Article

Immune reactivity to food coloring

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  • immunosciences lab
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Abstract

Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely unaware of the perilous truth behind the deceptive allure of artificial color.

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... As discussed in the previous section, animal and human exposure to mercury in its different forms was shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune reactivity; however, relatively little is known or has been discussed regarding the role of food coloring in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders. In fact, using Med Search, we found only two different articles: one by this author under the title "Immune reactivity to food coloring" [94], and a second article by Lerner and Matthias, who described how industrial food additives contribute to the rising incidence of autoimmune diseases [33]. Due to this lack of information on food coloring's possible involvement in inflammation and autoimmunity, we decided to investigate the matter in this current article. ...
... This is still not as alarming as the legal number of synthetic colorants permitted by the FDA to be mixed into or applied to the foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products that we actually ingest or otherwise use on a regular basis. Sadly, the general public is for the most part oblivious to the shockingly dangerous true nature behind the enticing bright colors of synthetic food dyes [94]. ...
... With this knowledge, the author enjoins everyone not to be deceived by the visual enticements of brightly colored candies, pastries, drinks, medications, cosmetics, andyes-even Tandoori chicken [94]. ...
Article
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Autoimmune diseases affect 5–9% of the world’s population. It is now known that genetics play a relatively small part in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in general, and that environmental factors have a greater role. In this review, we examine the role of the exposome, an individual’s lifetime exposure to external and internal factors, in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases. The most common of these environmental factors are toxic chemicals, food/diet, and infections. Toxic chemicals are in our food, drink, common products, the air, and even the land we walk on. Toxic chemicals can directly damage self-tissue and cause the release of autoantigens, or can bind to human tissue antigens and form neoantigens, which can provoke autoimmune response leading to autoimmunity. Other types of autoimmune responses can also be induced by toxic chemicals through various effects at the cellular and biochemical levels. The food we eat every day commonly has colorants, preservatives, or packaging-related chemical contamination. The food itself may be antigenic for susceptible individuals. The most common mechanism for food-related autoimmunity is molecular mimicry, in which the food’s molecular structure bears a similarity with the structure of one or more self-tissues. The solution is to detect the trigger, remove it from the environment or diet, then repair the damage to the individual’s body and health.
... Kızlarda DEHB'nin daha çok dikkatsizlik ve bilişsel zorluklarla seyretmesi, dürtüsellik ve saldırgan davranış sorunlarının daha az olması nedeniyle gözden kaçtığı ya da önemsenmediği düşünülmektedir (14). Dünya genelinde çocukların %5-7'sini etkiler (15), ancak daha güncel tahminlerle %10-12'ye yükselmiştir (7). Bu artışta tanı koymadaki gelişmelerin etkisi vardır, ancak stres, çevre ve eğitim durumunun değişimi, ailelerin çalışma durumundaki artış gibi değişiklikler de bunu etkiler (7). ...
... Etiyolojisi tam olarak bilinmemektedir (14), ancak çevresel etmenlerden besinler ve GKM'ler ilişkisi bulunan iki büyük etken olup araştırılan konulardır (15). ...
... GKM'ler ve hiperaktivite arasındaki ilişki uzun yıllardır tartışılmaktadır. Besin alerjilerinin, duyarlılıklarının ve GKM'lerinin davranış-öğrenme sorunlarına yol açtığı fikri 1920'lere dayansa da 1970'lere kadar bu konuya özgü bir hipotez geliştirilmemiştir (7,15 (16). Bu bulgu birçok kişi tarafından kabul edilse de tıp-eczacılık alanında ve besin sanayinde birçok kişi ve kurum tarafından eleştirilmiş (7) ancak çok sayıda ileri çalışmanın yapılmasına temel olmuştur (15). ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural and artificial food colorants(AFC) are used for various purposes in foods as a food additive for many years. Their use are regulated by the legislations in the world. There are organizations authorized in this regard. In our country, food additives show no harmful effects on health when used according to the “Turkish Food Codex-Food Additives Regulation” AFC intake (per capita/day) has increased in parallel to the increase in the consumption of processed foods. AFCs are discussed for a long time to whether they cause to hyperactivity symptoms or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) in children in addition to the positive use of AFCs in foods as well. AFCs that their effects mostly researched are tartrazine, sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, ponso 4R, carmoisine, erythrosine and allura red AC. The results of the studies are inconsistent. AFCs are not the main reason of ADHD. It has been observed that these AFCs don’t cause hyperactivity directly; but promote existing symptoms in sensitive groups like children. There’s no consensus in such regard in the world. Further studies are needed to be made.
... They are mainly used to produce beverages, sweets, processed foods and medicines (Table 1). Over the past 50 years, the amount of synthetic dyes used in food has increased by 500% [2]. Originally, azo dyes were derived from coal tar [3], but now they are synthetically produced with the presence of formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxide, and sulfuric acid [2]. ...
... Over the past 50 years, the amount of synthetic dyes used in food has increased by 500% [2]. Originally, azo dyes were derived from coal tar [3], but now they are synthetically produced with the presence of formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxide, and sulfuric acid [2]. ...
... It is suspected that several mechanisms are involved, and perhaps some responses are dose-dependent [1]. They can also be absorbed through the skin from cosmetic and pharmaceutical products [2]. Nettis et al. demonstrated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial that the rate of hypersensitivity to tartrazine was about 1% [5]. ...
... 5,6 Changes to GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Several skin diseases are believed to be associated with oxidative stress, including psoriasis, 7,8 urticaria, 9 polymorphic light eruption (PLE), 10 lichen planus, 11 dermatophytoses, 12 inflamed skin, 6 vitiligo, 13 solar keratoses, 14 malignant melanoma, 15,16 and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). 17 The effects of artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) have been investigated previously, and in addition to their behavioral, cognitive, 18,19 and systemic effects, AFCAs are believed to be associated with several skin diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, 20 urticaria, 21 erythema multiform, cutaneous vasculitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. ...
... 17 The effects of artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) have been investigated previously, and in addition to their behavioral, cognitive, 18,19 and systemic effects, AFCAs are believed to be associated with several skin diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, 20 urticaria, 21 erythema multiform, cutaneous vasculitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. 22 The effects of AFCAs on oxidative stress enzymes [23][24][25] and the inhibition of endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes 25,26 in the skin have been identified. Amin et al. revealed that rats that consumed high and low doses of tartrazine or carmoisine exhibited a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities. ...
... 23 Tartrazine has also been found to significantly decrease intracellular glutathione, which may weaken cellular defense, thereby opening the door for a variety of oxidative stress-related disorders, including cell death. 24 An increasing number of studies have reported toxic 22 and behavioral 18,19 effects of the AFCAs used in food products. AFCAs have long been thought to adversely affect learning and behavior in children. ...
Article
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. “No observable adverse effect levels” of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.
... Food colourants, which are a functional class of food additives, are used in the food industry to make food attractive to consumers and to add variety [2]. Throughout the past 50 year, the quantity of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500% [3]. A recent report on products and food colourant data from 810 brands in USA reported that the most common synthetic food colourant was tartrazine, which was present in 20.5% of the products marketed for consumption [4]. ...
... Additionally, many aromatic amines are not degradable or are very slowly degraded and display an extensive range of lesions that may explain the toxic effects on the spleen induced by tartrazine ingestion [54]. Also, Vojdani and Vojdani [3] reported that the synthetic food colours could bind with body proteins inducing immunological consequences. ...
Article
The haemato-immunotoxic effects of the food colourants tartrazine and chlorophyll were evaluated. Thirty adult Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into three groups and orally administered water, tartrazine (1.35 mg/kg), or chlorophyll (1.35 mg/kg) daily for 90 days. Erythrogram and leukogram profiles were evaluated. The lysozyme, nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and immunoglobulin levels were measured. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were conducted. Changes in the interleukin (IL) 1β, 6, and 10 mRNA expression levels were assessed. In the tartrazine-treated rats, a significant anaemic condition and marked leukocytosis were observed. Both the innate and humoural parameters were significantly depressed. Different pathological lesions were observed, including red pulp haemorrhages, vacuolation of some splenic cells, focal hyperplasia of the white pulp, and capsular and parenchymal fibrosis. A marked increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) immunolabelling was evident. Marked upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 was recorded. In contrast, the chlorophyll-treated rats showed minimal haemato-immune responses. These results indicate that tartrazine exerts haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects following long-term exposure, whereas chlorophyll is a less hazardous food colourant.
... Recently, there have been growing concerns that food colorants may contribute to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (Vojdani and Vojdani, 2015). In 2004, a meta-analysis study looked at the relationship between ADHD and food colorants; however, no clear evidence of ADHD was provided and the study concluded that only certain groups of responders may be affected, hence not providing a clear clinical recommendation for food colorant use (Schab and Trinh, 2004). ...
... This phenomenon has not yet been satisfactorily explained. Besides the well-known hygiene theory (which suggests that sterile environments may lead to reduced immunity of the organism), other factors, such as administration of antioxidant supplements, food preserving agents and colorants, have also been suggested to be correlated with the increase in the incidence of allergies and asthma (Vojdani and Vojdani, 2015). A review analysing contemporary knowledge concludes that the situation is still unclear and epidemiological studies are insufficient to evaluate the actual issue (Zaknun et al., 2011). ...
... They are used in many areas such as food, cosmetics, textiles, leather, nutrition and plastic and pharmaceutical industries, among others (Kucharska and Grabka 2010;Sanchez et al. 2014;Mao et al. 2015). Over the past 50 years, the amount of azo dyes used in foods has increased by 500 % (Vojdani and Vojdani 2015). When compared to natural dyes, synthetic food dyes guarantee a more intense and permanent colour to the food. ...
... Synthetic dyes are cheaper, more easily available, last longer and can achieve hues which are otherwise not possible for natural colourants. However, since the use of synthetic food colouring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders are frequently reported (Ben Mansour et al. 2009;Shimada et al. 2010;Vojdani and Vojdani 2015). The reductive cleavage of the azo bond leads to the formation of amines of which some have known mutagenic and carcinogenic properties (Ben Mansour et al. 2009;Shimada et al. 2010). ...
Article
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The present work describes the development and validation of a simple, quick and precise gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the analysis of 23 azo dye breakdown products in paprika samples. After the extraction procedure, dyes were identified on an Agilent J&W DB-5ms Ultra Inert capillary column using dichloroethane as a sample dissolvent. Limits of detection (LODs) were comprised between 10.6 and 84.4 ng/mL. Accuracy values in the range of 90–104 % for the 23 azo dye breakdown products were obtained, and RSD% for the analysis of 2.4 μg/mL of each compound was below 4.6 % (n = 9). The recovery for the azo dyes in paprika samples was comprised between 71.2 ± 3.5 % (benzidine) and 118.9 ± 2.5 % (para-cresidine). Results of this study suggest that the developed method is suitable for detection and quantification of azo dye breakdown products in the range of 60–240 μg/kg paprika. In addition, this GC-MS method allowed the simultaneous determination of disperse orange 3 (azo dye) with high accuracy and precision. The method has numerous advantages such as simplicity, low cost, easy operation and short analysis time and constitutes an efficient method for the monitoring of a large number of azo dyes in food matrices.
... These metabolites are produced in the human body, though their toxic effect depends on the ingested amount of the target substance/colorant [3,18,20]. However, it is reported that regular evaluation and assessment of potential toxicity of food colorants by regulatory authorities is necessary [3,18,21]. ...
... Based on various scientific findings, several toxicity effects, have been reported including behavioral effects on children, effects on the respiratory system, connection with allergies, development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, or neuro-developmental effects at the No-Adverse Effect Limit levels [3,18,21]. In any case, further investigation to assess the potential associated risks of these compounds is needed [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]11,14,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and are regulated, giving great importance to their determination. Several matrix-dependent methods have been developed and applied to determine food colorants, by employing different analytical techniques along with appropriate sample preparation protocols. Major techniques applied for their determination are chromatography with spectophotometricdetectors and spectrophotometry, while sample preparation procedures greatly depend on the food matrix. In this review these methods are presented, covering the advancements of existing methodologies applied over the last decade.
... Furthermore, in-vitro studies of Azorbin colors show chromosomal changes in the somatic cells of the rye [13]. Lastly, there is a major concern about the use of these colors with little attention and increased disease in children [14]. Previous studies in the production of drinks detected several colors or colors, jelly powders. ...
... [145][146][147][148][149] Additionally, the covalent binding of food coloring to different food amino acid sequences prevents digestive enzymes from breaking down the food product. 145,150 Artificial food colorings have significant immunological consequences due to their ability to bind to human tissues and/or prevent effective digestion. 151,152 If the binding of food coloring occurs in the GI tract, the result could be the accumulation of undigested food proteins, gut dysbiosis and enhanced intestinal permeability. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we aim to illustrate the various possible mechanisms that play a role in the multi-faceted neuroinflammation seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders, which involve the gastrointestinal, immune and nervous systems. As with other environmentally-induced autoimmune disorders, autism is a combination of genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers and barrier dysfunction. The pathogenesis of autism can take many avenues, from gut dysbiosis, to loss of intestinal barrier integrity, to systemic inflammation, to breach of the blood-brain barrier, to neuroinflammation and neuroautoimmunity. The gut-brain axis has been shown to play an important role in the induction of neuroautoimmune disorders. The connective inter-relation between gut and brain means that dysfunctions or damage to the intestinal barrier or blood-brain barrier can seriously affect one or the other. Environmental triggers actually begin their assault while someone is still in the womb; studies have shown that the efficiency of a person’s immune system or his susceptibility to autoimmune disease can be affected by prenatal conditions, maternal exposures, and continuing exposure throughout a person’s lifetime. Toxic chemicals abound in all aspects of existence, from food to medication to packaging to pollution. Individuals may be immune-reactive to particular chemicals bound to human tissue or food proteins. Infections can affect the immune system and breach the immune barriers. The triggering factors may also bind to human tissue, including neural tissue, causing tissue reactivity and neuroautoimmunity. By understanding the mechanisms by which these environmental triggers lead to neuroautoimmunity, clinicians may be able to identify the triggers, remove them from a patient’s environment, and devise protocols to repair the barriers and improve the patient’s health.
... The consumption of colors, specifically, can activate the inflammatory cascade, resulting in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules. In addition to allergic reactions, intestinal permeability can lead to autoimmune diseases and neurobehavioral disorders 115 . A clinical report on the subject points out that there are no data on the prevalence of allergy to food additives in children, which makes the diagnosis difficult. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To discuss the context of scientific publications on the consumption of food additives by children and the possible health consequences in this age group. Methods: A literature review, with a search carried out between April 2020 and April 2021 in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, as well as in websites of Brazilian and foreign official bodies. Official documents and studies published since 2000 were selected. Keywords related to food additives, children, food consumption, and health were used for the search. Results: Food additives are substances intentionally added to foods for technological purposes. Processed foods are the main sources of additives in food and their consumption occurs since childhood. It is observed, however, that there are limitations inherent to the scientific method regarding the analysis of consumption and toxicity of food additives in humans, causing scarcity of data in the scientific literature. Additionally, existing data suggest that the additives have a higher toxic potential in children, considering that the body weight in this age group is lower than in adults. This context emphasizes the need to observe the precautionary principle, according to which risks of harm must be prevented. Conclusions: This is a scenario in which the literature points to a risk to people's health and, in particular, to children, about whom the duty of protection must be even greater, with absolute priority. Thus, the relevance of an expanded technical-scientific debate regarding the establishment of specific and stricter parameters for children is considered, regarding the consumption and toxicity of additives, as well as the different sources of exposure to these substances.
... Synthetic colorants are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations. Some of artificial colorants like Tartrazine pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are excessively consumed [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] .The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human is 0-7.5 mg kg-1 body weight 23 but almost children exceed their ADI 24,25,26 . Several experimental studies have been conducted on Tartrazine demonstrated that among the biochemical systems which are likely to be affected by the ingestion of this food color is the oxidative stress because of its role in tissue damage. ...
Article
Background: Tartrazine is a food colour that possesses adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. However, its effect on intestinal enzymes activity is not been established. Materials and methods: Tartrazine was administered to female swiss albino mice in drinking water at doses of 0.45% and 1% for 13 weeks. Mucosal scrape samples of the jejunum were collected for disaccharidases and dipeptidases activity analyses. Results: Maltase, sucrase and lactase specific activities were lower particularly in groups treated with 1% Tartrazine. Similarly, total and specific activities of L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-alanyl-L-proline and L-glycyl-L-proline dipeptidase are decreased in both treated groups. Villus height and crypt depth were decreased also in the same groups. Conclusion: the subchronic ingestion of Tartrazine at 0.45% and 1% in mice modifies disaccharidases and dipeptidases activities as well as intestine histological structure, thus it affects intestine function.
... Concern has recently been raised that food colorants may contribute to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (Vojdani and Vojdani, 2015). In many studies, food additives, especially synthetic additives, have negative opinions about child health. ...
Article
Full-text available
Colour loss of food may occur during storage, transport or processing. The fact that the physicochemical properties of artificial colorants are superior to those of natural colorants have led to a widespread use in the food industry. Artificial colorants have been reported to cause various health problems. It has been noted that candies and fruit drinks used in artificial colorants cause behavioural disorders in children. Children may consume more artificial food colorants because they consume more colouring-containing confectionery and beverages than adults. In recent years, various colorants have been used especially in big hotel kitchens both for decoration purposes and for gaining children's attraction. As the product range in the kitchen expands, the artificial decor material used increases. The occupancy rate of the hotels preferred by the families with children is also increasing with the opening of the tourism season. In particular, the use of artificial colorants should be controlled and reduced in such kitchens. In addition, natural colorants should be preferred to artificial colorants. These colorants can be readily purchased, as well as can be prepared in the kitchen. Thus, while the criteria for child-friendly tourism management are set, the commitment to use homemade and natural ones instead of ready-made and artificial ones, especially colouring materials used in children's menus should be regarded as a plus point for that business.
... Authors like Siegrist and Sütterlin [155] reported that symbolic information such as the E-numbers on the foodstuff's label influences a consumer's perception of different foodstuff and its origin, with consumers being hesitant to accept the addition of synthetic food additives. Additionally, there have been several reports pertaining to synthetic colorants side effects, including hypersensitive and allergic reactions as well as potential toxicity and carcinogenicity claims [144,156,157]. Natural additives have been associated with health promoting benefits, as they are a part of the bioactive compounds present in fruit and vegetable byproducts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the agro-food industry generates high amounts of byproducts that may possess added value compounds with high functionality and/or bioactivity. Additionally, consumers’ demand for healthier foodstuffs has increased over the last years, and thus the food industry has strived to answer this challenge. Byproducts are generally secondary products derived from primary agro-food production processes and represent an interesting and cheaper source of potentially functional ingredients, such as peptides, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, thus promoting a circular economy concept. The existing body of work has shown that byproducts and their extracts may be successfully incorporated into foodstuffs, for instance, phenolic compounds from eggplant can be potentially used as a mulfitunctional food additive with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and food colorant properties. As such, the aim of this review is to provide insights into byproducts and their potential as new sources of foodstuffs additives.
... However even with low consumption of colourings, hypersensitive reactions may occur in susceptible individuals. Many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have been reported [8][9][10]. Moreover, behavioural changes depending on diet are observed in sensitive children [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food analysis demands fast methods for routine control and high throughput of samples. Chromatographic separation enables simultaneous determination of numerous compounds in complex matrices, several approaches increasing separation efficiency and speed of analysis were involved. In this work, modern types of column with monolithic rod or superficially porous particles were employed and compared for determination of eight synthetic food dyes, their chromatographic performance was evaluated. During method optimization, cyano stationary phase Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm and Ascentis Express ES-CN 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm were selected for the separation of polar colorants. The separation was performed by gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol and 2% water solution of ammonium acetate at flow rate 2.0 mL min−1. Mobile phase composition and the gradients were optimized in order to enable efficient separation on both columns. The method using fused-core particle column provided higher separation efficiency, narrow peaks of analytes resulted in increased peak capacity and shortening of analysis time. After the validation, the method was applied for analysis of coloured beers, soft drinks and candies.
... Concern has recently been raised that food colorants may contribute to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (Vojdani and Vojdani, 2015). In many studies, food additives, especially synthetic additives, have negative opinions about child health. ...
... However even with low consumption of colorings, hypersensitive reactions may occur in susceptible individuals. Many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have been reported [8][9][10]. Moreover, behavioral changes depending on diet are observed in sensitive children [9]. ...
Preprint
Food analysis demands fast methods for routine control and high throughput of samples. Chromatographic separation enables simultaneous determination of numerous compounds in complex matrices, several approaches increasing separation efficiency and speed of analysis were involved. In this work, modern types of column with monolithic rod or superficially porous particles were employed and compared for determination of eight synthetic food dyes, their chromatographic performance was evaluated. During method optimization, cyano stationary phase Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm and Ascentis Express ES-CN 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm were selected for the separation of polar colorants. The separation was performed by gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol and 2% water solution of ammonium acetate at flow rate 2.0 ml min-1. Mobile phase composition and the gradients were optimized in order to enable efficient separation on both columns. The method using fused-core particle column provided higher separation efficiency, narrow peaks of analytes resulted in increased peak capacity and shortening of analysis time. After the validation, the method was applied for analysis of colored beers, soft drinks and candies.
... Unfavourable life style changes also impacted nutrition adjustments, including in particular an introduction of new products into diet, industrially processed foods, food additives (such as for example: dyes and preservatives), which all affected changes in the intestinal flora [31,32] Besides, the importance of travel abroad, during which exposition to new allergens might take place, is being emphasized in discussing the ethiopathogenesis of allergic diseases. It is believed that the following factors also play their own role: the exposition to disease causing microorganisms; interference within human immunological system, which includes among others anti-infectious immunizations; the use of immunomodulating drugs, as well as an increased exposition to stress. ...
Article
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Allergic diseases are the most common chronic diseases, particularly widely spread among children, adolescents and young adults. The problem is that there is an increasing incidence of allergic diseases. The causes of such a sudden increase of incidence rate are not well known. Complex interactions of environmental factors seem to play their role in the phenomenon. These include: change in the dietary and hygienic habits, progressing industrialization and increased use of numerous chemical agents. It was shown that inhabitants of highly industrialised nations, as compared to those from the developing countries, suffer from allergic diseases more frequently (most often in USA, Australia, Great Britain, Ireland and New Zealand, least frequently in Eastern Europe, Russia, China, India and Ethiopia), inhabitants of cities rather than those of rural areas, children who have no siblings rather than those from large families [1]. Knowledge of the factors that cause or influence the course of allergy is significant as it can help prevent and properly treat this disorder. It seems especially vital as in some patients allergy can manifest itself in the form of severe anaphylactic reactions, including an anaphylactic shock burdened with high risk of death.
... Another mixture of food colorants was observed to affect glutamatergic signaling in the brain of prenatally exposed rats (Ceyhan et al., 2013). Food preserving agents are also known to be associated with the occurrence of allergies and asthma (Vojdani and Vojdani, 2015). A small dose of azodyes absorbed from tattoos is also known to trigger immune responses of the body (Baumler, 2015). ...
Chapter
Xenobiotics are chemicals that are highly persistent in the environment, bio accumulate through the food web, and stance a risk of causing adverse effects not only to human health but also to the environment. These compounds are both organic and inorganic and are noted for their high persistence and bio accumulative characteristics. These compounds are characterized by their low and high water solubility thus having the property to accumulate in animal and plant tissues causing malformations in teratogenic, immunogenic and other abnormalities. Various biological and physico-chemical methods have been deployed in the removal or treatment of xenobiotics. Chemical treatment of xenobiotics is often costly resulting in the production of toxic undesirable compounds which cannot be degraded easily making environment worse. To overcome these issues, microbial population constitutes major component of phyllosphere forming mutualistic association showing their involvement in the biodegradation of xenobiotics. The microbial diversity is not only able to degrade xenobiotics but also their metabolites into less toxic compounds by the presence of specific genes. Here in this chapter, endophyte remediated strategies are introduced in detail and covers all the biological processes involving degradation of xenobiotics via endophytic bacterial population
... Most of these additives are now considered harmless though accused of being sources of allergies, food intolerance and more serious diseases mainly related to immune disorders. 2,3 As a result, consumer aversion to synthetic colourants has increased. For this, the use of natural dyes with limited or no side effects is an alternative to meet consumer demand for healthier food products. ...
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Introduction Synthetic colourants are subject to various allergies. As a result, the use of plant‐based additives has proved promising. Objective It is in this perspective that our objective was undertaken to investigate natural colourants from edible cactus. Opuntia species populations were single‐sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprinted, the analysis of betalains and phenolic compounds and the evaluation of their biological potentials were also characterised. Results Photometric quantification of betalains and phenols showed an interspecific variation across Opuntia species. Opuntia ficus indica fruits showed the highest betalain [betaxanthins; 843.67 and betacyanins; 1400 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)] and polyphenol contents. Reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography (RP‐HPLC) analysis showed that the variation of individual phenols profile was influenced by interspecific and genetic factors. Isorhamnetin‐O ‐(di‐deoxyhexosyl‐hexoside) was the major compound and its content varied according to Opuntia species, while catechol was the predominant phenolic compound in O. humifusa with 1.88 μg/g DW. Concerning cactus species, Opuntia colourants exhibited a potent antiradical activity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) up to 1 μg/mL]. Opuntia species were effective against Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacterial strains [inhibition zone (IZ) up to 27 mm]. A high genetic diversity within Opuntia genotypes based on SSR markers was revealed. UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) dendrogram and PCoA (principal coordinate analysis) based on natural pigments and antimicrobial profiles indicated significant variation. The correlation approach proved the presence of a probably metabolic relationship between genetic markers, pigments and their biological activities. Conclusion A possible association between molecular approach and metabolic profile analysis of Opuntia allows tracing the relationship among species for its genetic conservation.
... Em 2015, estudo randomizado desenvolvido nos Estados Unidos, analisou dados apresentados pelo Centers for Disease Control (CDC) e 250 artigos a respeito das reações imunológicas devido aos corantes alimentares. Este concluiu que a alimentação oferece a maior carga antigênica exógena para o sistema imunológico 13 . As moléculas de corantes são capazes de produzir uma ação nociva ao interagir com um determinado ponto dentro ou na superfície de um organismo vivo, causando a toxidade. ...
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RESUMO Introdução: Aditivo alimentar é todo ingrediente adicionado sem o propósito de nutrir, empregado durante qualquer etapa da produção de um alimento, com o objetivo de modificar características físicas, químicas, biológicas ou sensoriais do alimento. Os primeiros registros de seu uso são relatados por antigos papiros egípcios cerca de 1.500 anos a.C., que utilizavam especiarias para dar maior atração às refeições. O consumo desses elementos vem se intensificando consideravelmente — nos últimos 50 anos aumentou 500% — e, com isso, dúvidas quanto à sua segurança têm surgido. Há contradições entre estudos quanto a seus efeitos patológicos, mas aqueles que os demonstram, ressaltam os transtornos de comportamento como os mais relevantes. Objetivo: Identificar se há riscos no consumo de aditivos alimentares no que diz respeito aos transtornos de comportamento. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática de literatura entre os anos de 2000 e 2015, utilizando as bases de dados eletrônicas Scielo, PubMed, Lilacs, MedLine. A avaliação metodológica dos artigos foi realizada através do Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Um total de 13 artigos foi incluído na revisão. Resultados: Transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade foi o transtorno comportamental prevalente. As crianças aparecem como grupo vulnerável em razão do consumo potencial de alimentos com aditivos, principalmente os corantes, e também pela imaturidade de seus aparelhos digestório e imunológico. Discussão: Os estudos não apenas correlacionam os aditivos alimentares aos transtornos de comportamento, como também consideram a dieta de remoção desses como tratamento profilático e terapêutico para o comportamento hiperativo. Conclusão: No Brasil, a relação entre aditivos alimentares e transtornos comportamentais ainda não foi investigada. Parece existir influência negativa dos resultados de pesquisas existentes, muitas vezes falseados pelas indústrias ao mascarar a quantidade de aditivos usada. Entretanto, os efeitos sobre o consumo desses não podem mais ser ignorados e o presente estudo pode servir de base para a elaboração de estratégias de vigilância alimentar e nutricional, com a finalidade de proteção e promoção à saúde.
... A technological function of using fruits rich in anthocyanins, like juçara, is the possibility of not using artificial colorants in the products development. Its intense and typical color generate attractive products both from a sensory and health point of view, as artificial colorants have been related to allergenic diseases (Brasil, 2007) and also to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, topical dermatitis, hepatic toxicity, among others (Vojdani & Vojdani, 2015). All the formulations presented low pH, below 4.35 (Table 4), which is a barrier for microorganisms growth. ...
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In the present study a banana, strawberry and juçara smoothie was developed using an experimental mixture design. The juçara proportion was kept constant while the banana:strawberry ratio varied and the main responses were the sensory acceptability and the antioxidant capacity. From five formulations, only the one with the highest percentage of strawberry was rejected, most likely due to its lower sugar content and higher acidity. In general, panelists chose the sweeter formulations, which were those with a higher percentage of banana. Relating to the consistency, the best formulation was the one containing the same proportion of strawberry and banana pulp, which provided a better flow to the product. Additionally, this sample showed intermediate values of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity, as well as desirable physicochemical characteristics. In spite of being possible to obtain four formulations with good sensory acceptance, the one with equal amounts of banana and strawberry pulp is highlighted due to its antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics, statistically corroborated by the desirability function.
... Furthermore, in-vitro studies of Azorbin colors show chromosomal changes in the somatic cells of the rye [13]. Lastly, there is a major concern about the use of these colors with little attention and increased disease in children [14]. Previous studies in the production of drinks detected several colors or colors, jelly powders. ...
... The authors concluded that sensitivity to food chemicals occurs in less than 1% (Rajan et al., 2014). FCs have also been found to be correlated with an increase in the incidence of allergies and asthma (Vojdani & Vojdani, 2015). ...
... Some colourings, e.g. allura red (E129), may cause angioedema or rhinitis [86]. In turn, in their study Zsila et al. describe the impact of colourings on human LL-37 peptide. ...
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Various types of food additives are widely used in the food industry. Due to their properties extending the usefulness for consuming food products, they give them different colours, consistency, or taste. The products are marked ‘E’ and the code is assigned to the subscription used. Many of the supplements affect human health negatively. Emulsifiers or stabilizers can lead to epithelial loads and the development of inflammation. Sucrose and other sweeteners may change the composition of the intestinal microflora and thus lead to intestinal blockage. Some additives classified as preservatives are available and may predispose to intestinal dysbiosis. Available substances belonging to food dyes may predispose to genotoxic and cytotoxic effects and cause inflammation in the intestines. Substances added to food can also cause disorders of intestinal homeostasis.
... Synthetic food colors are prepared from hydrocarbons mixture and have been certified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to retain food texture and appearance. Artificial food colorants can attain shades as compared to natural (Vojdani & Vojdani, 2015). Whereas natural coloring produced from plants are costly, non-stable and easily fades, in addition, many researchers examined the adverse effect on metabolism and toxicity induced by the consumption of specific food colors to laboratory animals (Tanaka, 2005;Amin et al., 2010). ...
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Incorporation of the coloring agent, tartrazine and curcumin affects healthy physiological system leading to changes in hematology, biochemistry and enzymatic activity. Consequences of oral administration of tartrazine and curcumin were explored for 15, 30 and 45 days in female adult rat. Two doses were based on the admissible daily intake (ADI) of 9.6 and 96 (high) mg/kg/body weight for tartrazine, 3.85 and 38.5 mg/kg/body weight for curcumin. Phytochemicals such as saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, carbohydrates and phenolics were present in coloring agents. The renal function tests and lipid profile showed alterations in the values of uric acid, urea, total protein, albumin and cholesterol in all treatment groups. Additionally, the levels of liver enzymes fluctuated after 45 days of treatment with curcumin and tartrazine. Histopathological changes were also recorded in liver and kidney. In contrast, blood biochemistry depicted the significant reduction of RBCs, Hb, MCH, glucose, WBCs, MCHC and LDH at 15, 30 and 45 days. Besides, IgG, IgM and overall antibody GMT at 45 days were significantly increased. Study indicated that ADI and doses up to 10 times of the ADI of food colors intake exerted adverse effects on immune response and altered the biochemical parameters.
... Behavioural problems in children and immunological disorders have been associated with artificial colours (Pollock & Warner 1990, Voidani & Voidani 2015. Some synthetic dyes have been "delisted" by the American FDA out of health concerns (Aldridge 2014b). ...
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A good, nutritious diet is essential for the health and well‐being of our domestic pets. Today, most pet dogs and cats are fed highly processed food bearing little resemblance to canine and feline ancestral diets. Additives are included in processed pet food to provide nutritional benefits, ensure food safety, and maintain the desirable features of colour, flavour, texture, stability and resistance to spoilage. This paper reviews the safety of various additives in processed pet food. Labelling, safety assessment, and ethical concerns regarding existing toxicity testing procedures are also considered. The adequacy of testing for many additives and the scientific basis for determining safety are questioned. Additives can be synthetic or ‘natural’ although the distinction can be blurred when naturally derived substances are synthesised in the laboratory, or extracted using a high level of physical and chemical processing. Although additives play important roles in processed food production, updated strategies and technologies may be required to establish their safety in the pet food industry.
... These are added intentionally by food processing, cosmetics, or pharmaceutical industries. Most of these additives are now considered harmless though accused of being sources of allergies, food intolerance and more serious diseases mainly related to immune disorders (Bourrier, 2006;Vojdani & Vojdani, 2015). As a result, consumer aversion to synthetic colorants has increased. ...
Chapter
Food pathogens are causing many diseases with significant effects on human health and the economy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that approximately 48 million Americans get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3000 die each year from food poisoning. As specified by the CDC, the known pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) account for most foodborne illnesses, hospitalization, and death in the United States. Opuntia spp. are, to a great extent, dispersed in Africa, Asia, America, and the Mediterranean bowl. This plant is utilized as a dietary and pharmaceutical operator in a different dietary and value-added push. Even though contrasts within the phytochemical composition exist between wild and tamed (Opuntia ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetative (pear, roots, cladodes, pulp, and seeds) display useful properties as anticancer and antimicrobial agents (flavonoids, and ascorbate), and as antimicrobial (phenolic acids) agents. Other phytochemical components (soluble fibers and biopeptides) have been shared in the antimicrobial character of Opuntia spp. Bioactive peptides are composed of a few amino acids linked by covalent bonds called amide bonds or peptides. Depending on their grouping of amino corrosive, these peptides may influence the body’s major frameworks such as resistant, stomach related, cardiovascular, and anxious system. The bioactive peptides can be utilized as valuable nourishment additives. Their grouping measures contrast from 2 to 20 amino corrosive buildups, but a few peptides have a long chain of amino corrosive (lunasin 43 amino corrosive). Bioactive peptides have the plausibility to be utilized as characteristic nourishment added substance and pharmaceuticals constituents to avoid nourishment harming and nourishment added items due to their antioxidant and/or antimicrobial impacts. Moreover, natural molecules from Opuntia spp. ought to be planned in vitro, in vivo, in situ, and in a way to assess the risks to humans, animals, and food chains. This chapter is an upgrade on the bioactive molecule’s properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential intrigued as antimicrobial.
... Food colorants should never be used to hide defects and deceive consumers (Code of Federal Regulations, 2016). Many studies showed that synthetic colors have potential negative side effects, such as allergies, hypersensitivity, behavioral problems in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and others (Feketea & Tsabouri, 2017;Laura et al., 2019;McCann et al., 2007;Vojdani & Vojdani, 2015). Therefore, natural food colorants are increasingly demanded by consumers to replace the synthetic ones (Masone & Chanforan, 2015). ...
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Anthocyanins (ACN) are natural pigments that produce bright red, blue, and purple colors in plants and can be used to color food products. However, ACN sensitivity to different factors limits their applications in the food industry. Whey protein (WP), a functional nutritional additive, has been shown to interact with ACN and improve the color, stability, antioxidant capacity, bioavailability, and other functional properties of the ACN‐WP complex. The WP's secondary structure is expected to unfold due to heat treatment, which may increase its binding affinity with ACN. Different ACN structures will also have different binding affinity with WP and their interaction mechanism may also be different. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy show that the WP secondary structure changes after binding with ACN. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the WP maximum fluorescence emission wavelength shifts, and the fluorescence intensity decreases after interaction with ACN. Moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggests that the ACN‐WP binding forces are mainly hydrophobic interactions, although there is also evidence of electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding between ACN and WP. In this review, we summarize the information available on ACN‐WP interactions under different conditions and discuss the impact of different ACN chemical structures and of WP conformation changes on the affinity between ACN and WP. This summary helps improve our understanding of WP protection of ACN against color degradation, thus providing new tools to improve ACN color stability and expanding the applications of ACN and WP in the food and pharmacy industries.
... It has been reported that synthetic food dyes, the use of which has increased rapidly in recent years, lead to an increase in many allergic diseases and immune system disorders (Vojdani, 2015). Synthetic food dyes have been found to increase histamine and leukotriene production, leading to allergic and inflammatory diseases in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune responses. ...
... Both natural and synthetic colorants are used as food additives to improve the appearance of products and to increase consumer demand. Although synthetic food colorants have lower production costs, higher stability and usability, some studies have emphasized the strong relationship between synthetic food colorants and their adverse health effects [4,5]. ...
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Natural colorants/pigments such as anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls have been generally used in the food industry as coloring agents. However, there are challenges related to color fading during food processing, storage, and commercialization due to the low stability of natural colorants compared to synthetic ones. Among them, anthocyanins are potential food colorants due to their color, low toxicity, and biological properties. However, the low chemical and thermal stability of anthocyanins have limited their use on a commercial scale. Copigmentation is the most commonly used technique for anthocyanin stabilization. This technique provides many advantages associated with the stability of anthocyanins. Natural anthocyanin pigments and copigments (e.g. polymers, phenolic compounds, and carbohydrates) form non-covalent complexes, which stabilize and modulate colors in a wide range of plants, fruits, and food products derived from them (including wines, jams, purees, and syrups). Over the past decade, research studies have been conducted to understand the molecular structure of copigment and the mechanism of copigmentation. This review summarizes this phenomenon to provide a comprehensive description of the interactions between anthocyanin and copigment (the dispersion and electrostatic components of π−π stacking, the hydrophobic effect, and hydrogen-bonding) occurring in copigmentation complexes. The trend of integrating copigmentation and encapsulation has been recently started to develop. In this paper, we also attempt to provide a comprehensive view of the effective approaches including spray and freeze-drying, emulsification, gelation, and their combinations for encapsulating copigmented anthocyanins.
... According to Onyema et al. (2006), the byproducts of such metabolism sometimes become more toxic than the initial substance. Its consumption can lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade, impairment of intestinal permeability allowing large antigenic molecules to be absorbed, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunity, and even neurobehavioral disorders (Vojdani https and Vojdani, 2015). A possible link exists between consumption of artificial food coloring, including tartrazine and/or preservatives, and increased symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among children (McCann et al., 2007). ...
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We studied the effects of the tartrazine-metabolite sulfanilic acid on the physiology of pancreatic AR42J cells. Sulfanilic acid (1 μM-1 mM) induced a slow and progressive increase in intracellular free-calcium concentration that reached a plateau. The effect of sulfanilic acid was not concentration-dependent. Stimulation of cells with thapsigargin (1 μM) after treatment with sulfanilic acid (1 mM) induced a smaller Ca2+ response compared with that obtained with thapsigargin alone. Sulfanilic acid induced a concentration-dependent production of reactive oxygen species; however, this effect was not Ca2+-dependent. Depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed at the concentration of 1 mM sulfanilic acid. In the presence of the compound a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio was observed. A decrease in the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 was noted. Finally, stimulation of cells with CCK-8 led to a concentration-dependent increase of trypsin secretion that was impaired by pretreatment of cells with sulfanilic acid. Preincubation of cells with the antioxidant melatonin (100 μM) reduced the effect of sulfanilic acid on trypsin secretion. We conclude that sulfanilic acid might induce oxidative stress, which could alter Ca2+ signaling and enzyme secretion in pancreatic AR42J cells. This creates a situation potentially leading to damage of the exocrine pancreas.
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Background and Objectives: Synthetic dyes are an important group of additivesused in food products, and because of health concerns about consuming population, the application of these compounds is needed to be enough controlled. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and frequencies of the dyes used in making pastries in the confectionery of Tuyserkan city. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study investigated the types of consumed dyes in confectionery’s pastries of Tuyserkan city. A total of 80 samples including wet and dry pastries are randomly sampled from 17 confectioneries. The steps of the experiment consisted of degreasing the sample, purification, and determining the type of dye were down by using Tin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method. All charts used in the study were drowned by Excel Software (2013). Results: The results indicate, among the total 80 samples, 17 samples contained no dye, 15 samples with natural dye, 44 samples with permitted synthetic dyes, and 4 samples have non-permitted synthetic dyes. Moreover, of all the synthetic dyes, 8 samples contained Quioline yellow dye, 10 samples with Sanset yellow dye, 8 samples with Azorubine dye, 5 samples with Brilliant blue dye, 5 samples with ponceau 4R, and 4 (5%) samples have Allura Red. Conclusions: This study showed a remarkable part of used dyes in the confectionery of Tuyserkan city is non-permitted. Therefore, it is proposed to reduce the amount of synthetic dyes by restriction in distribution, more controlling by health departments, and increasing the awareness in consumers and manufactures.
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An exploratory study was conducted to identify processed foods that contain allura red and are sold near primary schools in the City of Puebla, Mexico. There are studies that confirm the toxicity of allura red and its probable relation with the generation of cancer metabolites. For the study, a measuring instrument was designed to determine the frequency of consumption in children from 10 to 13 years of age. For this, the instrument was designed following a descriptive analysis by means of a field study identifying common commercial products. Later the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to validate the statistical reliability of the instrument. It was determined that the infant population oftenly consumes foods processed with red allura, having as daily consumption snacks (fried foods), followed by cereals and yogurt. This study was able to design and validate a reliable instrument, which allows to measure the frequency of consumption of foods processed with red allura in infants.
Chapter
This chapter seeks to explore possible explanations for the rise in allergies and immune reactivities and the epidemic proportions of autoimmune disease. A major hypothesis is that this modern sort of plague derives from the modern civilization in which most of the world now lives. The technological advances of progress inevitably bring with them changes in lifestyle and diet, which can affect our immune system in various ways. Individuals today are surrounded and bombarded by genetically modified foods completely different from what their ancestors used to eat and an unending torrent of chemicals that not only pervade the environment around them but are in the very food and drink that they consume daily without a second thought. Thus, the necessary homeostatic balance between type 1 and type 2 T helper cells (Th1 and Th2) can be swayed toward pathogenesis by, ironically, too hygienic a lifestyle. Likewise, the balance of the commensal bacteria in the gut microbiome can be disturbed by environmental triggers, which may lead to intestinal permeability, immune reactivity, and autoimmunity. Xenobiotics (haptens) in food can form neo-antigens or adducts, leading to autoimmunity and cancer. The increased use of food additives to make our food look better, taste better, last longer, and be cheaper and easier to grow has come with an accompanying rise in reports of food reactivities and autoimmune disorders. It has been proven that many of the common foods that are universally eaten without a second thought are actually cross-reactive with different tissues of the human body, and this includes the brain. It seems all too easy, then, for the healthy relationship and mechanisms between the brain and the immune system to succumb to the overwhelming assault mounted by the environmental triggers of today’s modern world. What is required is a way to detect the beginnings of these environmental attacks, which leave traces or biomarkers, so that years of suffering from immune reactivity or autoimmune disease may be avoided or prevented by early diagnosis and proper therapeutic action.
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To the Editor. —Allergies to drugs are usually caused by the active ingredient. However, inert excipients (coloring agents, preservatives, and sweeteners) may also sometimes cause allergic reactions.1-4 The incidence of these may be increasing, because excipients are now usually chemically produced synthetics, not naturally derived substances. We report a patient with epilepsy who developed sensitivity to FD&C Red 40 in the Tegretol brand of carbamazepine.Report of a Case. —A 56-year-old woman had had frequent complex partial and rare secondarily generalized seizures for 5 years. Control was poor with therapeutic plasma levels of phenytoin, primidone, and phenobarbital. Treatment with the Tegretol brand of carbamazepine (Ciba-Geigy) was started, and other drugs were withdrawn. Four weeks later, she complained of rhinorrhea, tearing, and nasal stuffiness that consistently occurred within 20 minutes after ingesting a Tegretol tablet. Generic carbamazepine (a white tablet made by Bioline MAF) was substituted at the same dose