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Mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris , Artemisia douglasiana , Artemisia argyi ) in the Treatment of Menopause, Premenstrual Syndrome, Dysmenorrhea and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder



Mugwort has many traditional uses around the world. The Chumash Indians of California use it to treat imbalances that women may suffer such as premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. The plant contains a sesquiterpene that appears to work through a serotonergic mechanism and may be beneficial for women. Mugwort therapy is safer for menopausal women than hormone replacement therapy. Children affected by attention deficit hy-peractivity disorder benefit from mugwort therapy. There is no doubt that mugwort therapy is safer for these children than methylphenidate or amphetamine.
Chinese Medicine, 2012, 3, 116-123 Published Online September 2012 (
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia douglasiana,
Artemisia argyi) in the Treatment of Menopause,
Premenstrual Syndrome, Dysmenorrhea and Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
James David Adams, Cecilia Garcia, Garima Garg
University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, USA
Received June 19, 2012; revised July 16, 2012; accepted July 30, 2012
Mugwort has many traditional uses around the world. The Chumash Indians of California use it to treat imbalances that
women may suffer such as premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. The plant contains a
sesquiterpene that appears to work through a serotonergic mechanism and may be beneficial for women. Mugwort
therapy is safer for menopausal women than hormone replacement therapy. Children affected by attention deficit hy-
peractivity disorder benefit from mugwort therapy. There is no doubt that mugwort therapy is safer for these children
than methylphenidate or amphetamine.
Keywords: Mugwort; Artemisia vulgaris; Artemisia argyi; Artemisia douglasiana; Menopause; Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
1. Introduction
Mugwort is found in Europe (Artemisia vulgaris), Africa
(Artemisia vulgaris), India (Artemisia vulgaris), Asia
(Artemisia argyi) and America (Artemisia douglasiana).
This plant may have been transported throughout the
world by early humans who needed it for its medicinal
and food value. It can be easily transported as seeds. The
meaning of mugwort may be marsh root since it grows
near permanent sources of water. In Chinese, mugwort is
lou hao. In Chumash Indian, mugwort is molush. The
scientific name Artemisia comes from Artemis, Greek
Goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth
and virginity. Artemis is capable of bringing or relieving
disease in women.
The three species of mugwort differ somewhat in ap-
pearance, perhaps the result of growing in different habi-
tats for thousands of years. Mugwort is easy to grow
from seeds and likes shade. The perennial plants grow to
2.5 meters high and have variably lobed oblanceolate
leaves with 1 to 7 lobes. The leaves can be up to 15 cm
long, are green on top and white, tomentose on the un-
derside. The stem and roots are woody. The flowers grow
in panicles as small disciform heads, less than 5 mm in
diameter, contain 5 - 9 pistillate flowers and 6 - 25 disk
2. European Traditional Uses
Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, is used in Europe as a bit-
ter aromatic and is rarely used [1]. It is intended to
stimulate gastric secretions in patients with poor appetite,
is used against flatulence, distention, colic, diarrhea, consti-
pation, cramps, worm infestations, hysteria, epilepsy, vom-
iting, menstrual problems, irregular periods, to promote
circulation and as a sedative. This sedative effect may be
responsible for internet reports of the use of A. vulgaris
to induce dreams. The root has different uses, as a tonic,
for psychoneuroses, neurasthenia, depression, autonomic
neuroses, irritability, restlessness, insomnia and anxiety.
A. vulgaris is described as an abortifacient without dis-
cussion of the preparation used [1].
The plant contains many active compounds including
the monoterpenes, eucalyptol, camphor, linalool, thujone,
4-terpineol, borneol, α-cadinol, spathulenol and 21 others
[1]. These monoterpenes are present in the essential oil
that makes up 0.03% - 0.3% of the plant. The plant also
contains sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene lactones such
as eudesmane, vulgarin, psilostachyin and psilostachyin
C [1]. Flavonol glycosides are present including quercitin
3-O-glucoside, rutin and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside [1].
Coumarins are found such as aesculetin, aesculin, um-
belliferone, scopoletin, coumarin and 6-methoxy-7,8-
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J. D. ADAMS ET AL. 117
methylene-dioxycoumarin [1]. Polyacetylenes, carote-
noids and pentacyclic triterpenes are present such as si-
tosterol and stigmasterol [1].
3. Pharmacology of Artemisia Plants
Many monoterpenoids are pain and anxiety relievers due
to inhibition of transient receptor potential cation chan-
nels [2]. These channels are found on sensory afferent
neurons of the skin and are usually responsive to heat or
cold. They are also found in the brain, spinal cord and
lungs [2]. The involvement of the brain transient receptor
potential channels in anxiety has not been investigated.
Most of these channels have six transmembrane spanning
units and large intracellular amino and carboxy terminal
portions [2]. Most of them allow sodium and calcium to
enter the cell. The vanilloid receptors (TRPV) have
amino terminal ankyrin repeat domains and a carboxy
terminal TRP box. The TRPA channels (ankyrin) have
many ankyrin repeats in the amino terminal. The TRPM
channels (melastatin) have a TRP box in the carboxy ter-
minal. Several drugs are available that act on these chan-
nels, such as capsaicin (TRPV1) and menthol (TRPM8).
More than a dozen drug candidates are in clinical trials
that act on these channels to relieve pain. Typically an
agonist at these channels causes transient channel open-
ing that is followed by long term channel closing and
pain relief [2].
Several monoterpenoids have reported pain relieving
activity such as camphor [3-5], eucalyptol [4-6, also
called 1,8-cineole], camphene [4,5], β-pinene [4-6], bor-
neol [4,5,7] and thujone [8]. Most of the pain relieving
monoterpenoids found in A. vulgaris are agonists for
TRPV3 (heat sensing) including camphor [3,9,10], bor-
neol, thujone and eucalyptol [10]. Camphor is also an
antagonist for the TRPA1 (TRP ankyrin-repeat1, cold-
sensitive) receptor and an agonist for the TRPV1 (heat-
sensitive) receptor [3]. Eucalyptol has been shown to also
be a TRPM8 (cold-sensitive) receptor agonist and to ex-
hibit an antinociceptive activity comparable to or greater
than that of morphine [11].
Some monoterpenoids have reported anti-inflamma-
tory properties such as camphene and β-pinene [12,13].
The monoterpene, borneol has been shown to have high
anti-inflammatory activity [14], which results from the
inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2
(PGE2) production due to inhibition of NF-κB activation
(nuclear factor κB). The NF-κB mechanism involves
increasing the expression of IKK (inhibitor of NF-κB
kinase), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and de-
creasing IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κBα) expression in
dose-dependent manners [13,14].
Some sesquiterpenoids are anti-inflammatory agents
[12]. In fact, a sesquiterpene from Artemisia pallens is
reported to have strong anti-inflammatory activity and is
topically active [15]. In other words, it penetrates the
skin after topical administration and relieves inflamma-
tion. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of a
sesquiterpene, 7-hydroxyfrullanolide, appears to be inhi-
bition of an NF-κB pathway [16]. IKKβ phosphorylation
was shown to be inhibited by 7-hydroxyfrullanolide,
which resulted in inhibition of NF-κB translocation into
the nucleus. Several sesquiterpenes inhibit the production
of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines. 7-Hydroxy-
frullanolide inhibits the production of inflammatory ad-
hesion proteins such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-se-
lectin [16]. This inhibits monocyte induced inflammation.
Patchouli alcohol, a tricyclic sequiterpene, inhibits tumor
necrosis factor-α, IL-1β (interleukin-1β), cyclooxyge-
nase-2, and iNOS production [17]. This results in less
NO and PGE2 production, less inflammation and less
edema. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone present in
several plants, inhibits inflammation in the brain and
other organs by decreasing IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α
and cyclooxygenase-2 production [18]. This results in
lowered body temperature and occurs through an NF-κB
inhibition mechanism. NF-κB activation is inhibited,
especially in the hypothalamus. Alpha-bisabolol is an-
other anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene that is found in
several plants. Alpha-bisabolol has been shown to de-
crease iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 production by inhib-
iting NF-κB activation [19]. A plant used by Native
Americans, Eupatorium perfoliatum, has been found to
be anti-inflammatory due to the presence of sesquiter-
penes [20]. A structure-activity study of 26 sesquiterpene
lactones was conducted to elucidate the structural re-
quirements for inhibition of iNOS production and found
potent inhibition down to micromolar levels [21]. This
clearly indicates that sesquiterpenes are very useful
anti-inflammatory and fever decreasing agents that have
been used for centuries in plant medicines around the
Flavonols can be anti-inflammatory agents. For in-
stance, women who have higher intake of flavonol rich
foods, especially citrus fruits, have lower blood levels of
inflammatory proteins, including VCAM, C-reactive pro-
tein, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 and IL-18
[22]. Kaempferol, kaempferol
side and quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-
beta-D-glucopyranoside have been found to be anti-in-
flammatory agents and can be topically active in paw
edema tests [23]. These flavonols inhibit production of
iNOS [23]. Some flavonols, such as papyriflavonol A,
are phospholipase A2 inhibitors and potently inhibit the
enzyme with IC50 values of 4 micromolar [24]. Inhibi-
tion of phospholipase A2 decreases leukotriene C4 pro-
duction, decreases allergic reactions and results in less
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. CM
inflammation [24]. A nasal spray made from Artemisia
abrotanum is anti-inflammatory, contains monoterpenes
and flavonols [25]. This spray was tested in a clinical
trial and found to relieve bronchoconstriction in 50% of
patients [25]. Allergic rhinitis was relieved by the nasal
spray in 100% of patients [25].
Coumarins are pharmacologically important agents
found in Artemisia plants. Umbelliferone, also called
7-hydroxycoumarin, is a pain relieving agent, relieves in-
flammation and relieves fever in animal tests [26]. It is
also topically active. Umbelliferone also inhibits inflam-
matory cytokine production, such as IL-12 and inter-
feron-gamma, produced by viral infections [27]. Um-
belliferone is antihyperglycemic in rats and has activity
comparable to glibenclamide [28]. It also decreases blood
levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids,
free fatty acids, LDL-C, VLDL-C and increases HDL-C
in diabetic rats [29]. Aesculetin, also called 6,7-dihy-
droxycoumarin, is a lipoxygenase inhibitor that inhibits
the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a
model of atherosclerosis [30]. Aesculetin inhibits the
activation of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase by
inhibiting c-fos and c-jun transcription [30]. Aesculetin
also inhibits activation of NF-κB, activator protein-1 and
phosphoinositide 3-kinase [30]. Coumarin, umbelliferone
and esculetin have antitumor activity [31,32] even in hu-
man clinical trials [32].
It may be important that Artemisia plants contain high
amounts of both monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes.
Both classes of agents have anti-inflammatory activity
due to inhibition of NF-κB activation. It is not known
how monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes may interact in
this mechanism, perhaps to enhance anti-inflammatory
activity and decrease fevers. This may involve decreas-
ing cyclooxygenase-2 synthesis. The presence of flavo-
nols may add to the anti-inflammatory effects of Ar-
temisia plants due to inhibition of iNOS production and
phospholipase A2 inhibition. Coumarins may increase
the anti-inflammatory activity of the plants by inhibition
of lipoxygenase. Artemisia plants may be potent pain
relieving and anti-inflammatory medicines due to these
compounds. Each class of compound may enhance the
activity of the other classes through additive or synergis-
tic mechanisms.
4. Traditional Recipes for the Use of
Mugwort in Europe and India
In Europe a tea is made from 150 ml of boiling water
poured over 1.2 g of dried A. vulgaris leaves, stems and
flowers [1]. This is allowed to steep in a covered vessel
for 5 min before it is strained and consumed. Two or
three cups of this strong tea are drunk daily before meals.
The German Commission E has not substantiated the
efficacy of this preparation.
In India, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, nagadamni in
Sanskrit) is used as an antispasmodic, expectorant, sto-
machic, tonic, laxative, antihysteric and anthelmintic [33].
It is used for menstrual problems, metorrhagia and to
prevent abortion. In children it is used as a decoction
against measles and as a leaf juice against whooping
cough. Leaf powder is used against hemorrhage, dysen-
tery, intestinal complaints, urinary tract problems and
skin diseases. A strong tea is made from 14 - 28 ml of
boiling water and 0.5 - 1 g of powdered leaves.
5. Chinese Traditional Uses
In China, mugwort (Artemisia argyi) is used mostly for
moxibustion [34,35]. Moxibustion is direct or indirect.
For direct moxibustion, a cone of dried A. argyi leaf pow-
der is placed on the skin and burned. The cone can be
taken off before the skin burns or can be allowed to burn
and scar the skin. Indirect moxibustion involves using a
cigar of A. argyi leaves to heat the skin. A. argyi is used
to stimulate blood flow and qi at specific points on the
skin, sometimes acupuncture points. This can be benefi-
cial in pain, weakness, fatigue associated with aging and
in turning fetuses for head down delivery. The dried
leaves are also used as a tea for analgesia, excessive men-
struation and bleeding during pregnancy.
A. argyi contains carveol, α-phellandrene, α-terpineol,
4-terpineol, eucalyptol, borneol, spathulenol, camphor, ca-
mazulene, β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene alcohol,
chrysartemin A, chrystemin B, arteminolides, and mox-
artenolide. Triterpenes include glutinone, fernenone, lu-
penone, simiarenol, α-amyrin acetate and β-amyrin ace-
tate. Flavones present are scopoletin, isoscopoletin, eu-
patilin, jaceosidin, apigenin, chrysoeriol and naringenin
[35]. Several of these compounds have antiasthmatic
effects including carveol, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol and
β-caryophyllene alcohol [35]. Several compounds are
analgesics including 4-terpineol, several of the monoter-
penes, α-amyrin and β-amyrin as discussed in the phar-
macology section [35]. Anxiolytic effects have been re-
ported for β-amyrin and several monoterpenes [35].
6. Chumash Indian Traditional Uses
Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana, is a traditional medi-
cine of the Chumash Indians of California and is used in
the treatment of menopausal symptoms, premenstrual
syndrome and dysmenorrhea [36,37]. The traditional
treatment for menopause is a mild, A. douglasiana tea.
This tea is much milder than the European A. vulgaris tea
above. A. douglasiana tea is made by placing a fresh or
dried leaf in 300 ml of water. The mixture is warmed
until it starts to boil at which time it is removed from the
heat. The tea is allowed to steep for a few minutes prior
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J. D. ADAMS ET AL. 119
to drinking. Sugar, honey or other sweeteners are not
Anxiety is a learned disorder that must be unlearned
[38]. It is treated, in part, with A. douglasiana. People
with anxiety attacks are treated once with sagebrush tea
in the evening. California sagebrush, Artemisia califor-
nica, leaves and stems are collected and put into a cloth
sack. The patient sleeps with this sack for one week.
During this time, meat must not be eaten. The sagebrush
leaves are measured in the palm of the hand. About a half
teaspoon of the dried leaves from the sack are mixed
with 300 ml of water and allowed to sit in the sun for 2
hours. This is heated with a stick of cinnamon (Cinna-
momum species) until it simmers. The patient drinks this
tea and does not add sugar or honey. Overweight people
should use a quarter of a teaspoon of sagebrush leaves,
since sagebrush can produce a strong reaction in them.
At the same time, four to six yerba santa leaves, Eriodic-
tyon crassifolium, seven flowers and seven leaves of
California jimson weed, Datura wrightii, and about ten
leaves of white sage, Salvia apiana, are put in 1.5 l of
water and allowed to boil moderately until the entire
house smells of the preparation. The patient drinks the
sagebrush tea while vaporizing over the E. crassifolium,
D. wrightii and S. apiana steam.
The next step, that evening, is a massage. The massage
oil is prepared by making a sun tea of four to six tobacco
leaves, Nicotiana quadrivalvis or Nicotiana glauca, and
four to seven leaves of S. apiana in 1.5 l of sea water.
This is brewed in the sun for a few hours, then put on the
stove to boil moderately until the entire house smells of
the preparation. Some of the tea is cooled, strained and
mixed with olive oil or baby oil to make a massage oil.
The massage should especially treat the areas under the
arms and below the butt.
For the next several weeks, the patient drinks 300 ml
of hot chocolate containing a S. apiana leaf and an A.
douglasiana leaf, every night before bed. It is best to use
a traditional chocolate such as Chocolate Ibarra that is
high in flavonols. Heat 300 ml of water to boiling. Re-
move it from the heat. Melt two or three tablespoons, 55
g, of the chocolate in the water with a whisk. Add the S.
apiana leaf and A. douglasiana leaf to this and steep for
a few minutes. Remove the leaves and drink the tea.
When the anxiety attacks decrease, the patient puts a
stick of cinnamon in 300 ml of water and heats it to a
simmer. The patient removes this from the heat and adds
a leaf of S. apiana. The tea is allowed to steep for five
min before drinking. This continues until the anxiety is
no longer a problem. One month or more of treatment is
needed to relieve anxiety attacks. Overweight people
may need to be treated longer than a month.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is treated by
stuffing dried A. douglasiana leaves into a cloth 5 pointed
star. The star should be the size of the palm and fingers
of the adult making the star. The child should play with
the star daily, especially during times of excessive activ-
ity. The child should also sleep with the star. After a few
weeks, the child will respond and become less active.
A. douglasiana is also called dream sage (sagebrush)
by Chumash Healers [36]. To induce dreams, place the
stems and leaves, under a pillow and sleep on the pillow.
The fragrance helps with dreaming. When the plant dries,
strip the leaves and stuff them into a small pillow. Place
this under the regular pillow and continue sleeping on
both pillows. This is a traditional use of A. douglasiana
especially in very ill or aged people who cannot dream.
Dreaming is considered an essential part of life and
American A. douglasiana contains a variety of phar-
macologically active compounds including many ses-
quiterpene lactones such as vulgarin and psilostachyin
[39-50], and probably monoterpenoids such as thujone
and alpha-pinene [51]. Of course, the very lipophilic mo-
noterpenoids, such as thujone, will not extract into an
aqueous tea. However, the sesquiterpene lactones can be
extracted into hot water [52]. A sesquiterpene lactone
isolated from A. douglasiana, dehydroleucodine, inhibits
the release of serotonin from gastroduodenal and other
cells [39-41]. It is possible that A. douglasiana may have
a serotonergic mechanism of action in decreasing meno-
pausal symptoms and attention deficit hyperactivity dis-
order. On the other hand, if dehydroleucodine inhibits
NF-κB activation, like other sesquiterpenes, it may de-
crease body temperature and inflammation. This is dis-
cussed in the pharmacology section.
Many of the monoterpenes found in A. douglasiana
are pain relievers and anxiolytic [53-60]. Pain relief
comes from inhibition of transient receptor potential ca-
tion channels [53,57,58]. The mechanism of relief of
anxiety is not known but may involve brain transient
receptor potential cation channel inhibition. The monoter-
pene thujone, found in A. douglasiana, has been found to
be safe in European medicines and foods [61].
The biochemical imbalance that results in attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder is not known. The fact that
amphetamine like compounds are used to treat the disor-
der, suggests that inadequate neurotransmitter release
may be involved in the disorder. Amphetamine is known
to enhance the release of dopamine, norepinephrine and
serotonin in the brain and neuronal synapses. Recent
evidence suggests that aberrant kinase activity is in-
volved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. An
aberrant deactivation of striatal dopamine (D1) receptor
cAMP protein kinase A DARP32 may be important [62].
DARP32 is dopamine and cAMP regulated neuronal
phosphoprotein 32. G-Protein coupled receptor kinase
interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has also been implicated in
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. CM
the disorder [63]. In addition, guanylyl cyclase-C may be
involved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [64].
Of course, guanylyl cyclase-C makes cGMP that acti-
vates several kinases. It is interesting that a recent meta
analysis suggests that several drugs that do not act
through an amphetamine like mechanism are effective in
the disorder [65]. These drugs include clonidine, desip-
ramine, guanfacine and atomoxetine. Clearly, the disor-
der is more complex and less well understood than some
reviews suggest.
A. douglasiana has been reported to induce abortion
[36]. It is not clear what preparation of A. douglasiana
was used or the mechanism of induction of abortion.
Estragole has been found in some species of Artemisia
(Artemisia dracunculus, tarragon). Estragole induces
cancer, especially in female mice. However, A. dracun-
culus is on the FDA list of GRAS agents and is not
known to induce cancer in humans. Mugwort (A. doug-
lasiana) has not been reported to contain estragole.
Desvenlafaxine has been found to effectively decrease
the incidence of hot flashes in menopausal women [66].
Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reup-
take inhibitor [67]. It is not known how this mechanism
relates to the relief of menopausal hot flashes. Desvenla-
faxine has adverse drug effects including increased sui-
cidality, serotonin syndrome, increased blood pressure,
and increased blood cholesterol [68]. Gabapentin also
appears to decrease the incidence of hot flashes [69] and
has an off label indication for hot flashes. Gabapentin
activates presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors on gluta-
matergic neurons resulting in less release of glutamate
[70]. How this mechanism decreases hot flashes is not
known. Gabapentin has adverse drug effects including
seizures and sudden unexplained death [66]. A. doug-
lasiana is much safer therapy for menopausal symptoms
than these drugs.
Hormone replacement therapy was used until the about
10 years ago for menopausal symptoms when it was
found that hormone replacement therapy is hazardous to
women. The hazards may include increased heart attack,
stroke, breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease [71-75]. A.
douglasiana is much safer than hormone replacement
There are several medicines, such as antimalarials and
drugs used against AIDS, which induce vivid dreams and
nightmares. Dreaming is not considered essential to the
clinical uses of these drugs. A. douglasiana is a safe and
effective way to produce dreams, even in cancer chemo-
therapy patients. Patients find these dreams comforting.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is normally
treated with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Both of
these drugs are addictive and can cause seizures. A.
douglasiana is much safer and should be the therapy of
choice in this condition.
The essential oil of mugwort (A. vulgaris) is available
from several sources. Some people have tried to use the
essential oil in place of mugwort leaves (A. douglasiana)
to make a tea. The essential oil of mugwort is made by
steam distillation of the leaves, flowers and stems of
mugwort. It contains only those compounds in mugwort
that vaporize below 100˚, especially the monoterpenoids
α-thujone, β-thujone, cineole, camphene and camphone.
Vendors of mugwort essential oil (armoise, A. vulgaris)
recommend using it for aromatherapy, massage therapy
and other external uses, not internally. The authors know
of people who have suffered seizures and kidney damage
from drinking A. douglasiana essential oil tea. Several
internet sites claim the essential oil causes abortions.
7. Conclusion
Mugwort is used similarly wherever it is found, espe-
cially for menstrual concerns, such as premenstrual syn-
drome and dysmenorrhea. Mugwort should be tested in
clinical trials for menopausal symptoms. Abortions or
protection against miscarriage are both uses of mugwort.
It is likely that high dose mugwort is used for abortions
and lower doses are used to prevent miscarriage. It is also
likely that other plants are added to mugwort in the in-
duction of abortions. Mugwort should be tested in clini-
cal trials for use in attention deficit, hyperactivity disor-
der. The sedative, antianxiety and dreaming effects of
mugwort should be tested in clinical trials. Medicine
frequently neglects dreaming as an essential part of heal-
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... In this study, we used the transcriptome database of female ovarian tissues from the GTEx V8 database (15), combined with single-cell sequencing data of ovarian tissues, to delve into the transcriptome characteristics of female ovaries before and after perimenopause (30-39, [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and to reveal the molecular and cytological mechanisms of changes in female ovaries before and after perimenopause. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for research related to female menopausal syndromes. ...
... Therefore, we suggest that the failure to increase ovarian temperature cyclically after menopause may be responsible for ovarian decline. The use of mugwort in Chinese medicine to delay menopause and thus indirectly protect a woman's state of health may be related to this mechanism (40). By progeny analysis, we found that the activity of the TGFb and MAPK signaling pathways decreased progressively with menopause, while the activity of the p53 signaling pathway increased progressively. ...
Full-text available
Introduction Natural menopause is an inevitable biological process with significant implications for women's health. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying menopause are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular and cellular changes occurring in the ovary before and after perimenopause. Methods Single-cell sequencing data from the GTEx V8 cohort (30-39: 14 individuals; 40-49: 37 individuals; 50-59: 61 individuals) and transcriptome sequencing data from ovarian tissue were analyzed. Seurat was used for single-cell sequencing data analysis, while harmony was employed for data integration. Cell differentiation trajectories were inferred using CytoTrace. CIBERSORTX assessed cell infiltration scores in ovarian tissue. WGCNA evaluated co-expression network characteristics in pre- and post-perimenopausal ovarian tissue. Functional enrichment analysis of co-expression modules was conducted using ClusterprofileR and Metascape. DESeq2 performed differential expression analysis. Master regulator analysis and signaling pathway activity analysis were carried out using MsViper and Progeny, respectively. Machine learning models were constructed using Orange3. Results We identified the differentiation trajectory of follicular cells in the ovary as ARID5B+ Granulosa -> JUN+ Granulosa -> KRT18+ Granulosa -> MT-CO2+ Granulosa -> GSTA1+ Granulosa -> HMGB1+ Granulosa. Genes driving Granulosa differentiation, including RBP1, TMSB10, SERPINE2, and TMSB4X, were enriched in ATP-dependent activity regulation pathways. Genes involved in maintaining the Granulosa state, such as DCN, ARID5B, EIF1, and HSP90AB1, were enriched in the response to unfolded protein and chaperone-mediated protein complex assembly pathways. Increased contents of terminally differentiated HMGB1+ Granulosa and GSTA1+ Granulosa were observed in the ovaries of individuals aged 50-69. Signaling pathway activity analysis indicated a gradual decrease in TGFb and MAPK pathway activity with menopause progression, while p53 pathway activity increased. Master regulator analysis revealed significant activation of transcription factors FOXR1, OTX2, MYBL2, HNF1A, and FOXN4 in the 30-39 age group, and GLI1, SMAD1, SMAD7, APP, and EGR1 in the 40-49 age group. Additionally, a diagnostic model based on 16 transcription factors (Logistic Regression L2) achieved reliable performance in determining ovarian status before and after perimenopause. Conclusion This study provides insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying natural menopause in the ovary. The findings contribute to our understanding of perimenopausal changes and offer a foundation for health management strategies for women during this transition.
... According to The Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A. argyi has the effects of warming the meridian, stopping bleeding, dispersing cold, and relieving pain [4]. Additionally, in China, A. argyi is used for moxibustion, where a cone of dried leaf powder is placed on the skin and burned to stimulate blood flow at specific points [5]. ...
Full-text available
Artemisia argyi, Chinese mugwort, is a plant widely used in China for various purposes from traditional medicine to food. The plant is less known in Europe. From plants grown in Austria, essential oils and their respective hydrolates were obtained, and their compositions were studied. Oxidized monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (32–42%), camphor (12–14%), and borneol (10–12%) were the main components present in both the essential oils and hydrolates. The essential oils also contained 6.6–10.5% monoterpene hydrocarbons such as β-caroyphyllene, camphene, and p-cymene. The hydrolate volatile fractions were devoid of hydrocarbons because of the low solubility of these compounds in water. Neointermedeol (selin-11-en-4-α-ol), a rather rare compound, and caryophyllene oxide were the major oxidized sesquiterpenes in the essential oils and were also present in low levels in the hydrolate volatiles. Furthermore, small amounts of eugenol were in the hydrolate volatiles. The essential oils and hydrolates showed some antioxidant activities in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Essential oils diluted 1:100 corresponded to gallic acid equivalents of 212–274 µg/mL in the FRAP assay and 26.1–30.7 µg/mL in the DPPH assay, while the ranges of activity for the hydrolates corresponded to gallic acid equivalents of 109–597 and 10.5–31.7 µg/mL for FRAP and DPPH assays, respectively.
... Among the several species mentioned to treat irregular menstruation in this study, A. vulgaris L., known as herbaka in the Philippines, has topped the list. Women use this traditional medicine as a stimulant for irregular or suppressed menstruation (Adams, 2012, Shaik et al., 2014. Furthermore, A. vulgaris L. phytoconstituents such as hydroxybenzoic acid, rutoside, camphen, 1, 8-cineole, and α-thujone, have shown biological activities such as analgesic (for dysmenorrhea), anti-fungal and antibacterial (Siwan et al., 2022). ...
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Background Different indigenous peoples in the Philippines still utilize medicinal plants in treating gynecologic diseases. However, there is a lack of information regarding these medicinal plants used in treating gynecologic conditions in the Philippines. Hence, this systematic review compiled the available literature on medicinal plants used for gynecologic healthcare by various indigenous groups in the Philippines. Methods Ethnobotanical studies that reported medicinal plants used for gynecologic diseases were obtained from OVID Medline, Scopus, and EBSCO CINAHL. A review of titles, abstracts, and articles was done independently by four reviewers. The quality of the studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool for ethnobotanical studies. Results A total of 27 studies, including 98 different records, that cited the use of medicinal plants to treat gynecologic diseases were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most ethnobotanical studies were conducted in Northern Mindanao, Central Luzon, and Caraga, Philippines. The most common plant family, genus, and species were Fabaceae, Mimosa, and Mimosa pudica L., respectively. Leaves, roots, and stems were predominantly used, commonly prepared by decoction. Medicinal plants reported in ethnobotanical studies were widely used to treat dysmenorrhea (34 ssp.), irregular menstruation (28 spp.), myoma (four spp.), and infertility (four spp.). A significant proportion of medicinal plants used to treat gynecologic diseases in the Philippines had records of toxicologic (18 spp., 31.03%) or teratogenic (one sp., 1.72%) properties. Other species were reported as both nontoxic and toxic (five spp., 8.62%) and toxic and teratogenic (one sp., 1.72%). However, some were nontoxic or teratogenic (11 sp., 18.97%). In addition, 22 plant species had no data on toxicity or teratogenicity. Conclusion This systematic review showed that medicinal plants and traditional healing practices are crucial in gynecologic healthcare in the Philippines.
... 48 The plant is rich in sesquiterpenes responsible or the serotonergic mechanism, and this could be the reason or its traditional application to treat imbalances that women may suer due to menopausal symptoms. 49 According to the European Commission in 2020, this drug has historically been used as a substitute or cannabis when smoked; it possesses mild intoxicating and strong relaxing properties. The species A. vulgaris is highly prized as a spice due to the herb's aroma and bitter taste, as well as the root's sweet and spicy avor. ...
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Herbal cigarettes, known as tobacco-ree or nicotine-ree cigarettes, are those recognized as being-tobacco ree, being composed o a mixture o various herbs claimed to lessen the smoking habit hazards. However, controversial data regarding its properties occur in the literature with no comprehensive overview or analysis o its eects. Like herbal smokeless tobacco, they are oten used to substitute or tobacco products (primarily cigarettes) regarded as a "nonsmoking" aid. This review capitalizes on herbal cigarettes with regard to their quality characteristics, sensory attributes, chemical composition, and health properties to rationalize their choice as a nonsmoking aid. Furthermore, the impacts o heat and/or pyrolysis that occur during smoking on its chemical composition are presented or the rst time. Some herbal smokes may produce notable metabolic problems that increase the risk o several chronic metabolic diseases. In general, burning substances rom plants can have a variety o negative eects on the body attributed to toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, polyaromatics, nicotine, and N-nitrosamines. This review compiles and discusses the phytochemical compositions detected in various herbal cigarettes alongside sensory and quality attributes and health eects.
... Việt Nam được thiên nhiên ưu ái ban tặng một thảm thực vật phong phú đa dạng bao gồm nhiều loại cây thuốc quí, trong đó Ngải cứu với tên khoa học Artemisia vulgaris -Asteraceae, cũng là một vị thuốc quen thuộc được ứng dụng rất lâu trong cuộc sống của người dân [1]. Nghiên cứu từ các tài liệu nước ngoài cho thấy, lá Ngải cứu có chứa một số hợp chất có hoạt tính sinh học cao như các hoạt chất nhóm flavonoid, terpenoid… Các chất này là những chất có hoạt tính mạnh với khả năng kháng khuẩn [2], điều hòa kinh nguyệt [3], tăng sinh tế bào [4], giảm co thắt cơ trơn phế quản hỗ trợ điều trị hen suyễn [5]. Ngoài ra nhiều nghiên cứu cũng chứng minh Ngải cứu có tác dụng làm giảm sự tăng sinh các tế bào gây chết [6] 3 Khảo sát tác dụng kháng viêm Chuột được gây viêm bằng cách tiêm vào dưới da gan bàn chân trái 0,025ml dung dịch carrageenan 1% pha trong dung dịch sinh lí. ...
Mở đầu: Ở Việt Nam, Ngải cứu (Artemisia vulgaris – Asteraceae) là một dược liệu có vị đắng và thơm được sử dụng trong y học cổ truyền từ thời cổ đại. Tuy nhiên, những nghiên cứu về Ngải cứu vẫn còn rất hạn chế. Chính vì vậy, đề tài tiến hành khảo sát tác động kháng viêm của một số hợp chất terpenoid phân lập từ cây ngải cứu: NC11 (Dehydromatricarin), NC12 (Moxartenolid), NC16 (Santamarin) nhằm góp phần tạo nguồn nguyên liệu mới từ tự nhiên có tác động trị liệu tốt và ít tác dụng phụ. Đối tượng và phương pháp nghiên cứu: Đối tượng: NC11, NC12, NC16 được chiết xuất từ cây Ngải cứu. Phương pháp: Tác động kháng viêm được khảo sát theo mô hình gây phù chân chuột bằng carrageenan 1%. Thể tích chân chuột được đo trước khi gây viêm, ba giờ sau khi gây viêm xác định lại độ phù. Lô chứng uống nước cất, lô thử nghiệm uống NC11, NC12, NC16 và lô đối chứng uống diclofenac 5mg/kg, theo dõi độ phù trong 6 ngày thử nghiệm. Kết quả - thảo luận: Các chất khảo sát đều chứng tỏ có tác động kháng viêm. Hiệu quả kháng viêm của hợp chất Moxartenolid và Santamarin thể hiện tác động tương đương nhau và mạnh hơn Dehydromatricarin ở liều 5mg/kg . Kết luận: Đề tài đã khảo sát được hiệu quả kháng viêm của nhóm hợp chất terpenoid phân lập từ cây Ngải cứu. Kết quả chứng tỏ ngải cứu là cây thuốc có tiềm năng cao để điều trị các bệnh về viêm.
... It has been used to treat patients with abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, and inflammation [60] . Previous research has demonstrated that A. argyi folium not only has antioxidant [61] , antidiabetic [62] , anticancer [ 63 , 64 ], antimicrobial [65] , and antiulcer activities [66] but also has anti -inflammatory [67] and antiallergic properties [68] . Although there have been no studies on the effectiveness of A. argyi folium to treat COVID-19, a previous study reported that A. argyi folium strongly inhibits inflammation [67] . ...
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Background : SARS-CoV-2 has led to a sharp increase in the number of hospitalizations and deaths from pneumonia and multiorgan disease worldwide; therefore, SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health problem. Supportive therapies remain the mainstay treatments against COVID-19, such as oxygen inhalation, antiviral drugs, and antibiotics. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been shown clinically to relieve the symptoms of COVID-19 infection, and TCMs can affect the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Jing Si Herbal Drink (JSHD), an eight herb formula jointly developed by Tzu Chi University and Tzu Chi Hospital, has shown potential as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 infection. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of JSHD as an adjuvant treatment in patients with COVID-19 infection is underway Objectives : This article aims to explore the efficacy of the herbs in JSHD against COVID-19 infection from a mechanistic standpoint and provide a reference for the rational utilization of JSHD in the treatment of COVID-19. Method : We compiled evidence of the herbs in JSHD to treat COVID-19 in vivo and in vitro. Results : We described the efficacy and mechanism of action of the active ingredients in JSHD to treat COVID-19 based on experimental evidence. JSHD includes 5 antiviral herbs, 7 antioxidant herbs, and 7 anti-inflammatory herbs. In addition, 2 herbs inhibit the overactive immune system, 1 herb reduces cell apoptosis, and 1 herb possesses antithrombotic ability. Conclusion : Although experimental data have confirmed that the ingredients in JSHD are effective against COVID-19, more rigorously designed studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of JSHD as a COVID-19 treatment.
... Mugwort (Artemisia argyi) is found in Europe (Artemisia vulgaris), Africa (Artemisia vulgaris), India (Artemisia vulgaris), Asia (Artemisia argyi), and America (Artemisia douglasiana). Early humans may have transported this plant throughout the world for its medicinal and food value (Adams et al. 2012). Its leaves are rich in essential oils, flavonoids, sugars, and other major components with pharmacological properties, such as bacteriostatic, insect-resistant, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, expectorant, soothing, antiallergic, antioxidant, andantitumor compounds, etc. Jiang et al. 2019a, 2019b). ...
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To investigate the community structure and diversity of endophytic fungi in the leaves of Artemisia argyi, leaf samples were collected from five A. argyi varieties grown in different cultivation areas in China, namely, Tangyin Beiai in Henan (BA), Qichun Qiai in Hubei (QA), Wanai in Nanyang in Henan (WA), Haiai in Ningbo in Zhejiang (HA), and Anguo Qiai in Anguo in Hebei (AQA), and analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 365,919 pairs of reads were obtained, and the number of operational taxonomic units for each sample was between 165 and 285. The alpha diversity of the QA and BA samples was higher, and a total of two phyla, eight classes, 12 orders, 15 families, and 16 genera were detected. At the genus level, significant differences were noted in the dominant genera among the samples, with three genera being shared in all the samples. The dominant genus in QA was Erythrobasidium, while that in AQA, HA, and BA was Sporobolomyces, and that in WA was Alternaria, reaching a proportion of 16.50%. These results showed that the fungal community structure and diversity in QA and BA were high. The endophytes are of great importance to the plants, especially for protection, phytohormone and other phytochemical production, and nutrition. Therefore, this study may be significant with the industrial perspective of Artemisia species.
To evaluate the chemical composition and effects of Artemisia vulgaris (AV) hydroalcoholic extract (HEAV) on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and SKBR-3), chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Phytochemical analysis of HEAV was done by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass (HPLC) spectrometry. Viability and cell death studies were performed using trypan blue and Annexin/FITC-7AAD, respectively. Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) were used to assess the mode of HEAV-induced cell death and acetoxymethylester (BAPTA-AM) was used to verify the involvement of cytosolic calcium in this event. Cytosolic calcium measurements were made using Fura-2-AM. HEAV decreased the viability of MCF-7, SKBR-3 and K562 cells (P<0.05). The viability of HEAV-treated K562 cells was reduced compared to HEAV-exposed fibroblasts (P<0.05). Treatment of K562 cells with HEAV induced cell death primarily by late apoptosis and necrosis in assays using annexin V-FITC/7-AAD (P<0.05). The use of Nec-1 and Fer-1 increased the viability of K562 cells treated with HEAV relative to cells exposed to HEAV alone (P<0.01). HEAV-induced Ca2+ release mainly from lysosomes in K562 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, decreased the number of non-viable cells treated with HEAV (P<0.05). HEAV is cytotoxic and activates several modalities of cell death, which are partially dependent on lysosomal release of Ca2+. These effects may be related to artemisinin and caffeoylquinic acids, the main compounds identified in HEAV.
In this study, enzyme-deep eutectic solvent-assisted ultrasonic extraction technique (EnDUE) was developed for the efficient dissolution of flavonoids from Artemisiae Argyi Folium. The extraction results of Artemisiae Argyi Folium flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin) were used as indicators to investigate the influencing factors through single factor experiment, Placket-burman design, and Box-behnken design, so as to obtain satisfactory yields. After systematic optimization, the optimal conditions for extraction of the target flavonoids were: Choline chloride/1,4-butanediol with a water content of 25%, cellulase+pectinase with a concentration of 1.6%, solid-liquid ratio of 1/32 g/mL, pH of 4.2, ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz, ultrasonic power of 160 W, ultrasonic temperature of 40 °C, and ultrasonic time of 25 min, respectively, which derived a total yield of 8.06 ± 0.29 mg/g. Compared with the reference techniques, the proposed EnDUE technique showed significant advantages in the yield and extraction efficiency of flavonoids. In addition, after preliminary purification, the Artemisiae Argyi Folium flavonoids showed good antioxidant activity. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) can degrade the cell wall components and increase the action site of enzyme, and enzyme can promote the penetration of DES into the cell wall matrix, which is mutually beneficial to the dissolution of intracellular components. Therefore, the extraction technique proposed in this work (EnDUE) greatly promotes the dissolution of flavonoids from Artemisiae Argyi Folium, and provides theoretical support for the further application of plant flavonoids.
In India, the Hindu festival of Vinayaka Chaviti is celebrated in the month of September as a traditional way to fight the seasonal onset of diseases and infections. The Lord Ganesha is worshipped as a God of wisdom, knowledge, education, wealth and health and characterized by a sound knowledge of the language, concentration, physical stamina, humbleness and dedication. The God is worshipped using Ekavimsati patrani (21 leaves) by chanting specific mantras. The leaves are abundant in our backyards, gardens, fields and temples during the season, suggesting the available floral biodiversity. They are bestowed with distinctive medicinal, environmental and cultural values. The leaves used during the puja exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and larvicidal properties. The festival is celebrated in many Indian states by adults and children and subsequently, the idols along with leaves are immersed in water bodies; a ritual is known as Ganesh nimajjanam. The leaf extracts cause killing of microbes and breeding mosquito larvae in water, thereby preventing the waterborne and vectorborne human diseases prevalent during the monsoon season. The use of natural and renewable resources such as clay, natural dyes and leaves during the festival indicates the importance of Mother Nature and recycling. The details of each plant or tree in terms of its scientific, Sanskrit and common names; religious significance; description, composition and medicinal properties of leaves; and mantra associated with each leaf are emphasized in this review. The leaves are widely utilized in native systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, homeo and Unani) and extremely popular under folklore medicine among the different Indian ethnic groups to treat an array of diseases and disorders. However, Ganesh idols are prepared using plaster of Paris and harmful synthetic dyes, which is a significant concern for the environment and humans.
In contrast to spring growth, in which only santanolides were found, mature, flowering fall growth of Artemisia douglasiana Bess, contains guaianolides. Two new lactones, arteglasin-A and -B, have been isolated and their structure established. It is possible to relate the structures of the santanolides and the guaianolides by a simple change in early stages of a rational course of biosynthesis.
Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to known compounds, two new C14-acetylenes, five longipinene derivatives, three nerolidol derivatives, a lactone and a ketone with a new carbon skeleton and lavendulol-2-methylbutyrate. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The configurations of several oxo longipinene-7, 9-di- and 7, 8, 9-triesters isolated previously were corrected. The biogenesis of the new lactones is discussed briefly.
The aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to ludartin, dehydroleucodin, scopoletin and α- and β-amirin, one new guaianolide 1β,10β-epoxydehydroleucodin. Its structure was established by spectral means.
The aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to some known sesquiterpene lactones, 22 new closely related guaianolides. A new thiophene acetylene was isolated from the aerial parts of A. schmidtiana together with some known sesquiterpene lactones. The structures were elucidated by high field 1H NMR spectroscopy.
In the present study, new sesquiterpene lactones (1) and (2) were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction of the water extract of Linderae Radix through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation methods. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis of their 2D NMR spectra, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC techniques. Two isolates showed significant cytotoxicity against the human small cell lung cancer cell SBC-3, and lesser cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast cell 3T3-L1.