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Mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris , Artemisia douglasiana , Artemisia argyi ) in the Treatment of Menopause, Premenstrual Syndrome, Dysmenorrhea and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder



Mugwort has many traditional uses around the world. The Chumash Indians of California use it to treat imbalances that women may suffer such as premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. The plant contains a sesquiterpene that appears to work through a serotonergic mechanism and may be beneficial for women. Mugwort therapy is safer for menopausal women than hormone replacement therapy. Children affected by attention deficit hy-peractivity disorder benefit from mugwort therapy. There is no doubt that mugwort therapy is safer for these children than methylphenidate or amphetamine.
Chinese Medicine, 2012, 3, 116-123 Published Online September 2012 (
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia douglasiana,
Artemisia argyi) in the Treatment of Menopause,
Premenstrual Syndrome, Dysmenorrhea and Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
James David Adams, Cecilia Garcia, Garima Garg
University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, USA
Received June 19, 2012; revised July 16, 2012; accepted July 30, 2012
Mugwort has many traditional uses around the world. The Chumash Indians of California use it to treat imbalances that
women may suffer such as premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. The plant contains a
sesquiterpene that appears to work through a serotonergic mechanism and may be beneficial for women. Mugwort
therapy is safer for menopausal women than hormone replacement therapy. Children affected by attention deficit hy-
peractivity disorder benefit from mugwort therapy. There is no doubt that mugwort therapy is safer for these children
than methylphenidate or amphetamine.
Keywords: Mugwort; Artemisia vulgaris; Artemisia argyi; Artemisia douglasiana; Menopause; Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
1. Introduction
Mugwort is found in Europe (Artemisia vulgaris), Africa
(Artemisia vulgaris), India (Artemisia vulgaris), Asia
(Artemisia argyi) and America (Artemisia douglasiana).
This plant may have been transported throughout the
world by early humans who needed it for its medicinal
and food value. It can be easily transported as seeds. The
meaning of mugwort may be marsh root since it grows
near permanent sources of water. In Chinese, mugwort is
lou hao. In Chumash Indian, mugwort is molush. The
scientific name Artemisia comes from Artemis, Greek
Goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth
and virginity. Artemis is capable of bringing or relieving
disease in women.
The three species of mugwort differ somewhat in ap-
pearance, perhaps the result of growing in different habi-
tats for thousands of years. Mugwort is easy to grow
from seeds and likes shade. The perennial plants grow to
2.5 meters high and have variably lobed oblanceolate
leaves with 1 to 7 lobes. The leaves can be up to 15 cm
long, are green on top and white, tomentose on the un-
derside. The stem and roots are woody. The flowers grow
in panicles as small disciform heads, less than 5 mm in
diameter, contain 5 - 9 pistillate flowers and 6 - 25 disk
2. European Traditional Uses
Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, is used in Europe as a bit-
ter aromatic and is rarely used [1]. It is intended to
stimulate gastric secretions in patients with poor appetite,
is used against flatulence, distention, colic, diarrhea, consti-
pation, cramps, worm infestations, hysteria, epilepsy, vom-
iting, menstrual problems, irregular periods, to promote
circulation and as a sedative. This sedative effect may be
responsible for internet reports of the use of A. vulgaris
to induce dreams. The root has different uses, as a tonic,
for psychoneuroses, neurasthenia, depression, autonomic
neuroses, irritability, restlessness, insomnia and anxiety.
A. vulgaris is described as an abortifacient without dis-
cussion of the preparation used [1].
The plant contains many active compounds including
the monoterpenes, eucalyptol, camphor, linalool, thujone,
4-terpineol, borneol, α-cadinol, spathulenol and 21 others
[1]. These monoterpenes are present in the essential oil
that makes up 0.03% - 0.3% of the plant. The plant also
contains sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene lactones such
as eudesmane, vulgarin, psilostachyin and psilostachyin
C [1]. Flavonol glycosides are present including quercitin
3-O-glucoside, rutin and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside [1].
Coumarins are found such as aesculetin, aesculin, um-
belliferone, scopoletin, coumarin and 6-methoxy-7,8-
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J. D. ADAMS ET AL. 117
methylene-dioxycoumarin [1]. Polyacetylenes, carote-
noids and pentacyclic triterpenes are present such as si-
tosterol and stigmasterol [1].
3. Pharmacology of Artemisia Plants
Many monoterpenoids are pain and anxiety relievers due
to inhibition of transient receptor potential cation chan-
nels [2]. These channels are found on sensory afferent
neurons of the skin and are usually responsive to heat or
cold. They are also found in the brain, spinal cord and
lungs [2]. The involvement of the brain transient receptor
potential channels in anxiety has not been investigated.
Most of these channels have six transmembrane spanning
units and large intracellular amino and carboxy terminal
portions [2]. Most of them allow sodium and calcium to
enter the cell. The vanilloid receptors (TRPV) have
amino terminal ankyrin repeat domains and a carboxy
terminal TRP box. The TRPA channels (ankyrin) have
many ankyrin repeats in the amino terminal. The TRPM
channels (melastatin) have a TRP box in the carboxy ter-
minal. Several drugs are available that act on these chan-
nels, such as capsaicin (TRPV1) and menthol (TRPM8).
More than a dozen drug candidates are in clinical trials
that act on these channels to relieve pain. Typically an
agonist at these channels causes transient channel open-
ing that is followed by long term channel closing and
pain relief [2].
Several monoterpenoids have reported pain relieving
activity such as camphor [3-5], eucalyptol [4-6, also
called 1,8-cineole], camphene [4,5], β-pinene [4-6], bor-
neol [4,5,7] and thujone [8]. Most of the pain relieving
monoterpenoids found in A. vulgaris are agonists for
TRPV3 (heat sensing) including camphor [3,9,10], bor-
neol, thujone and eucalyptol [10]. Camphor is also an
antagonist for the TRPA1 (TRP ankyrin-repeat1, cold-
sensitive) receptor and an agonist for the TRPV1 (heat-
sensitive) receptor [3]. Eucalyptol has been shown to also
be a TRPM8 (cold-sensitive) receptor agonist and to ex-
hibit an antinociceptive activity comparable to or greater
than that of morphine [11].
Some monoterpenoids have reported anti-inflamma-
tory properties such as camphene and β-pinene [12,13].
The monoterpene, borneol has been shown to have high
anti-inflammatory activity [14], which results from the
inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2
(PGE2) production due to inhibition of NF-κB activation
(nuclear factor κB). The NF-κB mechanism involves
increasing the expression of IKK (inhibitor of NF-κB
kinase), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and de-
creasing IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κBα) expression in
dose-dependent manners [13,14].
Some sesquiterpenoids are anti-inflammatory agents
[12]. In fact, a sesquiterpene from Artemisia pallens is
reported to have strong anti-inflammatory activity and is
topically active [15]. In other words, it penetrates the
skin after topical administration and relieves inflamma-
tion. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of a
sesquiterpene, 7-hydroxyfrullanolide, appears to be inhi-
bition of an NF-κB pathway [16]. IKKβ phosphorylation
was shown to be inhibited by 7-hydroxyfrullanolide,
which resulted in inhibition of NF-κB translocation into
the nucleus. Several sesquiterpenes inhibit the production
of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines. 7-Hydroxy-
frullanolide inhibits the production of inflammatory ad-
hesion proteins such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-se-
lectin [16]. This inhibits monocyte induced inflammation.
Patchouli alcohol, a tricyclic sequiterpene, inhibits tumor
necrosis factor-α, IL-1β (interleukin-1β), cyclooxyge-
nase-2, and iNOS production [17]. This results in less
NO and PGE2 production, less inflammation and less
edema. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone present in
several plants, inhibits inflammation in the brain and
other organs by decreasing IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α
and cyclooxygenase-2 production [18]. This results in
lowered body temperature and occurs through an NF-κB
inhibition mechanism. NF-κB activation is inhibited,
especially in the hypothalamus. Alpha-bisabolol is an-
other anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene that is found in
several plants. Alpha-bisabolol has been shown to de-
crease iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 production by inhib-
iting NF-κB activation [19]. A plant used by Native
Americans, Eupatorium perfoliatum, has been found to
be anti-inflammatory due to the presence of sesquiter-
penes [20]. A structure-activity study of 26 sesquiterpene
lactones was conducted to elucidate the structural re-
quirements for inhibition of iNOS production and found
potent inhibition down to micromolar levels [21]. This
clearly indicates that sesquiterpenes are very useful
anti-inflammatory and fever decreasing agents that have
been used for centuries in plant medicines around the
Flavonols can be anti-inflammatory agents. For in-
stance, women who have higher intake of flavonol rich
foods, especially citrus fruits, have lower blood levels of
inflammatory proteins, including VCAM, C-reactive pro-
tein, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 and IL-18
[22]. Kaempferol, kaempferol
side and quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-
beta-D-glucopyranoside have been found to be anti-in-
flammatory agents and can be topically active in paw
edema tests [23]. These flavonols inhibit production of
iNOS [23]. Some flavonols, such as papyriflavonol A,
are phospholipase A2 inhibitors and potently inhibit the
enzyme with IC50 values of 4 micromolar [24]. Inhibi-
tion of phospholipase A2 decreases leukotriene C4 pro-
duction, decreases allergic reactions and results in less
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. CM
inflammation [24]. A nasal spray made from Artemisia
abrotanum is anti-inflammatory, contains monoterpenes
and flavonols [25]. This spray was tested in a clinical
trial and found to relieve bronchoconstriction in 50% of
patients [25]. Allergic rhinitis was relieved by the nasal
spray in 100% of patients [25].
Coumarins are pharmacologically important agents
found in Artemisia plants. Umbelliferone, also called
7-hydroxycoumarin, is a pain relieving agent, relieves in-
flammation and relieves fever in animal tests [26]. It is
also topically active. Umbelliferone also inhibits inflam-
matory cytokine production, such as IL-12 and inter-
feron-gamma, produced by viral infections [27]. Um-
belliferone is antihyperglycemic in rats and has activity
comparable to glibenclamide [28]. It also decreases blood
levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids,
free fatty acids, LDL-C, VLDL-C and increases HDL-C
in diabetic rats [29]. Aesculetin, also called 6,7-dihy-
droxycoumarin, is a lipoxygenase inhibitor that inhibits
the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a
model of atherosclerosis [30]. Aesculetin inhibits the
activation of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase by
inhibiting c-fos and c-jun transcription [30]. Aesculetin
also inhibits activation of NF-κB, activator protein-1 and
phosphoinositide 3-kinase [30]. Coumarin, umbelliferone
and esculetin have antitumor activity [31,32] even in hu-
man clinical trials [32].
It may be important that Artemisia plants contain high
amounts of both monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes.
Both classes of agents have anti-inflammatory activity
due to inhibition of NF-κB activation. It is not known
how monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes may interact in
this mechanism, perhaps to enhance anti-inflammatory
activity and decrease fevers. This may involve decreas-
ing cyclooxygenase-2 synthesis. The presence of flavo-
nols may add to the anti-inflammatory effects of Ar-
temisia plants due to inhibition of iNOS production and
phospholipase A2 inhibition. Coumarins may increase
the anti-inflammatory activity of the plants by inhibition
of lipoxygenase. Artemisia plants may be potent pain
relieving and anti-inflammatory medicines due to these
compounds. Each class of compound may enhance the
activity of the other classes through additive or synergis-
tic mechanisms.
4. Traditional Recipes for the Use of
Mugwort in Europe and India
In Europe a tea is made from 150 ml of boiling water
poured over 1.2 g of dried A. vulgaris leaves, stems and
flowers [1]. This is allowed to steep in a covered vessel
for 5 min before it is strained and consumed. Two or
three cups of this strong tea are drunk daily before meals.
The German Commission E has not substantiated the
efficacy of this preparation.
In India, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, nagadamni in
Sanskrit) is used as an antispasmodic, expectorant, sto-
machic, tonic, laxative, antihysteric and anthelmintic [33].
It is used for menstrual problems, metorrhagia and to
prevent abortion. In children it is used as a decoction
against measles and as a leaf juice against whooping
cough. Leaf powder is used against hemorrhage, dysen-
tery, intestinal complaints, urinary tract problems and
skin diseases. A strong tea is made from 14 - 28 ml of
boiling water and 0.5 - 1 g of powdered leaves.
5. Chinese Traditional Uses
In China, mugwort (Artemisia argyi) is used mostly for
moxibustion [34,35]. Moxibustion is direct or indirect.
For direct moxibustion, a cone of dried A. argyi leaf pow-
der is placed on the skin and burned. The cone can be
taken off before the skin burns or can be allowed to burn
and scar the skin. Indirect moxibustion involves using a
cigar of A. argyi leaves to heat the skin. A. argyi is used
to stimulate blood flow and qi at specific points on the
skin, sometimes acupuncture points. This can be benefi-
cial in pain, weakness, fatigue associated with aging and
in turning fetuses for head down delivery. The dried
leaves are also used as a tea for analgesia, excessive men-
struation and bleeding during pregnancy.
A. argyi contains carveol, α-phellandrene, α-terpineol,
4-terpineol, eucalyptol, borneol, spathulenol, camphor, ca-
mazulene, β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene alcohol,
chrysartemin A, chrystemin B, arteminolides, and mox-
artenolide. Triterpenes include glutinone, fernenone, lu-
penone, simiarenol, α-amyrin acetate and β-amyrin ace-
tate. Flavones present are scopoletin, isoscopoletin, eu-
patilin, jaceosidin, apigenin, chrysoeriol and naringenin
[35]. Several of these compounds have antiasthmatic
effects including carveol, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol and
β-caryophyllene alcohol [35]. Several compounds are
analgesics including 4-terpineol, several of the monoter-
penes, α-amyrin and β-amyrin as discussed in the phar-
macology section [35]. Anxiolytic effects have been re-
ported for β-amyrin and several monoterpenes [35].
6. Chumash Indian Traditional Uses
Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana, is a traditional medi-
cine of the Chumash Indians of California and is used in
the treatment of menopausal symptoms, premenstrual
syndrome and dysmenorrhea [36,37]. The traditional
treatment for menopause is a mild, A. douglasiana tea.
This tea is much milder than the European A. vulgaris tea
above. A. douglasiana tea is made by placing a fresh or
dried leaf in 300 ml of water. The mixture is warmed
until it starts to boil at which time it is removed from the
heat. The tea is allowed to steep for a few minutes prior
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J. D. ADAMS ET AL. 119
to drinking. Sugar, honey or other sweeteners are not
Anxiety is a learned disorder that must be unlearned
[38]. It is treated, in part, with A. douglasiana. People
with anxiety attacks are treated once with sagebrush tea
in the evening. California sagebrush, Artemisia califor-
nica, leaves and stems are collected and put into a cloth
sack. The patient sleeps with this sack for one week.
During this time, meat must not be eaten. The sagebrush
leaves are measured in the palm of the hand. About a half
teaspoon of the dried leaves from the sack are mixed
with 300 ml of water and allowed to sit in the sun for 2
hours. This is heated with a stick of cinnamon (Cinna-
momum species) until it simmers. The patient drinks this
tea and does not add sugar or honey. Overweight people
should use a quarter of a teaspoon of sagebrush leaves,
since sagebrush can produce a strong reaction in them.
At the same time, four to six yerba santa leaves, Eriodic-
tyon crassifolium, seven flowers and seven leaves of
California jimson weed, Datura wrightii, and about ten
leaves of white sage, Salvia apiana, are put in 1.5 l of
water and allowed to boil moderately until the entire
house smells of the preparation. The patient drinks the
sagebrush tea while vaporizing over the E. crassifolium,
D. wrightii and S. apiana steam.
The next step, that evening, is a massage. The massage
oil is prepared by making a sun tea of four to six tobacco
leaves, Nicotiana quadrivalvis or Nicotiana glauca, and
four to seven leaves of S. apiana in 1.5 l of sea water.
This is brewed in the sun for a few hours, then put on the
stove to boil moderately until the entire house smells of
the preparation. Some of the tea is cooled, strained and
mixed with olive oil or baby oil to make a massage oil.
The massage should especially treat the areas under the
arms and below the butt.
For the next several weeks, the patient drinks 300 ml
of hot chocolate containing a S. apiana leaf and an A.
douglasiana leaf, every night before bed. It is best to use
a traditional chocolate such as Chocolate Ibarra that is
high in flavonols. Heat 300 ml of water to boiling. Re-
move it from the heat. Melt two or three tablespoons, 55
g, of the chocolate in the water with a whisk. Add the S.
apiana leaf and A. douglasiana leaf to this and steep for
a few minutes. Remove the leaves and drink the tea.
When the anxiety attacks decrease, the patient puts a
stick of cinnamon in 300 ml of water and heats it to a
simmer. The patient removes this from the heat and adds
a leaf of S. apiana. The tea is allowed to steep for five
min before drinking. This continues until the anxiety is
no longer a problem. One month or more of treatment is
needed to relieve anxiety attacks. Overweight people
may need to be treated longer than a month.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is treated by
stuffing dried A. douglasiana leaves into a cloth 5 pointed
star. The star should be the size of the palm and fingers
of the adult making the star. The child should play with
the star daily, especially during times of excessive activ-
ity. The child should also sleep with the star. After a few
weeks, the child will respond and become less active.
A. douglasiana is also called dream sage (sagebrush)
by Chumash Healers [36]. To induce dreams, place the
stems and leaves, under a pillow and sleep on the pillow.
The fragrance helps with dreaming. When the plant dries,
strip the leaves and stuff them into a small pillow. Place
this under the regular pillow and continue sleeping on
both pillows. This is a traditional use of A. douglasiana
especially in very ill or aged people who cannot dream.
Dreaming is considered an essential part of life and
American A. douglasiana contains a variety of phar-
macologically active compounds including many ses-
quiterpene lactones such as vulgarin and psilostachyin
[39-50], and probably monoterpenoids such as thujone
and alpha-pinene [51]. Of course, the very lipophilic mo-
noterpenoids, such as thujone, will not extract into an
aqueous tea. However, the sesquiterpene lactones can be
extracted into hot water [52]. A sesquiterpene lactone
isolated from A. douglasiana, dehydroleucodine, inhibits
the release of serotonin from gastroduodenal and other
cells [39-41]. It is possible that A. douglasiana may have
a serotonergic mechanism of action in decreasing meno-
pausal symptoms and attention deficit hyperactivity dis-
order. On the other hand, if dehydroleucodine inhibits
NF-κB activation, like other sesquiterpenes, it may de-
crease body temperature and inflammation. This is dis-
cussed in the pharmacology section.
Many of the monoterpenes found in A. douglasiana
are pain relievers and anxiolytic [53-60]. Pain relief
comes from inhibition of transient receptor potential ca-
tion channels [53,57,58]. The mechanism of relief of
anxiety is not known but may involve brain transient
receptor potential cation channel inhibition. The monoter-
pene thujone, found in A. douglasiana, has been found to
be safe in European medicines and foods [61].
The biochemical imbalance that results in attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder is not known. The fact that
amphetamine like compounds are used to treat the disor-
der, suggests that inadequate neurotransmitter release
may be involved in the disorder. Amphetamine is known
to enhance the release of dopamine, norepinephrine and
serotonin in the brain and neuronal synapses. Recent
evidence suggests that aberrant kinase activity is in-
volved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. An
aberrant deactivation of striatal dopamine (D1) receptor
cAMP protein kinase A DARP32 may be important [62].
DARP32 is dopamine and cAMP regulated neuronal
phosphoprotein 32. G-Protein coupled receptor kinase
interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has also been implicated in
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. CM
the disorder [63]. In addition, guanylyl cyclase-C may be
involved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [64].
Of course, guanylyl cyclase-C makes cGMP that acti-
vates several kinases. It is interesting that a recent meta
analysis suggests that several drugs that do not act
through an amphetamine like mechanism are effective in
the disorder [65]. These drugs include clonidine, desip-
ramine, guanfacine and atomoxetine. Clearly, the disor-
der is more complex and less well understood than some
reviews suggest.
A. douglasiana has been reported to induce abortion
[36]. It is not clear what preparation of A. douglasiana
was used or the mechanism of induction of abortion.
Estragole has been found in some species of Artemisia
(Artemisia dracunculus, tarragon). Estragole induces
cancer, especially in female mice. However, A. dracun-
culus is on the FDA list of GRAS agents and is not
known to induce cancer in humans. Mugwort (A. doug-
lasiana) has not been reported to contain estragole.
Desvenlafaxine has been found to effectively decrease
the incidence of hot flashes in menopausal women [66].
Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reup-
take inhibitor [67]. It is not known how this mechanism
relates to the relief of menopausal hot flashes. Desvenla-
faxine has adverse drug effects including increased sui-
cidality, serotonin syndrome, increased blood pressure,
and increased blood cholesterol [68]. Gabapentin also
appears to decrease the incidence of hot flashes [69] and
has an off label indication for hot flashes. Gabapentin
activates presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors on gluta-
matergic neurons resulting in less release of glutamate
[70]. How this mechanism decreases hot flashes is not
known. Gabapentin has adverse drug effects including
seizures and sudden unexplained death [66]. A. doug-
lasiana is much safer therapy for menopausal symptoms
than these drugs.
Hormone replacement therapy was used until the about
10 years ago for menopausal symptoms when it was
found that hormone replacement therapy is hazardous to
women. The hazards may include increased heart attack,
stroke, breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease [71-75]. A.
douglasiana is much safer than hormone replacement
There are several medicines, such as antimalarials and
drugs used against AIDS, which induce vivid dreams and
nightmares. Dreaming is not considered essential to the
clinical uses of these drugs. A. douglasiana is a safe and
effective way to produce dreams, even in cancer chemo-
therapy patients. Patients find these dreams comforting.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is normally
treated with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Both of
these drugs are addictive and can cause seizures. A.
douglasiana is much safer and should be the therapy of
choice in this condition.
The essential oil of mugwort (A. vulgaris) is available
from several sources. Some people have tried to use the
essential oil in place of mugwort leaves (A. douglasiana)
to make a tea. The essential oil of mugwort is made by
steam distillation of the leaves, flowers and stems of
mugwort. It contains only those compounds in mugwort
that vaporize below 100˚, especially the monoterpenoids
α-thujone, β-thujone, cineole, camphene and camphone.
Vendors of mugwort essential oil (armoise, A. vulgaris)
recommend using it for aromatherapy, massage therapy
and other external uses, not internally. The authors know
of people who have suffered seizures and kidney damage
from drinking A. douglasiana essential oil tea. Several
internet sites claim the essential oil causes abortions.
7. Conclusion
Mugwort is used similarly wherever it is found, espe-
cially for menstrual concerns, such as premenstrual syn-
drome and dysmenorrhea. Mugwort should be tested in
clinical trials for menopausal symptoms. Abortions or
protection against miscarriage are both uses of mugwort.
It is likely that high dose mugwort is used for abortions
and lower doses are used to prevent miscarriage. It is also
likely that other plants are added to mugwort in the in-
duction of abortions. Mugwort should be tested in clini-
cal trials for use in attention deficit, hyperactivity disor-
der. The sedative, antianxiety and dreaming effects of
mugwort should be tested in clinical trials. Medicine
frequently neglects dreaming as an essential part of heal-
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... It has been used to treat patients with abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, and inflammation [60] . Previous research has demonstrated that A. argyi folium not only has antioxidant [61] , antidiabetic [62] , anticancer [ 63 , 64 ], antimicrobial [65] , and antiulcer activities [66] but also has anti -inflammatory [67] and antiallergic properties [68] . Although there have been no studies on the effectiveness of A. argyi folium to treat COVID-19, a previous study reported that A. argyi folium strongly inhibits inflammation [67] . ...
Full-text available
Background : SARS-CoV-2 has led to a sharp increase in the number of hospitalizations and deaths from pneumonia and multiorgan disease worldwide; therefore, SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health problem. Supportive therapies remain the mainstay treatments against COVID-19, such as oxygen inhalation, antiviral drugs, and antibiotics. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been shown clinically to relieve the symptoms of COVID-19 infection, and TCMs can affect the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Jing Si Herbal Drink (JSHD), an eight herb formula jointly developed by Tzu Chi University and Tzu Chi Hospital, has shown potential as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 infection. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of JSHD as an adjuvant treatment in patients with COVID-19 infection is underway Objectives : This article aims to explore the efficacy of the herbs in JSHD against COVID-19 infection from a mechanistic standpoint and provide a reference for the rational utilization of JSHD in the treatment of COVID-19. Method : We compiled evidence of the herbs in JSHD to treat COVID-19 in vivo and in vitro. Results : We described the efficacy and mechanism of action of the active ingredients in JSHD to treat COVID-19 based on experimental evidence. JSHD includes 5 antiviral herbs, 7 antioxidant herbs, and 7 anti-inflammatory herbs. In addition, 2 herbs inhibit the overactive immune system, 1 herb reduces cell apoptosis, and 1 herb possesses antithrombotic ability. Conclusion : Although experimental data have confirmed that the ingredients in JSHD are effective against COVID-19, more rigorously designed studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of JSHD as a COVID-19 treatment.
... Mugwort (Artemisia argyi) is found in Europe (Artemisia vulgaris), Africa (Artemisia vulgaris), India (Artemisia vulgaris), Asia (Artemisia argyi), and America (Artemisia douglasiana). Early humans may have transported this plant throughout the world for its medicinal and food value (Adams et al. 2012). Its leaves are rich in essential oils, flavonoids, sugars, and other major components with pharmacological properties, such as bacteriostatic, insect-resistant, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, expectorant, soothing, antiallergic, antioxidant, andantitumor compounds, etc. Jiang et al. 2019a, 2019b). ...
To investigate the community structure and diversity of endophytic fungi in the leaves of Artemisia argyi, leaf samples were collected from five A. argyi varieties grown in different cultivation areas in China, namely, Tangyin Beiai in Henan (BA), Qichun Qiai in Hubei (QA), Wanai in Nanyang in Henan (WA), Haiai in Ningbo in Zhejiang (HA), and Anguo Qiai in Anguo in Hebei (AQA), and analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 365,919 pairs of reads were obtained, and the number of operational taxonomic units for each sample was between 165 and 285. The alpha diversity of the QA and BA samples was higher, and a total of two phyla, eight classes, 12 orders, 15 families, and 16 genera were detected. At the genus level, significant differences were noted in the dominant genera among the samples, with three genera being shared in all the samples. The dominant genus in QA was Erythrobasidium, while that in AQA, HA, and BA was Sporobolomyces, and that in WA was Alternaria, reaching a proportion of 16.50%. These results showed that the fungal community structure and diversity in QA and BA were high. The endophytes are of great importance to the plants, especially for protection, phytohormone and other phytochemical production, and nutrition. Therefore, this study may be significant with the industrial perspective of Artemisia species.
... In China, A. vulgaris is used mostly for moxibustion. A. vulgaris is believed to stimulate blood flow and Qi at specific points on the skin, sometimes acupuncture points [10]. Different parts of A. vulgaris were reported to have broad biological activities such as antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antispasmodic and bronchodilator, hepatoprotective, antidepressant, xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and antioxidant [11]. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the in vivo chronic anti-inflammatory efficacy, from the ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Artemisia vulgaris leaves, grown at three different altitudes in Nepal, by formalin-induced paw edema in Swiss albino mice. Edema was induced on the mice paw by administering 0.2% of formalin injection. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug at the concentration of 5 mg/kg of body weight. Ethyl acetate and ethanolic leaves extract, at the concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, were used as test drugs. Standard drug and all the extracts were administered 30 min before formalin injection. The paw thickness was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after formalin injection, using a Vernier caliper. It was observed that both ethyl acetate and ethanolic extract from all the altitudes exhibited significant inhibition of paw edema (p
... The leaves of A. argyle smoke have obvious antibacterial effect on the affected area, reducing the number of bacterial colonies in the air and completely inhibiting the growth of pyogenic bacteria (Zhang et al., 2014). The leaves of A. argyle are one of the common gynecological drugs, which were recorded as "hemostatic drugs" in medical records of past dynasties (Tan et al., 1992;Zheng et al., 2004), regulating the meridians and protecting the fetus, etc. (Adams et al., 2012). Pharmacological studies show that A. argyle has the effect of anti-fibrinolysis hemostasis by reducing capillary permeability (Yu et al., 2012). ...
... Monoterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones [23,32] A. dracunculus antidiabetic and anticoagulant Volatile oils, coumarins, polyphenolic compounds, glucoside [33,34]. ...
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia's role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of bacteria and parasites that are resistant to quinoline drugs. This manuscript aims to systematically review recent studies that have investigated artemisinin and its derivatives not only for their potent antiviral actions but also their utility against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Materials andMethods: PubMed Central, Scopus and Google scholar databases of published articles were collected and abstracts were reviewed for relevance to the subject matter. Conclusions: The unprecedented impact that artemisinin had on public health and drug discovery research led the Nobel Committee to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015 to the discoverers of artemisinin. Thus, it is clear that Artemisia's importance in indigenous medicinal systems and drug discovery systems holds great potential for further investigation into its biological activities, especially its role in viral infection and inflammation.
... Artemisia argyi is commonly known as mugwort, a herb used to treat inflammatory diseases [8], menstrual disorders [9], and dysmenorrhea [10] in traditional Asian medicine. Recently, various beneficial effects such as anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, as well as neuroprotective effects have been documented in various studies. ...
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Iodixanol is a non-ionic iso-osmolar contrast agent, but it is a risk factor for kidney damage and increases morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the effect of 9 sesquiterpenes isolated from mugwort (Artemisia argyi) in contrast agent-induced cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells. Cells were exposed to nine sesquiterpene compounds for 2 h, followed by incubation with iodixanol for 3 h. Cell viability was assessed using the Ez-Cytox assay. The level of reactive oxygen species was measured using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Apoptotic cell death was detected using annexin V/PI staining. In addition, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed using antibodies against proteins related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, and MAPK pathways. The most effective 3-epi-iso-seco-tanapartholide (compound 8) among the 9 sesquiterpene compounds protected LLC-PK1 cells from iodixanol-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment with compound 8 reversed iodixanol-induced increases in the expression of JNK, ERK, p38, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9. It also reversed the iodixanol-induced decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with compound 8 caused nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulated HO-1 via the Nrf2 pathway in iodixanol-treated LLC-PK1 cells. Thus, we demonstrated here that compound 8 isolated from A. argyi has the potential to effectively prevent iodixanol-induced kidney epithelial cell death via the caspase-3/MAPK pathways and HO-1 via the Nrf2 pathway.
In India, the Hindu festival of Vinayaka Chaviti is celebrated in the month of September as a traditional way to fight the seasonal onset of diseases and infections. The Lord Ganesha is worshipped as a God of wisdom, knowledge, education, wealth and health and characterized by a sound knowledge of the language, concentration, physical stamina, humbleness and dedication. The God is worshipped using Ekavimsati patrani (21 leaves) by chanting specific mantras. The leaves are abundant in our backyards, gardens, fields and temples during the season, suggesting the available floral biodiversity. They are bestowed with distinctive medicinal, environmental and cultural values. The leaves used during the puja exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and larvicidal properties. The festival is celebrated in many Indian states by adults and children and subsequently, the idols along with leaves are immersed in water bodies; a ritual is known as Ganesh nimajjanam. The leaf extracts cause killing of microbes and breeding mosquito larvae in water, thereby preventing the waterborne and vectorborne human diseases prevalent during the monsoon season. The use of natural and renewable resources such as clay, natural dyes and leaves during the festival indicates the importance of Mother Nature and recycling. The details of each plant or tree in terms of its scientific, Sanskrit and common names; religious significance; description, composition and medicinal properties of leaves; and mantra associated with each leaf are emphasized in this review. The leaves are widely utilized in native systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, homeo and Unani) and extremely popular under folklore medicine among the different Indian ethnic groups to treat an array of diseases and disorders. However, Ganesh idols are prepared using plaster of Paris and harmful synthetic dyes, which is a significant concern for the environment and humans.
Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern tem-perate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregu-lar menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bron-chitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemi-sia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phy-tochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carot-enoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic,antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatopro-tective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer dura-tion can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.
The in-depth study of plant essential oil (EO) to provide valuable resources for the development of natural medicinal products is one of the current research hotspots. The present work realized the efficient isolation of EO from Artemisia argyi leaves using aqueous enzyme-ultrasonic pretreatment followed by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (EUP-MHD). Because of the synergistic reaction mechanism, the combination of enzyme and ultrasound doubly improved the separation of EO. After the optimization process (single factor experiments, Plackett–Burman design, and Box–Behnken design), mixed enzyme (cellulose + pectinase + papain), concentration of 10 U/mg, ultrasonic frequency of 45 kHz, ultrasonic power of 200 W, ultrasonic time of 20 min, reaction temperature of 50 °C, pH of 5, microwave power of 650 W, microwave time of 10 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 10 mL/g performed best, with the yield of EO of 5.32 ± 0.20 mg/g. A distinct advantage of this technique was found as compared with other techniques, which highlighted the positive influence of the pretreatment process. Additionally, the oxygenated components of EO from EUP-MHD accounted for a higher proportion than other methods, including eucalyptol, borneol, camphor, neointermedeol, and terpinen-4-ol. Finally, the evaluation of the biological activity of A. argyi EO pointed out that the EO had excellent antioxidant activity and higher inhibitory activity against Phytophthora capsica but presented weaker cytotoxic activity. In general, the technique used in this study is promising in the field of separating EO from crop materials.
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Asteraceae species were widely applied in traditional medicines in Asian countries as sources of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents. This study aimed to evaluate DPPH-scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities of nine Asteraceae species collected from Southern Vietnam. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined by standard protocols. Essential oils from Ageratum conyzoides, Helianthus annuus, and Artemisia vulgaris indicated significant inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. Crude extracts and fractions from Taraxacum officinale, Chrysanthemum morifolium, A. conyzoides, and Tagetes erecta showed inhibitory ability on at least one testing bacterial strains including S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a study on clinical isolates, ethyl acetate fraction from A. conyzoides flower displayed the most potent effect on uropathogenic E. coli and K. pneumoniae with MIC at 1.25–10 mg/ml and 5–12.5 mg/ml, respectively. DPPH-scavenging assay indicated that T. erecta extract had the lowest IC50 (17.280 μg/ml) and is 2.4 times higher than vitamin C (7.321 μg/ml). This study revealed that A. conyzoides has good potential against uropathogenic E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and therefore could be applied for prophylactic treatment of urinary infection.
In contrast to spring growth, in which only santanolides were found, mature, flowering fall growth of Artemisia douglasiana Bess, contains guaianolides. Two new lactones, arteglasin-A and -B, have been isolated and their structure established. It is possible to relate the structures of the santanolides and the guaianolides by a simple change in early stages of a rational course of biosynthesis.
Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to known compounds, two new C14-acetylenes, five longipinene derivatives, three nerolidol derivatives, a lactone and a ketone with a new carbon skeleton and lavendulol-2-methylbutyrate. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The configurations of several oxo longipinene-7, 9-di- and 7, 8, 9-triesters isolated previously were corrected. The biogenesis of the new lactones is discussed briefly.
The aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to ludartin, dehydroleucodin, scopoletin and α- and β-amirin, one new guaianolide 1β,10β-epoxydehydroleucodin. Its structure was established by spectral means.
The aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana afforded, in addition to some known sesquiterpene lactones, 22 new closely related guaianolides. A new thiophene acetylene was isolated from the aerial parts of A. schmidtiana together with some known sesquiterpene lactones. The structures were elucidated by high field 1H NMR spectroscopy.
In the present study, new sesquiterpene lactones (1) and (2) were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction of the water extract of Linderae Radix through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation methods. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis of their 2D NMR spectra, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC techniques. Two isolates showed significant cytotoxicity against the human small cell lung cancer cell SBC-3, and lesser cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast cell 3T3-L1.