results for dry matter, protein nitrogen, fat, ash, sodium chloride, phosphorus, and sodium nitrite content showed great variation among the samples tested. The myofibrillar protein content was higher than the sarcoplasmic protein content in all samples analysed. The electrophoretic profiles of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were different among samples. Principal components analysis, run on the relative density of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, separated the chorizo and saucisson samples. Chorizo samples were a homogeneous group in the analysis of myofibrillar proteins, which indicated similar proteolysis effects for all samples. The majority acids were oleic, palmitic, linoleic and stearic in all samples. Chorizos differed from saucissons in the greater quantity (P < 0.05) of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Article
Interest in meat fatty acid composition stems mainly from the need to find ways to produce healthier meat, i.e. with a higher ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids and a more favourable balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. In pigs, the drive has been to increase n-3 PUFA in meat and this can be achieved by feeding sources such as linseed in the diet. Only when concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3) approach 3% of neutral lipids or phospholipids are there any adverse effects on meat quality, defined in terms of shelf life (lipid and myoglobin oxidation) and flavour. Ruminant meats are a relatively good source of n-3 PUFA due to the presence of 18:3 in grass. Further increases can be achieved with animals fed grain-based diets by including whole linseed or linseed oil, especially if this is "protected" from rumen biohydrogenation. Long-chain (C20-C22) n-3 PUFA are synthesised from 18:3 in the animal although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is not increased when diets are supplemented with 18:3. DHA can be increased by feeding sources such as fish oil although too-high levels cause adverse flavour and colour changes. Grass-fed beef and lamb have naturally high levels of 18:3 and long chain n-3 PUFA. These impact on flavour to produce a 'grass fed' taste in which other components of grass are also involved. Grazing also provides antioxidants including vitamin E which maintain PUFA levels in meat and prevent quality deterioration during processing and display. In pork, beef and lamb the melting point of lipid and the firmness/hardness of carcass fat is closely related to the concentration of stearic acid (18:0).
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An assessment was made of the proximate composition, pH and a(W) of raw beef, horsemeat and the meat of wild boar, deer and goat. The same assessment, together with one of fatty acids, cholesterol and free amino acids, was made of the same meats as cured products. The raw meat of the different animal species was found to have a reduced lipid, but high protein content. The cured meat of the horse and wild boar had low saturated fatty acid levels; the wild boar, goatmeat and beef were quantitatively similar with regard to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) while in the horsemeat the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were more raised, at an intermediate level in deer and extremely reduced in the beef final product. The cholesterol content in the cured product was markedly reduced in the horsemeat. The free amino acids content in the cured deer, wild boar and goat meat was more elevated, than in beef and horse cured meat.
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The dietary factors believed to be linked with the incidence of coronary heart disease are reviewed in the light of evidence with regard to their functional role, either in protection or in promotion. Detailed analysis of the evidence shows that the relations are more complex than the current lipid hypothesis suggests. It is proposed that, in particular, the polyunsaturated/saturated ratio as a measure of the propensity of the diet to influence the incidence of coronary heart disease should be replaced by indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity.
Article
Investigations were carried out on musculus longissimus dorsi as sampled from 8 deer, weighing 90 to 120 kg, and from 10 fallow deer, weighing 25 to 35 kg, hunted in the autumn-winter season of 1983-1984. Fatty acid determination was performed via gas chromatograph Pye Unicam, model 104, supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of m. longissimus dorsi from deer in percent to the total amount of fatty acids was 1.82% for myristic acid, 0.21% for tetradecenic acid, 30.17% for palmitic acid, 1.88% for palmitoleic acid, 19.42% for stearic acid, 43.18% for oleic acid, 3.32% for linoleic acid, while the ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids had a numerical value of 1.06. With fallow deer the average amount of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of m. longissimus dorsi in percent to the total amount of fatty acids these figures were 3.46, 0.59, 30.48, 2.44, 20.15, 40.41, 2.47%, and 1.18, respectively. With both species of animals traces were also found of linolenic and arachidonic acids.