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Abstract

Carotenoids are among pigments with antioxidant properties and healthy effects on human body. Lutein is one of the most important carotenoids that is abundantly found in banana peel and belongs to xanthophyll's family. The present study aims to banana extract in order to use the applied properties of its carotenoids specially lutein. The banana peels were dried in vacuum oven and changed to powder, three solvents of ethanol 96%, methanol 99.5% and ethyl acetate 80% were used in 27 and 35 centigrade to extract its juice and study the amount of lutein. HPLC, UV-VIS spectrophotometer and FRAP test were respectively used to determine the amount of lutein and the antioxidant power of the extracts. The findings showed that considering the inhibition time of pure lutein with HPLC that took about 2.311 minutes, the amount of lutein gained by ethyl acetate solvent was more as compared to other extracts and its peak area was about 400.Similarly, through UV-VIS colorimetry and considering the amount of light absorbance of pure lutein, the amount of light absorbance in ethyl acetate solvent in 27°C was more as compared to other samples and its amount of absorbance was about 2.204.The antioxidant power of ethyl acetate in 27°C in FRAP method showed the higher amount.

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... The value of extracts was evaluated which were extracted by ethyl acetate based on the existence of healthy carotenoid of Lutein in two levels of temperature, time, solvent concentration regarding the remaining time of pure Lutein peak (2.243 min) and the area under its curve (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2015). Based on these and since the area under the peak of pure Lutein was 5000 and its concentration was 10 ppm, the concentration of other extracts could be computed (figure 5). ...
... Based on table 2, comparing to other extracts, the results showed that the amount of Lutein was more in the extract achieved under 50 °C for 5 hours and concentration of ethyl acetate 30 times of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extract from banana peel in 40 °C. ...
... Based on table 3, the results showed that, comparing to other extracts, the amount of achieved Lutein was more in 50 °C, 2 h, and concentration of 30 times of hexane in proportion to the amount of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extracts from banana peel in 40 °C. Khoshnevis et al. (2016) also considered 40 °C as the optimal temperature and methanol solvent as the best extract in terms of the amount of Lutein in the peel of Cucurbita pepo. ...
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The effect of oregano essential oil (OE) and rosemary extract (RE) on the survival and growth of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacteriaceae (ENT), and the aerobic plate count (APC) in raw ground chicken meat stored at different temperatures. Five different treatments including i) control (no additives), ii) 150 ppm oregano essential oil (OE), iii) 350 ppm rosemary extract (RE), iv) 150 ppm OE + 350 ppm RE, and v) 14 ppm combination of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA/BHT) were prepared. All additives were showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity (APC) compared to the control samples during storage time for both storage temperatures (4 and 8 °C). However, the effect of OE was higher than RE depressing the growth of total aerobic bacteria. Similar effects were found, when the total viable count of ENT evaluated. The combined antimicrobial effect of RE and OE were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than using them alone, in both storage temperatures. Generally, all tested Food-borne pathogens (FBP) were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by adding OE and RE. Among all pathogens the combination of OE and RE were showed the highest treatment effect. Based on current results, it is concluded that both OE and RE had a potential antimicrobial activity, but it can be much stronger if incorporated together. In addition, this combination of OE (150 ppm) and RE (350 ppm) may represent a prospective natural replacement to the synthetic antimicrobial currently used in the meat industry.
... The value of extracts was evaluated which were extracted by ethyl acetate based on the existence of healthy carotenoid of Lutein in two levels of temperature, time, solvent concentration regarding the remaining time of pure Lutein peak (2.243 min) and the area under its curve (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2015). Based on these and since the area under the peak of pure Lutein was 5000 and its concentration was 10 ppm, the concentration of other extracts could be computed (figure 5). ...
... Based on table 2, comparing to other extracts, the results showed that the amount of Lutein was more in the extract achieved under 50 °C for 5 hours and concentration of ethyl acetate 30 times of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extract from banana peel in 40 °C. ...
... Based on table 3, the results showed that, comparing to other extracts, the amount of achieved Lutein was more in 50 °C, 2 h, and concentration of 30 times of hexane in proportion to the amount of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extracts from banana peel in 40 °C. Khoshnevis et al. (2016) also considered 40 °C as the optimal temperature and methanol solvent as the best extract in terms of the amount of Lutein in the peel of Cucurbita pepo. ...
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The study investigated the functional properties of dika kernel (Irvingia wombolu), an African food hydrocolloids used to flavour and thicken soups. The kernel flour was analysed using standard methods. The result showed that the flour has potential in functional food systems. The pH of the dika kernel (5.34) may not encourage the growth of spoilage organisms. The kernel would make a good thickening and gelling agent in related food systems. The flour is characterised by its high water absorption rate (343 and 492%) during reconstitution. It might serve as a good forming agent and useful for stabilisation of emulsion in soups. The foaming and emulsion properties of the samples studied were pH dependent and were influenced by salt (NaCl) concentration. The kernel also contains significant amount of digestible protein (about 90%) for human nutrition. The study suggested that dika kernel (Irvingia wombolu) be explored in industrial applications regarding functional foods.
... The value of extracts was evaluated which were extracted by ethyl acetate based on the existence of healthy carotenoid of Lutein in two levels of temperature, time, solvent concentration regarding the remaining time of pure Lutein peak (2.243 min) and the area under its curve (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2015). Based on these and since the area under the peak of pure Lutein was 5000 and its concentration was 10 ppm, the concentration of other extracts could be computed (figure 5). ...
... Based on table 2, comparing to other extracts, the results showed that the amount of Lutein was more in the extract achieved under 50 °C for 5 hours and concentration of ethyl acetate 30 times of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extract from banana peel in 40 °C. ...
... Based on table 3, the results showed that, comparing to other extracts, the amount of achieved Lutein was more in 50 °C, 2 h, and concentration of 30 times of hexane in proportion to the amount of quince peel powder. Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) also reported the highest amount of Lutein in carotenoid extracts from banana peel in 40 °C. Khoshnevis et al. (2016) also considered 40 °C as the optimal temperature and methanol solvent as the best extract in terms of the amount of Lutein in the peel of Cucurbita pepo. ...
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The article presents the results of the study undertaken to determine the effect that a protein-fat emulsion based on ScanPro T95 animal protein solution has on the physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters of sausage products. There has been developed the technology and formula for the production of cooked sausages in which meat raw materials were partially replaced with a protein-fat emulsion. The sausage food value has been calculated. The study of quality indicators has been carried out. The organoleptic parameters of sausage products with a partial replacement of meat raw materials with a protein-fat emulsion have been evaluated.
... In fresh peel of bananas, lutein was the dominant Car and had almost 70% of the total area of all Cars, although other dominant Cars were only less than 3.3% (Table 3). The studies of Subagio et al. (1996) and Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) revealed that lutein was abundantly found in the banana peel. In fresh flesh, high values of % area of lutein (48.8%), α-Car (35%), β-Car (46.6%) were found in Raja, Ambon Kuning, and Kepok Kuning bananas, respectively [5,17]. ...
... The studies of Subagio et al. (1996) and Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) revealed that lutein was abundantly found in the banana peel. In fresh flesh, high values of % area of lutein (48.8%), α-Car (35%), β-Car (46.6%) were found in Raja, Ambon Kuning, and Kepok Kuning bananas, respectively [5,17]. In the case of fresh flesh, lutein content was close to that of α-Car in Ambon Kuning and Kepok Kuning bananas. ...
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Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals.
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