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Abstract

ScopeMoringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo.Methods and resultsC57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects observed.Conclusion Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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... Due to the link between obesity, insulin resistance and cancer, several FDA-approved antidiabetic therapies such as insulin sensitizers (thiazolidinediones), insulin secretagogues (sulfonylureas) and biguanides, which have been associated with the decrease in cancer incidence, are being investigated as anti-cancer therapies [5][6][7]. Moringa oleifera (moringa) is an edible tropical plant used for both food and medicinal purposes and found to have anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in rats [8,9] and mice [10,11]. The leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, seeds and root of the moringa plant may be used to make herbal medicines due to the presence of a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals. ...
... Moringa seeds have much higher levels of ITCs, particularly enriched in 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl] isothiocyanate, commonly known as glucomoringin-ITC or MIC-1 [10,14]. Multiple studies in C57BL/6J mice with diet-induced obesity have shown that dietary supplementation with either the seed or leaf extract protects against obesity and insulin resistance [10,11]. ...
... The concentrate was prepared from multiple batches of extract resulting in 33% MIC-1 by weight. The MC was added to the high-fat diet (D12492; 0.198% MIC-1 (0.6% MC) [11] and was isocaloric to the HFD for fat, protein and carbohydrate content. ...
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Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and highly metastatic breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options. Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a worse prognosis in those with TNBC. Moringa oleifera (moringa) is a tropical edible plant used for both food and medicinal purposes and found to have anti-obesity and anti-cancer effects in vitro and in preclinical models. The anti-cancer effects of moringa seed extract alone and in combination with chemotherapy were evaluated in immunocompromised female mice with diet-induced obesity bearing MDA-MB-231-derived xenograft tumors. Moringa supplementation protected against high-fat diet- and chemotherapy-induced increases in fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity. Moringa supplementation alone did not attenuate tumor growth relative to chemotherapy alone, and in combination worsened tumor progression. Moringa supplementation alone reduced angiogenesis, but this effect was abrogated in combination with chemotherapy. Moringa supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve metabolic health in mice with obesity and TNBC and reduce angiogenesis in tumors, but may have a negative interaction when used as a concurrent complementary therapy. Caution should be taken when considering the consumption of moringa seed extracts while receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment. Further investigations of alternative timings of moringa therapy are warranted.
... Therefore, in this study, the active compounds were screened by OB ≥30%, DL ≥0.18 and Caco-2 ≥-0.4. 43,44 Isothiocyanates and benzylamines in MO have been reported to have significant pharmacological activity on the improvement of IR. 45,46 Therefore, all isothiocyanates and benzylamines were selected for further investigation regardless of whether these compounds met the requirements. ...
... It is worth noting that isothiocyanates and benzylamines have relatively low OB values, but are known to produce effective anti-IR activity or improve glucose tolerance. 45,46 Hence, eight isothiocyanates and 15 benzylamines were also selected for inclusion in the next step of our analysis, despite not fulfilling the criteria for OB and DL. Indeed, the present data showed that almost all candidate compounds showed low oral bioavailability (OB ≤30%) and poor drug-like characteristics (DL ≤0.18). ...
... The top three compound nodes linked to the greatest number of target nodes were quercetin (compound 28), caffeic acid (compound 30), and ferulic acid (compound 32). However, isothiocyanates and benzylamines are known to be active compounds that improve IR. 45,46 As isothiocyanates and benzylamines might function synergistically to improve IR, we identified SRC, PTPN1, and CASP3 as the top three targets linked to the greatest number of isothiocyanates and benzylamines ( Figure 6B). These targets are involved in multiple important pathways, such as focal adhesion, IR, the insulin signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway. ...
Article
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Background and purpose: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the factors that results in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and different aspects of cardiovascular diseases. Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS), traditionally used as an antidiabetic food and traditional medicine in tropical Asia and Africa, have exhibited potential effects in improving IR. To systematically explore the pharmacological mechanism of the anti-IR effects of MOS, we adopted a network pharmacology approach at the molecular level. Methods: By incorporating compound screening and target prediction, a feasible compound-target-pathway network pharmacology model was established to systematically predict the potential active components and mechanisms of the anti-IR effects of MOS. Biological methods were then used to verify the results of the network pharmacology analysis. Results: Our comprehensive systematic approach successfully identified 32 bioactive compounds in MOS and 44 potential targets of these compounds related to IR, as well as 37 potential pathways related to IR. Moreover, the network pharmacology analysis revealed that glycosidic isothiocyanates and glycosidic benzylamines were the major active components that improved IR by acting on key targets, such as SRC, PTPN1, and CASP3, which were involved in inflammatory responses and insulin-related pathways. Further biological research demonstrated that the anti-IR effects of MOS were mediated by increasing glucose uptake and modulating the expression of SRC and PTPN1. Conclusion: Our study successfully predicts the active ingredients and potential targets of MOS for improving IR and helps to illustrate mechanism of action at a systemic level. This study not only provides new insights into the chemical basis and pharmacology of MOS but also demonstrates a feasible method for discovering potential drugs from traditional medicines.
... Circumferences were measured with an inelastic tape (SECA, precision 0.5 cm) using standard procedures. A dichotomic variable was created and named as Fat_Status based in the fat mass percentage obtained from the bioimpedance analysis and using the upper threshold for normal body fat percentage established for the TANITA bioelectrical impedance device for men (40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) year, <22% and 60-70 year, <25%) and women (40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) year, <34% and 60-70 year, <36%) [40]. This variable classified participants as "Normal body fat" or "Above normal body fat". ...
... Circumferences were measured with an inelastic tape (SECA, precision 0.5 cm) using standard procedures. A dichotomic variable was created and named as Fat_Status based in the fat mass percentage obtained from the bioimpedance analysis and using the upper threshold for normal body fat percentage established for the TANITA bioelectrical impedance device for men (40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) year, <22% and 60-70 year, <25%) and women (40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) year, <34% and 60-70 year, <36%) [40]. This variable classified participants as "Normal body fat" or "Above normal body fat". ...
... Despite a vast body of evidence on the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of MO leaf extracts and polyphenolic compound enriched fractions [9,31], as well as evidence from animal studies showing antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemia effects [43], provision of antioxidant stability [44], modification of the expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism [44,45] and of inflammatory markers [29,30,45], the evidence of similar effects and activities in human studies is scarce. This nutritional intervention study was designed to test the hypoglycemic effect of MO dry leaf powder in patients with prediabetes, and a moderate but significant effect was found on glycemia markers [21]. ...
Article
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Different parts of the Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) tree are consumed as food or food supplements for their nutritional and medicinal value; however, very few human studies have been published on the topic. The current work was aimed to provide ancillary analysis to the antidiabetic effects previously reported in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group intervention conducted in patients with prediabetes. Thus, the effect of MO leaves on blood and fecal inflammatory markers, serum lipid profile, plasma antioxidant capacity and blood pressure was studied in participants who consumed 6 × 400 mg capsule/day of MO dry leaf powder (MO, n = 31) or placebo (PLC, n = 34) over 12 weeks. Differences between groups were assessed using each biomarker’s change score with, adjustment for fat status and the baseline value. In addition, a decision tree analysis was performed to find individual characteristics influencing the glycemic response to MO supplementation. No differences in the biomarker’s change scores were found between the groups; however, the decision tree analysis revealed that plasma TNF-α was a significant predictor of the subject’s HbA1c response (improvement YES/NO; 77% correct classification) in the MO group. In conclusion, TNF-α seems to be a key factor to identify potential respondents to MO leaf powder.
... Several isolated compounds were used in the study: isothiocyanates (Waterman et al., 2015;Huang et al., 2020), niazirin (Wang et al., 2019a;Bao et al., 2020), β-sitosterol (Liao et al., 2018). N, α, L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide, (Panda et al., 2013;Cheraghi et al., 2017), 1-O-(4hydroxymethylphenyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (MPG) . ...
... MO increases phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the liver and IRS-1 and IRS-2 and insulin receptor-β (IRβ) in the muscle. Moreover, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which was an insulin-regulated transporter, was increased in the muscle after MO treatment (Waterman et al., 2015). ...
... Most animal studies did not provide toxicity results. However, in several studies that reported acute and chronic toxicity studies, lethal doses were found at a relatively high dose (up to 10-20 times of the adequate amount used in animals) (Jaiswal et al., 2009;Araújo et al., 2013;Adedapo et al., 2015;Waterman et al., 2015;Atta et al., 2017;Sun et al., 2019). Acute dermal toxicity study of MO as a wound dressing in diabetic ulcer model did not cause any toxicity on the skin (Chin et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Cardiometabolic disorders (CMD) have become a global emergency and increasing burden on health and economic problems. Due to the increasing need for new drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, many alternative medicines from plants have been considered and studied. Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), one of the native plants from several Asian countries, has been used empirically by people for various kinds of illnesses. In the present systematic review, we aimed to investigate the recent studies of MO in CMD and its possible mechanism of action. We systematically searched from three databases and summarized the data. This review includes a total of 108 papers in nonclinical studies and clinical trials of MO in cardiometabolic-related disorders. Moringa oleifera , extracts or isolated compound, exerts its effect on CMD through its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory actions resulting in the modulation in glucose and lipid metabolism and the preservation of target organ damage. Several studies supported the beneficial effect of MO in regulating the gut microbiome, which generates the diversity of gut microbiota and reduces the number of harmful bacteria in the caecum. Molecular actions that have been studied include the suppression of NF-kB translocation, upregulation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, stimulation of total antioxidant capacity by reducing PKCζ activation, and inhibiting the Nox4 protein expression and several other proposed mechanisms. The present review found substantial evidence supporting the potential benefits of Moringa oleifera in cardiovascular or metabolic disorders.
... It is a fast-growing perennial tree that can measure up to 12 meters in height and displaying great ecological plasticity since it is able to adapt to the most dissimilar conditions of the soil, temperature and precipitation, being very resistant to the drought [1,2]. Its leaves are compound, and are arranged in groups of leaflets with a length of 30-70 cm, the flowers have five unequal white petals and yellow stamens and thiocyanates, isothiocyanates and nitriles which constitute the active molecules with chemo-protective, hypotensive and hypoglycemic effects [7,10,27,28]. ...
... This capacity is attributed to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and the most abundant, gallic acid). On the other hand, the importance of isothiocyanates in glycemic control seems to be related to their ability to reduce resistance to the action of insulin and hepatic gluconeogenesis [28]. ...
... This C57BL/6J mice model used very high-fat diet with 5% MO leaf concentrate of an aqueous extract providing similar doses of 200 mg MO/kg/day. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower than in the control diabetic animals for the OGTT performed at weeks 8 and 12 (but not at 4th week of treatment) [28]. Mixed findings have been reported with a supplementation (300 mg/kg) lasting 4 weeks in high fructose diet-induced diabetic animals, with a non-significant decrease in glucose (from 133 to 129 mg/dL, mean values) but normalization of hyperinsulinemia (from 5.05 to 2.64 µIU/mL, mean values) [52]. ...
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Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose plant consumed as food and known for its medicinal uses, among others. Leaves, seeds and pods are the main parts used as food or food supplements. Nutritionally rich and with a high polyphenol content in the form of phenolic acids, flavonoids and glucosinolates, MO has been shown to exert numerous in vitro activities and in vivo effects, including hypoglycemic activity. A systematic search was carried out in the PubMed database and reference lists on the effects of MO on glucose metabolism. Thirty-three animal studies and eight human studies were included. Water and organic solvent extracts of leaves and, secondly, seeds, have been extensively assayed in animal models, showing the hypoglycemic effect, both under acute conditions and in long-term administrations and also prevention of other metabolic changes and complications associated to the hyperglycemic status. In humans, clinical trials are scarce, with variable designs and testing mainly dry leaf powder alone or mixed with other foods or MO aqueous preparations. Although the reported results are encouraging, especially those from postprandial studies, more human studies are certainly needed with more stringent inclusion criteria and a sufficient number of diabetic or prediabetic subjects. Moreover, trying to quantify the bioactive substances administered with the experimental material tested would facilitate comparison between studies.
... Further, the study found that it could reduce insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFα), and glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic mice. the main bioactive ingredients that have anti-diabetic activity and anti-inflammatory responses [11]. ...
... Flavonoids, which include quercetin, kaempferol glucoside, and flavonoid malfates, show anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production in LPS macrophages [11]. Many previous studies have established the inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera on NO, VEGF, TNFα, IL-2, IL-1ß, IL-6, glucose-6-phosphatase, insulin, leptin, resistin, and cholesterol [11,12,13]. ...
... Flavonoids, which include quercetin, kaempferol glucoside, and flavonoid malfates, show anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production in LPS macrophages [11]. Many previous studies have established the inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera on NO, VEGF, TNFα, IL-2, IL-1ß, IL-6, glucose-6-phosphatase, insulin, leptin, resistin, and cholesterol [11,12,13]. The most common pathway, which is considered a prototypical proinflammatory signaling pathway and a parent transcription factor, is mediated by NF-kß [14]. ...
Conference Paper
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Background: Moringa oleifera is one of the promising novel treatments in autoimmune diseases through anti-inflammation and immunosuppression. Mean platelet volume and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are used to measure the degree of inflammation. This study aimed to identify the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the mean platelet volume and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in autoimmune patients. Research methods: This experimental study was conducted on 30 autoimmune patients consisting of 28 lupus patients and 2 rheumatoid arthritis patients of the rheumatology clinic at Moewardi General Hospital in January-March 2019. The patient was grouped into two, the treatment and control groups. The patients were in the treatment group received 2 grams of Moringa oleifera leaf extract per day, while those in the control group received a placebo. The study was conducted for 4 weeks, concluded with an evaluation. MPV (mean platelet volume) and NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) examination used a haemocytometer. Statistical analysis was performed using paired T-test and independent T-test. The p-value was considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that Moringa oleifera leaf extract decreases MPV (delta MPV = 4.141; r = 0.656; p-value = 0.02) and Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (delta NLR = 4.1391; r 0.489; p-value = 0.04). Conclusion: The study revealed that Moringa oleifera leaf extract decreased mean platelet volume and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in autoimmune patients.
... In a couple of studies, MG abolished mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators iNOS, NO, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, COX-2, MCP-1, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and P-selectin [86,[174][175][176][177][178]. MG modulated NF-κB and JAK/STAT (Janus kinases/signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathways and reduced expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) gene in the latter case [176]. ...
... Similarly, the moringa concentrate had anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects due to the effect of the ITCs in inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis, and increasing insulin signaling and sensitivity. It also increased lean body mass [175]. ...
... The ability of a phytochemical to antagonize these pathways makes it possible to relieve chronic diseases, of which CVDs are enlisted. MG may reduce CVD risk by reducing obesity and DM features [175]. It is through the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects that MG relieved ischemic stroke [181]. ...
Article
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are illnesses that affect the nervous system and heart, all of which are vital to the human body. To maintain health of the human body, vegetable diets serve as a preventive approach and particularly Brassica vegetables have been associated with lower risks of chronic diseases, especially NDDs and CVDs. Interestingly, glucosinolates (GLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs) are phytochemicals that are mostly found in the Cruciferae family and they have been largely documented as antioxidants contributing to both cardio- and neuroprotective effects. The hydrolytic breakdown of GLs into ITCs such as sulforaphane (SFN), phenylethyl ITC (PEITC), moringin (MG), erucin (ER), and allyl ITC (AITC) has been recognized to exert significant effects with regards to cardio- and neuroprotection. From past in vivo and/or in vitro studies, those phytochemicals have displayed the ability to mitigate the adverse effects of reactive oxidation species (ROS), inflammation, and apoptosis, which are the primary causes of CVDs and NDDs. This review focuses on the protective effects of those GL-derived ITCs, featuring their beneficial effects and the mechanisms behind those effects in CVDs and NDDs.
... Isothiocyanates are bioactive compounds that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity due to their capacity to activate detoxification enzymes [8]. Several authors have reported the hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant effects of MO glucosinolates and isothiocyanates through different in vitro and in vivo models [10][11][12][13]. ...
... Impairment of Keap/Nrf2 leads to Nrf2 accumulation and translocation to the nucleus, thus facilitating the subsequent activation of antioxidant genes and the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine genes expression (Fig. 3) [10,38]. It has been suggested that ITC from different MO tissues can reduce inflammation markers such as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukins 1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6, and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) [9,12,39]. ...
... Waterman et al. [12] reported the hypoglycemic effect of glucomoringin-ITC and its isomer IV present in MO leaves after treating male C57BL/6 mice with 5% MO concentrate rich in ITC. Metabolic, biochemical, and molecular parameters were assessed during the study, reporting a reduction in weight gain and glucose regulatory hormones (insulin, leptin, and resistin), as well as a decrease in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) in mice treated with MO. ...
Article
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Alternative therapies, such as phytotherapy, are considered to improve the health status of people with chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs). In this regard, Moringa oleifera is currently being studied for its nutritional value and its total phenolic content. Besides phenolic compounds, the phytochemical composition is also of great interest. This composition is characterized by the presence of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates formed by the biotransformation of Moringa glucosinolates contain an additional sugar in their chemical structure, which provides stability to these bioactive compounds over other isothiocyanates found in other crops. Both glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have been described as beneficial for the prevention and improvement of some chronic diseases. The content of glucosinolates in Moringa tissues can be enhanced by certain harvesting methods which in turn alters their final yield after extraction. This review aims to highlight certain features of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from M. oleifera, such as their chemical structure, functionality, and main extraction and harvesting methods. Some of their health-promoting effects will also be addressed.
... Glucosinulate is an organic compound containing sulfur and nitrogen coming from glucose and amino acid. These substances are known as having strong inhibitory effect to produce NO 23,25,28 . Concentration of M. oleifera isothiocyanate is also found to reduce insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and glucose-6phosphotase in diabetic mice 24,26,28 . ...
... These substances are known as having strong inhibitory effect to produce NO 23,25,28 . Concentration of M. oleifera isothiocyanate is also found to reduce insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and glucose-6phosphotase in diabetic mice 24,26,28 . Based on this research, this can be concluded that isothiocyanate compound may be as a main bioactive substance having effective activity of anti-diabetes and antiinflammatory response in M. oliefera 26,29 . ...
... Flavonoid including quersetin, kaempferol, glucoside, and malphite flavonoid showed that there was an activity of anti -inflammation through NO product inhibition in LPS macrophage 22 . Previous studies decided the inhibitory effect of M. Oleifera in NO, VEGF, TNFα, IL-2, IL-1ß, IL-6, glucose-6-phosphotase, insulin, leptin, resistin dan cholesterol 22,28,29 . Study conducted in Universitas Brawijaya Malang had proved that aqueous extract of M. Oleifera in vitro had an activity as immunomodulator through its active compounds , such as: saponin and Flavonoid. ...
Article
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Introduction: No definitive treatment is available for SLE. Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract is one of promising novel treatments in SLE because of anti inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect. Our study aimed to identify the effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on the level of hs-CRP, ESR and MEX SLEDAI score in lupus patients. HsCRP and ESR levels are related to the pathogenesis of SLE and they are positively correlated with the disease activity. The MEX SLEDAI score is a simple method that is quite valid for finding the degree of SLE activity, and MEX SLEDAI has the ability to evaluate clinical changes in SLE patients. Methods: Experimental study consisted of 29 samples of SLE patients, divided into 2 groups, namely 13 SLE patients who received Moringa oleifera leaf extract as much as 40.5 mg / kg per day and 16 SLE patients who received placebo. The study was conducted for 28 days. MEX SLEDAI scores, hsCRP and ESR levels were measured before and after administration of therapy. Statistical analysis was applied using SPSS 23, with different t-test, Mann Whitney, and Will Coxon tests. P is significant if p <0.05. Result: Result of the study showed that before Moringa oleifera leaf extract was given, the average MEX SLEDAI score was (1.56 ± 2.16) for control, and (2.69 ± 3.01) for treatment, hsCRP (0.24 ± 0.22) for control and (0.76 ± 1.01) for treatment, ESR (25.56 ± 23.44) for control and (26.00 ± 25.27) for treatment. There was a significant decrease in MEX SLEDAI score in the treatment group. There was no significant reduction in hsCRP and ESR of SLE patients in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the effect of lowering the MEX SLEDAI score on the administration of Moringa leaf extract was significant and could not significantly reduce hsCRP and ESR levels.
... A different invitro study used human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells reported that the MO extract activated uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and PGC1α causing reduction in inflammation, lipid accumulation and enhancement of thermogenesis (Barbagallo et al., 2016). Isothiocyanates extracted from MO leaves (containing 4-[(α-Lrhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (Compound 5) and 4-[4-O-acetylα-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzl]isothiocyanate (Compound 6)) decreased the expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) based on in-vitro (using H4IIE rat hepatoma cells) and in-vivo studies (Waterman et al., 2015). The in-vivo study used C57BL/67 male mice (at age of 4 or 5 weeks) and had the extract incorporated in their diet at a dose of 800 mg of extract per kg of food, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of extract. ...
... In aorta, the nitrite levels were partially restored which initially decreased due to HFD. MO isothiocyanates extracted from leaves (containing 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (Compound 5) and 4-[4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzl] isothiocyanate (Compound 6)) increased glucose tolerance and insulin signaling in male C57BL/67 mice (Waterman et al., 2015). The extract was incorporated in the mice diet to deliver 800 mg of extract per kg of food, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of extract (Waterman et al., 2015). ...
... MO isothiocyanates extracted from leaves (containing 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (Compound 5) and 4-[4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzl] isothiocyanate (Compound 6)) increased glucose tolerance and insulin signaling in male C57BL/67 mice (Waterman et al., 2015). The extract was incorporated in the mice diet to deliver 800 mg of extract per kg of food, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of extract (Waterman et al., 2015). The same research group reported that MO isothiocyanates extract from leaves inhibited gluconeogenesis in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. ...
Article
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Moringa oleifera (MO) has started to focus the attention of many researchers, especially in the last decade, due to its rich nutrient content and bioactive compounds that have numerous pharmaceutical potentials. In this systematic review, 36 research articles were included that explored the anti-obesity potential of MO through in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The research articles included 9 in-vitro studies, 27 in-vivo studies, and 3 clinical studies. The studies mainly focused on the extract of MO prepared using MO leaves and few studies particularly focused on MO isothiocyanates. The in-vitro studies were mainly based on 3T3-L1 cells, while the in-vivo studies involved a good range of male and female mice and rats. Only two research involved human studies. The major anti-obesity mechanisms of MO were through improving the lipid profile (levels of total cholesterol, tri-glycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and body weight, regulating significant genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose uptake, insulin resistance, and hormones (such as leptin, vaspin, resistin, and insulin). The clinical trials studying the anti-obesity potential of MO on humans is limited and related to the impact of MO on body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and postprandial blood glucose only.
... Iqbal and Bhanger (2006) [29] reported that the environmental temperature and properties of soil have significant effects on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves. Waterman et al. (2015) [62] found that isothiocyanates present in Moringa oleifera decreases the gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. ...
... Iqbal and Bhanger (2006) [29] reported that the environmental temperature and properties of soil have significant effects on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves. Waterman et al. (2015) [62] found that isothiocyanates present in Moringa oleifera decreases the gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. ...
Article
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Moringa oleifera originated from India, and grows around the all tropics and subtropics. Moringa can tolerate both severe drought and frost conditions and also cultivated across the world. Whole parts of moringa are a full receptacle of essential nutrients and every part of the tree is suitable for either nutritional or commercial purposes. Moringa leaves are rich source of major and trace minerals, vitamins and other essential phytochemicals. Moringa leaves are also used to feed malnourished people and it also has lactogogues property so it prefer for lactating mothers to augment milk production. It is a potent antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent. Moringa oleifera seed, a natural coagulant is extensively used in water treatment. Moringa also has medicinal property like it cures diabetes, cancer and the fortification of moringa with other substances used in commercial products. This review explores the use of moringa across disciplines for its medicinal value and deals with cultivation, nutrition, commercial and prominent pharmacological properties of this “Miracle Tree”.
... The last effective NP, NP38, is Moringa oleifera leaf powder, which is also well-known for its multi-medicinal use including its use in obesity and related diseases [36,37]. As an anti-obesity NP, NP38 has been reported to have a variety of effects such as a reduction in weight gain, improvement in insulin resistance, and suppression of glucogenesis and lipid accumulation [38][39][40]. Corresponding with these reports, NP38 improved all obese phenotypes in this study including lowering blood glucose (BG) levels in adult fish. As insulin resistance was not established in this study, the BG-lowering effect of NP38 could be caused by the inhibition of glucogenesis in the liver, as reported in a mouse study [39]. ...
... Corresponding with these reports, NP38 improved all obese phenotypes in this study including lowering blood glucose (BG) levels in adult fish. As insulin resistance was not established in this study, the BG-lowering effect of NP38 could be caused by the inhibition of glucogenesis in the liver, as reported in a mouse study [39]. ...
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(1) Background: The obesity epidemic has been drastically progressing in both children and adults worldwide. Pharmacotherapy is considered necessary for its treatment. However, many anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to their adverse effects. Instead, natural products (NPs) have been studied as a source for drug discovery for obesity, with the goal of limiting the adverse effects. Zebrafish are ideal model animals for in vivo testing of anti-obesity NPs, and disease models of several types of obesity have been developed. However, the evidence for zebrafish as an anti-obesity drug screening model are still limited. (2) Methods: We performed anti-adipogenic testing using the juvenile zebrafish obesogenic test (ZOT) and mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using the focused NP library containing 38 NPs and compared their results. (3) Results: Seven and eleven NPs reduced lipid accumulation in zebrafish visceral fat tissues and mouse adipocytes, respectively. Of these, five NPs suppressed lipid accumulation in both zebrafish and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We confirmed that these five NPs (globin-digested peptides, green tea extract, red pepper extract, nobiletin, and Moringa leaf powder) exerted anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese adult zebrafish. (4) Conclusions: ZOT using juvenile fish can be a high-throughput alternative to ZOT using adult zebrafish and can be applied for in vivo screening to discover novel therapeutics for visceral obesity and potentially also other disorders.
... Iqbal and Bhanger (2006) [29] reported that the environmental temperature and properties of soil have significant effects on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves. Waterman et al. (2015) [62] found that isothiocyanates present in Moringa oleifera decreases the gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. ...
... Iqbal and Bhanger (2006) [29] reported that the environmental temperature and properties of soil have significant effects on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves. Waterman et al. (2015) [62] found that isothiocyanates present in Moringa oleifera decreases the gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. ...
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Moringa oleifera originated from India, and grows around the all tropics and subtropics. Moringa can tolerate both severe drought and frost conditions and also cultivated across the world. Whole parts of moringa are a full receptacle of essential nutrients and every part of the tree is suitable for either nutritional or commercial purposes. Moringa leaves are rich source of major and trace minerals, vitamins and other essential phytochemicals. Moringa leaves are also used to feed malnourished people and it also has lactogogues property so it prefer for lactating mothers to augment milk production. It is a potent antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent. Moringa oleifera seed, a natural coagulant is extensively used in water treatment. Moringa also has medicinal property like it cures diabetes, cancer and the fortification of moringa with other substances used in commercial products. This review explores the use of moringa across disciplines for its medicinal value and deals with cultivation, nutrition, commercial and prominent pharmacological properties of this "Miracle Tree".
... The structures of different classes of major phytochemicals present in the MO leave extracts are shown in Figure 8 [67,68]. Glucosinolates are bioactive after being hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase to thiocyanates, isothiocyanates, and nitriles, which are the active molecules with hypoglycemic effects [49,69,70]. Antioxidant activity can protect organs such as the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissues from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress [38,51,[71][72][73]. ...
... Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids also demonstrate the inhibition of both enzymes (caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid) [79]. Third, sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 Glucosinolates are bioactive after being hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase to thiocyanates, isothiocyanates, and nitriles, which are the active molecules with hypoglycemic effects [49,69,70]. Antioxidant activity can protect organs such as the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissues from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress [38,51,[71][72][73]. ...
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Plant-derived phytochemicals have been interested in as nutraceuticals for preventing the onset and progress of diabetes mellitus and its serious complications in recent years. Moringa oleifera Lam. is used in vegetables and in herbal medicine for its health-promoting properties against various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to examine an effect of Moringa oleifera on diabetic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by meta-analyzing the current evidence of diabetic rodent models. Peer-reviewed studies written in English from two databases, PubMed and Embase, were searched to 30 April 2021. Studies reporting blood glucose or lipid levels in diabetic rodents with and without receiving extracts of Moringa oleifera were included. Forty-four studies enrolling 349 diabetic rodents treated with extracts of Moringa oleifera and 350 diabetic controls reported blood glucose levels. The pooled effect size was −3.92 (95% CI: −4.65 to −3.19) with a substantial heterogeneity. This effect was likely to be, at least in part, modified by the type of diabetic models. Moreover, diabetic hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were also significantly improved in diabetic rodent models treated with Moringa oleifera.
... Through a process of seed grinding, water soaking, and ethanol extraction, a moringa seed extract (MSE) containing 35-45% of MIC-1 (w/w) can be produced, from which MIC-1 can be purified [6,7]. MSE, as well as MICs-enriched moringa leaf extract, can mitigate obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in mouse intervention studies [7][8][9][10]. MSE also attenuate ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice [7], while showing relatively low toxicity to mice [11]. ...
... NF-κB, a heterodimer composed of p65 and p50, is a crucial transcriptional regulator of inflammation [39]. Our previous studies showed that MIC-1 can downregulate NF-κB responsive genes, such as IL-6 and Tnf-α, as well as intestinal and subcutaneous inflammation [7,10]. ...
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This study aims to document the dual mode of pharmacological action of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) derived from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Oral administration of chemically stable MIC-1 (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers (Tnf-α, Ifn-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in the liver, kidney, spleen, and colon and decreased spleen weight in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis / acute inflammation model in mice. Transcriptomic analysis of the effect of MIC-1 on the liver and in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 murine macrophage showed that MIC-1 decreases inflammation via inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress pathways. These results are supported by the immunocytochemical observations that MIC-1 increased the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor and decreased the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the LPS-induced macrophages. Transcriptional activation of antioxidant genes by MIC-1 translated into a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm, decrease of mitochondrial superoxide content, and restoration of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the LPS-induced macrophages. Our data indicate that MIC-1 affects inflammation and oxidative stress, two key processes involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases. These effects involve upstream regulation of two key transcriptional factors regulating responses to these processes at a gene expression level.
... In the liver, chronic HFD is believed to contribute to gluconeogenesis via increased insulin resistance 29,30 . However, the current knowledge of the regulation of renal gluconeogenesis by HFD is not well elucidated. ...
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Recent studies suggested that renal gluconeogenesis is substantially stimulated in the kidney in presence of obesity. However, the mechanisms responsible for such stimulation are not well understood. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that mice fed high fat diet (HFD) exhibited increase in renal Atp6ap2 [also known as (Pro)renin receptor] expression. We hypothesized that HFD upregulates renal gluconeogenesis via Atp6ap2-PGC-1α and AKT pathway. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunostaining, we evaluated renal expression of the Atp6ap2 and renal gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, in wild type and inducible nephron specific Atp6ap2 knockout mice fed normal diet (ND, 12 kcal% fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) for 8 weeks. Compared with ND, HFD mice had significantly higher body weight (23%) ( P < 0.05), renal mRNA and protein expression of Atp6ap2 (39 and 35%), PEPCK (44 and 125%) and G6Pase (39 and 44%) respectively. In addition, compared to ND, HFD mice had increased renal protein expression of PGC-1α by 32% ( P < 0.05) and downregulated AKT by 33% ( P < 0.05) respectively in renal cortex. Atp6ap2-KO abrogated these changes in the mice fed HFD. In conclusion, we identified novel regulation of renal gluconeogenesis by Atp6ap2 in response to high fat diet via PGC1-α/AKT-1 pathway.
... In recent years, with the increasing population in the world, many treatment methods for diabetic patients have been investigated. In particular, the pharmacological activities of traditionally used plants and their active compounds have been curiously studied by many scientists to develop new potential antidiabetic medications with fewer side effects (Waterman et al., 2015). The action mechanism of these species as antidiabetic and vasoprotective agents, which have been elucidated by these studies, is summarized in Figure 2. The major risk factor in the progression of several cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease is arterial thrombosis, which is associated with the coagulation in the arterial walls (Lowe & Rumley, 2014). ...
... Waterman et al. [79] avaliaram um extrato aquoso das folhas M. oleifera concentrado de isotiocianatos, ...
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Revista Fitos, Rio de Janeiro. 2022; Ahead of Print | e-ISSN: 2446-4775 | www.revistafitos.far.fiocruz.br | CC-BY 4.0 Potencial efeito terapêutico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae): uma revisão do seu papel no controle da glicemia em estudos in vivo REVISÃO Potencial efeito terapêutico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae): uma revisão do seu papel no controle da glicemia em estudos in vivo Potential therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) leaves: a revision of its role in glycemic control in vivo studies https://doi. Resumo A espécie Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) vem se destacando no Brasil, devido ao seu elevado teor nutricional, sendo amplamente utilizada na complementação alimentar. Muitos estudos têm sido publicados sobre sua ação no tratamento de diabetes mellitus, bem como sobre diversas outras propriedades, como antioxidante, protetor de tecidos, efeito anti-hipertensivo e imunomodulador. Porém, seu crescente uso irracional, por parte da população, desencadeou a proibição do uso e da comercialização de produtos à base de moringa no Brasil pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Nesse cenário, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão de literatura para avaliar a potencial ação antidiabética das folhas de M. oleifera. Para tanto, foram analisados 43 estudos não clínicos (12-in vitro; 31-in vivo). Os estudos analisados apontaram uma promissora atividade antidiabética para as folhas. Todavia, a ausência de padronização no processo de obtenção e na caracterização química nos produtos de moringa avaliados e alguns vieses metodológicos nos modelos, enfraquecem as evidências científicas e o entendimento do seu mecanismo de ação. Palavras-chave: Moringa. Toxicidade. Antioxidante. Anti-hiperglicêmica. Diabetes. Abstract Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) has been highlighted in Brazil due to its high nutritional content and is widely used in food supplementation. Lately, many studies have been published about its actions in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in several other properties, such as antioxidant, tissue protector and antihypertensive and immunomodulator effect. However, its growing irrational use by the population has triggered the prohibition of its use and commercialization of products in Brazil by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In this context, this study aimed to conduct a literature review to assess the potential antidiabetic action of M. oleifera leaves. For this purpose, 43 non-clinical studies (12-in vitro; 31
... According to a recent estimation by WHO, diabetes was reported as the seventh death causing disease which is usually associated with cardiovascular In recent years, with the increasing population in the world, many treatment methods for diabetic patients have been investigated. In particular, the pharmacological activities of traditionally used plants and their active compounds have been curiously studied by many scientists to develop new potential antidiabetic medications with fewer side effects (Waterman et al., 2015). The action mechanism of these species as anti-diabetic and vasoprotective agents which have been elucidated by these studies are summarized in Figure 2. Greek oregano extract, the antioxidant capacities of all extracts were not statistically different from each other. ...
... Dietary consumption of Moringa is encouraged by several health organizations due to the plant's nutrient content and potential in treating various diseases. It has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective properties (Alegbeleye, 2018;Gupta et al., 2012;Mbikay et al., 2012;Waterman et al., 2015;Vargas-Sánchez et al., 2019). Its traditional use in Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac is supported by animal studies (Goswami et al., 2016;Suarni et al., 2019;Syarifuddin et al., 2017;Zade et al., 2013). ...
... Moringa oleifera, also known as drumstick tree, is indigenous to South Asia and India, and its leaves are highly nutritious and rich in amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and natural antioxidants [10]. e leaves of the plant have been traditionally used in the diet and for the treatment of various inflammatorymediated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes [11]. Murraya koenigii, known as curry leaf, is used in folk medicine in India and other Asian countries as an analgesic, astringent, antidysenteric, febrifuge, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agent [12]. ...
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A variety of natural products have been explored for their antiobesity potential and widely used to develop dietary supplements for the prevention of weight gain from excess body fat. In an attempt to find a natural antiobesity agent, this study was designed to evaluate the antiobesity activity of a novel herbal formulation LI85008F composed of extracts from three medicinal plants in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. After the thirteen-week oral administration of the test materials to mice, the body weight gain, whole-body fat mass, adipose tissue weight, and the expression levels of obesity-related proteins were measured. Our results indicated that LI85008F can suppress body weight gain and lower whole-body fat mass in HFD-induced obese mice. Significant decreases in epididymal and retroperitoneal fat mass were observed in LI85008F-treated groups compared with the HFD-fed control group (p
... In addition to phenolic compounds, other bioactive food compounds have also been proven to be able to reduce circulating leptin levels in obesity ( Table 1 ). Isothiocyanate occurring in stored form as glucoraphanin in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, and kale, and at high levels in broccoli [66] , have shown be involved in insulin signaling, IRS-1p, IRS-1 PI-3K, Akt1p, and Akt2p decreasing hyperleptinemia in obese mice [67] . More recently, it has been found that phenethyl isothiocyanate activates leptin signaling and decreases food intake by inhibiting the activity of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin signaling) [68] . ...
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In obesity, an elevated accumulation and dysregulation of adipose tissue, due to an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, usually coexists with the loss of responsiveness to leptin in central nervous system, and subsequently with hyperleptinemia. Leptin, a peptide hormone mainly produced by white adipose tissue, regulates energy homeostasis by stimulating energy expenditure and inhibiting food intake. Human obesity is characterized by increased plasma leptin levels, which have been related with different obesity-associated complications, such as chronic inflammatory state (risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases), as well as infertility and different types of cancer. Besides, leptin is also produced by placenta, and high leptin levels during pregnancy may be related with some pathological conditions such as gestational diabetes. This review focuses on the current insights and emerging concepts on potentially valuable nutrients and food components that may modulate leptin metabolism. Notably, several dietary food components, such as phenols, peptides, and vitamins, are able to decrease inflammation and improve leptin sensitivity by up- or down-regulation of leptin signaling molecules. On the other hand, some food components, such as saturated fatty acids may worsen chronic inflammation increasing the risk for pathological complications. Future research into nutritional mechanisms that restore leptin metabolism and signals of energy homeostasis may inspire new treatment options for obesity-related disorders.
... More recently, Shah and colleagues demonstrated that 28-daytreatment with an extract from Brassica oleracea L. leaves (800 mg/ Kg/day) significantly reduced both blood glucose and HbA1C levels in streptozocin-induced diabetic animals; moreover, a marked increase in insulinemia has been also recorded. Noteworthy, the effects of this extract were quantitatively similar to those promoted by the reference anti-diabetic drug, metformin (250 mg/Kg/day) (Shah, Sarker, & Gousuddin, 2016 (Waterman et al., 2015). In addition, Moringa oleifera Although the hypoglycemic effects of Brassicaceae remain still unknown, a crucial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism for both glucosinolates and their correspondent ITCs has been described. ...
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents the most common age‐related metabolic disorder, and its management is becoming both a health and economic issue worldwide. Moreover, chronic hyperglycemia represents one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular complications. In the last years, the emerging evidence about the role of the endogenous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis and progression of T2DM led to increasing interest in the pharmacological modulation of endogenous “H2S‐system”. Indeed, H2S directly contributes to the homeostatic maintenance of blood glucose levels; moreover, it improves impaired angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction under hyperglycemic conditions. Moreover, H2S promotes significant antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, thus preventing hyperglycemia‐induced vascular damage, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. Therefore, H2S‐releasing molecules represent a promising strategy in both clinical management of T2DM and prevention of macro‐ and micro‐vascular complications associated to hyperglycemia. Recently, growing attention has been focused on dietary organosulfur compounds. Among them, garlic polysulfides and isothiocyanates deriving from Brassicaceae have been recognized as H2S‐donors of great pharmacological and nutraceutical interest. Therefore, a better understanding of the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring H2S‐donors may pave the way to a more rational use of these nutraceuticals in the modulation of H2S homeostasis in T2DM.
... Another study reported that M. oleifera extracts reversed high fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and improved testicular function [27]. Furthermore, experimental studies demonstrated that M. oleifera leaves extract, rich in polyphenols, delay the onset of diabetes [28,29]. Although beneficial effects of M. oleifera phytochemicals in reducing the risk of chronic diseases have been shown through various in-vitro/in-vivo studies [30], much more metabolic evidence is required to define a particular target(s) where the phytochemicals act as a modulator (inhibitor or activator) of diverse cellular pathways or specific enzymes. ...
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In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on rat paraoxonase 1 (rPON1) and catalase (rCAT) activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Our study included three groups; group C (control, n = 5); group D (diabetic, n = 5); and group DM (M. oleifera extract-supplemented diabetic rats, n = 5). Daily oral administration of M. oleifera extract at 200 mg/kg doses produced an increase in endogenous antioxidants. Serum rPON1 (lactonase) and liver cytosol catalase activities were determined by a spectrophotometric assay using progress curve analysis. We found a decrease in the Vm value of rPON1 in diabetic rats, but dihydrocoumarin (DHC) affinity (Km) was slightly increased. The value of Vm for the DM group was found to be reduced approximately by a factor of 3 compared with those obtained for group C, whereas Km was largely changed (96 times). Catalase activity was significantly higher in the DM group. These data suggest that the activation of rPON1 and rCAT activities by M. oleifera extracts may be mediated via the effect of the specific flavonoids on the enzyme structure. In addition, through molecular blind docking analysis, rPON1 was found to have two binding sites for flavonoids. In contrast, flavonoids bound at four sites in rCAT. In conclusion, the data suggest that compounds from M. oleifera leaves extract were able to influence the catalytic activities of both enzymes to compensate for the changes provoked by diabetes in rats.
... Furthermore, the hexane extract of MOL has been associated with enhanced functions of the seminiferous tubule, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle (Cajuday and Pocsidio, 2010b). These effects might correspond to the abundance of bioactive constituents in moringa leaves, particularly the polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and isothiocyanates (Waterman et al., 2015). The moringa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, anti-pyretic, anti-spasmodic, anti-epileptic, anti-ulcer, cholesterol-lowering, renal diuretic (Sharma et al., 2012) and hepato-protective activities (Huang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Testicular toxicity is a significant cause of male infertility. It may occur due to hormonal, nutritional, behavioral, and environmental imbalance. Moringa oleifera, on the other hand, is known to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic properties. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (M/MOLE) on melamine-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty Sprague Dawley (8weeks old) male rats were randomly assigned to group 1 (control), group 2 (Moringa oleifera leaves extract only), group 3 (administered melamine only), and group 4 (both melamine and M/MOLE). Melamine significantly decreased (P < 0.05) semen quality, testicular weight, gonadal-somatic index, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), free testosterone, total testosterone, and an expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes (CYP11A1 and HSD17B3). A concurrent administration of M/MOLE reversed the clinical impact of Melamine treatment (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed an improvement in testicular tissue injury in concurrent M/MOLE treatment groups than the melamine group. In conclusion, MOLE was effective in improving the toxic effects of melamine on testicular tissue in rats.
... El-Saif et al. 32 realizaron un estudio en ratas con diabetes inducida por alloxan en el que emplearon un extracto acuoso de hojas de M. oleifera. Sus resultados aportan claridad al efecto de esta planta ya que el extracto normalizó los niveles de glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol y malondialdehído y normalizó la expresión del mRNA de la enzima piruvato carboxilasa en tejidos hepáticos. ...
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57 Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae): evaluación nutricional y clínica en modelos animales y correspondencia con investigaciones en humanos Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae): nutritional and clinical evaluation in animal models and correspondence with human research Resumen Moringa oleifera es una especie vegetal que pertenece a la familia Moringaceae. Durante cientos de años, poblaciones de diferentes países han considerado que posee propiedades medicinales y nutritivas. Recientemente se le ha prestado atención en países tropicales y subtropicales de Europa del Este, América Latina, el Caribe y Asia, y se ha ganado un lugar en la industria de suplementos, ingredientes funcionales y en la fortificación de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue relacionar los hallazgos bioquímicos y fisiológicos determinados en modelos experimentales animales y los que se han logrado demostrar en humanos en los mismos aspectos, mediante el empleo de M. oleifera; con un llamado de atención a aquellas similitudes y diferencias entre el modelo animal y el prototipo humano. Los efectos beneficiosos de M. oleifera vinculados al tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y anemia se han asociado en gran medida al contenido y variedad de sustancias antioxidantes que posee y que complementan su valor en nutrientes. Esta revisión enfatiza en la necesidad de desarrollar experimentos controlados en humanos para estudiar el papel de los principios activos de M. oleifera en nutrición y clínica para establecer las formas idóneas de suministrar la planta y dosis óptimas que permitan lograr los efectos deseados, de manera que resulte aceptable al paladar y sea una solución sostenible en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades. Abstract Moringa oleifera is a plant species that belongs to the Moringaceae family. For hundreds of years, populations of different countries have considered that it has medicinal and nutritional properties. It has recently received attention in tropical and subtropical countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia, and has earned a place in the supplement, functional ingredient, and food fortification industry. The objective of this work was to relate the biochemical and physiological findings determined in experimental animal models and those that have been demonstrated in humans in the same aspects, through the use of M. oleifera; with a call for attention to those similarities and differences between the animal model and the human prototype. The beneficial effects of M. oleifera linked to the treatment of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemias and anemia have been largely associated with the content and variety of antioxidant substances that it possesses and that complement its value in nutrients. This review emphasizes the need to develop controlled experiments in humans to study the role of the active principles of M. oleifera in nutrition and clinic to establish the ideal ways to supply the plant and optimal doses that allow to achieve the desired effects, so that is acceptable to the palate and is a sustainable solution in the treatment of these diseases.
... While the drumsticks are widely used to prepare popular recipe "sambar" in India, the leaves of M. oleifera are used in south India to make different dishes. Different parts of this plant are reported to have anti-allergic, antiamyloidogenic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . In view of the above, the present study was focussed on preparing different solvent extracts of M. oleifera leaves and evaluating their antioxidant efficacy and its role on key metabolic enzymes related to obesity. ...
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Obesity ailments, commonly known as “New World Syndrome,” has drawn the attention of the scientific community to explore novel natural product-based therapeutics as effective alternatives. In this study, different solvent extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera; Drumstick tree) leaves were prepared, and their phytochemical analysis was done. The therapeutic effect of M. oleifera leaf extracts on key enzymes related to obesity and against oxidative stress was studied through standard assays (DPPH, ABTS, NO, FRAP). Among different solvent extracts, the M. oleifera leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MOHE) contained a high amount of polyphenols (135.45 ± 3.435 μg/mL) and flavonoids (129.52 ± 3.102 μg/mL). The IC50 values of MOHE for α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase were 373.6 μg/mL, 339.8 μg/mL and 437.1 μg/mL respectively which were much lower than rest of the M. oleifera extracts. The GC-MS analysis of MOHE showed the presence of many glycosides, oils and polyphenolic compounds, as mentioned in the results section. In conclusion, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves are rich in several bioactive phytochemicals that qualify it as an effective therapeutic alternative to attenuate oxidative stress and obesity ailments.
... These are among the most explored pathological mechanisms in preclinical models of T2D. For example, rodents exposed to a high fat diet (HFD) or its combination with low dose STZ (Waterman et al., 2015;Jaja-Chimedza et al., 2018;Chin et al., 2019;Mohamed et al., 2019;El-Shehawi et al., 2021), as well as gene-defiant mice such as those considered leptin resistance (db/db) (Tang et al., 2017) are known to progressively develop T2D, including its complications involving oxidative stress and inflammation. This explains, the surge use of these preclinical models to test novel treatments against T2D. ...
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Moringa oleifera is one of the popular plants that have shown significant health benefits. Certainly, preclinical evidence (predominantly from animal models) summarized in the current review supports the beneficial effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in combating the prominent characteristic features of diabetes mellitus. This includes effective control of blood glucose or insulin levels, enhancement of insulin tissue sensitivity, improvement of blood lipid profiles, and protecting against organ damage under sustained conditions of hyperglycemia. Interestingly, as major complications implicated in the progression of diabetes, including organ damage, Moringa oleifera leaf and seed extracts could efficiently block the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in these preclinical models. Notably, these extracts (especially leaf extracts) showed enhanced effects in strengthening intracellular antioxidant defences like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione to lower lipid peroxidation products and reduce prominent pro-inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (1L)-β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and nitric oxide synthase. From animal models of diabetes, the common and effective dose of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera was 100–300 mg/kg, within the treatment duration of 2–8 weeks. Whereas supplementation with approximately 20 g leaf powder of Moringa oleifera for at least 2 weeks could improve postprandial blood glucose in subjects with prediabetes or diabetes. Although limited clinical studies have been conducted on the antidiabetic properties of Moringa oleifera, current findings provide an important platform for future research directed at developing this plant as a functional food to manage diabetic complications.
... This drop seemed to be the response to glucose improvement transport into cells by AITC in diabetic conditions. The ability of down-regulate the gene and protein expression of gluconeogenetic enzymes [Glucose-6 phosphatase (G6P), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucokinase (GcK)] by isothiocyanates in healthy and diabetic conditions has just been proved [13,36,37]. Very recently, Sahin and co-researchers [15] indicated that 100 mg/kg b.w. ...
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Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of Brassica family plants, has been reported to possess a high bioactivity in animal and human cells, showing ambiguous properties from adverse to beneficial ones. It was reported its genotoxic, carcinogenic, goitrogenic effects. On the other side, AITC has shown anti-cancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and lately anti-obesity abilities. So far, its anti-diabetic effects are poorly explored. We tried to assess AITC action on carbohydrate, lipid and hormonal disorders in high fat diet-fed/streptozotocin diabetic rats. In this report, diabetic rats were treated intragastrically at doses 2.5, 5 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day of AITC for 2 weeks. Irrespectively of doses, AITC considerably lowered thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3), increased liver TG content, and also caused robust LDL-cholesterol and direct bilirubin concentration enhancement. Moreover, AITC at the highest dose caused pancreatic amylase and lipase drops and thyroid gland hypertrophy. AITC at 2.5 and 5 mg significantly reduced blood glucose levels along with robust beta-hydroxybutyric acid drop. Additionally, AITC at 5 mg improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR index) in spite of reduced blood insulin. To conclude, despite amelioration of diabetic hyperglycemia by AITC, the adverse lipids and hormonal effects may exclude its use as a health-promoting compound in terms of anti-diabetic properties.
... Isothiocyanates inhibited gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression in hepatoma cells and improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling sensitivity (Waterman et al., 2016). ...
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Several studies have been conducted and published on medicinal plants used to manage Diabetes Mellitus worldwide. It is of great interest to review available studies from a country or a region to resort to similarities/discrepancies and data quality. Here, we examined data related to ethnopharmacology and bioactivity of antidiabetic plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data were extracted from Google Scholar, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, the Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and other documents focusing on ethnopharmacology, pharmacology, and phytochemistry antidiabetic plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo from 2005 to September 2021. The Kew Botanic Royal Garden and Plants of the World Online web databases were consulted to verify the taxonomic information. CAMARADES checklist was used to assess the quality of animal studies and Jadad scores for clinical trials. In total, 213 plant species belonging to 72 botanical families were reported. Only one plant, Droogmansia munamensis, is typically native to the DRC flora; 117 species are growing in the DRC and neighboring countries; 31 species are either introduced from other regions, and 64 are not specified. Alongside the treatment of Diabetes, about 78.13% of plants have multiple therapeutic uses, depending on the study sites. Experimental studies explored the antidiabetic activity of 133 plants, mainly in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits. Several chemical classes of antidiabetic compounds isolated from 67 plant species have been documented. Rare phase II clinical trials have been conducted. Critical issues included poor quality methodological protocols, author name incorrectly written (16.16%) or absent (14.25%) or confused with a synonym (4.69%), family name revised (17.26%) or missing (1.10%), voucher number not available 336(92.05%), ecological information not reported (49.59%). Most plant species have been identified and authenticated (89.32%). Hundreds of plants are used to treat Diabetes by traditional healers in DRC. However, most plants are not exclusively native to the local flora and have multiple therapeutic uses. The analysis showed the scarcity or absence of high-quality, in-depth pharmacological studies. There is a need to conduct further studies of locally specific species to fill the gap before their introduction into the national pharmacopeia.
... Specifically, MO dry leaves and leaf extracts have been shown to exert numerous in vitro activities and in vivo effects, including the hypoglycemic effect [3]. Its therapeutic value as a cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-asthmatic, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, modulator of intestinal microbiota and antidiabetic agent derives from its phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids and polyphenols [4][5][6]. In addition, bioactivity has been proved for peptide fractions (i.e., inhibition of alfa-amylase and angiotensin converting enzyme-1 activities) [7], isolated polysaccharide fractions [8,9] or the isothiocyanate derivatives of characteristic glucosinolates [10,11]. ...
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Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose plant with a high polyphenol content, which is being increasingly consumed to lessen the risk of chronic metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes; however, scientific evidence from clinical trials is scarce. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group intervention study with MO leaves as a food supplement was conducted in subjects with prediabetes. They consumed six daily capsules of MO dry leaf powder (2400 mg/day) (MO, n = 31) or placebo (PLC, n = 34) over 12 weeks. Glycemia, appetite-controlling hormones and gut microbiota composition were studied. ANCOVA with the fixed factor “treatment” and the basal value as covariate was used to compare the change score between the groups. The results showed significant differences between groups in the rate of change of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which showed opposite directions during the intervention, decreasing in MO and increasing in PLC. No different change scores were found between the groups in microbiota, hepatic and renal function markers or the appetite-controlling hormones measured. In conclusion, MO supplementation resulted in favorable changes in glycaemia markers compared to placebo in the subjects with prediabetes studied, suggesting that MO might act as a natural antihyperglycemic agent.
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Purpose To determine the effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a chalcone compound isolated from licorice, on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods 8-week-old C7BL/6 mice were used to establish the T2DM animal model by feeding with high-fat-high-glucose diet (HFD) combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were treated with ISL for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were examined, serum parameters were determined, histologic sections were prepared, activities of enzymes related to glucolipid metabolism were analyzed, and the mitochondrial function was investigated to evaluate effects of ISL on metabolism. The underlying mechanisms of ISL alleviating insulin resistance and restoring metabolic homeostasis were analyzed in HepG2 and INS-1 cells. Results ISL exhibits a potent activity in relieving hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetic mice. It alleviates insulin resistance and restores metabolic homeostasis without obvious adversary effects in HFD-induced diabetic mice. The metabolic benefits of ISL treatment include promoting hepatic glycogenesis, inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis, reducing hepatic steatosis, and sensitizing insulin signaling. Mechanistically, ISL activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). It also suppresses mitochondrial function and reduces ATP production. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that ISL is able to significantly reduce blood glucose level and alleviate insulin resistance without obvious side effects in diabetic mice, hence uncovering a great potential of ISL as a novel drug candidate in prevention and treatment of T2DM.
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Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical and subtropical plant that has been used for centuries as both food and traditional medicine. 4-[(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (MIC-1) is an active substance in M. oleifera , with anti-cancer activity. However, whether MIC-1 exerts anti-renal cancer effects is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MIC-1 on the growth and migration of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and to identify the putative underlying mechanism. We found that, among 30 types of cancer cells, MIC-1 exerted the strongest growth inhibitory effects against 786-O RCC cells. In addition, MIC-1 (10 μM) significantly inhibited the growth of five RCC cell lines, including 786-O, OSRC-2, 769-P, SK-NEP-1, and ACHN cells, but was not toxic to normal renal (HK2) cells. Also, MIC-1 suppressed 786-O and 769-P cell migration and invasion abilities, and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, MIC-1 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and decreased cell cycle-related protein expression in 786-O cells and 769-P cells. Molecular docking and small-molecule interaction analyses with PTP1B both showed that MIC-1 inhibited PTP1B activity by binding to its active site through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, MIC-1 could suppress the growth and migration of 786-O cells by inhibiting PTP1B-mediated activation of the Src/Ras/Raf/ERK signaling pathway. In vivo experiments further showed that MIC-1 markedly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in mice, and greatly increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in tumor tissues. In addition, MIC-1 had no effect on the PTP1B-dependent Src/Ras/Raf/ERK signaling pathway in HCT-116 cells, Hep-G2 cells, and A431 cells. Overall, our data showed that MIC-1 could be a promising, non-toxic, natural dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of renal cancer.
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Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a common herb, rich in plant compounds. It has a variety of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents, etc., which can be obtained in different body parts of M. oleifera. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) from M. oleifera are one class of these active substances that can inhibit cancer proliferation and promote cancer cell apoptosis through multiple signaling pathways, thus curbing cancer migration and metastasis, at the same time they have little adverse effect on normal cells. There are multiple variants of ITCs in M. oleifera, but the predominant phytochemical is 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, also known as moringa isothiocyanate (MIC-1). Studies have shown that MIC-1 has the possibility to be used clinically for the treatment of diabetes, neurologic diseases, obesity, ulcerative colitis, and several cancer types. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer and anti-chronic disease effects of MIC-1, current trends, and future direction of MIC-1 based treatment strategies. This review combines the relevant literature of the past 10 years, in order to provide more comprehensive information of MIC-1 and to fully exploit its potentiality in the clinical settings.
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ABSTRAK Diabetes melitus merupakan penyakit metabolik degeneratif dimana 90% dari keseluruhan kasus merupakan DM tipe 2. Penyakit ini rentan mengakibatkan peningkatan reaktivitas trombosit karena kondisi hiperglikemia kronis. Peningkatan Mean Platelet Volume merupakan indeks trombosit sederhana yang terjadi selama proses aktivasi trombosit serta telah menjadi parameter standar pada pemeriksaan hematologis karena cepat dan mudah diukur. Moringa oleifera Lam. atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan kelor di Indonesia, mengandung senyawa bioaktif yang memiliki sifat anti-diabetes sekaligus anti-in amasi terutama bagian daun, karena kaya akan vitamin, fenol, avonoid, dan isothiocyanates. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun kelor terhadap Mean Platelet Volume pada pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2. Penelitian ini bersifat analitik eksperimental dengan metode quasi-experimental study pretest-posttest control design dan simple random sampling. Sampel adalah 28 pasien rawat jalan Poli Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit UNS yang memenuhi kriteria penelitian, kemudian dibagi menjadi kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Variabel yang diteliti adalah nilai Mean Platelet Volume yang diukur melalui pemeriksaan darah rutin di laboratoriun. Intervensi yang dilakukan pada kelompok perlakuan berupa pemberian ekstrak daun Kelor. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan uji t-berpasangan dan uji-t tidak berpasangan. Uji t-berpasangan menunjukkan perbedaan rerata pretest-posttest yang signi kan pada kelompok perlakuan (p=0,016) dan kontrol (p=0,001), begitu pula dengan uji t-tidak berpasangan tahap pretest (p=0,043) dan PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN KELOR (MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.) TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MEAN PLATELET VOLUME (MPV) SEBAGAI MARKER INFLAMASI PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELLITUS TIPE 2 Nurhasan Agung Prabowo, Narulita Brillianti Fajariani Putri, Jarot Subandono
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Introduction: No definitive treatment is available for Lupus. Moringaoleiferais one of promisingnovel treatments in Lupus trough anti inflammation and immunosupresion. Mean platelet volume andneutrophil to lymphocyte ratio used to measure degree of lupus activities. Objective: Our study wasaimed to identify the effect of Moringaoleiferaextract on the Mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lupus. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 30 lupus patients,located in the rheumatology clinic at Moewardi General Hospital in January-March 2019. The studygroup was divided into two groups: the treatment research group received 2 grams of moringa extractper day and the placebo group. The study was conducted for 4 weeks and was evaluated when thestudy was completed. MPV and NLR examination using a hemocytometer. Statistical analysis wasperformed using paired T test, independent T-test. The p value was considered significant when the p < 0.05. Results: The results showed a decrease in MPV (delta MPV = 4.141; r 0.656; p-0.02) anda decrease in Neurophil to lymfocyte ratio (delta NLR = 4.1391; r 0.489; p-0.04) Conclusion: Thestudy demonstrated the effect of Moringaoleiferaleaf extract on reduced Mean platelet volume andneutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lupus Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.68-73
Chapter
This chapter introduces the health benefits of glucosinlonate-isothiocyanates (ITCs), the myrosinase hydrolysis products of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites derived from cruciferous vegetables. The ITCs are known to be safe with little or no side effects and have been widely studied for their bioactivities against communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Sulforaphane, glucomoringin-isothiocyanate, and allyl-ITC are the widely studied isothiocyanates in recent years, they possess robust medicinal potential against both several noncommunicable diseases. The compounds exert their effects via modulation of crucial signaling pathways and expression of genes or proteins implicated in the process. ITCs influence the upregulation of series protective genes via the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2, which is a central transcription factor for phase II enzymes upregulation in response to oxidative stress. Therefore the chapter discusses the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the most studied isothiocyanates and their mechanism of action with particular emphasis on neuroprotection and their ameliorative effect on cancer, oxidative stress, inflammation, and diabetes mellitus.
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Carotenoids are lipophilic natural yellow to red pigments found in fruits and vegetables. The chemical molecules of these bioactive compounds comprise an extensive chain of conjugated double bonds responsible for the color and their reactivity and antioxidant activity, which are related to several health benefits. The mechanisms of action of the dietary carotenoids will be presented in this chapter considering the existent scientific evidence based on experimental protocols using in vitro assays, animal models, and clinical trials.
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Our objectives were to determine the antioxidant effect of Moringa olifera leave extract (MLE) in tris extender on post-thaw quality, kinematics, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and field fertility of water buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected on a weekly basis for 5 weeks (n = 5 bulls & n = 25). After collection, every sample was diluted individually with extender (tris egg yolk) containing MLE concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) at 37°C. After dilution, semen was filled in 0.54 mL straws and frozen in automatic freezer. After thawing, sperm motility (%) (progressive & total), path velocity (µm/s), straight velocity (µm/s), curvilinear velocity (%), beat cross frequency (Hz), linearity (%), straightness (%), length of average path (µm), length of straight-line path (µm), length of curvilinear path (µm), plasma membrane integrity (%), acrosome membrane integrity (%), DNA integrity (%) and morphology (%) were higher (p < 0.05) in spermatozoa preserved in extender containing 15% MLE as compared to control. The fertility rate (60%, vs. 45%) was higher (p < 0.05) with semen doses frozen with 15% MLE in extender than the control. In conclusion, 15% MLE improves semen quality, kinematics and field fertility in water buffaloes.
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose plant and a comprehensive source of dietary components such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. The plant is also a rich source of other bioactive components, including flavonoids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, etc. Incorporating M. oleifera in diet can improve the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and helps to combat malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, especially the polyphenolic compounds from Moringa, have a significant free-radical scavenging effect attributed to this plant's therapeutic potential. Investigations targeting to explore M. oleifera for its nutritional makeup, novel bioactive components, and analysis of their health-promoting attributes have received much attention. This review demonstrates an overview of recent (past ten years) advancements and patenting activity in discovering different parts of M. oleifera plant for providing adequate nutritive and bioactive components. The pharmacological potential and action mechanisms of M. oleifera in many diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, ulcer, etc., are also discussed. Practical applications Moringa oleifera is a vital plant that has a varied set of nutritional and therapeutic properties. The indigenous components of Moringa can treat humankind of its diseases and contribute to overall health. The qualitative and functional characteristics of its components indicate possible commercial exploitation of this high-value plant by utilizing its plant parts in many proprietary medicines and nutraceuticals. In conclusion, the Moringa plant needs to be used commercially. It can lead to tremendous economic development if the industries and researchers exploit its potential for highly nutritional super food and therapeutic application by undertaking further research to corroborate earlier studies.
Chapter
There are many medicinal plants that have been used for thousands of years and due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, these plants can now be found in several healthcare products because of their therapeutic efficacy. Due to its rich medicinally imperative phytochemicals, Moringa oleifera has attracted several health industries. Besides, Moringa has been preferred as an affordable resource to fight malnutrition owing to its abundant nutritional properties. A large array of reports has repeatedly shown that Moringa can be used as anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant products. Though such references provided evidence for its potentials as a functional food, yet the basic questions on its mechanisms of action, especially on its medicinal properties remain to be unclear. This chapter summarizes the individual bioactive phytocompounds present in Moringa and their medicinal properties. It also highlights those further studies that need to investigate the likely mechanisms of actions of the Moringa phytochemicals that foster its informative applications in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.
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Moringa leaves (ML), have been recognized for their protective effects against chronic disease. To evaluate the protective effects of ML on hepatic steatosis and systemic inflammation, we used the guinea pig model. Male Hartley guinea pigs were assigned (n=8/group) to consume either a control diet (0 g Moringa), Low Moringa (LM) (10 %) or High Moringa (HM) (15%) diets, which were supplemented with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, blood, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for determination of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, tissue cholesterol concentrations, inflammatory cytokines and expression of genes regulating hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. There were no differences in plasma total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose or insulin among groups. However, medium HDL concentrations as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance were higher and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity was higher in both Moringa groups compared to controls suggesting HDL metabolism was affected. Hepatic total cholesterol and triglycerides exhibited a dose response effect with the lowest values observed in the HM group (p < 0.01). The hepatic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, 1L-10 and interferon γ were lowest in the HM group, intermediate in the LM and highest in the control group (p diglyceride acyl transferase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γwere lowest in the HM, intermediate in LM and highest in the control group (p< 0.01). The high cholesterol diet resulted in accumulation of cholesterol and inflammation in the adipose tissue, which was not prevented by Moringa treatment. We conclude that ML protect against hepatic steatosis by affecting genes involved in synthesis and uptake of hepatic lipids resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation, however, plasma lipids and adipose tissue cholesterol and inflammation were not affected significantly by ML consumption.
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a diabetic complication characterized by disruption of renal microvasculature, reactive oxygen species accumulation and increased inflammation, all of which contribute to renal injury. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, yet its reno-preventive effects against DN has not been investigated. The current study looked into the in vivo reno-protective effects of PEITC in STZ-induced DN in rats. PEITC (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was administered orally for 8 weeks post DM establishment. PEITC treatment significantly improved kidney and liver functions, renal histopathological features, tissue fibrosis, macrophage infiltration and blood glucose levels compared to DN control. Mechanistically, PEITC treatment alleviated DN-induced renal damage via modulating glycation and oxidative stresses and inflammatory response. As such, PEITC activated glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) that induced a retraction in renal tissue expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptor (RAGE). PEITC activated nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased expression of its downstream targets, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma glutamate–cysteine (γ-GCS). Additionally, PEITC treatment decreased the expression of Nrf2 repressor protein, keap1. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEITC was driven, at least in part, via reducing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation as indicated by down regulation of NLRP3, TXNIP, capsase-1 and IL-1β, TNF-alpha and IL-6. In conclusion; PEITC attenuated DN progression in a dose dependent manner mainly via interruption of AGE/RAGE and NLPR3/TXNIP/NrF2 crosstalk.
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Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, highlighting its potential as a metabolically favorable botanical supplement.
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Background: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. Methods: We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings: Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Interpretation: Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolates. Certain hydrolysis products of glucosinolates have shown anticarcinogenic properties. The results of 7 cohort studies and 87 case-control studies on the association between brassica consumption and cancer risk are summarized. The cohort studies showed inverse associations between the consumption of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli and risk of lung cancer; between the consumption of brassicas and risk of stomach cancer; between broccoli consumption and risk of all cancers taken together; and between brassica consumption and the occurrence of second primary cancers. Of the case-control studies, 67% showed an inverse association between consumption of total brassica vegetables and risk of cancer at various sites. For cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, these percentages were 70, 56, 67, and 29%, respectively. Although the measured effects might have been distorted by various types of bias, it is concluded that a high consumption of brassica vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer. This association appears to be most consistent for lung, stomach, colon, and rectal cancer and least consistent for prostatic, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. It is not yet possible to resolve whether associations are to be attributed to brassica vegetables per se or to vegetables in general. Further epidemiological research should separate the anticarcinogenic effect of brassica vegetables from the effect of vegetables in general.
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... Thomas D Schmittgen 1 & Kenneth J Livak 2 . ABSTRACT. ... N. Engl. J . Med. ... 32, e178 (2004). | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |; Livak , KJ & Schmittgen , TD Analysis of relative gene expression data using real - time quantitative PCR and the 2 (- Delta Delta C(T)) Method . ...
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Two different methods of presenting quantitative gene expression exist: absolute and relative quantification. Absolute quantification calculates the copy number of the gene usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative gene expression presents the data of the gene of interest relative to some calibrator or internal control gene. A widely used method to present relative gene expression is the comparative CT method also referred to as the 2−ΔΔCT method. This protocol provides an overview of the comparative CT method for quantitative gene expression studies. Also presented here are various examples to present quantitative gene expression data using this method.
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Sulforaphane (SF) is an anticancer agent present naturally in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, and it can easily be decomposed by heat, oxygen and alkaline conditions. In order to enhance stability of SF, the inclusion complex of SF with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared successfully using co-precipitation method and the inclusion ratio was found to be 1:1. The results showed that the stability of the inclusion complex against heat, oxygen and alkaline conditions was greatly enhanced compared with that of SF. Furthermore, FTIR, 1H NMR and UV/visible spectroscopy were performed to prove the formation of the inclusion complex SF/HP-β-CD. Therefore, it is a very effective method to maintain the anticancer and antioxidant function of SF by preparing the inclusion complex SF/HP-β-CD.
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