ArticlePDF Available

Towards vegetation mapping based on the Fossil Plant Record

Authors:

Abstract

Based on the fossil plant record a method has been established to visualise essential vegetational features. The data are transferred to colour-interpolated maps using the inverse distance-weighting algorithm in the GIs-package Maplnfo. A taxonomic/ physiognomic and a sociological grouping for fossil floras were tested against each other and turned out to be consistent. The patterns resulting from both groupings reflect the north-south climatic gradient (higher percentages of broad-leafed deciduous taxa towards the north and of broad-leafed evergreen and sclerophyllous ones towards the south). The eastern Black Sea and to a minor degree the Pannonian region are characterised by higher values of broad-leafed evergreen taxa, and both exhibit a scarcity of sclerophyllous taxa. These results are consistent with the palaeobotanical literature.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Later the Integrated Plant Record (IPR) vegetation analysis (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2003, Teodoridis et al. 2011a) was applied to assess the major zonal vegetation type for Parschlug. This approach indicated subhumid sclerophyllous forests as the most likely zonal vegetation type (Kovar-Eder et al. 2008, Kovar-Eder andTeodoridis 2018). ...
... Principally the IPR vegetation analysis is a semiquantitative approach based on leaf physiognomy and autecology of taxa to assess major zonal vegetation types for Paleogene and Neogene plant assemblages. Zonal vegetation types are defined by their proportions of major (key) zonal components (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2003, Kovar-Eder et al. 2008, Teodoridis et al. 2011a). All taxa and morphotypes from a fossil assemblage are assigned to components. ...
Article
The late Early/early Middle Miocene flora from Parschlug (Styria, Austria) is famous for its numerous specimens and high diversity. Some taxa previously described are revised here and 42 new angiosperm leaf morphotypes/taxa are described. The Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) is applied to assess the palaeoclimate. An update of the tool to assess the most suitable modern climate CLAMP calibration dataset is introduced. The Integrated Plant Record (IPR) vegetation analysis, assessing the most likely major vegetation type represented by a fossil flora, and similarity approaches Drudges 1 and 2, indicating the most similar modern vegetation proxies, had been previously applied to data from Parschlug. Both are again applied here on the enlarged floristic spectrum. The results indicate “sclerophyllous subhumid forest” as the most likely major zonal vegetation type for Parschlug and European vegetation, namely “Thermophilous mixed deciduous broadleaved forests”, distributed today in southern and southeastern Europe, as the most similar modern vegetation. The climate for Parschlug, inferred from CLAMP and the climate in the region of the modern vegetation proxies, indicates distinct seasonality in precipitation and temperature.
... The IPR vegetation analysis is a semi-quantitative method developed by Kovar-Eder and Kvaček (2003) to assess zonal vegetation based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit and pollen assemblages). This analysis attempts to incorporate taxonomy, physiognomy and autecological properties of the Cenozoic plants as an objective assessment of the fossil vegetation (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2007;Kovar-Eder et al. 2008). ...
... This analysis attempts to incorporate taxonomy, physiognomy and autecological properties of the Cenozoic plants as an objective assessment of the fossil vegetation (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2007;Kovar-Eder et al. 2008). Zonal and azonal plant elements are assigned to 13 basic taxonomic-physiognomic groups, termed components, defined to reflect key ecological characteristics of an assemblage (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2003Kvaček , 2007Jechorek and Kovar-Eder 2004;Kovar-Eder et al. 2008). (Mazzini et al. 2013;Yavuz et al. 2017) (Fig. 2 and Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstruction of past vegetation and climates in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, one of the largest basins of Central Anatolia, is important for understanding the regional palaeovegetation. In this study, the palaeovegetational and palaeoclimatic proxies of the basin within the late middle Miocene and early Pleistocene interval are presented using the Integrated Plant Record (IPR) vegetation analysis and the coexistence approach (CA). The IPR analysis allows the reconstruction of six types of zonal vegetation: broad-leaved deciduous forests (BLDF), mixed mesophytic forests (MMF), broad-leaved evergreen forests (BLEF), xeric open woodlands and xeric grasslands or steppes, all identified from the microfloras of Çankırı-Çorum Basin. During the late middle Miocene, warm temperate and humid climatic conditions prevailed and the palaeovegetation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin was represented by BLEF and an ecotone between MMF and BLEF. The cooling from the late middle Miocene to early late Miocene had begun as well, as low precipitation periods in the climatic conditions during the same time interval were recorded in the basin. Presumably, the proportion of broad-leaved deciduous elements remained balanced because the palaeotopography did not change significantly during the late Miocene in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin. The recorded cooling could be related to a global climatic change from the middle to late Miocene. During the Tortonian to Messinian transition, the palaeovegetation type was represented by BLDF and suggests a continuous cooling trend in the basin. The palaeovegetation types of the late late Miocene compriseMMF in the northern part of the Çankırı-Çorum Basin and xeric grassland or steppe in the southern part of the basin. Warm and dry climatic conditions were recorded from the Tortonian to the Messinian; these warm conditions during the Messinian could be correlated to the Messinian salinity crisis. According to the IPR analysis results, the northern part of the Çankırı-Çorum Basin palaeotopography seems to be higher in altitude than the southern part. Palaeovegetation types in the latest late Miocene and early Pliocene were characterised by MMF and an ecotone between BLDF and MMF in the northern part of the Çankırı-Çorum Basin and open woodland vegetation in the southern part of the basin. The percentage of the broad-leaved deciduous component from the latest late Miocene and early Pliocene decreases in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, which could be related to beginning uplift starting changes in the palaeotopography. In the early Pliocene, this uplift was continued in the basin.
... The Integrated Plant Record vegetation analysis (IPRve ge tation analysis) is a semi-quantitative method first intro du ced by Kovar-Eder & Kvaček (2003) to assess zonal ve ge tation based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit, and pollen assemblages). In order to employ the IPR, thir teen basic taxonomic-physiognomic groups, termed com ponents, defined to reflect key ecological characteristics of an assemblage (Kovar-Eder & Kvaček 2003, Ko var-Eder et al. 2008, Teodoridis et al. 2011 Table 2. ...
... The Integrated Plant Record vegetation analysis (IPRve ge tation analysis) is a semi-quantitative method first intro du ced by Kovar-Eder & Kvaček (2003) to assess zonal ve ge tation based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit, and pollen assemblages). In order to employ the IPR, thir teen basic taxonomic-physiognomic groups, termed com ponents, defined to reflect key ecological characteristics of an assemblage (Kovar-Eder & Kvaček 2003, Ko var-Eder et al. 2008, Teodoridis et al. 2011 Table 2. ...
... Additionally, IPR Vegetation Analysis and Similarity Approach depends on the physiognomic interpretation of fossil-taxa. Except for the basic IPR Vegetation Analysis, which was introduced in 2003 (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček 2003, Kovar-Eder et al. 2008, Teodoridis et al. 2011, both similarity approaches are newly introduced routines, which will probably need adjustments in the future. Vomela (2016) used palynological investigations to confirm the palaeoecological and palaeophytosociological interpretations of the Wiesa flora, based on macro-fossils identified by Mai (2000b). ...
Article
Full-text available
During the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a global long-term warm interval, European mid-latitude regions experienced a subtropical palaeoclimate. In particular, areas in eastern Germany were part of a vegetational zone with evergreen broadleaved forests, characterized by subtropical taxa. Regional palaeofloristic concepts denominated this palaeovegetation Younger Mastixioideae Flora sensu Mai (1964). Type assemblage is the late Early Miocene flora of Wiesa. Here, we reevaluate its floristic composition with respect to nearest living relatives of fossil-taxa, and introduce the new approach Phytogeographic Reference Region Assessment (PRRA) to ascertain the area of most similar extant vegetation for the Wiesa assemblage. The southern belt of SE Asian subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest and its transition to tropical mountain evergreen broadleaved forest in SW China represent the most similar extant vegetation. The Wiesa assemblage is compared to two diverse plant macroassemblages from the late Oligocene and the Late Miocene, respectively, coming from the same region and palaeoenvironmental setting. It is demonstrated that diversity and abundances of subtropical taxa markedly increased towards the Early Miocene, and specific climate-sensitive taxa occurred. The regional palaeoclimate was subtropical-humid (Köppen-Trewartha type Cf), with a growing season eleven months long. The late Oligocene and Late Miocene climates were mainly distinct in nine-month growing season lengths and cooler winters (1–3 °C).
... The Integrated Plant Record vegetation analysis (IPR) is a semi-quantitative method first introduced by Kovar- Eder and Kvaček (2003) to assess zonal vegetation based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit, and pollen assemblages). In order to employ the IPR, thirteen basic taxonomic-physiognomic groups, termed components, defined to reflect key ecological characteristics of an assemblage Kvaček, 2003, 2007;Kovar-Eder et al., 2008;Teodoridis et al., 2011) For further analysis, all taxa (but not their abundances) of every single assemblage have to be assigned to those components and their relative proportions have to be calculated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Early Eocene climate and vegetation evolution in northern Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) are quantitatively studied for the first time based on paleobotanical records, using the coexistence approach (CA) for paleoclimate, the plant functional type approach (PFT) and the integrated plant record method (IPR). Paleobotanical data of this time-interval were obtained from 18 palynofloras of the coal beds outcropping on the bank of the Bykovskaya Channel in the area of Bulunkan Bay (Lena River Delta). The results indicate the persistence of warm temperate and at times possibly nearly tropical, overall humid climate conditions throughout the early Eocene, and a relatively strong seasonality in precipitation. The vegetation reconstructed is in agreement with the climate conditions determined by the CA. Analyses of the PFT diversity spectra indicate the prevalence of mixed warm temperate evergreen-deciduous forests. Based on the IPR method, plant biomes varied from mixed mesophytic forests during warmer intervals to broadleaved deciduous forest/mixed mesophytic forest ecotone during cooler episodes. The presence of mangroves in our early Eocene records is possibly related to hyperthermal events such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum.
... The integrated plant record vegetation analysis (IPR-vegetation analysis) is a semi-quantitative method developed by Kovar-Eder and Kvaček (2003) to assess zonal vegetation based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit, and pollen assemblages) and attempts to incorporate taxonomy, physiognomy, and autecological properties of the Cenozoic plants as an objective assessment of the fossil vegetation (Kovar-Eder, Jechorek, Kvaček, & Parashiv, 2008;Kovar-Eder & Kvaček, 2007 Fauquette et al., 1999;Jiménez-Moreno, 2005 Jiménez-Moreno, Jiménez-Moreno et al., 2005, 2008, 2010Jiménez-Moreno, Fauquette, et al., 2007;Suc, 1984; Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Ereğli‐Ulukışla Basin which is the focus of this study is situated at the south‐eastern edge of the Central Anatolian Cenozoic basins (Tuzgölü, Haymana, Çankırı‐Çorum, and Sivas), and is divided into two sub‐basins, the Aktoprak (AT) and Hacıbekirli‐Tepeköy (HT). These sub‐basins mainly comprise a stratigraphically discontinuous and laterally variable series, represented by ‘fluvio‐lacustrine’ siliciclastic and carbonate sediments deposited over a wide range of environments, including meandering and braided rivers, coastal fluvial and fan deltas, mixed carbonate‐siliciclastic shores, dry lake flats, and coal‐bearing swamps. In the Ereğli‐Ulukışla Basin, higher palaeotopographic conditions existed in the AT because of the uplift of the Central Anatolian Plateau during late Middle Miocene (Serravallian)‐early Late Miocene (Tortonian) and the subsequent uplift of the Taurus Mountains in the latest Miocene (Messinian) as deduced in the Tepeköy region (northeast) of the HT sub‐basin. Diversity and abundance of archaic pollen (Normapolles) in the pollen biostratigraphy decreased from the Eocene to Oligocene, while forms with advanced angiosperm morphology (post‐Normapolles), were observed with the increase in post‐Normapolles during the Miocene. The dominance of woody angiosperms in the pollen assemblages, and increasing variety and abundance of ‘open herbs’ and shrub pollen from the Early Miocene to Late Miocene defines an important change in flora. Furthermore, the palaeoclimatic conditions changed from humid‐subtropical to warm‐temperate during the sediment deposition in the Ereğli‐Ulukışla Basin. Recurrent arid phases during the Late Miocene are indicated by the deposition of reddish caliche conglomerates in broad dry lake flats (HT), and evaporites in local playa lakes (AT), respectively.
... The IPR vegetation analysis is a semi-quantitative method to assess major zonal vegetation types based on the fossil plant record (leaf, fruit, and pollen assemblages) (Kovar-Eder and Kvaček, 2003Kovar-Eder et al., 2008). This analysis incorporates taxonomy, physiognomy, and autecological properties of Cenozoic plants as an objective assessment of the fossil vegetation. ...
... Angiosperm classification is in accordance with APG IV (Angiosperm phylogeny group 2016). All identified macro-flora from Dvérce (i.e., Dvérce-old pit and Dvérce-Kružín localities) were analysed using the methods of the Integrated Plant Record analysis (Kovar-Eder & Kvaček 2003) tence Approach (Mosbrugger & Utescher 1997) for climate. The specimens of fossil wood, as well as the corresponding thin slides, are housed in the Chlupáč Museum of Earth History, in the faculty of Science of Charles University. ...
Article
Since 1855, 25 different fossil wood types belonging to conifers (Cupressaceae s.l. with two different types of Taxodioxylon gypsaceum: root- and stem-wood), and angiosperms (families Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Platanaceae, Altingiaceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Ulmaceae, ?Moraceae, Juglandaceae, Betulaceae, Malvaceae s.l., Sapotaceae, Oleaceae, one palm stem and two types of angiosperms without closer determination) were described so far from 13 localities in the Doupovské hory and České středohoří Mts. New fossil woods are described from the Dvérce locality in south-eastern part of the Doupovské hory Mts., i.e., one conifer (Cupressaceae s.l.) and four types of angiosperms (Platanaceae, Ulmaceae Juglandaceae and Oleaceae). The co-occurrence of juglandaceous fossil wood remnant with Carya-nuts allows the application of the whole-plant concept and the combination of Carya quadrangula and Eucaryoxylon crystallophorum into one botanical species. Occurrences of the fossil plant remnants are associated with freshwater limestones, interpreted here as travertines. The travertines made lenticular accumulations in the pyroclastic deposits of the Doupovské hory volcanic complex.
Article
Full-text available
The late early – early middle Eocene climate and vegetation evolution in northern Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) is quantitatively studied in detail for the first time, based on a palaeobotanical record. Palaeobotanical data for this time interval were obtained from 16 palynofloras from continental sediments on the southern shore of Tastakh Lake (the left bank of Indigirka River). In this first integrative study, we applied the Coexistence Approach for quantification of palaeoclimate, the Plant Functional Type (PFT) approach and Integrated Plant Record (IPR) vegetation analysis to quantify palaeovegetation. Our investigation documents the persistence of warm temperate and, at times, nearly tropical climate conditions in the earlier part of the record and the subsequent onset of a cooling trend. Overall humid climate conditions prevailed throughout the late early – early middle Eocene. Our reconstruction indicates low temperature seasonality and relatively strong seasonality in precipitation. Vegetation data as reconstructed are in good agreement with the climate evolution. PFT diversity spectra indicate the prevalence of mixed evergreen-deciduous forests of warm temperate character. The IPR method suggests that the mixed mesophytic forest biome persisted throughout the studied sedimentary succession. The presence of mangroves in our late early Eocene records (at the base of the section) is largely in line with our climate reconstruction and possibly can be related to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) hyperthermal event.
Chapter
Full-text available
New results are presented on the stratigraphie and palaeogeographic distribution of Platanus leucophylla, Acer quercifolium, Liquidambar europaea, Acer tricuspidatum, Ginkgo adiantoides and Cercidiphyllum crenatum. The outlined distribution patterns are based on the progressive database evaluation of the fossil Central European leaf assemblages by automatic data processing.
Article
Full-text available
Some of the most essential features of the Tertiary flora of Bulgaria are presented. The floristic, palaeoecological and biostratigraphic aspects in the development of the Palaeogene and Neogene floras have been analysed.
Chapter
Comparing the European and Arctic Palaeogene floras, two major groups of elements can be recognized in the Holarctic. The first includes the ancient Arcto-Tertiary elements of Engler, or the Greenland flora of Kryshtofovich. These partly extinct genera of angiosperms, some conifers and ferns entered Europe in the Palaeocene via the Brito-Arctic Igneous Province but behaved differently in distribution and survival (e.g. Metasequoia, Trochodendroides, Fagopsis, Corylites, Ushia, Palaeocarpinus, Platanus schimperi, Macclintockia). The second group, the modern Arcto-Tertiary elements, or the Turgai flora of Kryshtofovich, invaded Europe in waves since the Oligocene, mostly from the east. Its components evolved independently at high or middle latitudes in East Asia and western North America, prevailingly in the Early Palaeogene (e.g. Pseudolarix, Cercidiphyllum, Alnus, Craigia, Banisteriaecarpum, Acer, Fraxinus). Thus the Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora as visualized by Chaney and others becomes a heterogenous suite of elements that differ in ecological demands as well as evolutionary history.
Article
The Tertiary vegetation of Europe evolved from paratropical to warm-temperate and temperate forms in response to a progressive, non-linear, climatic cooling. Its vegetational forms are composed mainly of two separate ecological units: the evergreen, laurophyll “paleotropical geoflora” and the deciduous, broad-leaved “Arctotertiary geoflora”. The development of the Tertiary climate and its interaction with the vegetation are convincingly indicated by the geoflora’s migration; the changes in its composition; and the development of the Tertiary forest, swamp, and aquatic plant communities. The “paleo-tropical geoflora” is characterized in the upper Cretaceous to the upper Miocene by para-tropical rain forest, subtropical rain and laurel forests, temperate laurel forests and edaphically-mediated formation of laurel-conifer forests. The “Arctotertiary geoflora” advanced into Europe in waves since the Paleocene and formed the basis for the Tertiary mixed mesophytic forests. These can be divided into warm-temperate rain forests, oak-hornbeamchestnut or mixed beech-oak-hornbeam forests, and edaphic formations such as bottomland and swamp forests. Beginning in the lower Cretaceous, the hydrophytic vegetation developed independently of the forest vegetation and formed very diverse herbaceous fresh water, swamp, salt water, and coastal formations. Considerable differences in composition allow to separate floral regions and provinces in Eurosiberia. Instead of three ill-defined floral regions in the Paleocene, there are four well-defined floral regions in the Pliocene. A Mediterranean region cannot be recognized, although Mediterranean (eumesogeic) floral elements appear in the Eocene/Oligocene and thereafter. The Mediterranean sclerophyll forests probably arose after the destruction of the laurophyll forests during the Pleistocene.
Article
Palynological data emphasize the presence of two distinctive provinces during the Late Cretaceous, one including eastern North America and Europe and a second including the major part of Asia and western North America. The distinction between these two provinces became increasingly blurred during the Paleogene. During the Eocene, the ram forests of both Europe and western North America shared numerous genera, both extinct and extant. The great majority of the latter and most of the closest extant relatives of the former now occur in the Indomalayan region. It is thus clear that much of the present Indomalayan flora represents a relict of a once widespread Northern Hemisphere tropical (s.l.) flora, one that has largely (but not entirely) been eliminated from the New World. Among the possible New World survivors of this boreotropical flora are some of the dry Caribbean genera, which could have been derived from lineages of the dry tropical vegetation of the Gulf Coast Eocene; only a handful of present Neotropical lowland rain forest genera appear to be boreotropical relicts.