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The aim of this study was to formulate and develop a low calorie and low glycemic index (GI) of soft ice cream by using mixture of sucrose and Stevia. Five different formulations of ice cream were produced by using different proportions of sucrose and Stevia. Physicochemical characteristics, hedonic sensory evaluations and glycemic index determination of products were carried out by following conventional methods. Replacement of sucrose with Stevia resulted in a significantly lower viscosity and brix with a higher overrun and melting rate in a dose dependent manner. Total replacing of sucrose with Stevia resulted in significant reduction in caloric value from 143.03 to 105.25 Kcal and GI from 79.06 ± 4.0 to 72.18 ± 5.27 as compared to those of sucrose based formulation (p 0.05) indicating a 37.78% and 6.88% reduction, respectively. TB had the best sensory acceptance among all the treatments. We concluded that substitution of sucrose with Stevia may be a choice to produce low caloric and GI ice creams. However, using mixture of the two sweeteners improves sensory acceptance of the formulations.
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Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2014, 5, 390-396
Published Online February 2014 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/fns)
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2014.54047
OPEN ACCESS FNS
Impact of Using Stevia on Physicochemical, Sensory,
Rheology and Glycemic Index of Soft Ice Cream
Mohammad Alizadeh1, Maryam Azizi-Lalabadi2*, Sorayya Kheirouri3
1Department of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department
of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Com-
munity Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Email: *m_azizi766@yahoo.com
Received December 8th, 2013; revised January 8th, 2014; accepted January 15th, 2014
Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Alizadeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2014 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the
intellectual property Mohammad Alizadeh et al. All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to formulate and develop a low calorie and low glycemic index (GI) of soft ice cream
by using mixture of sucrose and Stevia. Five different formulations of ice cream were produced by using differ-
ent proportions of sucrose and Stevia. Physicochemical characteristics, hedonic sensory evaluations and glycemic
index determination of products were carried out by following conventional methods. Replacement of sucrose
with Stevia resulted in a significantly lower viscosity and brix with a higher overrun and melting rate in a dose
dependent manner. Total replacing of sucrose with Stevia resulted in significant reduction in caloric value from
143.03 to 105.25 Kcal and GI from 79.06 ± 4.0 to 72.18 ± 5.27 as compared to those of sucrose based formulation
(p < 0.05) indicating a 37.78% and 6.88% reduction, respectively. TB had the best sensory acceptance among all
the treatments. We concluded that substitution of sucrose with Stevia may be a choice to produce low caloric
and GI ice creams. However, using mixture of the two sweeteners improves sensory acceptance of the formula-
tions.
KEYWORDS
Glycemic Index; Stevia; Ice Cream; Overrun; Melting Rate
1. Introduction
Ice cream is the most popular frozen dessert all over the
globe. It is a combination of milk, sweetener, stabilizer,
emulsifier and flavoring agents, egg products, coloring
additives and hydrolyzed products of starch. Three im-
portant structural compositions of ice cream are: air cells,
ice crystals and fat corpuscles which are dispersed in
connected phase from a non-frozen solution [1]. Among
this variety of ingredients, sweeteners are more important
factors on consumer’s acceptance mainly due to their in-
fluential effect on freezing point, viscosity and maintain-
ing good texture [2].
Wide range of sweeteners has been used in ice cream
formulation. For both economic and rheology reasons,
sucrose is the most frequent used sweetener used in ice
cream production. However, it has many disadvantages
due to high glycemic index (GI) which is correlated with,
metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity,
hypertension, ischemic heart diseases and dental caries [1,
3]. Therefore, in the recent decades, artificial sweeteners
have been suggested to be substituted with sucrose [4].
Although, these compounds produce little or no calories
but a variety of safety issues has been raised including
carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and interference with some
metabolic or vascular diseases. Thus, many attempts
have been focused on application of natural sweeteners
in producing sugar containing food stuff [5].
Stevia which is a short & shrubby plant growing in
Amambi mountainous area of Brazil & Paraguay is a
non-artificial sweetener with relative sweetness 250 - 300
as compared to sucrose. It is a very low calorie com-
pound which makes it a good alternative of sugar for
*
Corresponding author.
Impact of Using Stevia on Physicochemical, Sensory, Rheology and Glycemic Index of Soft Ice Cream
OPEN ACCESS FNS
391
patients suffering from DM and other sedentary life re-
lated diseases [6]. This plant has been used in formula-
tion of many sugar free foods including Custard, Kulfi,
Sandesh [7] and biscuit [8]. Despite many artificial swee-
teners, Stevioside are recognized as safe supplements by
JECFA, WHO and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
with relatively high upper limits [9-11].
A global increase in production and consumption of
ice cream as a highly nutritive dessert parallels with in-
creased trend in prevalence of DM, obesity and Ischemic
heart diseases [5,12]. This product has been widely ac-
cepted by children and other age groups and has been
including in food basket of many families in different
countries. Production of an ice cream with a relatively
low calorie value and lower GI will be partly helpful in
better management of overweight epidemics and imped-
ing occurrence of life style related disease. The aim of
the current study was to examine GI, rheology, sensory
and physicochemical characteristics of soft ice creams
formulated with different proportions of sucrose/Stevia
and to introduce a novel Stevia based ice cream.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Preparation of Ice Cream
To prepare different treatments of ice creams, 500 ml of
skimmed milk with 1.5% fat, 8% solid non fats was pas-
teurized by high-temperature and short time method and
mixed with 120 g cream powder, 80 g full cream milk
powder containing 30% fat, 1 g emulsifier (guar gum, lo-
cust bean gum) and 0.9 gram vanilla and homogenized
by a stirrer (Heidolph RZR 2012 control, Japan) with 800
rpm for one minute. As shown in Table 1, varying pro-
portion of Stevia (St) (purification rate of 90% type of
SU200, IRAN, Stevia Pac), and sucrose (su) was added
to make five different ice cream formulations followings:
1) treatment A (TA) 18.6 gram (su), 2) treatment B (TB)
13.95 gram (su) and 20 mg (St), 3) treatment C (TC) 9.3
gram (su) and 40 mg (St), treatment D (TD) 4.65 gram
(su) and 70 mg (St) and treatment E (TE) 110 mg (St)
without any sugar. All the treatments were homogenized
at 70˚C and 85 Pascal (Pa). The mixture was pasteurized
for thirty seconds at 80˚C. The mix was incubated at
10˚C - 15˚C for 20 minutes and kept on 4˚C for 12 hours.
2.2. Physicochemical Assessments
Ice cream overrun assessment was performed by using
weight method [13]. The equation used for calculation
was as following:
( )
% Overrun
Vol. of ice cream Vol. of Mix. used 100%.
Vol. of Mix. used
= ×
Determination of total protein and fat were performed
by Kjeldahl (AOAC; 930.33) and Gerber (AOAC 952.06)
methods, respectively [14].
According to the methodology proposed by Lee and
White [15], all the treatments were stored at 18˚C be-
fore carrying out the melting test. Ice cream samples
(100.0 ± 2.0 g) were placed on a mesh grid (mesh size
1-1 cm) and maintained in a controlled temperature
chamber at 25˚C, under constant humidity (≈50%). The
dripped volume was measured every 5 minutes for 60
minutes. The weight of the material passing through the
screen was recorded and used to determine the melting
rate (g/minute).
The viscosities of the ice creams were taken at 15˚C
using a digital Brookfield Viscometer, (Physical, Anton
Paar GmbH, and Graz, Austria). Before measuring the
viscosity, the samples was stirred gently to remove the
air from the mixes [16]. Caloric content of each treat-
ment was calculated using food analysis software (Nutri-
tionist 4, Nutrition Marker Plus).
2.3. Sensory Evaluation
The sensory evaluation tests were performed with human
volunteers according to a previously described method
Table 1. Components of soft and Stevia ice cream.
Components of ice cream in 100 g Treatment A Treatment B Treatment C Treatment D Treatment E
Milk* (ml) 58.01 58.01 58.01 58.01 58.01
Sucrose (g) 18.60 13.95 9.30 4.65 0
Dry milk powder** (g) 9.30 9.30 9.30 9.30 9.30
Cream powder (g) 14 14 14 14 14
Emulsifier and Stabilizer*** (g) 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Stevia (g) 0 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11
*The milk used contained 1.5% fat, 8% dry material, 3.3 gram (g) protein and 4.9 g carbohydrate. **Dry milk powder contained 30% fat. ***PGX-1 stabilizer
from Germantown Mfg. Co., Broomall, PA, USA.
Impact of Using Stevia on Physicochemical, Sensory, Rheology and Glycemic Index of Soft Ice Cream
OPEN ACCESS FNS
392
[17]. Before testing, the volunteers (n = 26) were asked
to keep the tested tablets in their mouths and were not
told the constituent for each tested tablets. After tasting
the tablet, they were asked to give precisely their flavor
sensation. All samples were chewed and kept in the
mouth for 15 s. The sensory evaluations were repeated
consecutively for all the samples with a 15 minutes time
gap to perform mouth washing by the volunteers. The
panelists were requested to rank between “0” as uncha-
racterized intensity, and “5” as very strong intensity. All
experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results
were reported as the mean values for basic flavors (sweet,
bitter), color, texture and total mean liking.
2.4. Measurement of Glycemic Index
To measure GI, ten volunteers, 2 men and 8 women,
were recruited in the study. Inclusion criteria were: Nor-
mal health according to a complete physical examination,
normal fasting and post prandial glucose levels and not
receiving any medications or food supplements. All the par-
ticipants had written an informed consent. The study was
approved by the medical ethics committee of the Tabriz
University of Medical Sciences. The study was registered
at national randomized clinical trial directory [18].
Every volunteer were requested to maintain them-
selves on overnight fasting for ten minutes. To calculate
reference glycemic response, the participants were then
asked to take 50 g pure glucose in 150 ml drinking water
and their plasma glucose was tested for two hours and in
15 minutes intervals. The blood glucose levels were de-
termined by capillary blood glucose analyzer (Beurer,
Art-Nr.463.00, Germany). The experiments were repeated
for two consecutive days using 61.5 g of soft ice cream
(TA), 153.8 g of a sample Stevia ice cream (TE) to pro-
vide ice creams with 50 gram of carbohydrate in each
test meals. Then, related curves were drawn based on
obtained blood glucose levels and the area under curve
was measured from 0 to 120 minutes by numerical inte-
gration for of all samples. Finally, GI was calculated by
using following equation:
Glycemic index = area under glycemic increase curve
in 0 to 120 minutes for consumed ice cream/area under
glycemic increase curve in 0 to 120 minutes for standard
sample.
2.5. Ethical Considerations
All the participants had written an informed consent. The
study was approved by the medical ethics committee of
the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
The study was registered at national randomized clinical
trial directory.
2.6. Statistical Analysis
All the assessments were repeated three times. Data were
first examined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to ensure
normality. They were then expressed as mean ± SDV.
Comparison within each group were done by one way
analysis of variance followed by the Tukeys test. All the
analysis were performed using SPSS software, version
17.1 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA).
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Effect of Replacement Sucrose with Stevia
on Physicochemical Properties of Product
Ingredient of soft and Stevia ice creams are summarized
in Table 2. Viscosity or resistance to flow is the most
important feature of ice cream mixture. It was found that
ice cream samples with very little or no sucrose (TD and
TE) had the lowest viscosity. As shown in Table 3, the
samples had relatively low viscosity as compared to TA.
This seems reasonable since changing type of sweetener
has been known to influence viscosity of ice creams. Al-
so, disaccharides such as sucrose produce high osmolali-
ty solutions due to their solubility and hydrophilic cha-
racteristic and have capacity to make hydrogen bonds
with water molecules by a hydroxyl group [19], which in
turn augments viscosity of ice cream mixtures. Interes-
tingly, level of sweeteners tendency to absorb water is
dependent on molecular size of these compounds. What-
ever saccharide molecular weight is less, tendency to
absorb water will be more and viscosity would be in-
creased [19,20].
Air in ice cream provides a light texture and influences
the physical properties of melting down and hardness [3].
It is suggested that a very low overrun is associated with
soggy configuration while an increased overrun results in
a puffy tissue [13]. As shown in Table 3, we found sig-
nificant change in percentage of overrun among all the
treatments with the lowest percent (53.37 ± 0.76) in TA
and the highest (65.03 ± 0.25) in TE.
Although many factors affect overrun including vis-
cosity, fat, emulsifier, stabilizer contents and processing
conditions, viscosity has been reported to be an important
factor [13,15]. A higher viscosity observed in ice creams
Table 2. Ingredients of soft and Stevia ice cream.
Treatments
Constituent
Treatment
A
B
Treatment
C
Treatment
D
Treatment
E
Fat* 6.67 6.17 6.34 6.23 6.30
Protein* 4.50 4.61 5.23 5.26 5.64
Total sugar* 16.25 15.10 12.99 10.92 6.50
Total calorie 143.03 134.37 112.48 120.79 105.25
*Data are expressed as gram per 100 ml of ice cream.
Impact of Using Stevia on Physicochemical, Sensory, Rheology and Glycemic Index of Soft Ice Cream
OPEN ACCESS FNS
393
Table 3. Physicochemical and rheology properties of soft and Stevia ice cream.
Treatments
Variable Treatment A1
(mean ± SD) Treatment B
(mean ± SD) Treatment C
(mean ± SD) Treatment D
(mean ± SD) Treatment E
(mean ± SD) P value
Viscosity (PA.s) 0.63 ± 0.85 (a) 1.30 ± 0.70 (b) 0.47 ± 0.31 (a) 0.10 ± 0.03 (a) 0.22 ± 0.15 (a) 0.001
Brix (Bx ) 35.00 ± 0.50 (a) 35.00 ± 0.58 (a) 34.00 ± 0.58 (a, c) 34.00 ± 0.76 (a, c) 32.00 ± 1.00 (b, c) 0.001
Over run (%) 53.37 ± 0.76 (a) 58.17 ± 1.189 (b, d) 60.00 ± 1.00 (b) 61.01 ± 1.19 (b, c) 65.03 ± 0.25 (e) 0.001
Date are presented as mean ± SD and analyzed with one way analysis of variance. Different letters represent statistical significance among different treatment
using the Tukey test.
with high sugar contents (TA and TB) together with low-
er viscosity in those with little or no added sugars (TD,
TE) implies that ice creams with high sucrose have rela-
tively lower overrun. The findings were in agreement
with a previous report [21,22], that carbohydrates possess
an enhancement in viscosity and do not exhibit remarka-
ble foaming capacity.
As shown in Figure 1, ice cream melting rate showed
an increasing trend in proportional to amount of used
Stevia. Also, the ice creams with low overruns melted
slowly.
A lower melting resistance in the ice creams with high
overruns is mainly attributed to a reduced rate of heat
transfer across air bubbles [23]. Besides, it has been re-
ported that sugars with lower molecular have a decreased
melting resistance as compared to those with higher mo-
lecular weight [23,24]. It was concluded that therefore,
the slower thawing of the ice creams produced with su-
crose was associated to the size and molar weight of the
chains of this disaccharide [25,26].
3.2. Effect of Replacing Sucrose with Stevia on
Glycemic Index and Caloric Measurement
Young, apparently healthy adults with average age of
23.3 ± 4.16 years were included to do this test. Mean
body mass index of the participants was 23 ± 4.37. The
mean glycemic index of ice Cream formulated with or
without sucrose was calculated as 79.06 ± 4.01 and 72.18
± 5.27, respectively (Figure 2). In addition, mean calorie
value of these two ice creams was 143.03 and 105.26.
Level of post-prandial blood glucose is a major factor
to predict profile of insulin resistance and incidence of
DM. The level is affected by both amount and type of
carbohydrate consumed. The concept of GI was intro-
duced [18] to bring into account importance of the latter
in glucose response and subsequent development of insu-
lin resistance and DM. This naturally occurring biologic
response is referred to time course of glucose entrance
into blood circulation after consumption of a proper meal
and its trend of inductive effect on pancreatic β-cells to
produce and secret insulin. Accumulative data elucidated
a positive correlation between increased dietary GI,
amount of calory and risk for coronary heart disease [5].
Figure 1. Melting rates (g/minute) of ice creams during two
hours period. Formulations of the ice creams were as fol-
lowings: TA = 18.6 gram sucrose added to soft ice cream/0
gram Stevia. TB = 13.95 gram sucrose added to soft ice
cream/4.65 gram Stevia. TC = 9.3 gram sucrose added to
soft ice cream/9.3 gram Stevia. TD = 4.65 gram sucrose
added to soft ice cream/13.95 Stevia/. TE = 0 gram sucrose
added to soft ice cream/18.6 gram Stevia. Data are pre-
sented as mean ± SD.
Judging from the remarkable reduction in caloric value
and GI of Stevia based ice creams (TD and TE), we sug-
gest that substitution of Stevia with sugars brings a new
relatively healthy choice for food basket of families with
high risk of life style related diseases including DM [18,
27,28].
3.3. Effects of Replacing Sucrose with Stevia on
Sensory Properties
Sensory evaluations were conducted to determine relev-
ance of Stevioside as a natural sweetener as presented
Figure 3, in the products [29], different amounts of Ste-
via and sucrose did not result in difference in the color of
the products. Substitution of sucrose with Stevia de-
creased flavor, tissue and mean liking scores of the
products. The suitability of taste, texture and mean liking
was relatively higher in TC as compared to other ice
creams.
The sweetening power and persistence of sweet taste
by Stevioside are affected by several factors such as
concentration, ingredients and temperature of ice cream.
It has been described that addition of very high concen-
trations of Stevia to many food products negatively in-
Impact of Using Stevia on Physicochemical, Sensory, Rheology and Glycemic Index of Soft Ice Cream
OPEN ACCESS FNS
394
(a)
(b)
Figure 2. (a) Trend of blood glucose response during 120
minutes after consumption of sugar and Stevia based ice
creams (b) glycemic index of the two ice cream formulations.
A single asterisk indicate p value less than 0.05.
Figure 3. Sensory properties of soft and Stevia ice cream.
Formulations of the ice creams were as followings: TA =
18.6 gram sucrose added to soft ice cream/0 gram Stevia.
TB = 13.95 gram sucrose added to soft ice cream/4.65 gram
Stevia. TC = 9.3 gram sucrose added to soft ice cream/9.3
gram Stevia. TD = 4.65 gram sucrose added to soft ice
cream/13.95 Stevia/. TE = 0 gram sucrose added to soft ice
cream/18.6 gram Stevia.
fluences mean liking of those products [29-31]. In addi-
tion, a bitter aftertaste is a major problem associated with
many sweeteners which limits their use at high concen-
trations. Further, the bitter aftertaste of Stevioside is
more persistent than other natural and synthetic sweeten-
ers and appears in a dose dependent manner [29]. On the
other side, sucrose has many disadvantages due to its
high glycemic index which facilitates development of
many metabolic diseases such as DM, metabolic syn-
drome and obesity. These diseases further predispose
individuals to many serious pathologic conditions includ-
ing cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular accidents
and even malignancies. Thus, it seems reasonable to use
natural sweeteners such as Stevia in formulation of calo-
rie dense foods despites some sensory limitations.
Our findings on sensory effect of Stevia are in consis-
tent with previous reports [30,32]. Judging from results
of the current study and some other reports [31,32] , it is
concluded that sensory characteristics of the ice creams
were related to both amount of Stevia used and its inte-
ractions with other components of the products.
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, the current study has shown that applica-
tion of Stevia, as a natural sweetener, has a positive im-
pact on producing an ice cream with remarkably low
calorie and glycemic index without impeding effect on
physicochemical and sensory properties of the ice creams.
We believe that this sweetener can be used for production
of proper food samples with low calorie and low gly-
cemic index.
Acknowledgements
This study was supported by a grant from Tabriz Univer-
sity of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
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... These contradictory results have negatively impacted consumers' perceptions of artificial HISs [14] and increased their interest in natural sweetener options such as stevia [15]. Not only is stevia a natural non-caloric HIS, it also lowers the glycemic index (GI) [16] and blood glucose levels [16]. In addition, Anton et al. [17] discovered that the consumption of stevia significantly helped to reduce the food intake of consumers as compared to sucrose (p < 0.01). ...
... These contradictory results have negatively impacted consumers' perceptions of artificial HISs [14] and increased their interest in natural sweetener options such as stevia [15]. Not only is stevia a natural non-caloric HIS, it also lowers the glycemic index (GI) [16] and blood glucose levels [16]. In addition, Anton et al. [17] discovered that the consumption of stevia significantly helped to reduce the food intake of consumers as compared to sucrose (p < 0.01). ...
... This study examined the sensory quality of three different steviol glycosides (0.09% w/v) in ice cream and compared them against sucrose ice cream (14% w/v) as a control. Stevia has different physiochemical properties than sucrose [16], one of which is that it lacks a bulking agent. Thus, this negatively affects the texture of stevia ice cream samples. ...
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There has been a challenge in overcoming the bitter aftertaste of stevia, a natural non-caloric sweetener. Recent research focuses on investigating various types of steviol glycosides, the sweet compounds in stevia leaves, as they exhibit different sensory characteristics. This study determined the sensory properties and acceptability of ice cream sweetened solely with three steviol glycosides, rebaudioside (Reb) A, D, and M (0.09% w/v), using sucrose-sweetened ice cream as a control (14% w/v). Ice cream consumers (n = 92) rated their overall liking, attribute liking, and sweetness and bitterness intensities and described the aftertastes of each sample using check-all-that-apply. The liking scores of Reb D- and M-sweetened ice creams were significantly higher than those of Reb A-sweetened ice cream. Among the three glycosides, only Reb M showed a sweetness intensity comparable with that of sucrose. Consumers perceived the aftertastes of Reb D and M ice creams as being more sweet, pleasant, creamy, and milky, while Reb A was more artificial and chemical. Reb D and M ice creams were also plotted close to sucrose in the correspondence analysis graph, meaning that their aftertaste characteristics were similar to those of sucrose. The present study clearly highlights that Reb D and M have better tastes and provide better perceptions to consumers than Reb A, which is the most widely used glycoside in food industry.
... Stevia, sucralose, and sorbitol contained in sugar-free dairy products can aid in calorie reduction, weight loss, and diet control. Low-sugar dairy is important in dietary management as it allows the slow movement of glucose into blood, resulting in a very low rise in blood-glucose, obesity, and insulin levels [35]. ...
... Significant differences between the ice cream treatments in their chemical characteristics are due to the variance of the total solids, fat, ash, and protein levels in the mixtures. In a similar study, significant differences in the compositional properties were observed by Alizadeh et al. [35] when sucrose was replaced by stevia in ice cream. Deshmukh et al. [36] also found significant differences in the compositional characteristics of ice cream mixes when sucrose was replaced by a mix of stevia powder. ...
... This is due to the total replacement of sucrose and fat with sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, and sorbitol) and bulking agents. Considering that sucrose has many disadvantages due to its high glucose that facilitates the development of many metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity [35], stevia-sweetened ice cream can be an alternative product for diabetic individuals. The lactose and galactose levels were not significantly shown in the ice cream samples. ...
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Ice cream is a popular dessert product across the world. Structure, body, taste, and odor properties are created by adding non-milk ingredients and milk ingredients. The main aim of the study is to decrease the caloric value of ice cream by using sugar and fat replacements. Ice cream treatments were investigated based on microstructural, chemical, physical, microbiological, sensory, and calorific values. Four different ice creams were used (control ice cream (SC1), ice cream with stevia (SC2), ice cream with sucralose (SC3), and ice cream with sorbitol (SC4)). The chemical properties in all treatments of ice cream were significantly recorded (p < 0.05). The highest sucrose and fat levels were detected in the SC1 treatment compared with the other treatments (p < 0.05). The lowest fat and sugar amounts were observed in the SC2, SC3, and SC4 treatments (p < 0.05). The highest viscosity, overrun, and hardness values (p < 0.05) were detected in the control ice cream. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts were not significantly recorded between different ice cream treatments (p < 0.05). The sensory scores were not significantly affected by sweeteners and bulk agents in the different treatments. The highest calorific value was calculated in the SC1 samples (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the lowest calorific value was calculated in SC2, followed by the SC3 and SC4 treatments. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the gel exhibited a homogeneous structure with a fine network within the SC2, SC3, and SC4 treatments, as it contained a cohesive structure with small-sized pores.
... [12] . Similar findings were observed by Alizadeh et al. (2014) [7] who had reported that the complete replacement of sugar with stevia resulted in significant reduction in calorie value. Giri et al. (2014) [19] also reported that the calorie value of kulfi samples treated with stevia extract powder was lower than the control sample. ...
... [12] . Similar findings were observed by Alizadeh et al. (2014) [7] who had reported that the complete replacement of sugar with stevia resulted in significant reduction in calorie value. Giri et al. (2014) [19] also reported that the calorie value of kulfi samples treated with stevia extract powder was lower than the control sample. ...
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In recent years consumers are directed their interest toward lowering fat and calorie content in food products and producing healthier and therapeutic food products. In the present study, reduced fat, low calorie, and protein-rich Ice Cream were prepared using soy protein isolates, inulin, and stevia extract powder. The chemical and physical properties of Ice Cream samples were analyzed including fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture, total solids, titratable acidity, pH, overrun, viscosity, calorie value, and melting rate. All chemical and physical properties of optimized Ice Cream were found significantly (P<0.05) different from the control sample except for pH. Keywords: Soy protein isolates (SPI), inulin, stevia, ice cream, physicochemical properties
... It was found that blends containing 50% monk fruit did not elicit any bitterness above the threshold level as compared to blend containing 25% monk fruit or 100% monk fruit in protein beverages (Harwood & Drake, 2021). The decrease in bitterness and astringency with a blend of stevia/monk fruit and sucrose compared to solely stevia or monk fruit were also observed in chocolate milk (Li et al., 2015), kulfi, an Indian traditional frozen dairy dessert (Giri & Rao, 2014), and ice cream (Alizadeh et al., 2014). ...
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Sweetened yogurts can contain between 10 and 13% added sugar. However, studies have shown that sugar reduction or replacement can influence yogurt quality. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of yogurt with added natural sweeteners on temporal sensory profile, liking, satiety and postconsumption measures. Yogurt samples were prepared with iso‐sweet concentrations of sucrose (9 g/100 g of plain yogurt) using xylitol (10 g/100 g), stevia (0.15 g/100 g), and monk fruit (0.15 g/100 g). Fifty panelists evaluated the temporal sensory profile of these yogurts using multiple‐intake temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), and overall liking for each intake. In addition, satiety (hunger, thirst, and fullness) and other postconsumption attributes (healthiness, satisfaction, and purchase intent) were determined. The temporal profile of yogurt sweetened with xylitol was similar to yogurt sweetened with sucrose without any onset of negative sensory characteristics at any point in intake. Yogurt sweetened with stevia had a high dominance duration for astringency. Moreover, yogurt sweetened with monk fruit showed increased dominance of attributes bitter and astringent from the first to third intake. In terms of liking, yogurt containing xylitol was scored the highest followed by stevia and monkfruit. Sweet was a positive temporal driver of liking in yogurt sweetened with monk fruit. However, mouthcoating, sweet, and sour decreased liking in yogurt sweetened with sucrose, xylitol, and stevia respectively. In terms of perceived healthiness, satisfaction and purchase intent, yogurt sweetened with sucrose scored the highest followed by xylitol. Consumption of yogurt sweetened with xylitol, stevia, or monk fruit significantly decreased hunger compared to yogurt sweetened with sucrose. The current findings will play an important role for the dairy industry in understanding how sugar replacement with natural sweeteners in yogurt can influence its sensory perception and postconsumption behavior.
... Verma [35] reported an increasing trend in the organoleptic numbers with high maltodextrin amount with respect to the structure and consistency, melting in mouth, flavor and total acceptability. Additionally, sensory numbers were higher in stevia alternative to sugar in the ice cream [47]. ...
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Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)). The chemical properties were not significantly present p > 0.05) during storage in all treatments. In the F1 treatment, sucrose value was higher (14.87%) and not detected in the F2, F3 and F4 treatments. The highest values of overrun, hardness and viscosity (p < 0.05) were detected in the F2, F3 and F3 samples, but the lowest value was detected in the F1 treatment. Total Str. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus counts were gradually decreased (p < 0.05) during storage periods. At 1 day, the Bifidobacteria counts ranged from 7.56 to 7.60 log10 CFU g􀀀1 in all groups and gradually decreased during storage, but these bacterial counts remained viable (>6.00 log10 CFU g􀀀1) during storage periods up to 60 d. During storage periods, the highest scores of total acceptability were detected in the F3, F4 and F2 treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of all probiotic-frozen yogurt treatments illustrated that the microstructures showed a difference with a fine network, size pores and structure between the frozen yogurt with sweeteners (F2, F3 and F3) and control frozen yogurt (F1).
... Verma [35] reported an increasing trend in the organoleptic numbers with high maltodextrin amount with respect to the structure and consistency, melting in mouth, flavor and total acceptability. Additionally, sensory numbers were higher in stevia alternative to sugar in the ice cream [47]. ...
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Full-text available
Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)).
... Verma [35] reported an increasing trend in the organoleptic numbers with high maltodextrin amount with respect to the structure and consistency, melting in mouth, flavor and total acceptability. Additionally, sensory numbers were higher in stevia alternative to sugar in the ice cream [47]. ...
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Full-text available
Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)). The chemical properties were not significantly present p > 0.05) during storage in all treatments. In the F1 treatment, sucrose value was higher (14.87%) and not detected in the F2, F3 and F4 treatments. The highest values of overrun, hardness and viscosity (p < 0.05) were detected in the F2, F3 and F3 samples, but the lowest value was detected in the F1 treatment. Total Str. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus counts were gradually decreased (p < 0.05) during storage periods. At 1 day, the Bifidobacteria counts ranged from 7.56 to 7.60 log10 CFU g−1 in all groups and gradually decreased during storage, but these bacterial counts remained viable (>6.00 log10 CFU g−1) during storage periods up to 60 d. During storage periods, the highest scores of total acceptability were detected in the F3, F4 and F2 treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of all probiotic-frozen yogurt treatments illustrated that the microstructures showed a difference with a fine network, size pores and structure between the frozen yogurt with sweeteners (F2, F3 and F3) and control frozen yogurt (F1).
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Consumption of milk and its products is considered as one of the indicators of human societies' development. Ice cream as one of the most popular milk products around the world has many fans but due to its high amount of sucrose has negative effects on health. Stevia, a natural sweetener, was used as a sucrose substitute at 0-100% replacement levels in ice cream formulation. To investigate the treatments produced, physicochemical properties in ice cream including specific gravity, viscosity, melting time of the first drop, melting amount, overrun. The results showed that viscosity decreased by 100% by increasing the amount of stevia replacement. While overrun, Firmness, melting time of the first drop and consequently the melting stability of the samples increased with increasing the percentage of stevia used, Sensory test results showed that there was no significant difference between stevia and control samples except cold sensation and ice crystal. As a general result, stevia sweetener is a suitable substitute for sugar and samples containing 100-75% stevia were identified as desirable treatment.
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Potato is a food which yields very variable glycemic responses. It makes a major contribution to total starch intake and the share of processed potato products is growing. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of processing and storage on the glycemic indices (GIs) of industrially processed potato products.Two groups (11 and 10 volunteer subjects) attended a glucose tolerance test and glycemic response test of 4 and 3 processed potato products, respectively. GIs of different potato products were calculated for each subject using their own glucose tolerance test and glycemic responses for test meals and averages calculated for each product.GIs of freshly prepared potato products were high: steam boiled potatoes 104±39, oven-baked casserole 95±30 (carbo-peeled sliced potato) and mashed potatoes 106±42. GIs of cooled and cold stored potato products were intermediate, potato cubes served cold 76±32 and cooled, reheated oven-baked casseroles 73±25 (carbo-peeled sliced potato), 75±17 (carbo-peeled mashed potato) and 81±28 (steam-peeled mashed potato). Cooling and cold storage decreased GIs significantly (steam boiled potatoes vs. steam boiled potato cubes (P=0.01), freshly served casserole made of sliced potatoes vs. casserole cooled, cold stored and reheated P=0.01).Conclusion Cooking method, peeling method, or slicing or mashing did not affect the GIs. Cooling and cold storage, despite reheating, lowered GIs of potato products by about 25%.