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There is an increasingly high relationship between reading and speaking skills. There is no question that people who develop large reading vocabularies tend to develop large speaking vocabularies. Indeed, reading power relies on continuous improvement in vocabulary knowledge that provides communication. The importance of word knowledge, which facilitates speaking skills, has been a major resource in the development of reading skills. Therefore fostering improvement in word knowledge through wide reading has the potential for fostering improvement in speaking skills. This article focuses on how printed words relate to spoken words and finally how reading contributes to speech.
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International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 2, No. 6; 2012
ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Developing Speaking Skills through Reading
Çağrı Tuğrul Mart
Correspondence: Çağrı Tuğrul Mart, Department of Languages, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq. Tel:
964-750-308-61-22. E-mail:
Received: October 17, 2012 Accepted: November 6, 2012 Online Published: November 29, 2012
doi:10.5539/ijel.v2n6p91 URL:
There is an increasingly high relationship between reading and speaking skills. There is no question that people
who develop large reading vocabularies tend to develop large speaking vocabularies. Indeed, reading power
relies on continuous improvement in vocabulary knowledge that provides communication. The importance of
word knowledge, which facilitates speaking skills, has been a major resource in the development of reading
skills. Therefore fostering improvement in word knowledge through wide reading has the potential for fostering
improvement in speaking skills. This article focuses on how printed words relate to spoken words and finally
how reading contributes to speech.
Keywords: reading skills, speaking skills, vocabulary knowledge
1. Introduction
“Where there is little reading there will be little language learning. ... the student who wants to learn English will
have to read himself into a knowledge of it unless he can move into an English environment” (Bright and
McGregor, 1970, p.52).
Language acquisition without reading is difficult. Reading is a good way of comprehension. A good reader is
able to understand sentences and structures of a written text. Bright and McGregor are of the opinion that reading
is ‘the most pleasant route to command of the language’, because it is via reading ‘the student is most likely to
find words used memorably with force and point.’(1970, p.53). It appears that reading is a key factor in language
learning. One important notion of developing reading skills and speaking skills is to use the language for
learning as well as communication. Reading can play a big part in successful language learning. It can develop
speaking skills. It needs to be noted that speaking holds a very significant place in foreign language learning
because through speech messages are conveyed. According to Ur (1996, p.120), “of all the four skills (listening,
speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important”.
Reading outside the classroom is the most significant influence on oral communication ability. Students who
read a lot are more likely to speak well. Students through reading develop in both fluency and accuracy of
expression in their speaking. Davies and Pearse (2000) stresses the importance of communication as: “Real
success in English teaching and learning is when the learners can actually communicate in English inside and
outside the classroom.”
2. Speaking
Speaking is being capable of speech, expressing or exchanging thoughts through using language. “Speaking is a
productive aural/oral skill and it consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning (Nunan,
2003, p.48).” (Harmer, 2001) notes down that from the communicative point of view, speaking has many
different aspects including two major categories – accuracy, involving the correct use of vocabulary, grammar
and pronunciation practised through controlled and guided activities; and, fluency, considered to be ‘the ability
to keep going when speaking spontaneously’. Bygate (1991, p.3), also emphasizes knowledge of the language,
and skill in using this knowledge for an effective communication. Language knowledge and skill in using it, are
considered two fundamental elements of an effective communication.
Among the elements necessary for spoken production, are the following (Harmer, 2001, p.269).
Connected Speech: effective learners of English need to be able not only to produce the individual
phonemes of English (as in saying I would have gone) but also to use fluent ‘connected speech’ as in (I’d
‘ve gone). In connected speech sounds are modified, omitted, added or weakened. International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 2, No. 6; 2012
Expressive Devices: native speakers of English change the pitch and stress of particular parts of utterances,
vary volume and speed, and show by other physical and non-verbal means how they are feeling.
Lexis and Grammar: spontaneous speech is marked by the use of number of common lexical phrases,
especially in the performance of certain language functions.
Negotiation and language: effective speaking benefits from the negotiatory language we use to seek
clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying.
This study highlights vocabulary and grammar knowledge among these elements. Reading will enable learners to
develop their vocabulary and grammar knowledge which will effectively contribute to their speaking skills.
Vocabulary and grammar knowledge will enable learners to understand so reading will increase learners’
understanding capability which they need for a better communication.
3. Reading
Reading is one of the most effective ways of foreign language learning. Reading simply is the interpretation of a
written message. Walter R. Hill (1979, p.4) briefly defines reading as what the reader does to get the meaning he
needs from contextual resources.
Reading is a fluent process of readers combining information from a text and their own background knowledge
to build meaning and the goal of reading is comprehension (Nunan, 2003, p.68). The ability to read requires that
the reader draw information from a text and combine it with information and expectations that the reader already
has (Grabe, Stoller, 2001, p.187). Alderson J.C. (2000) states that reading is built from two components: word
recognition and comprehension. These two components gained through reading will foster learners’ language
competence. Krashen and Terrell (1989, p.131) point out that reading enables learners to comprehend better
which is an important factor that can develop language competence.
Figure 1. Definition of reading (David Nunan. Practical English Language Teaching. 2003. p. 72)
Hedge (2003) writes the goals of learners’ in a reading process as:
The ability to read a wide range of texts in English.
Building a knowledge of language which will facilitate reading ability
Building schematic knowledge
The ability to adapt the reading style according to reading purpose (skimming, scanning)
Developing an awareness of the structure of written texts in English
Taking a critical stance to the contexts of the texts
Reading will add to learners’ conversational performance. Reading will help learners to decipher new words that
they need for conversations. Through reading language learners will have vocabulary knowledge which will
facilitate their speaking performance and their usage of structure in the target language will develop. These
components which are required through reading are all necessary for developing speaking skills. Similarly,
Williams (1984, p.13) suggests some reasons why language learners should read in a foreign language:
Learners can have further practice in the language that they have learnt,
Learners can practice language in order to reuse it in other skills such as speaking and writing, International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 2, No. 6; 2012
Learners can learn how to get benefit from the texts to extract the information they need,
Learners can find enjoyment or interest through reading.
4. Integrating Reading and Speaking Skills
In a reading process six component skills have been suggested. Among these knowledge fields vocabulary and
structural knowledge which are acquired through reading, influence learner’s speaking achievement.
1) Automatic recognition skills
2) Vocabulary and structural knowledge
3) Formal discourse structure knowledge
4) Content/world background knowledge
5) Synthesis and evaluation skills/strategies
6) Metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring (Grabe,1991, p.379).
How do these component skills contribute to speaking skills? Anne Lazaraton (2001, p.104) suggests that oral
communication is based on four dimensions or competences: grammatical competence (phonology, vocabulary,
word and sentence formation …); sociolinguistic competence (rules for interaction, social meanings); discourse
competence (cohesion and how sentences are liked together); and strategic competence (compensatory strategies
to use in difficult strategies).
Vocabulary knowledge and grammar are two essential factors of foreign language learning, and they both
influence learner’s speaking performance. Good knowledge of grammar is viewed as an essential aspect for
achievement in a foreign language. Grammar is important to learn the nature of language. Grammar helps
learners to build comprehensible sentences in speaking. In order to understand how language works, learners
should give attention to grammar. “If we only understand what others say partially and superficially, the
communication of ideas can’t be properly realized (Zhong-guo, Min-yan, 2007, p.63).” Reading will help
learners acquire vocabulary and grammar. Through reading learners see how words fit together. When learners
constantly engage in the target language, they begin noticing and mastering the patterns in the language.
Mccarthy (2000) states that lexical and grammatical knowledge are significantly correlated to reading
comprehension. This means learners will achieve better reading comprehension through grammar. Krashen (cited
in Hill and Holden, 1990, p.92) encourages reading because it is a great factor in foreign language improvement
and believes that students who read a lot are good at reading, good at writing and have a good vocabulary and
grammar knowledge. Learners see structure of a sentence and this enables them to build their own sentences and
Reading may contribute significantly to competence in a second language. There is good reason, in
fact, to hypothesize that reading makes a contribution to overall competence, to all four skills
(Krashen & Terrel, 1983, p.131)
Vocabulary knowledge is indispensable for effective communication. Lewis (1993, p.23) writes that learning
vocabulary is the core task in second language learning and any language skills of listening, speaking, reading,
writing, and translating cannot exist without vocabulary. Vocabulary is understanding the meaning of a word, so
communication does not occur if there are no words. Therefore reading is probably the best way to learn new
words. Reading results in incidental vocabulary acquisition (Lechmann, 2007). Nation supports this idea and
says: “Reading has long been seen as a major source of vocabulary growth” (Nation, 1995, p.7). Most people
recognize the important relationship between knowing words and reading well. Eskey, supporting this notion,
states that “the relationship between reading and vocabulary is well documented and reciprocal” (Eskey, 2005,
p.567). And, “in fact the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension is well
established in the reading literature” (Dole, Sloan, Trathen, 1995, p.452). Hedge (1985, p.77) also states that
through extensive reading learners advance their ability to of guessing the meanings of unknown words and
phrases from clues in the context and he concludes that students who read a lot outside the classroom may
increase both their comprehending the context and improving their vocabulary which are essential elements to
advance speaking skills.
A broad and deep vocabulary knowledge makes learners precise and articulate. Through reading learners see
how the new words connect to other words. “The more reading you will do, the more you will increase your
exposure to vocabulary that doesn’t usually make its way into the spoken language” (Cunningham, 1998). An
improved vocabulary will help learners develop their speaking skills. Speech without vocabulary cannot be
produced. Vocabulary is one of the essential and fundamental components of communication (Levelt, 1993). And International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 2, No. 6; 2012
Laufer (1997) stresses the importance of vocabulary knowledge and adds that without words to express a wider
range of meaning, communication in a second language cannot happen in a meaningful way. Learners will
improve their speaking competence if they have better vocabulary knowledge which they can get through
Sanacore (1994, p.604), is of the opinion that encouraging learners to read will lead them guessing the meanings
of words, phrases from the context, and the more they read the more they will understand the meanings of
sentences and concepts. And an ongoing reading habit will enable learners understand a text easily, even they do
not know meanings of some words in the text. Reading extensively will enhance their comprehension. Learners
will easily comprehend in the foreign language if they advance their ability of guessing the meanings of words
from context which will promote their speaking performance.
Dubin and Olshtain (1977, p.97) also point out that through extensive reading learners learn much vocabulary.
They emphasize the benefits of extensive reading as:
Students develop an ability to gain pleasure and also satisfaction from reading on their own in the language
they are learning.
They are exposed to the language in a more natural and less structured way. In other words, they get
different unpressured feeling on the structure of the language since they read for pleasure, and not for a
grade or a test.
Extensive reading has also effect on other language skills such as writing and speaking.
Extensive reading, or reading for pleasure, will help the students comprehend more and also continue to use
the language after the instruction.
Oya, Manalo, and Greenwood suggest that better vocabulary knowledge produces better oral performance (2009,
p.11). Accuracy and fluency of learners will get better through reading. They also claim that having good
vocabulary knowledge is one of the essential components to gain fluency in speaking performance (Oya, Manalo,
Greenwood, 2009, p.19). It needs to be noted that good vocabulary knowledge will give learners confidence in
their speaking performance.
Better vocabulary knowledge and having more words at one’s disposal is likely to facilitate the ability
to tell a story better, to demonstrate a more extensive range of language resources, and to come across
more intelligibly. Better vocabulary knowledge could also contribute to boosting the speaker’s
confidence, which would come across when speaking and influence the overall impression created.
(Oya, Manalo, Greenwood, 2009, p.19)
In the theoretical model of L1 and L2 speaking (Levelt, 1989, 1993), vocabulary has a central position in
forming an utterance with appropriate meanings and with syntactic, morphological, and phonological structures.
Levelt’s model suggests two points. First, vocabulary is always required in the formulation stage. In other words,
no speech can be produced without vocabulary, and vocabulary is indispensable to speaking performance.
Second, the lexicon consisting of lemmas and lexemes includes not only vocabulary size (i.e., primary meaning
and form [phonology]) but also depth (i.e., syntax and morphology), which suggests that both size and depth are
related to speaking performance (adapted from Rie Koizumi, 2005, p.53).
The study by Adams (1980) and Higgs and Clifford (1982) indicates close relationships between vocabulary as
part of overall speaking performance and overall speaking performance at low levels than at intermediate and
advance levels (adapted from Koizumi, 2005, p.53).
For spoken English the best reading materials are dramas, plays and dialogues. Learners have the opportunity to
find sentences and phrases used in our daily conversation in dramas, plays and dialogues because they are all
based on one person talking to another. Some studies have shown that using authentic texts has a positive effect
on learning the target language by developing communicative competence (Peacock, 1997). “A text is usually
regarded as authentic if it is not written for teaching purposes but for a real-life communicative purpose, where
the writer has a certain message to pass on to the reader. As such, an authentic text is one that possesses an
intrinsically communicative quality” (Lee, 1995). It is real language created by native speakers of the target
language in pursuit of communicative outcomes (Little, Devitt, & Singleton, 1989).
Integrating speaking and reading skills deepens students’ understanding of the reading material, reveals any
problem they have understanding a text, and, most importantly, lets them apply the information they have read
into authentic speaking practice that improves their fluency (Zhang, 2009, p.34). International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 2, No. 6; 2012
5. Conclusion
Communication without vocabulary will break down. One of the most useful ways to improve your
communication skills is extensive reading. Extensive reading will help you to develop your ability to express
ideas, whilst also enlarging the size of vocabulary. Vocabulary knowledge is one of the crucial factors that will
influence fluency in speaking. Reading introduces learners to a wider body of language and contexts. Reading
helps learners build up better grammar skills. As learners develop stronger reading skills, they develop more
sophisticated speaking skills.
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... 'keterampilan membaca', dan 写作 [xiězuò] 'keterampilan menulis' yang didukung dengan pengetahuan tentang unsur-unsur kebahasaan yang meliputi penggunaan kosa kata, penggunaan struktur tata bahasa, fonetik, serta pelafalan ejaan yang benar dan pengetahuan tentang budaya dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial unsur kebahasaan. Nunan (dalam Mart, 2012) mengatakan bahwa berbicara adalah sebuah keterampilan oral/lisan yang menghasilkan ungkapan-ungkapan verbal sistematis untuk menyampaikan sebuah makna. Keterampilan berbicara juga menjadi salah satu aspek yang diperlukan untuk mempelajari bahasa Mandarin. ...
... Sedangkan menurut Nuraeni (2002) berbicara adalah suatu proses penyampaian informasi dari pembicara menuju pendengar dengan tujuan adanya sebuah perubahan pengetahuan sikap dan keterampilan pendengar sebagai hasil dari diterimanya informasi. Dalam keterampilan berbicara dibutuhkan penguasaan kosa kata, sebagaimana diungkapkan oleh Mart (2012) bahwa pengetahuan kosakata dan tata bahasa adalah dua faktor penting dalam mempelajari bahasa asing, kedua faktor tersebut mempengaruhi kinerja pembicara. Dan juga sejalan dengan pendapat Putri & Kurniawan (2020) bahwa kesulitan belajar bahasa asing terutama dalam hal berbicara disebabkan oleh kurangnya penguasaan kosakata dan pemahaman terhadap gramatika bahasa asing tersebut. ...
... Ahli materi berpendapat bahwa kosakata yang ada di dalam materi sesuai dengan tingkat kemampuan siswa dalam memahami materi. Pendapat tersebut sejalan dengan pernyataan Mart (2012) bahwa pengetahuan kosakata dan tata bahasa adalah dua faktor penting dalam mempelajari bahasa asing, kedua faktor tersebut mempengaruhi kinerja pembicara. Butir pernyataan ketiga berkaitan dengan pendapat ahli materi mengenai kesesuaian gambar pada media "Magic Pocket魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]" dengan tema kehidupan sekolah. ...
Full-text available
Speaking skill is one of the skills that must be mastered in order to learn a language. Common problem that often occurs in high school students (SMA) is difficulty by pronouncing vocabulary and simple sentences. To overcome these problems, it is necessary to develop learning media that can help and support students in learning Mandarin. The aims of this research are to develop the learning media “Magic Pocket魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]” as a medium for the speaking skills of tenth-grade high school students. The ADDIE model (analyze, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used in this research. This development research resulted in learning media that included (1) 1 piece master card, (2) 4 piece picture cards, (3) 6 piece verb cards, (4) 4 piece pinyin cards, (5) 4 piece subject cards, (6) 1 piece help card, (7) 1 piece zonk card, and (8) 1 piece game rules card. The results of this research indicate that the learning media “Magic Pocket魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]” can make it easier for students to speak Mandarin language with the theme of school life. Keywords: Speaking skills, media development, media Magic Pocket 魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài] Abstrak: Keterampilan berbicara adalah salah satu keterampilan yang harus dikuasai dalam mempelajari sebuah bahasa. Permasalahan umum yang sering terjadi pada siswa sekolah menengah atas (SMA) adalah kesulitan melafalkan kosakata dan melafalkan kalimat sederhana. Untuk mengatasi masalah itu dibutuhkan sebuah pengembangan media pembelajaran yang dapat membantu dan mendukung siswa dalam mempelajari bahasa Mandarin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan media pembelajaran “Magic Pocket 魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]” sebagai media untuk keterampilan berbicara siswa kelas X tingkat SMA. Model ADDIE (analisis, desain, pengembangan, penerapan, dan evaluasi) digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian pengembangan ini menghasilkan media pembelajaran yang terdiri dari, (1) 1 buah kartu induk, (2) 4 buah kartu gambar, (3) 6 buah kartu kata kerja, (4) 4 buah kartu pinyin, (5) 4 buah kartu subjek, (6) 1 buah help card, (7) 1 buah zonk card, dan (8) 1 buah kartu aturan permainan. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan media pembelajaran “Magic Pocket 魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]” untuk keterampilan bahasa Mandarin kelas X dengan tema kehidupan sekolah. Kata kunci: keterampilan berbicara, pengembangan media, media Magic Pocket 魔术口袋 [móshù kǒudài]
... Dimyati and Mudjiono (2006) said that more pressed preparation made by teachers to attract students and provide information to students by implementation plans, and used achieve learning objectives. Khoii (2011) state, students problem on writing are; how to riise ide and how to show idea?. and supported else Mart (2012) state the value of speaking better use RRRV (video) than RRR (audio) because comfetence of vocavulary, grammer, when speaking Huriyah (2021) more pressed students reading learning and teacher tenique are significans, And Muzammil and Andy (2017) state that competence of speaking pronunciation more increasing than language componen else, and supoerted else Mombeini et al. (2013) state doing rehearsal help students get informasion to memori that doing usually with rehearsal, Richards and Renandya (2002) state writer must have competence hight writing such as planning, and management of idea either low writing such as exetly of word writing choeising vocabulary sign of reading. According to Ganyaupfu (2013), state learning becomes more effective if students are tasked to perform rather than just remembering some information. ...
... Another related variabel that supports is giftedness, and many supported researcher the same of novelty such as Adams-Byers et al. (2004), Bakar et al. (2014), Hariko and Ifdil (2017), Hoogeveen et al. (2009), Hwang (2009), Lo and Fung (2003, Mart (2012), Neihart (2007, Ormrod (2008), Pedersen (2002), Riyanto (2002), Winebrenner (2001), and Zeidner and Matthews (2017) and different novelthy researcher are Goleman. Bakar et al. (2014) stated that gifted students who own empathy tend not to force their desires on others to be exactly as they want to, capable to accept any judgment about themselves as well as to feel wholeheartedly the conditions that occur in their social environment so that they feel what others desire and need that then they can help them with their speciality, gifted students will be more aware of the dynamics of environment. ...
Learning Outcome ( A Field Research at SMA Duta Bangsa West Jakarta). This research is designed to analyze The Profesionalism Of Learning Teacher Affect Students Learning Out come of English Language Senior High School West Jakarta, A Field Research SMAN West Jakarta. The Hypothesis tested are: 1. There is a positif direct effect of the professionalism of teaching teacher ( ) to Students English Language Learning Result (Y). 2. How Much the effect of the professionalism of teaching teacher toward to Students Result of reading English Language In Senior High School West Jakarta. A Field Research SMAN Duta Bangsa West Jakarta. This Study is a Survey: Where as the target population is all of the Second Year Students of the Public Senior Hight School in Westh Jakarta for the Academic year of 2015/2016 namely : SMA Duta Bangsa, and the Sample was taken by using random Sampling. The research was carried out from Oktober to Nopember. Encodes on Teachers Professionalism was obtained Through the instruments Handed out, Where as the data on Learning Results were obtained through Learning outcome test. The Obtained Encodes were tested with statistical analysis and biserial consist of correlation analysis, regression analysis and bi-serial regression analysis. The significance ratio was determined, as much as 5 percent (0,05).The result of this research are as Follows: 1. There is a positive direct the effect, the the professionalism of teaching teacher ( ) to the students reading English language learning result (Y), represented by the regression equation Y = 44,00 + X_1 which means that with every change of the constants 44,00 score of the profesionalism Of teaching teachers will affect the score of -0,1589 or 15,89% classroom learning outcomes of students VIII SMA Duta Bangsa in West Jakarta. Constanta value β =44,00 indicates that, if the profesionalism teacher is ignored, then the result of reading learning language Students Is = 44,00. R_2 value= 0.1589 indicates that the profesionalism teacher affects 0,1589 or 15,89%, students reading learning English out come of graders XI SMA Duta Bangsa in West Jakarta, and the rest influenced by other factors. The result of this study is expected to be useful in improving of reading English learning result for the students of SMA Duta Bangsa through the activity of improving the Teachers professionalism such as evaluating teachers work, Carrying but, training such as, evaluating teachers work, carrying out training for Teachers and students and improving extra curriculum activities. 2. There is a positive direct impact, the professionalism of teaching teacher (X¹) on students result (Y), the coefficient value P²¹= 44,00, because the value of the P-Value 0.158 significant at a =0.05, then Ho is rejected, which means significantly there is a positive direct effect, of the professionalism teaching teacher (X¹) on student result (Y).
... Argawati (2014) states that speaking is an activity used by someone to communicate with others. Meanwhile, Mart (2012) defines speaking is being capable of speech, express or exchange thoughts through using language. ...
Speaking skill plays an important role in communication. Speaking skill is needed not only in our daily language but also we need it to use it using an international language. Speaking skill is not easy, especiall for vocational high school. In addition, teacher needs to find the solution to help the students to master of it. Teacher should be creative and use elective strategy that still can supervise students individually, so students can learn and teacher can focus on the students even though in a group. To keep students from boredom while improving their speaking skill, teacher can use a small group in learning to invite students to talk more and critics more. Small group discussion is one of way for teacher and students to use it while the students learn how to improve their speaking skill and teachers easily to focus on students and help the teacher to give feedback for students individually. This research aimed at indentifiying students’ improvement on their speaking mastery after learning using small group discussion in the classroom. The participant of this study is students of senior high school in lampung province. Data gathered through questionnaire. The result of this research that using small group discussion in improving speaking skill to be effective, because in small group students more confidance to deliver their idea dan critize to think and matches the characteristics of children as a learners.
... Grounded in the main concepts pointed out by the European Commission (2012), exposure to language through digital media positively correlates to better oral results. Likewise, Tugrul (2012) corroborates the existence of a high relationship between reading in the target language and speaking. Furthermore, the European Commission (2012) mentions the importance of a family's FL level and the opportunities to use it for the development of oral skills at an early age. ...
The aim of this research study is to analyse the impact of interdisciplinary Project Based Learning (PBL) for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching on speaking skill results. A quasi-experimental design was selected to that effect, with a control group (24 participants) and an experimental one (22 participants) from the 5th grade of Primary Education, in the bilingual region of The Basque Country (Spain). The intervention for the control group was founded on a traditional method, whereas the experimental one was developed through interdisciplinary projects. Furthermore, the effect of the method on students’ motivation was measured as well. There was no initial difference between the groups, but there was a statistically significant difference, associated with the instruction method, in the experimental groups’ post-test speaking results. Moreover, data showed a significant difference in motivation in favour of the control group. Notwithstanding, the variance of the groups for the results in motivation were different. The findings revealed that the effect of the interdisciplinary PBL to EFL teaching was greater on the speaking results. Nevertheless, the difference in motivation could not be directly attributed to the training method.
... Speaking is the ability to express or exchange thoughts through language (Mart, 2012). It is essential for teachers to attempted to understand the students' ideas and the students' mathematical development up to a higher level and allow students to explain their ideas through language, mathematical symbols (Inprasitha, 2004) and consistent with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000) stated that communication about mathematical concepts is a way for students to make meaningful words and clarified the system to gather ideas through oral means, gestures, images, objects and symbols. ...
... To address some of these ongoing problems and improve the widely adopted teaching approach which focuses primarily on reading and grammar, a more interactive teaching method such as interactive reading comprehension teaching can be added to encourage students to orally communicate the knowledge gained from their reading and translation via individual and group assignments. The beneficial integration of speaking into teaching reading has long been documented (Bright & McGregor,1978;Krashen & Terrell, 2005;Oya, Malano, & Greenwood, 2009;Zhang, 2009;Mart, 2012;Hwang et al., 2016). Students who have acquired large reading vocabulary are inclined to develop more speaking vocabulary for speaking fluency (Laufer, 1997;Oya et al., 2009), and successful orators have always been readers of extensive literature (Bright & McGregor, 1978). ...
This paper reports on the effectiveness of Interactive Reading Comprehension Teaching (IRCT) in improving the oral English communication ability of Prince of Songkla University (PSU) undergraduates. It is based on a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study employing IRCT, composed of self–study reading assignments and a structured peer-teaching project. The participants who were purposively sampled to partake in the study included 105 second- and third-year undergraduates from various faculties who were enrolled in a functional reading course, of which 46 was assigned to the control group and 49 was treated as the experimental group. One-on-one and group oral assessments were administered to both groups at the end of the course after IRCT implementation. The results showed IRCT had a very positive effect on the oral communication skills of the students in the experimental group, significantly improving their confidence and motivation toward speaking English. The students’ opinions from a questionnaire also revealed high speaking improvement, reinforced by evidence from close observations, interviews, and student work samples. IRCT was, therefore recommended as a reading-based approach to improving students’ oral English communication.
... Students with low grammar skills have a more difficult time absorbing the words used. Reading will strengthen their comprehension and ability to guess the meanings of words based on context, which will improve their speaking performance (Mart, 2012). In addition, linguistic difficulty, native tongue use, and avoidance are the three main speech problems that students face (Hosni, 2014). ...
Although there have been numerous studies on online learning in language classes, fewer studies focus on EFL speaking. This qualitative case study aimed at describing students’ perceptions toward the implementation of online learning in speaking classes. The participants were EFL students taking a speaking course in an Indonesian university. Open-response questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were employed. The results showed that students had positive attitudes toward online learning through a Zoom application. It was also found that some challenges arose toward the implementation of online learning. It is suggested that the lecturers should emphasize more on collaborative and blended learning in teaching EFL speaking.
... Irwin (2021) mentioned that an improved reading comprehension helps to expand vocabularies and able to gain greater control over complex syntactic structure. This was supported by Mart (2012) who opined that developing large reading vocabularies tend to improve large speaking vocabularies. In other words, encouraging the improvement of word knowledge through wide reading has the potential to enhance speech skills. ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of Self-Directed Learning technique in improving the communication skills in English of students. Sixteen sophomore BS Education majors in English were chosen on purpose. Focus groups were conducted to obtain the necessary information. The analysis of information yielded five themes: increasing language competency, encouraging independent learning, learning through the internet, and becoming more reading focused. Each theme were discussed. It was concluded that regardless of the good implications that Self-Directed Learning brings to learners, the truth remains that students who use Self-Directed Learning requires the guidance and monitoring of teachers in order for students to completely appreciate the significant effects and benefits of the technique. Giving students complete control over their learning can lead to inaccuracy and danger. The results implicate the current situation of COVID 19 where academic institutions are adapting the blended and flexible modalities.
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis bagaimana implementasi e-learning untuk mata pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Katolik (PAK) di SMP Negeri Muting, salah satu sekolah di kawasan pedalaman Papua selatan. Data primer diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan 30 informan (para siswa, guru PAK, Kepala Sekolah dan orangtua). Apa yang dirumuskan sebagai pokok permasalahan dijawab dan dikaji melalui pendekatan kualitatif, dengan analisis data secara deskriptif dan induktif. Hasil penelitian menjelaskan bahwa e-learning untuk mata pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Katolik tidak dapat diimplementasikan secara efektif di SMP Negeri Muting. Faktor penghambat yang paling dominan dan utama adalah ketidakstabilan jaringan baik jaringan listrik maupun internet. Faktor penghambat yang ada juga dialami dalam penerapan e-learning untuk mata pelajaran lainnya. Faktor lainnya adalah SDM guru PAK, kepemilikan gadget oleh para siswa, ekonomi orangtua dan kesulitan teknis lainnya. Realitas ini memberi ruang sekaligus mendesak guru PAK untuk menemukan metode pembelajaran yang lebih cocok di masa pandemi covid-19, sehingga hak para siswa tidak terabaikan.
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Understanding students' perspectives and differentiating classroom practices based on student needs are considered effective educators' primary purposes in improving the foreign language learning process. How teachers conduct and teach their classes significantly affects how students cope with their learning. For this reason, this phenomenological study aimed to identify the perspectives among 12 Ecuadorian ninth graders on the 4/3/2 technique and self-assessment used to improve their English-speaking fluency during a five-week class. The data were collected through interviews and visual narratives and analyzed using grounded theory. The results of the study show that the 4/3/2 technique presented three categories (I learned because I repeated; I increased my speaking speed and decreased word repetitions; I got nervous when I had to speak faster). Self-assessment presented two categories (I learned from my mistakes; We were aware of our progress, which motivated us). Thus, this study has shown the importance of identifying students' perspectives on the two learning strategies used in class. By doing this, teachers can select the appropriate technique for that specific learning context based on the students' perceptions and foreign language theories. Further research is still necessary for the Ecuadorian context to explore how students' perspective on the teachers' learning methodologies affect them, especially their emotions.
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This presentation will introduce different yet complementary empirical studies as part of the TOETOE (Technology for Open English – Training with Open E-resources) project, managed by Alannah Fitzgerald, with SCORE and Durham University’s English Language Centre (DUELC). Teaching participants involved in an OER cascade project carried out at DUELC, Terri Edwards, Jeff Davidson, Clare Carr and Lesley Kendall, all experienced practitioners in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) will present their first-hand experience of engaging with open practices for the first time with the design, development and delivery of innovative OER for EAP courses. OER in open file format were developed for teacher and learner training across two different EAP student cohorts (intermediate and proficient users of English) of two classes each for enhancing student writing and vocabulary acquisition in their specific subject domains. Both students and teachers made impactful changes in their language learning and teaching practice by utilising a range of open content and open tools. A variety of innovative OER were employed in the study, including: open corpora derived from Google and Wikipedia collections as part of the FLAX (Flexible Language Acquisition Project) based at the University of Waikato in New Zealand; open source tools for text analysis found in FLAX and in the Compleat Lexical Tutor centred at the Université du Québec à Montréal with the Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance at Concordia University in Canada, and; open source software for building your own corpora, AntConc, established at Waseda University in Japan Leading English Language Teaching (ELT) practitioners were also interviewed about their work in promoting openness in ELT. An exploration of the different motivations for those practitioners’ commitment to the open agenda will be presented, including reasons for: sharing and endorsing OER and open practices for ELT; building open corpora and open platforms for data driven language learning, and; developing open source software for interactive language learning tools. A widening OER for EAP stakeholder vision will also be presented in the context of informal and formal learning communities who are now engaging with these types of OER for language learning. This is based on two scoping exercises attached to the TOETOE project, involving the newly launched OER University’s (OERu) prototype 2012 plans for accreditation and curriculum development and exploring where OER for EAP would be a ‘good fit’, and the newly formed web resources sub committee within BALEAP, formerly a British organisation but now with an outreach mandate to become ‘the’ global forum for EAP practitioners. Identifying how these different stakeholders collaborate around OER for EAP within formal face-to-face and distance education as well as informal education routes via not-for-profit organisations such as the OERu will provide insights into how effectively OER are discovered, used, shared and sustained and whether greater synergy can be attained between these different communities of practice.
The paper deals with the challenges faced by a teacher of English as a foreign language, starting from the consideration that every lesson will be successful if there is a good discipline. However, disciplining students requires a lot of thought, planning, and self-confidence and young teachers have the greatest trouble with class management. By using devices such as rewards, punishments, appearance, behaviour, and a wide range of interactive tasks (e.g. listening and writing), many of the problems may be overcome successfully.
This article focuses on the skill of speaking. The study of speaking-like the study of other uses of language-is properly an interdisciplinary enterprise. It involves understanding the psycholinguistic and interpersonal factors of speech production, the forms, meanings, and processes involved, and how these can be developed. This article views speaking as a multilevel, hierarchical skill, in which high-level plans, in the form of speaker intentions, are realized through the processes of formulation and articulation under a range of conditions. For the purposes of this article, spoken language is taken to be colloquial in the two senses of representing dialogue and of representing the features typically associated with the everyday use of language. This article first outlines the need for an integrated account of oral language processing. It then presents such an account, considers the range of formal features that characterize spoken language, and reviews oral language pedagogy in the light of this account. The conclusion outlines issues for further exploration.