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Selected Medicinal Plants of Order Lamiales Used in Traditional Medicine

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Abstract

Among the medicinal plants, out of 30,000 species estimated to be used by the indigenous and ethnic societies of world, around 10,000 have been used by traditional systems of medicines of respective countries such as in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy medicines in India. Natural products are the important source of bioactive compounds and have potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in drugs of plant origin. A wide range of products can be obtained from plants i.e., perfumes, insecticides, flavoring agents, coloring agents, medicines etc. Lamiales order has two important family Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae among others and both the families are pan tropical in distribution. The Acanthaceae is a large (ca, 4000 species in some 230 genera) pantropical family. The present paper reviews some of the important plants of these families having medicinal value.
Please cite this article as: Ashwani Kumar A et al., Selected Medicinal Plants of Order Lamiales Used in
Traditional Medicine. American Journal of Pharmacy & Health Research 2015.
Review Article
www.ajphr.com
2015, Volume 3, Issue 1
ISSN: 23213647(online)
Selected Medicinal Plants of Order Lamiales Used in Traditional
Medicine
Archna Sharma1, Alka Sharma1, Vijay R Kumar1, Ashwini Kumar2*
1. Govt PG College Kaladera, Jaipur.
2. Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
ABSTRACT
Among the medicinal plants, out of 30,000 species estimated to be used by the indigenous and
ethnic societies of world, around 10,000 have been used by traditional systems of medicines of
respective countries such as in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy medicines in India.
Natural products are the important source of bioactive compounds and have potential for the
development of novel therapeutic agents. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest
in drugs of plant origin. A wide range of products can be obtained from plants i.e., perfumes,
insecticides, flavoring agents, coloring agents, medicines etc. Lamiales order has two important
family Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae among others and both the families are pan tropical in
distribution. The Acanthaceae is a large (ca, 4000 species in some 230 genera) pantropical
family. The present paper reviews some of the important plants of these families having
medicinal value.
Keywords: Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Ocimum, Justicia, Traditional medicines.
*Corresponding Author Email: ashwanikumar214@gmail.com
Received 29 December 2014, Accepted 07 January 2015
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INTRODUCTION
Herbal medicines
World population is nearing 5 billion today and with this rate of growth it is likely to touch 7.5
billion by the year 2020. Global estimates indicate that over 3/4 of the 5 billion world
population can not afford the products of the western pharmaceutical industry and have to rely
upon the use of traditional medicines mainly derived from plants. This fact is well compiled by
WHO1in an inventory of medicinal plants list is over 20,000 species. Modern pharmacopoeia
still contains at least 25% drugs derived from plants and many others which are synthetic
analogues built on prototype compounds isolated from plants. Out of the total 4,20,000 flowering
plants reported from the world2, more than 50,000 are used for medicinal purposes. The World
Bank has recently put a strong case for herbal healthcare and recognized vital values of
medicinal plants. These values have medicinal, ecological, income generating, cultural, social
and religious roles. Among the medicinal plants, out of 30,000 species estimated to be used by
the indigenous and ethnic societies of world, around 10,000 have been used by traditional
systems of medicines of respective countries such as in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and
Homeopathy medicines in India and about 150 species have entered into the global market to be
used in modern medicine. In India, 20 percent of the total
flowering
plants are reported to be of
medicinal importance3. The old traditional Indian system of medicine derives maximum
formation from plants using their different parts. 29% of preparations are derived from roots,
14% bark, 16% whole plants, 5% flowers, 10% fruits, 6% leaves, 7% seeds, 3% wood, 4%
rhizomes and 6% stems.
Different ailments cured by herbal medicines
Once science discovered some valuable chemical compounds of significant biological action in
them. According to Ayurvedic system of medicines a large number of plants are employed in the
traditional medicines for the treatment of several diseases like cancer, urinary stone track
disease, depression and other nervous disorder, diabetes and urinary stones4-12. The object of the
review paper is to outline the important plants of order Lamiales which have almost common
properties and fall under two important families of this order.
Order Lamiales
Phylogenetic position
Tripp and McDade13 studied phylogenetic relationships within the large ( > 4000 species) plant
family Acanthaceae using fossils as calibration points. Remarkably, if minimum age estimates
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approximate true history, these 11 events occurred within the last 20 myr even though
Acanthaceaes is over 3 times as old. Finally, they reviewed reports of fossils that have been
assigned to Acanthaceae that are substantially older than the lower Cretaceous estimate for
Angiosperms as a whole i.e., the general consensus that has resulted from several recent dating
and fossil-based studies in plants.
Lamiaceae
Ocimum sanctum:-
Botanically known as Ocimum sanctum Linn.and commonly as Tulsi, is the sacred plant of India.
The plant is known in English as Holy Basil. Ocimum sanctum is perhaps the most common and
most revered of all household plants in India. The plant is commonly cultivated in garden and
also grown near temple. Medicinal properties attributed to the plant are not only mentioned in
Ayurveda and Siddha but also in Greek, Roman and Unani system of medicine14 (Gupta et al.,
2002). Tulsi has been described as vanya (wild type) and gramya (grown in homes). Properties
of both types are almost similar and the main difference is the former has lighter leaves. Tulsi
grows widely in tropics and warm regions. The plant is native to tropical Asia, likely having
originated in India. Robust Tulsi varieties readily grow wild in many areas of Asia and Africa. It
is also abundantly found in Malaysia, Australia and some of the Arab countries. The plant is
distributed and cultivated throughout India.
Phytochemical constituents:
The unique aromatic odour of O. sanctum is due to the presence of essential or volatile oils. The
aromatic volatile oil mainly constitutes phenols, terpenes and aldehydes. Various studies proved
that chemical constituents vary due to edaphic and geographic factors. Besides oil, the plant also
contains alkaloids, glycosides, saponines and tannins. The volatile oils are mainly concentrated
in the leaf. The leaf of O. sanctum contains 0.7% volatile oil comprising about 71% eugenol and
20% methyl eugenol15-17.
Family Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae is a large family comprising, according to Mabberley24, 4300 species in 346 genera.
Adhathoda vasica Nees is a synonym of Justicia adhathoda L. according to plant list given out
by Kew latest version 1.1 in 2013 Justicia adhathoda is valid name of Adhathoda vasica Nees18
They are bitter-tasting. Some other Justicia acuminate (Nees) Lindau; Justicia acutangula H.S.
LO and D. Fangl; Justicia acutifolia Herden; Justica adhaerens Wassh and J.R.I Wood Justicia
gendarussa Burm F., are other common species found in different parts of the world
Acanthus mollis:
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The genus Acanthus as perennials grows wild in the grasslands, woods, scrub and rocky hills.
Acanthus mollis, commonly known as Bear’s Breeches, is an herbaceous perennial plant, native
to the Mediterranean region from Portugal and northwest Africa to Balkan, and is one of the
earliest cultivated species of garden plants. The leaves of this plant are generally considered by
historians to have been the design inspiration for the Corinthian column capitals of Roman
architecture.
Chemical composition:
Plant contains lignans. The more common subclasses of lignans are the aryltetralins and
arylnaphthalenes. There are many common variations in the substitution pattern on the aryl rings
that occur in nature, including methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxy groups as reported by
Rezanka19.
Justicia procumbens: Won et al.20 reported that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure
arylnaphthalidelignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal
cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell
growth in NOD-SCID mice. Jin et al.,21reported three new lignans, Pronaphthalide A,
Procumbiene, and Procumbenoside J along with a novel natural product Juspurpudin and twelve
other known lignans were isolated from Justiciaprocumbens.
Justicia hypocrateriformis Vahl:
Justicia hypocrateriformis (Acanthaceae) is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhea in Cameroon
folk medicine. Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its
antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.
Justicia adhatoda:-
Justicia adhatodaof the Acanthaceae family is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic and Unani
medicine, and the plant has been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for more
than 2000 years. Adhatodavasica is a small, evergreen, perennial shrub, which reaches an
average height of three meters. Its branches are opposite and ascending. The broad, leathery
leaves, which are sometimes used as an insecticide, measure from 10 to 15 centimeters in length,
and are about 4 centimeters in width 22, 23. It is used as an herbal remedy for treating cold, cough,
whooping cough and chronic bronchitis and asthma, as sedative expectorant, antispasmodic and
anthelmintic. It is an official drug and is mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia of In- dia. The leaves,
roots, flowers and bark of Adhatoda are all used for medicinal purposes. It is well known for
preparation of medicine for bronchitis, asthma and other pulmonary infections. Glycodin®, a
famous product used for the cure of bronchitis is extracted from the leaves of this plant. It has
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35
been used by European herbal practitioners as an antispasmodic, expectorant and febrifuge23
(Singh et al., 2011). The phytochemical studies of the various parts of Adhatodavasica revealed
the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, polyphenolics and glycosides as a major class of
compounds. Its principal constituents are quinazoline alkaloids with vasicine as its chief alkaloid.
Ruellia tuberosa Minnie:-
It is a small biennial plant with thick fusiform tuberous roots and striking funnel-shaped violet-
coloured flowers. It reaches an average height of about 25 cm in moist and shady environment.
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. In folk medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, it
has been used as a diuretic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antihypertensive,
gastroprotective, and to treat gonorrhea.
Blepharis maderaspatensis:-
It is used for headache. Seeds are used as dysuria, diseases of nervous system, diuretic,
aphrodisiac. In spite of its use in herbal formulation no systematic pharmacognostic studies have
been reported and hence our efforts were devoted in this direction.
Barleriaprinoitis L.:-
It is commonly known as Vajradanti. It is erect armed shrub, spines ca. 1.2 cm long. Leaves to 5-
9 x 2.5-4 cm, elliptic, acute, mucronate, base cuneate, sparsely puberulus, ciliate on the margins,
gland dotted beneath; petiole to 2 cm. Cymes axillary; bracts 2, 1.5 cm, oblong mucronate; outer
calyx lobes 1.3 x 0.4 cm, inner 1.1x 0.2 cm, mucronate, hirsute; corolla tube 2.5 cm, lobes 2 cm
obovate; filaments 1.3 cm, staminodes 2, included at the base of the corolla tube; ovary 2.5 mm,
style 2.5 cm.
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall. exNees:-
It is commonly known as Kalmegh. It is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many
Ayurvedic formulations. The leaf and underground stem are used to make medicine.
Andrographis is frequently used for preventing and treating the common cold and flu (influenza).
It is used for digestive complaints including diarrhea, constipation, intestinal gas, colic, and
stomach pain; for liver conditions including an enlarged liver, jaundice, and liver damage due to
medications; for infections including rabies, and HIV/AIDS; and Diterpenoid compounds and
rographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A.
paniculata. Recently Kumar et al.25 reported three biologically active compounds, AP,
neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata.
Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (Acanthaceae):-
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Thunbergia laurifolia, Laurel clock vine or Blue trumpet vine, is native to India. Thunbergia
laurifolia is a popular ornamental plant in tropical gardens T. laurifolia, native to India, is an
aggressive vine that is commonly cultivated and sometimes escaped. "Similar to T. grandiflora
except: leaves broadly elliptic to narrowly ovate, 8-15 cm long, 2.5-5.5 cm wide, margins entire.
Corolla pale blue with a white or pale yellow throat. In Malaysia, juice from crushed leaves of T.
laurifolia are taken for menorrhagia, placed into the ear for deafness, and applied for poulticing
cuts and boils. In Thailand, leaves are used as an antipyretic, as well as an antidote for
detoxifying poisons Iridoidglucosides have been isolated from T. laurifolia 26Microwave-dried
leaves displayed stronger antioxidant properties (AOP) than fresh leaves.
Malaria control:
Crude extracts of Ruelliatuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) is reported to have larvicidal activity on
Culex quinquefasciatus as target species and Rawani et al., 27. The plant extract would provide
potential bioactive compounds to control mosquito.
CONCLUSION
Order Lamiales has some important families out of which Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae having
valuable alkaloids and saponins provide plant species which can cure most of the diseases of
modern world. The paper provides preliminary details on such plants.
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... Traditional medicinal practices such as Chinese Traditional Medicine, Ayurveda, national and regional Pharmacopeias are all dependent significantly on medicinal plants as the raw base for the preparation of the medicines (Patwardhan et al., 2005). Among the medicinal plants out of 30,000 species estimated to be used by the indigenous and ethnic societies of world, around 10,000 have been used in traditional systems of medicine of respective countries such as in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy medicines in India (Sharma et al., 2015). ...
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