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Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in hockey players

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 4-week plyometric training on two different surfaces, sand and grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in national level hockey players. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups- grass training group (N=20) and sand training group (N=20). After the baseline measurements of strength, endurance, balance, and agility, plyometric training was given for 4-weeks,three sessions per week. Muscle soreness was assessed at the end of each training session on a 7-point likert scale.Post-readings of strength, endurance, balance and agility were taken after the 4-week training programme. Data when compared after plyometric training revealed no significant changes between two groups (p>0.05), however players in the sand group experienced less muscle soreness (p<0.05) than grass group. There was significant improvement (p<0.05) seen in the tested variables in both groups after the training but no significant interaction was found between the two surfaces after the training. These findings suggest that short-term plyometric training on sand/non-rigid surface induces similar improvements in strength, endurance, balance and agility as on firm surface but induces significantly less muscle soreness. Hence, plyometric training on sand is viable option for coaches to enhance performance in athletes,while reducing risk of muscle soreness and damage.
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VOLUME 9 | ISSUE 1 | 2014 |
59
Effect of plyometric training on sand versus
grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-
specific performance variables in hockey players
SINGH AMRINDER 1 , GAUR SAKSHI, SANDHU JASPAL SINGH
Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
ABSTRACT
Amrinder, S., Sakshi, G., & Singh, S.J. (2014). Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle
soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in hockey players. J. Hum. Sport Exerc., 9(1),
pp.59-67.The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 4-week plyometric training on two
different surfaces, sand and grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables
in national level hockey players. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups- grass training group
(N=20) and sand training group (N=20). After the baseline measurements of strength, endurance, balance,
and agility, plyometric training was given for 4-weeks,three sessions per week. Muscle soreness was
assessed at the end of each training session on a 7-point likert scale.Post-readings of strength, endurance,
balance and agility were taken after the 4-week training programme. Data when compared after plyometric
training revealed no significant changes between two groups (p>0.05), however players in the sand group
experienced less muscle soreness (p<0.05) than grass group. There was significant improvement (p<0.05)
seen in the tested variables in both groups after the training but no significant interaction was found
between the two surfaces after the training. These findings suggest that short-term plyometric training on
sand/non-rigid surface induces similar improvements in strength, endurance, balance and agility as on firm
surface but induces significantly less muscle soreness. Hence, plyometric training on sand is viable option
for coaches to enhance performance in athletes,while reducing risk of muscle soreness and damage. Key
words: PLYOMETRICS, MUSCLE SORENESS, STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, BALANCE, AGILITY.
1 Corresponding author. Grand Trunk Rd, Off NH 1, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.
E-mail: singhamrinder_30@yahoo.com
Submitted for publication March 2013
Accepted for publication December 2013
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE ISSN 1988-5202
© Faculty of Education. University of Alicante
doi:10.4100/jhse.2014.91.07
Original Article
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| 2014 | ISSUE 1 | VOLUME 9 © 2013 University of Alicante
INTRODUCTION
The game of field hockey is a high intensity, non-continuous game in which the physiological demands are
considerable, placing it in the category of ‘heavy exercise’ (Ghosh et al., 1991; Reillt & Borrie, 1992). The
unique requirements of field hockey including dribbling the ball and moving quickly in a semi-crouched
posture superimpose the workload demanded by the game(Reilly & Seaton, 1990). Competitive field
hockey matches place heavy aerobic demands on players and require them to expend energy at relatively
high levels (Reilly & Borrie, 1992) (Boyle et al., 1994). While intermittent in nature, players are required to
perform continuously for 70 minutes with just one 5-10 minute interval (Boyle et al., 1994). Although the
majority of the game is spent in low-level activity such as walking and light jogging, repeated back-to-back
sprints make speed and tolerance to lactic acid an important characteristic in players (Spencer et al., 2004).
Plyometric are training techniques used by athletes in all types of sports to increase strength and
explosiveness (Chu, 1998) and have been used successfully over the years to elicit training responses
from athletes. The training typically consists of stretch-shortening cycle exercises characterised by multi-
joint actions, rapid eccentric phases and explosive concentric muscular contractions potentiated by stretch
reflex (Bobbert, 1990). This type of training has shown to improve performance in explosive sports that rely
on moving speed and power such as hockey, basketball, track and field, football, and volleyball (Miller et
al., 2002).
Plyometric training is commonly performed on firm surfaces (eg. grass and wood), but a more recent study
has shown that drop jumps on sand induce less muscle damage when compared to a firm surface (Miyama
& Nosaka, 2004). However, jumping on sand causes lower reuse of elastic energy and energy loss due to
feet slipping during the concentric action (Miyama & Nosaka, 2004; Giatsis et al., 2004). This might induce
different training effects compared to training on a firm surface. The lower impact on the musculoskeletal
system induced by plyometric training on sand might be useful during rehabilitation programmes.
In an attempt to evaluate the effects of surface type on plyometric training, studies have compared the
effects of aquatic and land plyometric training on strength, agility and muscle soreness (Robinson et al.,
2004; Martel et al., 2005; Stemm & Jacobson, 2007; Shiran et al., 2008). Robinson et al. (2004) and
Stemm et al. (2007) found no differences in the outcome variables assessed between land and aquatic
plyometrics. Other studies indicated less soreness in the aquatic conditions (Impellizzeri et al., 2008;
Robinson et al., 2004).
Hence the present study was conducted to address the selected performance variables through plyometric
training on two different training surfaces, sand and grass with the view to help hockey player achieve good
performance during the game and to rehabilitate injured players for return to sport participation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A parallel two-group, randomised, longitudinal (pre-test-post-test) design was used. After baseline
measurements, subjects were randomly allocated to two intervention groups: plyometric training on sand
(sand group) and plyometric training on grass (grass group).
Participants:
A total of 40 national level field hockey players (both male and female), aged 18-24 yrs (Mean ± SD, ages:
21.06 ±1.61 yr, height: 166.36 ± 8.54 cms., weight: 61.9±7.88 kg) participated in the study. After baseline
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measurements, players were randomly allocated into two equal groups (20 players in each group)- one of
them performed plyometric training on sand and the other group performed plyometric training on grass
surface. As the training surface was the independent variable, no control group was used. A verbal
explanation of the study was given to each subject; the subject then provided written informed consent in
accordance with the Institutional Ethics Committee, Faculty of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru
Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.
Data Acquisition:
Pre-readings were taken 1 week before the beginning of plyometric training period. Each subject underwent
measurements of their peak torque, fatigue index, balance and agility. After the baseline measurements, 4-
week high-intensity plyometric training was conducted. The post readings were carried out 4 weeks after
the end of the training period to highlight the training induced changes. The pre and post readings of the
following parameters were recorded.
Isokinetic Strength and endurance:
Measurement of isokinetic variables i.e. Peak Torque and Fatigue Index for knee flexion and extension at
two different speeds 60 deg/sec and 180 deg/sec were noted using Kinitech Multijoint Isokinetic
Dynamometer. The player repeated concentric flexion and extension for 5 repetitions counted as one set at
60 deg/sec followed by 180 deg/sec. Three repetitions were done and player’s readings were noted
calculating the mean value of three sets in every speed.
Static Balance:
Static balance was checked in Kinematic Measurement System laboratory with Fitness Technology (FT)
wobble board. A 20 second wobble board balance test was performed, and the balance ratio was
measured. Three attempts were given and the average on off ratio time was noted from the mean of the
three attempts.
Agility Testing:
The Illinois Agility test (Getchell, 1979) was used to test the ability to turn in different directions and at
different angles. This test was performed on a non-slip surface. The aim of the test was to complete a
weaving running course in the shortest possible time. Cones marked the course, ten meters long and five
meters wide. The subject started face down, with the head to the start line, and hands by the shoulders. At
the whistle, the subject ran the course, without knocking down any cones. Time was recorded using a stop-
watch. Three trials were conducted and the best reading was recorded.
Plyometric Training Programme:
In the current study, a 4-week plyometric programme similar to that used by (Leubbers et al., 2003) was
employed, using set × repetitions instead of set × distance. Training was completed on a grass pitch and on
a 0.2 m deep dry sand surface. The plyometric training sessions were given during off-season, 3 times a
week in addition to the conventional training. Participants were asked to exert a maximal intensity during all
the training sessions. Muscle soreness was assessed on each session of the training period using 7-point
Likert scale of muscle soreness. During the training all the subjects were under direct supervision and were
instructed on how to perform each exercise. Prior to the training, in each session, the players first
performed a general body warm up by doing light jogging for 5-10 minutes and stretching for 5 minutes.
Following this the subjects were asked to perform 20 hops and 20 bounds, in order to acclimatize the
subjects with jumping and the landing procedures.
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Table 1 shows the 4-week plyometric training protocol. The training was followed by cool down session,
which included static stretching and light jogging for 5-10 minutes.
Table 1. Plyometric 4-week training protocol
Number of sets (number of repetitions)
Exercise
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Vertical jumping
15 (10)
20 (10)
25 (10)
25 (10)
Bounding
3 (10)
4 (10)
5 (10)
5 (10)
Broad jumping
5 (8)
5 (10)
7 (10)
8 (10)
Drop jumping
3 (5)
5 (9)
6 (15)
6 (15)
Muscle soreness:
Muscle soreness was assessed at the end of each training session on an Italian version of 7-point Likert
scale of muscle soreness (Vicker et al., 2001). It consisted of 7 points ranging from 0-6, where 0 means
complete absence of soreness and 6 indicates severe pain, restricting the ability to move.
Likert scale of muscle soreness from Vickers
0 A complete absence of soreness
1 A light pain felt only when touched/a vague ache
2 A moderate pain felt only when touched/a slight persistent pain
3 A light pain when walking up or down stairs
4 A light pain when walking on a flat surface/painful
5 A moderate pain, stiffness, or weakness when walking/very painful
6 A severe pain that limits my ability to move
Statistical analysis:
The data was statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)/19.0. A P
value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Paired t-tests were used to identify any significant intra
group differences for the dependent variables. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
determine the significance of differences between groups. When a significant difference among the training
groups was detected, a pair-wise comparison of the programs was done using a Tukey’s post hoc. The
alpha level was set at 0.05 in order for the difference to be considered significant. Data were graphed and
analyzed to evaluate the effects of the intervention.
Table 2. Shows demographic data of sand and grass group (mean ± standard deviation)
VARIABLE
TOTAL
(N=40)
GRASS GROUP
(N=20)
SAND GROUP
(N=20)
Age (years)
21.06 ± 1.61
20.7± 1.63
21.45 ± 1.54
Height (cm)
166.38 ± 8.54
166.85± 9.16
165.90± 8.08
Weight (kg)
61.89 ± 7.89
61.34± 8.10
62.45 ± 7.82
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Table 3. Shows the descriptive data of both grass and sand groups before and after 4-week plyometric
intervention
* shows the value to be significant at 0.05 level
P.T ext = peak torque extension; P.T flx = peak torque flexion; F.I ext = fatigue index extension; F.I flx = fatigue index flexion
Table 4. Mean weekly comparison of muscle soreness during the training period for grass and sand groups
MUSCLE SORENESS
GRASS GROUP
(N=20)
SAND GROUP
(N=20)
Week 1
4.1 ± 0.619
3.5 ± 0.397
Week 2
3.4 ± 0.475
2.8 ± 0.563
Week 3
2.8 ± 0.519
2.2 ± 0.474
Week 4
2.1 ± 0.591
1.5 ± 0.425
VARIABLE
GRASS GROUP
SAND GROUP
F-
value
P-
value
Pretest
Post-test
t-
value
Pretest
Post-test
t-
value
P.T ext
(N.m)
90.20±39.11
96.50±36.67
3.57
92.60± 24.78
95.70±25.11
3.57
0.164
0.920
P.T flx
(N.m)
52.90±16.15
57.20±20.29
2.16
65.90± 26.76
73.25±24.29
2.16
3.333
0.024*
F.I Ext(%)
109.45±17.25
106.55±16.69
2.42
110.10±12.46
104.65±12.84
2.42
0.579
0.631
F.I Flx (%)
104.15±13.51
99.75±10.161
2.97
101.50± 9.67
97.55±10.24
2.97
1.287
0.285
Balance
(no.of
contacts)
16.80±3.44
13.35±2.23
4.70
16.30 ± 2.46
14.30±2.34
4.70
7.534
0.000*
Agility (sec)
16.72±17.77
17.77±2.16
4.88
17.31 ± 1.85
18.15±1.94
4.88
1.747
0.164
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Figure 1. 4-week comparison of muscle soreness between grass and sand group
RESULTS
When the two groups were analysed, no significant interactions were found between the two groups with
regard to the tested performance variables. Even though results indicate no significant intergroup
differences (p>0.05), on comparing mean differences between both groups, sand group demonstrated
more increments in strength (3.33%) and endurance (0.79%) while, grass group showed more
improvement in balance (20.54%) and agility (6.28%). With regard to within-group changes, both grass and
sand groups improved significantly (p<0.05), where significant changes were recorded before and after
plyometric intervention.
Muscle soreness, which was measured throughout the training period of 4-weeks showed progressive
decrease in both groups but sand group showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in muscle soreness.
DISCUSSION
This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of plyometric training on two different training surfaces-
sand and grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in national level
hockey players.
The current study employed a 4-week plyometric program with 3 sessions per week. The main findings in
the study indicate that a short-term plyometric training on sand (non-rigid) surface resulted in similar
changes in strength, endurance, balance and agility as in grass group but induced less muscle soreness
and damage than the grass group.
Plyometric training has commonly been performed on firm surfaces such as grass, athletic tracks and
wood. Risks of increased delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and damage caused by forces
generated during ground impact and intense plyometric contraction may be reduced when plyometric
training is performed on non-rigid surface such as sand or in aquatic conditions. Available evidence
suggests that short-term plyometrics on non-rigid surface (i.e. sand-based or aquatic) could elicit similar
increases in jumping and sprinting performance as traditional plyometrics, but with substantially less
muscle soreness (Markovic & Mikulic, 2005).
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The present study showed that during 4-week training period, the sand group experienced less muscle
soreness, as measured by the likert scale, and therefore support the hypothesis that a short-term
plyometric training on sand induced less muscle soreness and damage.
The mean value of muscle soreness for sand group (2.5) was lower than grass group (3.1). This result is in
lieu with the findings of (Miyama & Nosaka, 2004) who showed that plyometric training on sand induced
less muscle soreness than jumping on a firm surface, and also chains the findings of (Impellizzeri et al.,
2008) who demonstrated a similar comparative study in soccer players, comparing the jumping and
sprinting ability. There was progressive reduction in muscle soreness in both groups during the training
period, despite the fact that the exercise intensity was increased each week. This reduction can be
attributed to the repeated bout effect, as demonstrated by reduced symptoms following consequent bouts
of training.
Plyometrics have been verified by research to improve strength (Robinson et al., 2004; Martel et al., 2005;
Miller et al., 2002), balance (Esfangreh, 2011; Asadi & Arazi, 2012) and agility (Inpellizzeri et al., 2008;m
Asadi & Arazi, 2012; Micheal et al., 2006). In the current study, plyometric training on both surfaces yielded
similar enhancement in the tested variables, irrespective of the training surface. Within group comparison,
using paired t-test revealed significant improvements in both groups in all the tested parameters. Whereas,
there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Both groups improved their
strength, which was measured by isokinetic strength testing, comparing peak torque with knee in flexion
and extension, a trend for greater improvement was seen in sand group, where the ratio peak torque
(flexion/extension) was more (3.33%). Fatigue index, which is a measure of endurance, decreased in both
groups after plyometric training, indicating a better endurance. However, plyometric training did not
revealed any significant differences in endurance in both sand and grass groups. The result is also
consistent with the study conducted by Ademola O. Abass which focused on the relationship among
strength, endurance and power performance characteristics of untrained university undergraduates
following three different modes of plyometric and showed that there were no significant relationships among
the groups in strength and endurance performance characteristics. Results of our study indicate a lowered
fatigue index (flexion/extension) in sand group (0.79%).
To our knowledge, limited studies have addressed the effects of sand-plyometrics on strength performance.
Robinson et al. (2004) examined the effects of 8-week of aquatic and land plyometric training on peak
torque production by isokinetic strength testing and found that both groups improved peak torque
production. This finding is in accordance with our study. (Martel et al., 2005) compared the combination of
aquatic plyometrics and volleyball training with traditional volleyball training and concluded that aquatic
plyometric group significantly improved torque production during maximum knee extension exercises. In a
similar study, Shiran et al. (2008) reported that 5-week of aquatic plyometric and land plyometric improved
leg muscle strength in male wrestlers.
Improvement in balance, which was demonstrated by a reduction in no. of contacts, was better in grass
group (20.54%). The improvements achieved were the result of enhanced neuromuscular function. The
results of the present study are in lieu with (Myer et al., 2005) and (Twist et al.,1996) who reported that
plyometric training can improve balance performance in adults and females. (Witzke and Snow, 2000)
studied the effect of plyometric training on bone mass in adolescent girls they found that plyometric training
had an effect on static balance. Many of plyometric drills contain lateral movement patterns, which
activated muscles and neural pathways involved in the hip, knee, and ankle stabilization. These exercises
challenge the neuromuscular system that controls coordination and balance.
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Agility, tested by Illinois agility testing, had shown to improve in grass group (6.28%). The results improved
for the agility test because of better motor recruitment or neural adaptation. This result was consistent with
the result of a study of 6-weeks of plyometric training on agility by (Miller et al., 2002) and (Asadi & Arazi,
2012), on effects of high-intensity plyometric training on male basketball players.
CONCLUSIONS
The results of this study suggest that sand plyometric training results in similar gains in sports specific
parameters and therefore, can offer an effective training modality for performance enhancement in power-
based sports, such as hockey. As it induces less muscle soreness and damage and can incorporated in a
hockey training program when a reduction of stress on the musculoskeletal system is desired.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are thankful to Ethics Committee of Guru Nanak Dev University, for granting permission to
conduct the study.
Conflict of interests: No conflict of interests amongst authors.
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... n the field of plyometric training and its impact on jump performance. A number of studies have investigated the effect of different training surfaces, such as grass, artificial turf, and rubberised surfaces etc., on jump performance (Çimenli et al., 2016;Lännerström et al., 2021;Marzouki et al., 2022;Ojeda-Aravena et al., 2022;Ramlan et al., 2018;A. Singh et al., 2014). Ramlan et al. (2018) compared the effects of plyometric training on grass and concrete surface on jump performance of volleyballers. They found that plyometric training on both surfaces resulted in similar training-induced effects on neuromuscular factors. Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump ...
... They found that plyometric training on both surfaces resulted in similar training-induced effects on neuromuscular factors. Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump performance between plyometric training on sand and grass surface in field hockey players. There is some evidence in the literature that suggests that the type of training surface may have an impact on injury risk during plyometric training (Impellizzeri et al., 2008;A. ...
... . Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump performance between plyometric training on sand and grass surface in field hockey players. There is some evidence in the literature that suggests that the type of training surface may have an impact on injury risk during plyometric training (Impellizzeri et al., 2008;A. Singh et al., 2014). According to study by Hatfield et al. (2019); Wannop et al. (2020) and Yasamin et al. (2017), landing forces were higher on a synthetic turf surface compared to a natural grass surface. This finding suggests that synthetic turf may increase the risk of injury during plyometric exercises, as the higher landing forces can place greater s ...
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The anti-terrorist operation, the operation of the joint forces, and the full-scale war in Ukraine have a significant physical and psychological impact on the participants of the hostilities. One of the negative consequences of war is the loss of physical health which further affects the process of socialization during a peaceful life. At the same time, the process of restoring physical health with the help of physical culture and sports rehabilitation has not been researched enough, which confirms the relevance of the chosen topic. Objective: to determine the impact of physical culture and sports rehabilitation on the level of physical fitness of combatants. Material and methods: the research was carried out on the basis of the National Sports Complex "Olympiyskyi" in the group "Veteran Ten" during 2020-2021. The main sports competitions the combatants were preparing for were various marathons. 40 combatants who had completed their military service took part in the research. During the research, there were used the following methods: pedagogical experiment, and methods of mathematical statistics. Results: During a year, combatants participated in the research in the framework of which they trained and prepared to participate in mass races. The content of the training included both running exercises and exercises aimed at developing strength qualities (mainly strength endurance), flexibility, and coordination. The level of physical fitness of combatants was tested in dynamics (before the start of training and after a year of training). The level of physical fitness of combatants was determined according to the approved tests and standards of the "Annual Assessment of Physical Fitness of the Population of Ukraine". Based on the results of the research, it was established that at the initial stage, 75% of the combatants had a low level of physical fitness, 23% had a medium level, and 2% had a sufficient level. Upon the completion of the pedagogical experiment, the level of physical fitness of the combatants improved: 33% of the combatants had a low level of physical fitness, 50% had a medium level, and 17% had a sufficient level, which demonstrates the effectiveness of training sessions as a means of physical culture and sports rehabilitation. Conclusions. The positive impact of physical culture and sports rehabilitation on the level of physical fitness of combatants was determined. With the help of the tests and standards of the "Annual Assessment of Physical Fitness of the Population of Ukraine", it was discovered that the indicators of physical fitness of the combatants at the first stage of the research were in the range from 2 to 21 and on average were (11.83; 4.49) points. In the second stage, they ranged from 11 to 24, their average physical fitness score was (11.28; 3.20) points. At the same time, 46.1% of the participants of the research got an observed increase in the indicator which turned out to be statistically significant (t=13.563; df=39; p<0.05). Therefore, it can be stated that running sessions have a positive impact on the level of physical fitness of combatants.
... n the field of plyometric training and its impact on jump performance. A number of studies have investigated the effect of different training surfaces, such as grass, artificial turf, and rubberised surfaces etc., on jump performance (Çimenli et al., 2016;Lännerström et al., 2021;Marzouki et al., 2022;Ojeda-Aravena et al., 2022;Ramlan et al., 2018;A. Singh et al., 2014). Ramlan et al. (2018) compared the effects of plyometric training on grass and concrete surface on jump performance of volleyballers. They found that plyometric training on both surfaces resulted in similar training-induced effects on neuromuscular factors. Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump ...
... They found that plyometric training on both surfaces resulted in similar training-induced effects on neuromuscular factors. Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump performance between plyometric training on sand and grass surface in field hockey players. There is some evidence in the literature that suggests that the type of training surface may have an impact on injury risk during plyometric training (Impellizzeri et al., 2008;A. ...
... . Another study by Singh et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in jump performance between plyometric training on sand and grass surface in field hockey players. There is some evidence in the literature that suggests that the type of training surface may have an impact on injury risk during plyometric training (Impellizzeri et al., 2008;A. Singh et al., 2014). According to study by Hatfield et al. (2019); Wannop et al. (2020) and Yasamin et al. (2017), landing forces were higher on a synthetic turf surface compared to a natural grass surface. This finding suggests that synthetic turf may increase the risk of injury during plyometric exercises, as the higher landing forces can place greater s ...
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Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of two sessions per week plyometric training on different surfaces on the counter movement jump height, take-off force, and maximum concentric power of collegiate athletes. Material and methods: Male collegiate athletes (n=24, age=18.46±1.14 years, weight=64.88±5.61 kg and height=1.72±0.07 metres)) from a physical training centre were randomly and equally assigned to three groups, each trained on different surfaces (synthetic, cinder and sand). The training intervention was implemented twice a week and lasted for 8 weeks. The athletes were tested before and after the intervention to assess changes in the performance of counter movement jump height (CMJHT), take-off force (CMJTOF) and maximum concentric power (CMJMCP). Results: Results showed that overall measurement of CMJHT, CMJTOF and CMJMCP improved significantly (p≤0.05, Δ %=10.50; p≤0.05, Δ%=11.11; p≤0.05, Δ%=11.41). However, training surfaces have no significant effect on the improvement of the selected variables (CMJHT:F(2,21)=2.37, p=0.118, ηp2=0.184; CMJTOF:F(2,21)=1.28, p=0.299, ηp2=0.109; CMJMCP:F(2,21)=0.061, p=0.941, ηp2=0.006). Further, for the synthetic track surface group CMJHT, CMJTOF and CMJMCP improved significantly (p≤0.05, Δ%=16.36; p≤0.05, Δ%=17.50; p≤0.05, Δ%=17.99); for the cinder track surface group CMJHT and CMJMCP improved significantly (p≤0.05, Δ%=9.15; p≤0.05, Δ%=10.33) and for the sand surface group only CMJHT improved significantly (p≤0.05, Δ%=5.68). Conclusions: The findings suggest that plyometric training on different surfaces can effectively improve athletic performance, but the specific surface type does not appear to impact the outcomes significantly. The study further suggested analysing the injury risk associated with plyometric training on various training surfaces and discovering the optimal training surface for minimising injury risk while maximising performance gains.
... In addition, Plyometric training (PT) in water gives better results in strength and sprint abilities from the land surface, with the latter having better results in the dynamic balance of basketball athletes (Arazi & Asadi, 2011). Similar findings for the greater effectiveness of Plyometric training (PT) on the sand versus other surfaces have been found in athletes of other team sports, such as field hockey (Singh et al., 2014). Therefore, different surfaces for PT may cause different improvements in physiological performance parameters in basketball athletes. ...
... In addition, it seems that Plyometric training improves other skills (change of direction ability) during the season and is a method that coaches should keep in mind to optimize the physical abilities of athletes (Cherni et al., 2019). Finally, the surface on which the Plyometric intervention protocol takes place plays an important role (Arazi & Asadi, 2011;Singh et al., 2014). The wood-parquet floor of the present study seems to have helped to extract the results, as improvements were observed in the speed and agility of the experimental group as found in previous literature (Ozen et al., 2020). ...
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The investigation of the effectiveness of plyometric training in young elite basketball players (A1 National GREEK Division) of the 2019-2020 competitive season was the aim of this study. The participants were 20 young elite professional basketball players with a training age of 6-8 years (biological age 18-20 years, average weight 88 kg, average height 1.95 cm and average body fat 10-12%). The basketball players were geographically divided into two groups of n = 10 people, where the (A) group (experimental group) performed a plyometric training program for four weeks with three training sessions per week, in addition to their daily training routine with the strength & conditioning coach. The (B) group of n = 10 people, was the control group which performed only their daily strength training regimes. The plyometric training consisted of the following exercises: A) squat and jump B) stepping and jumping on a 45 cm BOX (one foot separately on each leg), C) jumping with both feet on a 60 cm BOX, D) jumping a 60 cm obstacle. Four sets of 15 repetitions were performed for each exercise with a break of 90 seconds per set and a break of 3 minutes per exercise. A pre-test and a post-test analysis were performed, with speed tests at 5 m, 10 m, 20 m, as well as an agility test (Illinois test. The main findings of the research show that plyometric training (PT) for four (4) weeks with three (3) sessions per week during the competitive season, can significantly improve speed and agility in young elite professional athletes compared to the traditional strength training in the sport of basketball. In particular, after the implementation of the protocol, the athletes of group A (experimental group) improved statistically significantly both in speed in the three examined distances (5-10-20 m) as well as in the agility of the Illinois Agility Test in relation to the athletes of group B (control group).
... Plyometric exercises (plyometrics), such as jumping, bounding, clapping push-up, and jump squats are used to increase the capacity of the muscle fibres to produce more tension and resultant force generation (Davies, Riemann, & Manske, 2015;Verkoshanski, 1967). Prior studies have reported that PT has been demonstrated to be an effective training method for the improvement of leg strength, explosiveness, and power (Amrinder, Sakshi, & Singh, 2014;Ramlan, Pitil, & Wahed, 2018). ...
... This finding has been confirmed in many previous studies examining the effect of PT on athletic performance on different training surfaces, such as grass, concrete, sand, and tartan. In this context, the improvement of physical performance after the six-week PT programme in this study may be ascribed to the increasing muscular strength and capacity of positive energy production due to utilizing the recoil of elastic energy stored (Amrinder, Sakshi, & Singh, 2014;Impellizzeri et al., 2008;Ramlan et al., 2018). In contrast, in comparing their body weight and fat percentage, there were no significant differences between pre and post-test values. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of plyometric training on sand and wooden parquet training surfaces on the physical performance parameters of young male basketball players. Twelve well-trained young male basketball players with age 17.58±0.5 years, body mass 87.73±9.82 kg, and height 193.75±7.02 cm were voluntarily involved in the study. All participants were grouped randomly as sand and wooden training groups. A six-week plyometric training programme was performed on the sand and wooden parquet surfaces. Anthropometric measurements and physical performance tests; vertical and standing long jump, box agility, and 30m sprint tests were performed. Data were collected before and after six weeks of plyometric training and were analysed using ANCOVA. The results indicated that the plyometric training programme significantly improved jumping, agility and 30m sprint performance for both groups. Significant differences were found between the post-test mean values of two groups in the box-drill agility and 30m sprint test scores (p < .05). The results of this study suggest that while the plyometric training performed on a wooden or sand surface does not cause a different effect on the improvement of jumping performance, plyometric training on the sand surface may be a more effective training surface to improve the agility and sprint performance of young players.
... Los beneficios que produce el entrenamiento en arena blanda se han demostrado en numerosos estudios (Arazi, Mohammadi, & Asadi, 2014;Amrinder, Sakshi, & Jaspal, 2013;Barrett, Neal, & Roberts, 1997) y cada día que pasa son más los deportistas y equipos de élite que utilizan esta superficie para entrenar. En la mayoría de los casos el entrenamiento en arena blanda se combina con el entrenamiento en superficie dura. ...
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El balonmano playa empieza a practicarse en la isla de Ponza (Italia) en 1992 (Gehrer & Werkmeister, 2006; Bebetsos, 2012) y, desde su origen, su desarrollo ha venido marcado por el Fair Play. Las reglas de juego están formuladas para ello y en el primer párrafo del citado documento encontramos que "la filosofía del balonmano playa se basa en los principios de juego limpio. Cada decisión tiene que ser tomada de acuerdo con esos principios" (International Handball Federation, 2014). Esta filosofía ayuda a que las acciones sean más espectaculares puesto que no se entorpecen por los agarrones, empujones y todo tipo de juego que atente contra el juego limpio.
... _____________________________________________________________________________________ 41 All of the studied persons performed the vertical jump test and the test of the training of the muscles of the lower limbs in five series of squat jumps, with a 60-100% maximum possibility of performance (the first series until the refusal was a 100% possibility; Series 2-4 had a 60-80% possibility; and the fifth series continued until the refusal). Plyometric training was performed because according to many research, because plyometric training is considered to the best way to appearance of DOMS [15][16][17]. ...
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The aim of this work was to estimate the effectiveness of kinesiotaping (KT) in the reduction of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the quadriceps femoris.41 young women were examined. In the study, two groups applied kinesiotaping – the first with a relaxing application (Group 1); and the second with a lymphatic one (Group 2). Women from the control group used no treatment to help in the exertion restitution. All of the women performed a vertical jump test and training of their lower limbs (5 series of squat jumps). The research tools were the VAS scale (for the estimation of pain) and the Borg Scale (for a subjective estimation of the intensity of effort). The measurements (the vertical jump test and the intensification of the pain) were repeated 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the training where the exertion occurred. In all of the groups, the greatest regress of the vertical jump test was observed between the first and the second measurement – and this difference was statistically essential (p
... In other words, the key element and important speed factor are explosive movements. Polymetric training is method that creates the most favorable relationship between speed and power and, ultimately, consideras explosive power (Singh, Sakshi, & Singh, 2014). Power and muscle power are also considered as key elements of a successful sports performance, to perform daily activities and job duties. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of interval and polymetric training on some physical fitness parameters in Imam Reza international university employees. In this semi-experimental study, 24 men age between 30 and 35 years and a body mass index of 25 to 27 kg/m2 were assigned into experimental (n=12) and control (n=12) groups. Subjects in experimental group (interval and polymetric training) under went six weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session 60-90 minutes polymetric training at an intensity of 80-85% maximal heart rate. The parameters of the test included: cardio respiratory endurance, anaerobic power, speed, agility, muscular endurance and power were collected before and after six weeks of training. While the control group was prevented from any sport activity and just participated in pre and post-testing. Six weeks of combined training program resulted in a significant difference in cardiovascular endurance records, muscular endurance, speed and agility between experimental and control groups. But a significant difference between anaerobic and power can be found at the end of the period. The combination of interval and polymetric training is affective in improving physical fitness parameters among staffs of Imam Reza international university.
... Como o treino de força reativa necessita de um treino anterior de força até o atleta conseguir realizar a sessão mais intensa que consiste de saltar obstáculos que vão de 20 a 110 centímetros (cm) 7,8 , atualmente os pesquisadores do esporte tem prescrito esse treino físico neuromuscular na água 9 e na areia 10 como progressão pedagógica porque o impacto no membro inferior é menor 11 . ...
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Objective: The objective of the systematic review and of the meta-analysis was to determine the effect of two types of reactive strength training (in the water and in the sand) on countermovement vertical jump. Method: The original articles were identified in Google Scholar, Research Gate, PubMed and DOAJ during May to December of 2017. In these electronic bases the studies were consulted with the key words plyometric training and sand and aquatic, drop jump, plyometric training and depth jump. The researcher used the Galna et al.18 scale to evaluate the studies and including 16 studies were included for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: The systematic review identified a similar result of the countermovement jump (CMJ) minimum of the reactive strength training in the sand (RSTsand, 38,1 ± 3,3 cm) and the reactive strength training in the water (RSTwater, 38,4 ± 10,9 cm). However, the maximum CMJ value of the RSTwater (66,26±1,16 cm) had a value higher than the RSTsand (52±1 cm). The evolution in % of the CMJ of the RSTsand was 9,41 ± 1,22% and of the RSTwater was 11,03 ± 2,48%, but the independent "t" test (p>0,05) and the new statistic of Cumming25 did not detect statistical difference. The meta-analysis identified an effect size of the CMJ of 1,83±2,04 of the RSTsand and 8,54±15,67 of the RSTwater, but the Mann Whitney U test (p>0,05) and the new statistic did not detect statistical difference. Conclusion: It seems that RSTwater optimizes CMJ more than the RSTsand.
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Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of sand as an alternative surface for training, injury prevention and rehabilitation interventions in English professional football. A Secondary aim was to explore the potential barriers to implementation. Materials and methods: All 92 teams from the male English professional football pyramid during the 2021-22 season were eligible to take part. A cross-sectional survey of the medical personnel (one per club) was conducted between June 2021 and December 2021 based on the RE-AIM framework. A total of 58 respondents (63% of all clubs) completed the survey. Results and conclusions: Only 18 (31%) of the clubs surveyed used sand-based interventions across the last 3 seasons. Respondents felt sand-based interventions would be effective at improving physiological gains (median 4, interquartile range [IQR] 4-5) and as part of injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies (4, IQR 3-4) but were indifferent in relation to its potential to improve sporting performance (3, IQR 3-4). Barriers to implementation of sand-based interventions within wider football were a lack of facilities, lack of awareness of its potential benefits, lack of high-quality evidence and the surface not being specific to the sport. Medical staff also did not perceive that coaches' positively viewed sand interventions as a training or injury management strategy.
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Background: the purpose of this intervention study was to investigate effect of plyometric training on selected motor fitness variables of university men hockey players. Method: Therefore the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of plyometric training on Speed, Muscular endurance, and Flexibility of university men hockey players. In this study thirty (30) subjects, of university men hockey players were randomly selected in plyometric training group and in control group, fifteen (15) in each group. (n=30; age 18 ± 3.04; height 1.68 ± 6.64 cm; weight=58 ± 7.36 kg). Timeline: The plyometric training consisted of 45-60 min/day, 3 days in a week till twelve weeks from SRM IST, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu, India. Physical fitness variables completed of the both groups at zero time and after twelve weeks of plyometric training in experimental group and except plyometric training intervention in control group. Results: In present study, Speed (10.22), Muscular endurance (11.17) and Flexibility (18.71) were changed significantly. Conclusion: Hockey is a sport that entails multidirectional motion patterns that challenge the capacity to keep dynamic stability. University men hockey players want a stable core to efficaciously perform upper and lower extremity movements. The plyometric training program introduced in this report accommodates the physical fitness speed, muscular endurance and flexibility vital for effective hockey performance. Research findings shows that the plyometric training has a positive effect on physical fitness of the university men hockey players. Therefore plyometric training covered in this study are beneficial for the university men hockey players.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 9 months of plyometric jump training on bone mineral content (BMC), lower extremity performance, and static balance in adolescent girls (aged 14.6 +/- 0.5 yr; 22.7 +/- 14.0 months past menarche). Exercisers (N = 25) trained 30-45 min, three times per week, performing various exercises using weighted vests (squats, lunges, calf raises) and plyometrics (hopping, jumping, bounding, and box depth jumps). The program was designed to load the lower extremities. Controls (N = 28), matched to exercisers for age and months past menarche, maintained their usual activities. The following were assessed at baseline and 9 months: BMC, strength by isokinetic dynamometry, power (Wingate), and static balance. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between groups for BMC, nor were the changes in anthropometric or performance variables, analyzed by MANOVA, significant. In follow-up analyses, t-tests for independent samples revealed that both groups experienced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in percent change in bone mass compared to zero, for the whole body (mean: 3.7% exercisers, 3.6% controls), femoral neck (4.5% vs 2.4%), lumbar spine (L2-4) (6.6% vs 5.3%), and femoral shaft (3.4% vs 2.3%), but only the exercisers improved BMC of the greater trochanter (3.1% vs 1.9%). Furthermore, the exercise group significantly improved knee extensor strength (14.7% vs 7.3%) and medial/lateral balance (38.1% vs 9.5%), whereas the control group demonstrated no changes. The variety of lateral movement activities performed by the exercise group may have contributed to the differences observed between groups for greater trochanter bone mineral density (BMD), leg strength, and medial/lateral balance. The trends observed in bone mass between groups suggest that plyometric jump training continued over a longer period of time during adolescent growth may increase peak bone mass.
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Asadi, A; Arazi, H. (2012). Effects of high-intensity plyometric training on dynamic balance, agility, vertical jump and sprint performance in young male basketball players. Journal of Sport and Health Research.4 (1):35-44.
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The purpose of the study was to determine if six weeks of plyometric training can improve an athlete's agility. Subjects were divided into two groups, a plyometric training and a control group. The plyometric training group performed in a six week plyometric training program and the control group did not perform any plyometric training techniques. All subjects participated in two agility tests: T-test and Illinois Agility Test, and a force plate test for ground reaction times both pre and post testing. Univariate ANCOVAs were conducted to analyze the change scores (post - pre) in the independent variables by group (training or control) with pre scores as covariates. The Univariate ANCOVA revealed a significant group effect F2,26 = 25.42, p=0.0000 for the T-test agility measure. For the Illinois Agility test, a significant group effect F2,26 = 27.24, p = 0.000 was also found. The plyometric training group had quicker posttest times compared to the control group for the agility tests. A significant group effect F2,26 = 7.81, p = 0.002 was found for the Force Plate test. The plyometric training group reduced time on the ground on the posttest compared to the control group. The results of this study show that plyometric training can be an effective training technique to improve an athlete's agility. Key PointsPlyometric training can enhance agility of athletes.6 weeks of plyometric training is sufficient to see agility results.Ground reaction times are decreased with plyometric training.
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Limited information exists about the movement patterns of field-hockey players, especially during elite competition. Time-motion analysis was used to document the movement patterns during an international field-hockey game. In addition, the movement patterns of repeated-sprint activity were investigated, as repeated-sprint ability is considered to be an important fitness component of team-sport performance. Fourteen members of the Australian men's field-hockey team (age 26+/-3 years, body mass 76.7+/-5.6 kg, VO2max 57.9+/-3.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); mean+/-s) were filmed during an international game and their movement patterns were analysed. The majority of the total player game time was spent in the low-intensity motions of walking, jogging and standing (46.5+/-8.1, 40.5+/-7.0 and 7.4+/-0.9%, respectively). In comparison, the proportions of time spent in striding and sprinting were 4.1+/-1.1 and 1.5+/-0.6%, respectively. Our criteria for 'repeated-sprint' activity (defined as a minimum of three sprints, with mean recovery duration between sprints of less than 21 s) was met on 17 occasions during the game (total for all players), with a mean 4+/-1 sprints per bout. On average, 95% of the recovery during the repeated-sprint bouts was of an active nature. In summary, the results suggest that the motion activities of an elite field-hockey competition are similar to those of elite soccer, rugby and Australian Rules football. In addition, the investigation of repeated-sprint activity during competition has provided additional information about the unique physiological demands of elite field-hockey performance.
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The purpose of this investigation was to compare Aquatic and Land plyometric training on performance and muscular injury in club wrestlers. For this reason 21 club wrestlers were selected voluntary and divided to two exprimental groups ( Land plyometric training (n = 7) Aquatic plyometric training ( n= 7)) and control group (n = 7) randomly. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 20.3 (3.6), height 169 (5.3), weight 65.3 (8.8). Exprimental groups trained four main skills of plyometric training including depth, star, rocket and squat jumps for five weeks and 3 times per week and 40 to 45 min in per session and control groups had their routine training. For determination the effects of plyometric training were measured strength, speed, agility, Fatigue index, peak and mean power and to evaluate Pathogenesis of these training inflammatory enzymes including CK, LDH were measured. The analyzing of data by ANOVA and T test showed: There was no significant difference between 2 model of plyometric training (Aquatic and Land) in performance and risk of muscle injury in male club wrestlers. Aquatic plyometrics provided the same performance enhancement benefits as land plyometrics with less muscle soreness.
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Objective: The lower impact on the musculoskeletal system induced by plyometric exercise on sand compared to a firm surface might be useful to reduce the stress of intensified training periods or during rehabilitation from injury. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric training on sand versus a grass surface on muscle soreness, vertical jump height and sprinting ability. Design: Parallel two-group, randomised, longitudinal (pretest-post-test) study. Methods: After random allocation, 18 soccer players completed 4 weeks of plyometric training on grass (grass group) and 19 players on sand (sand group). Before and after plyometric training, 10 m and 20 m sprint time, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and eccentric utilization ratio (CMJ/SJ) were determined. Muscle soreness was measured using a Likert scale. Results: No training surface x time interactions were found for sprint time (p>0.87), whereas a trend was found for SJ (p = 0.08), with both groups showing similar improvements (p<0.001). On the other hand, the grass group improved their CMJ (p = 0.033) and CMJ/SJ (p = 0.005) significantly (p<0.001) more than players in the sand group. In contrast, players in the sand group experienced less muscle soreness than those in the grass group (p<0.001). Conclusions: Plyometric training on sand improved both jumping and sprinting ability and induced less muscle soreness. A grass surface seems to be superior in enhancing CMJ performance while the sand surface showed a greater improvement in SJ. Therefore, plyometric training on different surfaces may be associated with different training-induced effects on some neuromuscular factors related to the efficiency of the stretch-shortening cycle.
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Context Land and aquatic plyometrics have clinical relevance for exercise, sport performance, and rehabilitation, yet study is limited comparing both. Objective To compare the effects of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric-training programs on performance variables, muscle soreness, and range of motion (ROM). Setting Aquatic facility and biomechanics laboratory. Subjects Forty subjects randomly assigned to 3 groups: land (n = 13), water (n = 13), and control (n = 14). Main Outcome Measures Performance variables, muscle soreness, and ROM were measured before and after an 8-week training period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a Bonferroni post hoc test determined significance. Results ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups with respect to plantar-flexion ROM ( P < .05). Paired t test determined that the aquatic group significantly increased muscle power pretest to posttest ( P < .05). Conclusions Results indicate that aquatic plyometric training can be an alternative approach to enhancing performance.
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The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness. In the second section chapters deal with individual conditioning exercises, conditioning for cardiorespiratory endurance, advanced conditioning methods, and weight training. The final part examines additional concerns related to physical fitness. Nutrition, weight control, and exercise are discussed as well as activity and heart disease. The relative merits of various sports and physical fitness are also considered. The appendix includes test scores for women and men, a body composition chart, and physical fitness profile charts. A glossary of terms is included. (JD)
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Plyometric training (PLY) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last 3 decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to lower-body PLY and its effects on human neural and musculoskeletal systems, athletic performance and injury prevention. We also considered studies that combined lower-body PLY with other popular training modalities, as well as studies that applied PLY on non-rigid surfaces. The available evidence suggests that PLY, either alone or in combination with other typical training modalities, elicits numerous positive changes in the neural and musculoskeletal systems, muscle function and athletic performance of healthy individuals. Specifically, the studies have shown that long-term PLY (i.e. 3-5 sessions a week for 5-12 months) represents an effective training method for enhancing bone mass in prepubertal/early pubertal children, young women and premenopausal women. Furthermore, short-term PLY (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 6-15 weeks) can change the stiffness of various elastic components of the muscle-tendon complex of plantar flexors in both athletes and non-athletes. Short-term PLY also improves the lower-extremity strength, power and stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle function in healthy individuals. These adaptive changes in neuromuscular function are likely the result of (i) an increased neural drive to the agonist muscles; (ii) changes in the muscle activation strategies (i.e. improved intermuscular coordination); (iii) changes in the mechanical characteristics of the muscle-tendon complex of plantar flexors; (iv) changes in muscle size and/or architecture; and (v) changes in single-fibre mechanics. Our results also show that PLY, either alone or in combination with other training modalities, has the potential to (i) enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting, agility and endurance performance) in children and young adults of both sexes; and (ii) to reduce the risk of lower-extremity injuries in female athletes. Finally, available evidence suggests that short-term PLY on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic- or sand-based PLY) could elicit similar increases in jumping and sprinting performance as traditional PLY, but with substantially less muscle soreness. Although many issues related to PLY remain to be resolved, the results of this review allow us to recommend the use of PLY as a safe and effective training modality for improving lower-extremity muscle function and functional performance of healthy individuals. For performance enhancement and injury prevention in competitive sports, we recommend an implementation of PLY into a well designed, sport-specific physical conditioning programme.