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Emotional self-efficacy (ESE) is an important aspect of emotional functioning, with current measures for children and adolescents focused on the measurement of self-beliefs in relation to the management of emotions. In the present study, we report the psychometric properties of the first adaptation of the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale for youth (Youth-ESES) that measures additional aspects of ESE, such as perceiving and understanding emotions and helping others modulate their emotions. Participants were 192 young adolescents aged 11 to 13 years from a U.K. state school. They completed the Youth-ESES and measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive ability. Results support the same four-factor structure that has been previously documented using the adult version of the ESES, with the four subscales being largely independent from cognitive ability and only moderately related to ability EI. However, the four subscales were less differentiated in the present study compared with adult data previously published, suggesting that there is a strong general factor underlying young adolescents’ ESE scores. Overall, the results suggest that the adapted Youth-ESES can be reliably used with youth, and that confidence in how a young person feels about his or her emotional functioning remains distinct from emotional skill.
P.Qualter1*, L.Dacre Pool1, K.J.Gardner1, S.Ashley-Kot2, A.Wise2, and A.Wols3.
1. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.
2. School Psychology Unit, New Line Learning Academy, Maidstone, Kent, UK.
3. Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
*Correspondence contact: Pamela Qualter, School of Psychology, University of Central
Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK, PR1 2HE: Email:
Other: P.Qualter, L.Dacre Pool, K.J.Gardner, S.Ashley-Kot, A.Wise, and A.Wols.
(2014). The Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale: Adaptation and validation for young
adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 33-45.
doi: 10.1177/0734282914550383
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Emotional self-efficacy (ESE) is an important aspect of emotional functioning,
with current measures for children and adolescents focused on the measurement of self-
beliefs in relation to the management of emotions. In the current study, we report the
psychometric properties of the first adaptation of the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale
(Kirk, Schutte, & Hine, 2008) for youth (Youth-ESES) that measures additional aspects
of ESE, such as perceiving and understanding emotions and helping others modulate their
emotions. Participants were 192 young adolescents aged 11-13 years from a UK state
school. They completed the Youth-ESES, and measures of ability emotional intelligence
(EI), and cognitive ability. Results support the same four-factor structure that has been
previously documented using the adult version of the ESES (Dacre Pool & Qualter,
2012a), with the four subscales being largely independent from cognitive ability and only
moderately related to ability EI. However, the four subscales were less differentiated in
the current study compared to adult data previously published, suggesting that there is a
strong general factor underlying young adolescents’ ESE scores. Overall, the results
suggest that the adapted Youth-ESES can be reliably used with youth, and that
confidence in how a young person feels about their emotional functioning remains
distinct from emotional skill.
Key words: Emotional self-efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, Youth, Adolescence
The Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale: Adaptation and Validation for Young
People’s beliefs about whether they think they can successfully perceive, use,
understand and manage emotional information are likely to be important for a diverse
range of outcomes. Such an idea stems from Bandura’s work (1997, 1999) on the more
general construct of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is rooted in social cognitive theory
(Bandura, 1982), which argues that self-beliefs are a major determinant of performance;
according to self-efficacy theory, individuals vary in their beliefs about the level of
control they have over courses of action needed to attain successful outcomes (Bandura,
1997). Self-efficacy is distinct from actual capabilities required to perform a task, but
self-efficacy beliefs can be viewed as proxy indicators of effective performance
(Bandura, 1997, for a review).
Following Bandura’s theorizing (1997, 1999) we would expect perceived self-
efficacy to play an important role in the processing of emotional information and we
would expect emotional self-efficacy (ESE) to contribute to effective processing,
understanding and management of emotional information. So far, empirical investigation
has focused on how well children and adolescents manage their emotional experiences,
with the idea that people will differ greatly not only because they have different skills,
but also because they differ in their perceived capabilities to manage their emotions
(Caprara, Di Giunta, Eisenberg, Gerbino, Pastorelli, & Tramontano, 2008). Based on
these ideas, measures of ESE, as it relates to the management of emotions, have been
developed for children (Self-Efficacy Scale for Children; Muris, 2001) and adolescents
(Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale; Bandura, Caprara, Barbaranelli, Gerbino, &
Pastorelli, 2003). That work is important because it highlights the role played by distinct
self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative and positive affect (Caprara, Fida, et al., 2008;
Caprara, Di Gunta, et al., 2008), but people’s beliefs about whether they can successfully
perceive, use, and understand emotional information are also likely to be important. For
example, being confident that I can manage negative emotions during revision time
relates to one important aspect of ESE, but being confident that I can spot when I feel
those negative emotions in the first place relates to a different dimension of ESE.
Measurements that examine other domains of ESE are currently not available to children
and adolescents, but there is a measurement tool available for adults (Emotional Self-
Efficacy Scale [ESES]; Kirk, et al 2008). That measure examines ESE as a subjective
self-appraisal of one’s own emotional competence in the domains of using and managing
one’s own emotions, perception and understanding of one’s own emotions, management
of other people’s emotions, and perception of other people’s emotions.
Such an examination of ESE across different domains of emotional functioning is
important during adolescence. So far we have evidence from prospective studies
(Caprara, Fida, et al., 2008; Caprara, Alessandri et al., 2012), that used the Regulatory
Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale, that there are important changes in ESE beliefs from late
adolescence to emerging adulthood (14 to 25 years of age), but these data raise questions
about how changes in ESE related to emotion management map onto other possible
changes in ESE that relate specifically to emotion perception and understanding. Without
measurement tools that assess different domains of ESE, we will be unable to answer
such important questions about development. Further, the findings highlight the need for
standardized ESE measures that can be used across the lifespan so that prospective
changes across ontogeny can be established. The overall aim of the current study was to
adapt the ESES for use with early adolescents. Having such a tool will allow the
prospective examination of several dimensions of ESE and help establish the causal
relationships between different aspects of ESE, actual emotional skills, and a diverse
range of outcomes. Thus, in the current study we investigate the underlying
dimensionality of an adapted ESES for youth (Youth-ESES) aged 11-13 years with the
aim of providing a comprehensive assessment of the construct of ESE that can be used by
researchers and practitioners working with young people. Associations among the Youth-
ESES, ability EI and cognitive ability were also examined.
How is ESE distinct from EI Abilities?
Consistent with the distinction between self-efficacy beliefs and actual skill in
performing a particular behaviour, there is a distinction between ESE and emotional skill.
Over the past two decades a large body of research has been devoted to conceptualising
and empirically supporting the construct of ability EI, a cognitive ability encompassing
skills in relation to perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotion information
(Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004). Ability EI is assessed using
performance tests to identify cognitive skills in these areas of emotional functioning,
while ESE relates to an individual’s self-reported confidence that they will be able to
perceive, use, understand and manage emotions in situations that require them to do so
(Galla & Wood, 2012). Thus, while conceptually ESE mirrors the dimensions underlying
ability EI, the two constructs are psychometrically distinct (Kirk et al, 2008). This
distinction is further supported by the overlap between ability EI and general cognitive
ability (e.g. Joseph & Newman, 2010; Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008;) and between
ESE and personality (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a)
Why is ESE important?
The argument being put forward is that unless people believe they can produce
the desired outcomes (i.e., a reduction in anxiety through emotion management, the
increase in friendship quality by understanding the emotions of a friend, confidence that
they will spot when they are feeling stressed), they have little incentive to persist in the
face of emotional difficulties (Bandura,!Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001). Thus,
it is likely that ESE (1) will impact a diverse range of social and cognitive outcomes, and
(2) have independent effects on these outcomes above that predicted by actual skills, with
some individuals who score higher on ability EI tests not using these skills in a way that
is beneficial to academic, social, or health outcomes because they lack confidence to do
Certainly there is evidence that ESE predicts a range of outcomes. Previous
research using the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale with adolescents supported
this idea in relation to sociability and depressive symptoms and changes in self-esteem
(Alessandri et al., 2009; Bandura et al., 2003; Caprara, Alessandri, & Barbaranelli, 2010;
Caprara, Alessandri et al., 2012), and studies using the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for
Children with adolescents showed that confidence in one’s ability to control negative
emotions is particularly helpful for dealing with anxiety and depressive symptoms, which
in turn shields youth against the development of emotional problems (Muris, 2001;
Muris, Mayer, Reinders, & Wesenhagen, 2011). Further, in relation to adult studies using
the ESES, there is support for the idea that all aspects of ESE are important for graduate
employability and career satisfaction (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2013) and for university
adjustment (Nightingale et al., 2013).
Research also supports the idea that self-efficacy in relation to emotional
information is distinct from actual skill, with evidence that ESE and ability EI are distinct
constructs (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a; Kirk et al., 2008; Nightingale et al., 2013).
Further, there is one study that shows all aspects of ESE independently predicted
educational and psychological outcomes when emotion management skills were
controlled in analyses (Nightingale et al., 2013).
A Comprehensive Measure of ESE for Youth
ESE has been posited as an important aspect of emotional functioning with
current measures for children and adolescents focused on the management of emotions
(Bandura et al., 2003; Muris, 2001). Kirk et al. (2008) followed the same line of enquiry
as these other studies, but argued that ESE should not be restricted to just emotion
management and, instead, should map onto a number of different skills in the emotional
domain as outlined by well established models of emotional functioning. Based on this
reasoning, Kirk et al. (2008) developed and validated the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale
(ESES), which is based on the four-branch model of ability EI and contains questions that
pertain to self-efficacy in relation to the ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage
emotions. Previous studies with adults have shown the measure has good psychometric
properties (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a; Kirk et al., 2008), but there is a question about
factor structure. Kirk et al. (2008) suggested that the measure tapped one overall factor,
but Dacre Pool and Qualter (2012a) found four moderately inter-correlated (.52 to .61)
factors: a) using and managing one’s own emotions; b) identifying and understanding
one’s own emotions; c) dealing with emotions in others; and d) perceiving emotion
through facial expressions and body language. Both studies proposed the ESES as a
viable measure that could be useful in future studies aimed at furthering understanding of
processes involved in adaptive emotional functioning.
The use of the ESES with young adolescents is limited by the fact that the
questions use language that is difficult for young people to comprehend. Adaptation of
the ESES for young adolescents is important because it enables an examination of
perceived self-efficacy across different aspects of emotional functioning and is not
restricted to emotion regulation as is the case with measures used in most previous
empirical work. As we have stated previously in this paper, existing measures of the
emotional aspects of self-efficacy are restrictive in their coverage of emotional
dimensions. For example, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (Muris, 2001)
contains only several questions that assess self-regulatory aspects of emotion, while the
Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (Bandura et al., 2003) assesses the
management of negative or expression of positively valenced emotions. A comprehensive
assessment of the construct of ESE means that individual differences in adolescents’
beliefs about their capabilities in identifying, using, understanding and managing
emotions can be captured. This is important because it enables the prospective
examination of ESE and actual emotional skills in varying domains across ontogeny so
we are able to establish a developmental perspective on emotional functioning.
Further, given the increase in interventions designed to increase emotional
functioning (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011) there is a need
to have available valid and appropriate measures for use with different age groups. Thus,
in the current study we adapted the ESES items using language that young adolescents
would be familiar with. The aim of the current study was to investigate the underlying
dimensionality of this revised version of the ESES for youth, exploring whether the data
support a one or four factor solution. Further, we examined its relationship to ability EI
and cognitive ability. The specific predictions were (1) the four-factor theoretical
structure documented by Dacre Pool and Qualter (2012a) will be confirmed, and (2) the
Youth-ESES will be weakly correlated with ability EI (MSCEIT-YV) and cognitive
ability, in support of the distinctiveness of the two constructs, and (3) the Youth-ESES
intra-scale correlations will be less differentiated than in adult samples (e.g., Dacre Pool
& Qualter, 2012a) consistent with developmental psychometric theory (Soto, John,
Gosling, & Potter 2008).
One hundred and ninety-six young adolescents (90 females) took part in the
current study. All participants were enrolled in the UK state education system and were
primarily Caucasian. All participants were students at a school in the South-East of
England. The school covered a large geographical area within its district and had
relatively high achievement statistics. The participants were in their first or second year
of high school and were aged 11 to 13 years (Mean = 11.73, SD = 0.67) at the time of the
Emotional Self-Efficacy (ESE). The Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES)
developed by Kirk et al. (2008) originally comprised 32 items. In the factor analyses by
Dacre Pool and Qualter (2012a) five of these items were dropped, creating a reduced 27-
item version of the ESES. The 27-item questionnaire was adapted and used in the current
study. Participants are required to rate their confidence in respect of each item by
selecting a number on a five-point scale, with a ‘1’ indicating ‘not at all confident’ and a
‘5’ indicating ‘very confident’. When viewed as a one-factor measure, the ESES showed
good internal consistency (α= .96); two week test-retest reliability was also good, r(26) =
.85, p < .0001 (Kirk et al., 2008). Cronbach’s alpha for the four subscales found in the
Dacre Pool and Qualter (2012a) study ranged from .79 to .89. This four-factor solution
suggests the items make up four subscales: (1) Using and Managing one’s own emotions
(10 items), (2) Identifying and Understanding one’s own emotions (6 items), (3) Dealing
with emotions in others (8 items), and (4) Perceiving emotion through facial expressions
and body language (3 items).
In the current study, we adapted the ESES so that the language was simpler for
young adolescents and children, while the content of each item remained unchanged.
Words used in the adapted ESES for youth (Youth-ESES) have a mean age of acquisition
rating ranging from 2.79-9.90 years (Kuperman, Stadthagen-Gonzalez, & Brysbaert,
2012), with the majority (97.50%) being recognized by children aged 6 years and above;
some words could be recognized by age 10 years and these were ‘occasion’, ‘control’,
‘focused’, ‘creative’, ‘motivated’, ‘figure’, ‘positively’ and ‘pleasant’.
Ability EI. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – Youth
Version (MSCEIT-YV) is the youth version of the MSCEIT and is designed for pre-
adolescents and adolescents (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2005). The measure assesses
how well children perform tasks and solve emotional problems. Multi-Health Systems,
the test distributor, scored the data using expert norms. This instrument yields a single
overall performance score, but also four branch scores that assess the different domains
of ability EI. In Section A (perceive), the child identifies the emotions expressed by a
series of faces. Section B (facilitate) includes a set of vignettes and tasks that assess
whether the child understands how different emotions impact behaviour and decision
making. In Section C (understand) the child chooses the emotion a protagonist is feeling
in a series of vignettes. In Section D (manage) the child chooses which strategies are
most helpful in managing certain emotions presented in a set of vignettes. Internal
consistency scores of the MSCEIT-YV are provided in the manual for the four branches,
with split-half reliabilities ranging from .67 (Section A: Perceiving emotion) to .86
(Section C: Understanding emotions); the overall measure α=.91.
Cognitive ability. The CAT (Cognitive Ability Test) is the most widely used test
of reasoning abilities in UK schools (Deary, Strand, Smith, & Fernandes, 2007). The data
reported here relate to the CAT fourth edition (CAT4), which is a digital version of
CAT3. It has 10 separate subtests, which are aggregated into three batteries of tests,
providing standardised measures of verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning
Participants completed the MSCEIT-YV and the adapted Youth-ESES in their
first or second year of high school. Participants had completed the CAT the previous year
if they were in the second year of high school or a few weeks after they completed the
MSCEIT-YV and adapted ESES if they were in their first year of high school.1 The
young adolescents completed all measures online. Participation in the study was secured
1 Cohort differences in CAT scores were examined, with no significant differences found for the three CAT
scores for males (t > .50, p > .21) or females (t > .06, p > .68). This justified the collapsing of the two age
cohorts to form the final sample.
by opt-out written informed consent by parents/guardians and by verbal assent of the
participants on the day of data collection. All participants were tested in accordance with
the national and local ethics guidelines.
Overview of Data Analyses
After missing values analyses, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with
maximum likelihood estimation was performed, using AMOS 21 (Arbuckle, 2012), to
test the fit of a one-factor model to the current data. The 27 items in the Youth-ESES
were the indicators of the latent variable, which represented the general factor of ESE as
found by Kirk et al. (2008). Another CFA was performed to test the fit of a four-factor
model to the data. In this second CFA, the four subscales of the Youth-ESES found in the
earlier work by Dacre Pool and Qualter (2012a) formed latent variables of ESE, with
specific items in the questionnaire as indicators of each latent variable.
The degree of model fit was used to make interpretations about the overall model.
Goodness of Fit (GOF) statistics used to interpret model fit are the chi-square goodness
of fit statistic, the comparative fit index (CFI), normed fit index (NFI), and the root mean
square error of approximation (RMSEA) (Browne & Cudeck, 1992). We followed Marsh,
Hau, and Wen’s (2004) recommendations and used rules of thumb about acceptable
levels of GOF: RMSEA should be less than .05 to be viewed as having a good fit, or
should be between .05 and .08 for a reasonable fit to the data, and the CFI and NFI
should exceed .90.
Once factor structure was established, we investigated associations among the
Youth-ESES, ability EI (MSCEIT-YV subscales) and cognitive ability (CAT scores).
First, participants with and without complete data were compared using Little’s
(1988) Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) test. This yielded a non-significant chi-
square value (χ² (578) = .32, ns), suggesting that missing values could be reliably
estimated. These missing values for the Youth-ESES item scores were estimated using
person mean substitution, as recommended in Hawthorne and Elliott (2005). Full data for
some participants were removed from the data set based on recommendations by Rivers
et al. (2012). Following these recommendations, we excluded data for four participants
because they had very low (under 50) MSCEIT-YV scores and low cognitive ability
(scoring below 70 on each CAT subscale). These adolescents struggled with the meaning
of the language used in the Youth-ESES so all data related to these four participants were
removed from the analyses.
Confirming the factor structure of the Youth-ESES
First, the suitability of the data for factor analysis was examined. Inspection of the
correlation matrix revealed the presence of many coefficients of .30. Also, the Kaiser–
Meyer–Oklin value was .92, exceeding the recommended value of .60 (Kaiser, 1974).
Bartlett’s test of sphericity (Bartlett, 1954) reached statistical significance, X2 (496, N =
192) = 2865.59, p = .001, supporting the factorability of the correlation matrix.
Second, we examined two alternative factor structures of the Youth-ESES. Model
fit indices from the first CFA revealed that a one-factor model failed to fit the observed
data, χ2 (464) = 934.17, p =.001, NFI = .74, CFI = .82, RMSEA = .082 (CI.95 = .075,
.089). CFA examining a four factor solution revealed a better fit to the current data, χ2
(314) = 676.53, p!<.001, NFI = .97, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .055 (CI95 = .049, .061), with
factor loadings for items of each subscale .50 (see Table 1 for full details). Correlations
between the subscales and Cronbach’s alphas can be found in Table 2. It shows that
correlations between subscales were above .65 and correlations between subscales and
the total Youth-ESES score were above .82. This is higher than was found for the adult
ESES (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a). Further, Cronbach’s alpha for these four subscales
for this sample of youth were good, ranging from .69 (perceiving emotions through facial
expressions and body language) to .88 (using and managing own emotions).
Correlations among the Study Variables
Correlations between the respondents’ scores on the Youth-ESES subscales,
ability EI (MSCEIT-YV) subscales, and cognitive ability (CAT scores) can be found in
Table 2. Findings showed large correlations (> .60; Cohen, 1988) between all Youth-
ESES subscales. The Youth-ESES subscales also showed significant small to moderate
correlations (.19 to .37) with all MSCEIT-YV branches except Perceiving Emotions
(non-significant), and were either weakly (< .20) or not significantly related to cognitive
ability. In contrast, all four branches of the MSCEIT-YV were significantly correlated
with cognitive ability.
Next, we examined partial correlations between each Youth-ESES subscale and
the four MSCEIT-YV branches, controlling for the other 3 ESES subscales. These
analyses were designed to show whether there were unique relationships between the
MSCEIT branches and each Youth-ESES subscale, which is an important issue given that
the ESES subscales are highly correlated. Findings (Table 3) showed that only the
Identifying and Understanding One’s Own Emotions Youth-ESES subscale was
correlated with branches of the MSCEIT-YV, specifically the Using and Managing One’s
Own Emotions branches, when controlling for other aspects of ESE. This suggests that
feeling confident that one can identify and understand emotions is uniquely associated
with actual tests of understanding and managing emotions when controlling for other
ESE dimensions.
This study explored the factor structure of the revised ESES for youth.
Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the multidimensional structure found by Dacre
Pool and Qualter (2012a) for the adult version of the ESES also fit data from young
adolescents who had completed the Youth-ESES. However, consistent with the
developmental psychometric theory (Soto et al., 2008), the four ESES subscales were less
differentiated in the current sample of young adolescents (inter-scale correlations of .65
to .78) compared to adult data (.52 to .61; Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a). This suggests
that there is a strong general factor underlying young adolescents’ ESES scores, and
future studies might test a second-order factor model as an alternative structure for the
Youth-ESES. This is further supported by the fact that only the Identifying and
Understanding One’s Own Emotions subscale of the Youth-ESES was correlated with
MSCEIT-YV branches, specifically Understanding and Managing, when controlling for
the other ESES subscales.
The high inter-scale correlations observed in the current sample may also partially
reflect elevated acquiescent responding that typically characterizes self-reports of
children and young adolescents (Soto et al., 2008). More importantly, the four Youth-
ESES subscales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas of
.69 to .87), suggesting that the adolescents were able to comprehend the revised items
sufficiently enough to formulate reliable responses.
We complement previous research by showing that scores on the Youth-ESES
were correlated with MSCEIT-YV scores, but were not associated with cognitive ability.
In support of many previous studies (e.g., Joseph & Newman, 2010) we found evidence
that ability EI is associated with cognitive ability. Our findings support the notion that
ability EI and ESE are distinct because there were only small to moderate associations
between measures of these two constructs. In the current study, it seems that having high
ability EI does not mean that one feels able to use those skills in emotional situations.
Future research will want to examine the prospective relationships between ESE and
ability EI and determine whether they both impact behaviour and ultimately predict social
and psychological outcomes. Such effects are found in university samples (Dacre Pool &
Qualter, 2012a; Nightingale et al., 2013; Tariq, Qualter, Roberts, Appleby, & Barnes,
2013), but future work should examine the association between ESE and ability EI and
how they both impact psychosocial functioning for young adolescents.
Once the direct effects of ESE and its interaction with ability EI are fully
understood, it is possible that interventions will be designed to increase ESE as well as
ability EI. Recently, there has been an increase in interventions designed to increase
emotional functioning (Durlak et al., 2011; Nelis, Quoidbach, Mikolajczak, & Hansenne,
2009), but the emphasis is often only on increasing emotional skills to improve social and
emotional functioning. Those interventions designed to increase both ESE and EI have
been shown to be effective (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012b). Other authors support this
need for the development of ESE and EI, arguing that both promote positive ways of
coping with stressful situations (Davis & Humphrey, 2012), which leads to effective
adaptation (Keefer, Parker, & Saklofske, 2009). !!
The current study shows that the adapted Youth-ESES can be used to measure
ESE in young adolescents. Given that the Youth-ESES includes no words that cannot be
understood by children above 10 years of age, it could also be used with older children
and should not be restricted to young adolescents. However, validation of the measure for
use with older children should be explored. Also, we recommend further adaptations of
some items so that the measure can be used with children younger than 10 years of age;
those items that include words that cannot be understand by children younger than 10
could be further adapted so those items are easier to understand by younger children.
Adapting the measure as we have done in the current study, using the mean age of
acquisition ratings could allow the measure to be used with younger children. Following
validation of an ESE measure for young children, empirical research should examine the
impact of ESE and ability EI on social and psychological outcomes for young children.
Because the MSCEIT-YV is only valid for young adolescents and adolescents, other
measures of emotional skills should be used, including the Test of Emotion
Comprehension (Pons & Harris, 2000) that assesses nine components of emotional
understanding and can be used with 6- to 12-year-old children (Pons, Lawson, Harris, &
de Rosnay, 2003).
There are some limitations to the current study that should inform future work.
First, this study did not test measurement invariance of the factor structure across age
groups, so cannot yet claim that the Youth-ESES dimensions are measured in the same
way and on the same scale as in adults. In the current study, we assumed invariance
across age and gender for the adapted version of the ESES, but future work should test
these assumptions statistically. Due to sample size requirements needed for invariance
testing, we were unable to explore whether the same number of ESE dimensions and
pattern of loadings exist across male and female adolescents, but this should be a focus of
future research. Further, given that previous research shows how gender differences in
ESE influence academic performance (Bandura et al., 2003; Qualter, Gardner, Pope,
Hutchinson, & Whiteley, 2012), the associations between ESE and other variables should
be investigated across gender in future studies. Second, the current sample was recruited
from one school that could lead to potential bias in the findings. Given the complex
interplay between socioeconomic status and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bandura et al.,
2001), future work should recruit participants from a wider range of socioeconomic
backgrounds. Third, this study did not test convergent validity of the Youth-ESES with
other measures of ESE and this limits the conclusion that the adapted scale indeed
assesses ESE. This argument also applies to possible convergence with trait EI measures
and more generally the trait EI construct. It has been argued that ESE is a large
component of trait EI (Petrides & Furnham, 2003), but the two are not interchangeable
(Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a; Kirk et al., 2008). That work reiterates that Trait EI relates
to the affective aspects of personality (i.e., the broad range of lower-order personality
traits and self-perceptions such as happiness, optimism, adaptability and assertiveness;
Petrides & Furnham 2001; (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007), but ESE is a more
refined construct that relates to an individual’s confidence that they will be able to
perceive, use, understand and manage emotions in situations that require them to do so.
The results of the current study suggest that the adapted version of the ESES for
youth can be reliably used with young adolescents. The measure produced the same four
subscales as described for the adult version of the ESES (Dacre Pool & Qualter, 2012a).
These subscales provide information about how confident a young person feels in terms
of four domains of emotional functioning: (1) using and managing their own emotions,
(2) identifying and understanding their own emotions, (3) dealing with emotions in
others, and (4) perceiving emotions through facial expressions and body language.
However, there were large correlations between these subscales suggestive of the fact
that there may be a strong general factor underlying young adolescents’ ESES scores.
Further, ESES scores were largely independent from ability EI scores, suggesting that
adolescents’ beliefs about whether they can successfully perceive, use, understand, and
manage emotional information are different to whether they have these actual skills.
When controlling for all other ESES subscales, only the Identifying and Understanding
subscale was correlated with subscales of the MSCEIT-YV, again, suggesting that among
young adolescent there is a strong general ESE factor. This should be further tested
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Table 1. Standardised factor loadings for Four-Factor CFA model for the Emotional
Self-Efficacy Scale for Youth (Youth-ESES).
Factor and Items
Factor loading
Factor 1: Using and Managing your own emotions
8. I know how to make myself feel better when I
am in a bad mood.
3. When I feel unhappy, I know how to make
myself happy again.
18. I know how to use good mood to come up with
new ideas.
30. I can get in the right mood to come up with
many new ideas.
14. If needed, I know how to change my mood to
match the occasion, e.g. make myself feel happy or
12. I know how to control my feelings when I am
22. I know how to make myself feel calm and
focused when needed at school.
20. I can calm myself down when feeling angry.
6. I know how to use good feelings to be creative in
Factor and Items
Factor loading
solving problems.
26. I can make myself feel full of energy and
motivated to do well in sports.
Factor 2: Identifying and Understanding your own emotions
27. I can tell what makes me feel different
11. When I feel unhappy, I can tell what has caused
1. I can tell when I feel unhappy or angry.
9. I can tell when I am feeling happy.
19. I can tell why my feelings change.
4. I can tell what makes me feel good.
Factor 3: Dealing with Emotions in Others
7. I know what makes other people feel happy.
24. I know how to help another person calm down
when he or she is feeling angry
31. I can figure out what made someone feel the
way they feel.
32. I can help someone think positively when their
pet has gone missing or cheer them up when they
have lost someone.
Factor and Items
Factor loading
15. I can tell what makes other people feel
2. I know how to cheer someone up when they feel
23. I can tell why other person’s feelings change.!
13. I can tell when someone is feeling a pleasant
Factor 4: Perceiving Emotion through Facial Expressions and
Body Language
25. I am able to tell what feelings I show on my
21. I can tell what other people feel from the way
their body changes.
17. I can tell what I feel from the way my body
Notes: CFA model used maximum likelihood estimation. All factor loadings were
significant (p < .05). Cronbach’s alphas were as follows: Factor 1 = .88, Factor 2 = .75,
Factor 3 = .85, Factor 4 = .69.
... One such perceived competence is known as emotional self-efficacy [42][43][44]. It refers to the ability to identify and manage one's own emotions, as well as to perceive and deal with the emotions of others [45][46][47]. Emotional self-efficacy is indeed predictive of a vast range of behaviors. For example, it is related to measures of intelligence, academic success, social behaviors, and career success (for a review, see [48]). ...
... Several scales are currently available to measure emotional self-efficacy in youth, including the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) [47], the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale for Young Adolescents (Youth-ESES) [46], and the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy scale (RESE) [49,50]. Findings with adolescents show a negative correlation between self-efficacy levels and mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety) and conduct problems [51,52]. ...
... A rapid-assessment measure was used to capture students' confidence in regulating their own negative emotions (see also [62]). Two existing subscales formed the basis for this measure: a subscale of the SEQ-C (normed for children 14 and older) [47] and a subscale of the Youth-ESES (normed for children 11 and older) [46]. The resulting self-efficacy scale contained eight items relevant to emotional control (e.g., "I know how to stop being angry if I want to"; see Appendix A for the full list). ...
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In the current study, we explored math anxiety in the context of a special kind of math practice, one that allowed for some flexibility on the part of the students. Such student-guided math practice is conducive to exploring how math anxiety relates to children’s day-to-day experiences with math, potentially yielding insights into math anxiety that would not be available otherwise. Students in Grades 3 and 4 (N = 26) could choose math problems that were below, at, or above their proficiency level. They also completed a math-anxiety survey and an emotional self-efficacy survey. Descriptive results revealed that math anxiety was implicated in two negative outcomes of math practice: children’s tendency to avoid challenging math problems and children’s relatively low success rate when working on class-level math. Finding that math anxiety relates to several negative experiences could explain why math anxiety can persist. Importantly, results show that emotional self-efficacy plays a role in both children’s willingness to challenge themselves and their success rate. This adds to the ongoing discussion on whether emotional self-efficacy can compensate for the negative effects of math anxiety.
... Emotional self-efficacy reflects one's confidence in their ability to exert control over their motivation, behavior, and social environment toward health-oriented behavior [17][18][19]. The hierarchical process of emotional self-efficacy includes the perception, understanding, and expression of emotions [20] as well as the ability to control one's emotional state [21]. When encountering risky situations, people with high emotional self-efficacy can cope with the adverse effects of affective sadness or fear reactions [22][23][24]. ...
... Emotional self-efficacy is marked by the ability to manage emotions internally rather than externally; very few studies have examined it as a screening tool on food choice and dietary quality. Instead, emotional self-efficacy was studied using the concepts of emotional intelligence and adaptive emotional functioning in the self and others in the existing literature (e.g., [16,20,21,24]). The trait of emotional intelligence focused on the quality of social interactions between the self and others was not applicable in our food and dietary quality study. ...
... Individuals with high socioeconomic status are more confident in their ability to control their negative emotions [37] and maintain emotional stability and intelligence [38]. Given the aforementioned concept of emotional self-efficacy [17][18][19][20][21], it is reasonable to expect a relationship between socioeconomic status and emotional self-efficacy. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health emergency, increasing the prevalence of emotional distress, and potentially leading to altered diet behavior. Self-efficacy measures various aspects of perceiving and understanding emotions. The present study was carried out with the objective of understanding the effect of emotional self-efficacy on dietary behavior and quality. It also shed light on which elements contributed to the link between food-related behavior and perceived dietary quality during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the factor analysis of nineteen food groups, choices, consumption, and socioeconomic status were examined in a sample of 441 Chinese participants. Multiple linear regression examined the association between food consumption, dietary quality, and self-efficacy. Contrary to prior research, the intake of salty snacks and alcoholic beverages dropped by 3.3% and 2.8%, respectively, during the first lockdown. Emotional self-efficacy negatively mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status and dietary quality. In conclusion, emotional self-efficacy is a well-established tool for evaluating how Chinese people cope with negative emotions. As an individual’s dietary quality was affected during the imposed lockdown, the present study offers valuable insight into psychosocial factors that may contribute to health disparities by advocating for organized nutritional support in future epidemic-related quarantines.
... Grounded in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977), emotional self-efficacy (ESE) is a critical element of emotional and behavioral regulation skills (Mesurado, Vidal, & Mestre, 2018). It is characterized by one's perceived capabilities to recognize, comprehend, and manage emotions to achieve a desirable outcome (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996;Qualter et al., 2015). Closely related to emotional intelligence, ESE is pivotal to children's well-being and is known to predict health and quality of life in adulthood (Aydogdu, Eksı, & Celık, 2017;Singh, Singh, & Singh, 2014;Qualter et al.). ...
... It is characterized by one's perceived capabilities to recognize, comprehend, and manage emotions to achieve a desirable outcome (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996;Qualter et al., 2015). Closely related to emotional intelligence, ESE is pivotal to children's well-being and is known to predict health and quality of life in adulthood (Aydogdu, Eksı, & Celık, 2017;Singh, Singh, & Singh, 2014;Qualter et al.). In contrast to the strong connection of ESE with various aspects of positive psychological outcomes and subjective well-being (e.g., self-esteem, happiness) (Dogan, Totan, & Sapmaz, 2013;Sui, Gong, & Zhuang, 2021), the lack of ESE is linked to increased aggression, violent behaviors, depression, anxiety, and victimization (Valois, Zullig, & Revels, 2017). ...
Using a quasi-experimental design with no control groups, this pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of a universal mental health promotion program for elementary school students in an underserved United States-Mexico border community. A total of eighty-five fifth and sixth grade students participated in this program and completed the emotional domain of the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children before and after the intervention. Preliminary program benefits were identified among students who perceived low emotional self-efficacy prior to program participation. The program satisfaction rate was over 60%. About 70% of the participants expressed both confidence and competence in using calming tools for future stressful events. This study supports the use of occupational- and activity-based programs in public elementary schools that serve predominantly Hispanic students from low socioeconomic households. Implications for future occupational therapy practice and research are discussed.
... This state variable captures individuals' confidence in their ability to act on the emotions present during interpersonal interactions (Kirk, Schutte, and Hine 2008). ESE has been shown to have desirable consequences above and beyond EI and varies as a function of past performance as well as individuals' judgments about their emotional skills (Qualter et al. 2015). ...
... Emotional self-efficacy (ESE) refers to a salesperson's level of confidence in their ability to use emotions present in interactions (Dacre Pool and Qualter 2013;Qualter et al. 2015). The confidence to engage emotions can create open emotive communication with others (Dacre Pool and Qualter 2013) and is a cornerstone of emotional competence (Kirk, Schutte, and Hine 2008). ...
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The authors propose that the emotional intelligence (EI)-sales performance link can be better understood by considering a salesperson’s confidence in how they use emotions, known as emotional self-efficacy (ESE). Four multi-source studies across diverse sales industries offer evidence of the interactive effect of a salesperson’s EI and ESE – which we term emotional calibration – on salesperson performance. We find that sales performance suffers when salespeople are either overconfident or underconfident in their emotional skills and perform best when they are calibrated. Further, we demonstrate that the performance gains associated with emotional calibration (1) are attenuated when salespeople are under stress, and (2) occur because it encourages positive avoidance emotions (calmness and relaxation) among salespeople that result in improved customer rapport, but only among salespeople with relatively longer job tenures. Overall, the research highlights the critical role of ESE as an essential but neglected aspect of a salesperson’s emotional competence.
... (ii) Emotion Self-Efficacy. The Youth Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (Qualter et al., 2015) assesses participants' confidence in their ability to manage their emotions (e.g. "I know how to make myself feel better when I am in a bad mood"). ...
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Objectives: There has been limited consideration of the role emotion self-stigma (i.e. beliefs that experiencing and expressing so called 'negative' emotions are unacceptable) may play in help-seeking for emotional distress. This study is the first to investigate whether emotion self-stigma uniquely predicts help-seeking intentions across two key emotion vulnerability periods in development: (a) early adolescence and (b) young adulthood. Methods and design: Cross-sectional data were collected from secondary school (n = 510; M age = 13.96 years) and university students (n = 473; M age = 19.19 years) residing in Australia. Both samples completed measures online examining demographic characteristics, emotional competence, mental health and help-seeking stigma, emotion self-stigma, and help-seeking intentions. The Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Emotion self-stigma was a significant unique predictor of help-seeking intentions in young adults but not adolescents. The strength of the relationship between increased emotion self-stigma and lowered help-seeking intentions was similar for both males and females, regardless of developmental period. Conclusions: Addressing emotion self-stigma alongside mental illness and help-seeking stigma may be useful to improve help-seeking outcomes, particularly as young people transition into early adulthood.
... Among university students (17-22 years-of-age), researchers demonstrated that self-efficacy for emotion regulation is positively associated with prosocial behavior and emotional well-being (Bigman et al., 2016;Caprara et al., 2008). Among secondary students, self-efficacy for emotion regulation has been associated with emotional awareness (among 11-13-year-olds; Qualter et al., 2015), and fewer internalizing and externalizing behaviors (among 14-16-year-olds; Parise et al., 2019). In contrast, research on conflict resolution has tended to focus on students' conflict resolution strategy use (i.e., a manifestation of SEC; LaRusso & Selman, 2011), rather than their perceived competence. ...
... Emotional self-efficacy (ESE) is another important aspect of emotional functioning, with current measures for children and adolescents focused on the measurement of self-beliefs in relation to the management of emotions (Qualter et al., 2015). Children's beliefs about whether they think they can successfully perceive, use, understand, and manage emotional information (their emotional self-efficacy) are likely to be important for a diverse range of outcomes. ...
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Social and emotional skills have an important role in children’s general functioning and social relationships (e.g., with peers, and family). Questionnaires measuring these competencies should be carefully developed and validated and be in accordance with the developmental stage of children. The Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire – Children’s form (ESCQ-C) is a self-report measure of one’s ability to perceive and understand emotions, to express and label emotions, and to manage and regulate emotions. It was developed within the theoretical framework from the Mayer and Salovey (1997) emotional intelligence model. Structural validity of the ESCQ-C was assessed in a sample of preadolescent children (N = 639, 53% girls, Mage = 11.24, SDage = 0.71), and convergent validity was tested by correlating ESCQ-C subscales scores with the social, emotional and academic self-efficacy (The Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children, Muris, 2001). Our results suggest the four-factor structure for the ESCQ-C. Manage and regulate emotions subscale was divided into two subscales: the self-perceived ability to regulate one’s own emotions and other’s emotions. Correlations with the self-efficacy scales were moderate, suggesting good convergent validity. The ESCQ-C can be considered a valid measure of the emotional skills and competences for children.
... Diversos autores sostienen que la percepción que tienen las personas acerca de su propia eficacia es una variable fundamental en la competencia humana debido a que influye en las estrategias, la motivación y la persistencia relacionadas al logro de un objetivo. Del mismo modo, repercute en la respuesta emocional ante situaciones complejas Álvarez et al., 2014;Prieto, 2001;Borzone Valdebenito, 2017;Flores León et al., 2010;Qualter et al., 2015;Rivera Heredia et al., 2016). Adicionalmente, la AE se relaciona con diversos fenómenos mentales y sociales, destacándose su efecto modulador en los procesos cognitivos, emocionales y conductuales. ...
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El presente trabajo tiene por objetivos examinar las evidencias de validez de contenido y aparente, analizar evidencias de validez de constructo, estudiar la consistencia interna de las dimensiones que integran el instrumento e investigar evidencias de validez concurrente de la Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés en estudiantes universitarios. La muestra se conformó por 333 alumnos de una universidad privada argentina. Para esto, se realizó procedimientos de juicio experto y una prueba piloto. Posteriormente se efectuó un estudio factorial confirmatorio comparando dos modelos factoriales de primer orden y de segundo orden. Los resultados evidenciaron un adecuado ajuste del modelo de primer orden, registrando una adecuada consistencia interna y evidencias de validez concurrente. Estos resultados fueron discutidos utilizando las dos concepciones dominantes sobre la autoeficacia. Palabras clave: autoeficacia, estudio factorial confirmatorio, estudiantes universitarios, validez, confiabilidad.
My purpose here is to offer some of my thoughts on the current field of social-emotional learning (SEL). I am coming from the perspective that schools are places where children develop the skills to create fulfilling academic/work lives and successful social relationships; schools should help to: (i) provide young people with the skills to achieve personal happiness and well-being throughout their lives; and (ii) educate their pupils about managing difficult times with confidence. Key to that success is the development of emotion understanding, and schools are seen to be important drivers in that learning process. But how do schools best teach such skills? Currently, the most popular mode is through the use of developed curricula that have been designed to teach different elements of emotion understanding. But how do those programmes map on to the current academic evidence of what emotion understanding is?
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Introduction: This paper describes the concept and content of early adolescents’ emotional skills among the general population. The research literature contains many emotional skills-related terms with overlapping meanings, and it can be challenging to determine which are applicable for example, to a music therapy assessment tool. This study comprises the first phase of developing an assessment tool for early adolescents’ emotional skills, namely, determining what is to be assessed. Method: A scoping review of the literature is presented with written definitions of emotional skills-related terms, as well as a concept analysis of the terms performed using Walker and Avant’s method. Results: The components of early adolescents’ emotional skills are presented. Early adolescents’ emotional skills comprise several skill components as presented in the current research literature. These components help in understanding the multifaceted entirety of emotional skills. Discussion: This paper presents the term emotional skills as a practical, general term that includes the content of other emotional skills-related terms. The concept analysis’ outcome, the components of early adolescents’ emotional skills, is applicable to future research as a theoretical framework for developing an assessment tool for early adolescents’ emotional skills. The components are also useful for music therapy clinicians to analyse their work with early adolescents and to communicate in detail the phenomenona related to emotional skills in therapy.
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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Goodness-of-fit (GOF) indexes provide "rules of thumb"—recommended cutoff values for assessing fit in structural equation modeling. Hu and Bentler (1999) proposed a more rigorous approach to evaluating decision rules based on GOF indexes and, on this basis, proposed new and more stringent cutoff values for many indexes. This article discusses potential problems underlying the hypothesis-testing rationale of their research, which is more appropriate to testing statistical significance than evaluating GOF. Many of their misspecified models resulted in a fit that should have been deemed acceptable according to even their new, more demanding criteria. Hence, rejection of these acceptable-misspecified models should have constituted a Type 1 error (incorrect rejection of an "acceptable" model), leading to the seemingly paradoxical results whereby the probability of correctly rejecting misspecified models decreased substantially with increasing N. In contrast to the application of cutoff values to evaluate each solution in isolation, all the GOF indexes were more effective at identifying differences in misspecification based on nested models. Whereas Hu and Bentler (1999) offered cautions about the use of GOF indexes, current practice seems to have incorporated their new guidelines without sufficient attention to the limitations noted by Hu and Bentler (1999).
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Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a framework to study the role of emotion skills in social, personal, and academic functioning. Reporting data validating the importance of EI among youth have been limited due to a dearth of measurement instruments. In two studies, the authors examined the reliability and validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version (MSCEIT-YV), a performance test of EI. Study 1 examined psychometric attributes of the MSCEIT-YV in a large sample of fifth- to eighth-grade students (N = 756). Study 2 examined the relationship of the MSCEIT to student and teacher reports of academic, social, and personal functioning among fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 273). The authors report that EI can be measured reliably with the MSCEIT-YV and that higher scores on the test are related to healthier psychological functioning and greater social competence based on both teacher and student ratings, as well as to academic performance in English language arts.
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Little is known about individual differences in the pattern of university adjustment. This study explored longitudinal associations between emotional self-efficacy, emotion management, university adjustment, and academic achievement in a sample of first year undergraduates in the United Kingdom (N = 331). Students completed measures of adjustment to university at three points during their first year at university. Latent growth mixture modeling identified four trajectories of adjustment: (1) low, stable adjustment, (2) medium, stable adjustment, (3) high, stable adjustment, and (4) low, increasing adjustment. Membership of the low, stable adjustment group was predicted by low emotional self-efficacy and low emotion management scores, measured at entry into university. This group also had increased odds of poor academic achievement, even when grade at entry to university was controlled. Students who increased in adjustment had high levels of emotion management and emotional self-efficacy, which helped adaptation. These findings have implications for intervention.
A common concern when faced with multivariate data with missing values is whether the missing data are missing completely at random (MCAR); that is, whether missingness depends on the variables in the data set. One way of assessing this is to compare the means of recorded values of each variable between groups defined by whether other variables in the data set are missing or not. Although informative, this procedure yields potentially many correlated statistics for testing MCAR, resulting in multiple-comparison problems. This article proposes a single global test statistic for MCAR that uses all of the available data. The asymptotic null distribution is given, and the small-sample null distribution is derived for multivariate normal data with a monotone pattern of missing data. The test reduces to a standard t test when the data are bivariate with missing data confined to a single variable. A limited simulation study of empirical sizes for the test applied to normal and nonnormal data suggests that the test is conservative for small samples.
This empirical study explores the roles that Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Emotional Self-Efficacy (ESE) play in undergraduates’ mathematical literacy, and the influence of EI and ESE on students’ attitudes towards and beliefs about mathematics. A convenience sample of 93 female and 82 male first-year undergraduates completed a test of mathematical literacy, followed by an online survey designed to measure the students’ EI, ESE and factors associated with mathematical literacy. Analysis of the data revealed significant gender differences. Males attained a higher mean test score than females and out-performed the females on most of the individual questions and the associated mathematical tasks. Overall, males expressed greater confidence in their mathematical skills, although both males’ and females’ confidence outweighed their actual mathematical proficiency. Correlation analyses revealed that males and females attaining higher mathematical literacy test scores were more confident and persistent, exhibited lower levels of mathematics anxiety and possessed higher mathematics qualifications. Correlation analyses also revealed that in male students, aspects of ESE were associated with beliefs concerning the learning of mathematics (i.e. that intelligence is malleable and that persistence can facilitate success), but not with confidence or actual performance. Both EI and ESE play a greater role with regard to test performance and attitudes/beliefs regarding mathematics amongst female undergraduates; higher EI and ESE scores were associated with higher test scores, while females exhibiting higher levels of ESE were also more confident and less anxious about mathematics, believed intelligence to be malleable, were more persistent and were learning goal oriented. Moderated regression analyses confirmed mathematics anxiety as a negative predictor of test performance in males and females, but also revealed that in females EI and ESE moderate the effects of anxiety on test performance, with the relationship between anxiety and test performance linked more to emotional management (EI) than to ESE.
This study aims to investigate the underlying dimensionality of the emotional self-efficacy scale (ESES) and determine its relationship with measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI) (Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test), trait EI (Trait EI Questionnaire), personality, and cognitive ability. Participants included 822 undergraduate students and 263 graduates already in the workplace. Analyses of the data suggested a multidimensional factor structure for the ESES. The measure was found to correlate with trait EI and showed expected correlations with personality. It did not correlate with ability EI or cognitive ability. These findings are discussed and are interpreted as offering support for the use of the ESES as a reliable measure of emotional self-efficacy.