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The Impact of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction

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Abstract

This current research investigates the impact of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership style on job satisfaction in private and public school. For this purpose a questionnaire was developed and validated. There were twenty three items in all. The items were based on five point scale (from almost always to almost never).The data were collected from two hundred and five (205) teachers of both public and private schools (one hundred and five public school teachers and one hundred private school teachers). For statistical analysis Mean, Standard Deviation, T-Test, ANOVA, Co relation and Regression Analysis were used. It was found that Leadership style has a positive impact on job satisfaction and public teachers have high level of job satisfaction rather than private teachers.

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... Cai et al. [14] indicate that participatory management skills and principles were majorly impacted by the different aspects of organizational behavior. Studies indicate that participatory management is concerned with managers or leaders sharing their abilities, knowledge, power and influence through continuously encouraging their employees to improve their performance [15], [16]. Whereas some scholars disagree with the effectiveness of the participatory style of management in enhancing employee performance, most recent studies indicate that participatory management is a viable management style that can help modern organization to improve their competitive advantage and consequently compete favorably on the global market. ...
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... Leadership is a phenomenon that people voluntarily accept to meet their demands and needs, and is established in a mutually influential manner. As a matter of fact, it is a positive cycle that people under influence create with their leader (Bhatti et al., 2012). ...
... Dans la litté rature, il est admis que les formes de leadership mettant le salarié au centre des pré occupations et des prises de dé cisions (i.e. leadership « dé mocratique » ou « participatif ») sont les plus en lien avec le bien-être psychologique (Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi, & Shaikh, 2012 ;Hetland, Sandal, & Johnsen, 2007). Né anmoins, d'autres approches du leadership, tenant compte cette fois de l'incertitude des salarié s, nuancent cette idé e et proposent un constat diffé rent. ...
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Résumé Cette étude examine dans quelle mesure l’impact du leadership participatif sur les émotions et sur la satisfaction des besoins psychologiques est médiatisé par une réduction de l’incertitude chez les collaborateurs. Parmi les conseillers à Pôle Emploi, 108 ont été interrogés sur leurs perceptions de leadership, leurs incertitudes (i.e. ambiguïté de rôle, besoin de clôture) et sur des indicateurs d’un fonctionnement psychologique satisfaisant au travail (i.e. émotions et satisfaction/frustration des besoins). Les résultats révèlent que seul un leadership participatif est associé positivement à nos indicateurs de fonctionnement psychologique au travail et que cette relation est médiatisée par la capacité de ce type de leadership à réguler l’incertitude habituellement associée aux changements organisationnels. Ces résultats sont discutés au regard des récentes approches du leadership en temps d’incertitude.
... This implies that the workload of educators in the Philippines is overloaded and teachers need more time to finish the task assigned to them. Most of the educators agree that work is continuous as a teacher and does not practice their authority over their work where lack of acknowledgment and appreciation is also an issue as there is an impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on their job satisfaction (Bhatti et al., 2012). ...
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Workplace Stress and depression should be treated properly in order to maintain productive teaching as the noblest profession. Unmanaged stress and depression could lead to a serious outcome that affects the happy environment in the classroom. Thus, managing stress and avoiding depression in the workplace is one of the important situations that a teacher should aim in order to succeed. This study aims to determine the level of workplace stress and depression of the educators in the Philippines by gathering their profile, workplace stress, and the state of depression. A correlation was investigated if there is a significant difference in the profile to the workplace stress and state of depression. Based on the result of the study, teachers sometimes experience stress in the workplace, while some experience depression at some point in time. It is recommended that teachers should understand how to practice stress management and avoiding depression.
... Conforme a Teoria da Liderança desenvolvida por Bass, existem três maneiras básicas para explicar como as pessoas se tornam líderes: por meio dos traços de personalidade, seguindo naturalmente a execução de papéis de liderança; momentos conturbados, como crises podem levar uma pessoa a desenvolver e praticar qualidades de liderança; segundo Kanji (2008), existe liderança por opção, aprendendo habilidades de liderança por vontade própria (BHATTI ET AL., 2012). Bhatti et al. (2012) apresentam três EL: democrático, em que o líder convida outros membros da equipe para contribuir no processo de tomada de decisão (FAMAKIN; ABISUGA, 2016); autocrático, oposto do democrático, as decisões são tomadas exclusivamente pelo gestor (FAMAKIN; ABISUGA, 2016); e Laissez-Faire segue ideologias do modelo de avaliação de lideranças proposto por Bass e Avolio. Haja vista a liderança avaliada por meio de produtividade, o estilo autocrático é mais eficiente, mas, se a avaliação do estilo de liderança for feita pela moral e nível constante de trabalho, o estilo democrático é mais eficaz. ...
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... Because providing procedures to ensure and generate appropriate behaviours and more positive emotions and reactions could bring, according to the theory of organizational justice and affective events, numerous benefits for organisations. In addition, in line with Sirota and Klein (2013), who maintain that interactions are an important factor that can condition work experiences, the emotional wellbeing of employees is here also closely linked to the behaviour of leaders: in recent years, attention has been focused on transformational, democratic, charismatic, inspirational or situational leadership styles, and a good example of this is the proliferation of literature focused on measuring the impact of such styles on followers and their attitudes (Bass & Riggio, 2006;Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi & Shaikh, 2012;Conger, Kanungo & Menon, 2000;Salas-Vallina, Simone & Fernández-Guerrero, 2020). ...
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... Democratic leadership style places more emphasis on people and the interaction within the group is encouraged. The leader becomes part of the team in which management functions such as planning, organizing, leading and controlling are shared with subordinates (Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi & Shaikh, 2012). ...
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Leadership and leadership styles are considered as decisive factors to the success and failure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The objectives of the paper are to identify benefits and drawbacks of applying three major leadership styles, namely autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire styles of Vietnamese SMEs leaders, who are working in various business fields. The qualitative approach was used to explore the perceptions of 51 Vietnamese SME managers, and the N-vivo software was useful in data analysis. The theoretical contribution, therefore, can be seen by the in-depth investigating on the leadership styles from the multi-dimensional viewpoints of SMEs leaders in the culture context of one Asian emerging nation such as Vietnam. The paper is also expected to be useful for SME managers to better understanding leadership styles, in order to adjust and perfect their leadership behaviors for more effective managerial and organizational performance.
... Many types of leadership styles have been observed in literature with their impact being largely reported. Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi, and Shaikh, (2012) define leadership styles as a "…pattern of behaviors engaged in by the leader when dealing with employees". For instance, Nanjundeswaraswamy and Swamy (2014) noted that the leadership style of a leader would affect the organizational commitments and work satisfaction to improve work performance. ...
... Th ere is considerable research that refl ects factors that aff ect job satisfaction and increase motivation for performance (Kitching, Morgan & O'Leary, 2009;Fasasi et al., 2015;Mustafu & Othman, 2010;Geofrey et al. 2010). Some research has confi rmed that leadership style has a signifi cant impact on job satisfaction (Bhatti et al. 2012;and Wang et al., 2015). Th e results have shown that the majority of teachers have an internal motivation for professional performance, reinforced by widespread recognition, success and advancement and vocation, job satisfaction and understanding of their goals in life. ...
... In contrast to the authoritarian, the democratic type of leadership prioritizes the contribution of people in the work environment. However, the final decision remains in the hands of the leadership (Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi, & Shaikh, 2012). In comparison., the type of transformational leadership focuses on changes in the organization, group, and other elements involved in it (Cronin, Arthur, Hardy, & Callow, 2015). ...
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Good organizational performance is also inseparable from good organizational management. However, not all Sports Organizations have a Good governance system, even though the governance system is a crucial component for managing a sports organization because it relates to policy issues and the direction of the performance of a sports organization. In addition, organizational performance is also inseparable from the intervention of organizational leaders because a leader has skills in influencing others to work together to achieve common goals. One of the successful leadership styles in business-based organizations is humanist leadership, but can humanist leadership styles contribute to realizing a sports organization that has Good Governance? A total of 20 articles in the last ten years on the topic of Good governance and humanist leadership were used as data and analyzed. Based on the results and discussion of the principles of Good Governance emphasized Transparency, Democracy, Check and Balance and Solidarity, and Humanist leadership, which has pillars such as communication, democracy, and transparency to its members. This study concludes that human leadership has a role in forming leaders who can improve the quality of good governance in sports organizations.
... Democratic leadership style. Bhatti et al. (2012) proposed that democratic leadership style concentrates more on individuals and there is greater communication within the group. ...
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The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between gender and leadership styles in the retail industry. The problem addressed in the study was whether there is a relationship between gender and leadership style in the retail industry (Young, 2011). Previous research conducted by previous authors, found that a relationship did exist between leadership styles and gender. Even though there is a large body of research that has been done from 1986 to 2006 on the impact of leadership styles on employee and organizational performance, the existence of such studies in the retail industry is very limited. For this study, a quantitative research method was used by employing a non-experimental design to look at the association between the two variables; gender and leadership style (authoritative, servant and democratic) in reference to the retail industry. The data analysis method that was used was the Pearson Chi-Square Test with a post-hoc analysis of association via the Cramer's V coefficient to test the null hypothesis, which stated there was no relationship between gender and leadership styles. The findings were not significant (p=0.202); therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. The association strength was moderate, as depicted by the Cramer's V coefficient (V=0.270). Since there has been limited research conducted on the topic of gender and leadership style in the retail industry, this document will have the potential to make contributions to professional practice and the academia. Dedication To my future wife, whomever you may be, I thank God for bringing you into my life and making me a better version of myself. To my deceased father, thank you for allowing me to see how dedicated you were as a father to us and the sacrifices took to achieve your highest education during your time. Looking at you when I was a young boy made me see how driven you were to success. I want to thank you for imparting in me your love of learning and your high regard for education. It is what also drives me today to be successful and gave me the motivation to pursue this doctoral journey. To my mother thank you for your love, support,
... (2012);Kim, (2016). Participative or vote based administration style is a joint powerful method(Nadeem, (2012); Dalluay and Jalagat 2016). Request or imperious initiative gives only a pioneer's vision (Acharya and Dasbiswas 2017). ...
... The theory emphasises the need for a leadership style that will allow community members to participate in the decision-making process (Holman, 2010). Bhatti et al. (2012) see democratic leadership, also known as participative leadership or shared leadership, "as a type of leadership style in which group members take a more participative role in the decision-making process". As such, Quick & Bryson (2016) affirmed that in democracies, community members are seen to be significant stakeholders in that they can participate neither indirectly nor directly via elected representatives in the formation, adoption, and application of the laws and policies such as IDP and service delivery that affect them. ...
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This article aims to assess the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) process for improved community participation. The IDP process was developed to improve strategic planning and community participation at the municipal level. Many South African municipalities have been struggling to use the IDP process to improve community participation. The methodology included 400 respondents who were chosen through a probability sampling technique and probed to complete the online survey using a closed-ended questionnaire guide, and ten respondents were also chosen through a non-probability sampling technique and were face-to-face interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The key findings revealed that poor community participation exists in the study area due to a lack of encouragement from responsible authorities. The Tzaneen municipality does not provide adequate feedback to the communities, and the inputs of the communities are not considered. There is a continuous lack of community consultation during the annual review of the IDP. The ineffective IDP process for improved community participation presents several challenges. Thus, this article concluded by providing a few recommendations to enhance the application of the IDP process and community participation. The Tzaneen municipal area should at all times uphold democratic principles by ensuring active public participation, transparency, and openness in municipal affairs. It also recommends making it easier for marginalised and previously disadvantaged people to participate in municipal policy and decision-making without prejudice. South African municipalities, including Tzaneen municipality, should develop and innovate institutional, and organisational capabilities to better utilise their resources, mitigate socio-economic challenges and enhance service delivery.
... There are insufficient opportunities and resources in Bangladesh to organize a web development training program for library personnel. Bhatti (2012) ...
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... The detailed result also shows that most educators agree that work is continuous as a teacher and does not practice their authority over their work where lack of acknowledgment and appreciation is also an issue as there is an impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on their job satisfaction. 28 In terms of the level of depression, teachers experience less depression where educators disagree that they are depressed. While the result of the studyin general, is positive, the study shows that teachers are bothered by feeling tired or having little energy over the last two weeks. ...
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Chapter
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Chapter
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The purpose of the study is to explore the present status, contents, and features that are used for user communication of private university library websites (PULW) in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. To ensure representativeness, purposively select twenty-two (22) private university libraries that have dedicated websites. A checklist contained sixty-one (61) items divided into ten (10) categories, and interview methods were followed for authenticity and reliability of data. The result of this study has been presented in tabular and figurative forms. The study found that the trend of websites that began a few years ago will become a driving force for library services, though it has plenty of room for improvement, such as liquid layout, mobile-friendliness, Web-OPAC, online tutorials, etc., and shows some issues for library website maintenance. This study is valuable for information scientists and academic librarians who are connected with library website development and maintenance, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh, whose resources are limited and studies are also scarce.
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This is a study of distributed leadership in the context of elementary schools' adoption of comprehensive school reforms (CSR). Most CSRs are designed to configure school leadership by defining formal roles, and we hypothesized that such programs activate those roles by defining expectations for and socializing (e.g., through professional development) role incumbents. Configuration and activation were further hypothesized to influence the performance of leadership functions in schools. Using data from a study of three of the most widely adopted CSR models, support was found for the configuration and activation hypotheses. Leadership configuration in CSR schools differed from that of nonCSR schools in part because of the addition of model-specific roles. Model participation was also related to the performance of leadership functions as principals in CSR schools and CSR-related role incumbents were found to provide significant amounts of instructional leadership. Further support for the activation hypothesis is suggested by positive relationships between leaders' professional development experiences and their performance of instructional leadership.
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The development of an instrument measuring a variable that represents a synthesis of the concepts of psychological sense of community, attractionto-neighborhood, and social interaction within a neighborhood is reported. When this individual-level variable (termed "sense of community/cohesion") is assessed in a random sample of residents in a geographically bounded neighborhood, the mean value forms a measure of the neighborhood's cohesiveness. The stages of instrument conceptualization, development, and testing are outlined. In administration to 206 residents in three separate neighborhoods the instrument demonstrated good internal consistency and testretest stability at the individual-level of analysis. When evaluated at the neighborhood-level of analysis the Neighborhood Cohesion Instrument exhibited good discriminatory power and evidenced criterion-related validity in the assessment of neighborhood cohesion.
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A practical guide to leadership development based on the world's most thoroughly researched leadership development model Conversational and accessible, this Second Edition of Bruce J. Avolio's groundbreaking book uses the full range leadership development model as an organizing framework and shows how it can be directly applied to improving leadership at the individual, team, and organizational levels. Filled with examples that show how the full range model comes to life in today's global world, Full Range Leadership Development, Second Edition, demonstrates how people, timing, resources, the context of interaction, and expected results in performance and motivation all contribute to effective leadership. Over the last decade, the full range model has become the most researched model in the leadership literature—and the most validated—and has been proven to be an accurate guide for developing exemplary leadership in diverse cultures, organizations, and leadership positions. The new edition shows how the process of leadership development is linked to validation and how the process of validation informs accelerated leadership development.
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This review of related literature and research prompted the development of a framework for understanding the role of the principal as an instructional manager. A number of links between school-level variables and student learning are proposed. The discussion includes consideration of instrictional organization, school climate, influence behavior, and the context of principal management.
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presents a set of principles about how teams—and small groups in general—develop and function effectively / these are principles that have been validated in research on small groups and teams over the past 40 years / awareness of this information can guide the team leader who aims to transform a group composed of members who often differ in education, experience, attitudes, and beliefs, into an effective, cooperative, and high-performing team / present selected research findings and principles derived from these findings / examples also will clarify or illustrate applications of the principles to the full range of leadership (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this study, we examined the validity of the measurement model and factor structure of Bass and Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Form 5X). We hypothesized that evaluations of leadership—and hence the psychometric properties of leadership instruments—may be affected by the context in which leadership is observed and evaluated. Using largely homogenous business samples consisting of 2279 pooled male and 1089 pooled female raters who evaluated same-gender leaders, we found support for the nine-factor leadership model proposed by Bass and Avolio. The model was configurally and partially metrically invariant—suggesting that the same constructs were validly measured in the male and female groups. Mean differences were found between the male and female samples on four leadership factors (Study 1). Next, using factor-level data of 18 independently gathered samples (N=6525 raters) clustered into prototypically homogenous contexts, we tested the nine-factor model and found it was stable (i.e., fully invariant) within homogenous contexts (Study 2). The contextual factors comprised environmental risk, leader–follower gender, and leader hierarchical level. Implications for use of the MLQ and nine-factor model are discussed.
The Alliance of Total Quality and The Full Range of Leadership
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Full Leadership Development Thousand Oaks
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Assessing the attitude and perception of organization members
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Camman, Fischman, Jenkins, & Wesh (1983) Assessing the attitude and perception of organization members. In S. Seashore (Ed.), Assessing organizational changes. New York: John Wiley, 71-73
Improving organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership
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