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Mnemonic-Based Interactive Interface for Second-Language Vocabulary Learning


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In this paper, we propose a new educational system for second-language vocabulary learning based on a mnemonic technique. The system is equipped with the dynamic and interactive interface that allows vocabulary learners to seamlessly browse a collection of foreign words while suggesting phonetically related words of a known lan-guage for helping the memorization of unfamiliar languages. The phonetic algorithm is employed to encode pronunciation of words. The phonetic codes of words are then applied to homonyms of different languages (i.e., known and learning languages). The Levenshtein distance is used to quantify the similarity of phonetic codes or of words' pro-nunciation. The mnemonic words with their associated images are presented surrounding the learning words according to the edit distance or phonetic similarity. With visual ef-fects based on user's input, the dynamic and interactive interface will help users browse a collection of vocabulary in source and destination languages as well as images related to their word meanings.
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... In the field of language learning, mnemonics have mostly been used for vocabulary learning [2]. One such mnemonic method is the "keyword method" in which learners connect the sound of a word they want to learn to one they already know in either their first language or the target language. ...
... A wide range of existing studies in the broader literature have explored the effectiveness of the keyword method [2,4,51,73]. In this context, comparing the keyword method against other methods in vocabulary learning is one of the most common research designs. ...
... From the perspective of the learning method, VocabulARy builds upon the work of Anonthanasap et al. [2] in which the authors propose an interactive vocabulary learning system to teach Japanese that automatically creates keywords using phonetic algorithms. There, if the learner selects an image in the system, the phonetically similar words with image representations will gather around the selected image. ...
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Learning vocabulary in a primary or secondary language is enhanced when we encounter words in context. This context can be afforded by the place or activity we are engaged with. Existing learning environments include formal learning, mnemonics, flashcards, use of a dictionary or thesaurus, all leading to practice with new words in context. In this work, we propose an enhancement to the language learning process by providing the user with words and learning tools in context, with VocabulARy. VocabulARy visually annotates objects in AR, in the user's surroundings, with the corresponding English (first language) and Japanese (second language) words to enhance the language learning process. In addition to the written and audio description of each word, we also present the user with a keyword and its visualisation to enhance memory retention. We evaluate our prototype by comparing it to an alternate AR system that does not show an additional visualisation of the keyword, and, also, we compare it to two non-AR systems on a tablet, one with and one without visualising the keyword. Our results indicate that AR outperforms the tablet system regarding immediate recall, mental effort and task-completion time. Additionally, the visualisation approach scored significantly higher than showing only the written keyword with respect to immediate and delayed recall and learning efficiency, mental effort and task-completion time.
... They are then visualized as images dynamically on the interface of our iMnem system. A detailed explanation of our iMnem can be found in [2]. Fig. 3 illustrates the interface of the iMnem. ...
... In this paper, we focus on evaluating the effectiveness of phonetic algorithms, i.e., Soundex and Metaphone, for mnemonic keyword generation. This work is different from our previous study [2] that focused on the acquisition and supportiveness of our iMnem system in preparing mnemonics materials to language learners or teachers. This section describes the experimental setup used to conduct our experiments. ...
Conference Paper
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To support language learning by using the principle of a Mnemonic technique, this paper proposes to automatically generate suggested mnemonic words by using “phonetic algorithms”, i.e., Soundex and Metaphone. Levenshtein edit distance is employed to compare the phonetic similarity of foreign words and that of words in a known language using the sound transcriptions transformed by the proposed algorithms. Our new interactive cross-lingual system, called iMnem, is also introduced to support the task of searching for mnemonic words with images for better imagination of word association. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to apply phonetic algorithms for mnemonic word generation. In this study, we focus on suggesting mnemonic keywords in English for supporting learning of words in Japanese.
... The study, however, does not suggest any guidelines on the nature of the still images that have been used. Afterward, Orapin et al. [11] developed a system equipped with a dynamic and interactive interface that allows vocabulary learners to learn vocabulary by using a mnemonic technique. The system allows users to seamlessly browse a collection of foreign words while suggesting phonetically related words of a known language for helping the memorization of unfamiliar languages. ...
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This article acquaints its readers with a research paradigm that has been designed to extract appropriate (synonymously educational) images of abstract nouns. The ongoing investigation principally purposed to assist L2 learners/educators by recommending appropriate images in the creation of vocabulary learning items for abstract nouns. Hence, a prototype version of an image recommender system that purposed to assist the users in the recommendation of appropriate images for 3-types of abstract nouns has been implemented and tested. The proposed system, in the process of learning items creation, allows the users to select their own preferred image if the system recommended topmost image is not satisfactory. Our study presumed that still images having physical or concrete existence can be addressed as appropriate learning resources in the representation of abstract nouns that firstly, represent social contexts between human, secondly, related to feeling and emotion, and thirdly, state social or religious belief. Authors agree that due to huge cultural influences and multiple behaviors of abstract nouns, this hypothesis may be a matter of debate. Therefore, to assess the images, an image evaluation experiment has been conducted with 20 participants who are actively engaged in foreign language acquisition. A post-hoc analysis of Tukey's test revealed the significant difference (P=0.04) of our system-recommended images over Yahoo-suggested images in learners' considerations as appropriate image resources to memorize new vocabulary.
... This study does not report on the learning effects of the system in terms of foreign vocabulary acquisition. Afterward, Anonthansap et al. [27] developed a system equipped with a dynamic and interactive interface that allows learners to study the vocabulary by using a mnemonic technique. However, no significant difference was observed when they compared this approach with a traditional dictionary-based learning approach and a static visualization approach where images are displayed statically without any special interaction. ...
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Vocabulary acquisition based on the traditional pen-and-paper approach is outdated, and has been superseded by the multimedia-supported approach. In a multimedia-supported foreign language learning environment, a learning material comprised of a still-image, a text, and the corresponding sound data is considered to be the most effective way to memorize a noun. However, extraction of an appropriate still image for a noun has always been a challenging and time-consuming process for learners. Learners' burden would be reduced if a system could extract an appropriate image for representing a noun. Therefore, the present study purposed to extract an appropriate image for each noun in order to assist foreign language learners in acquisition of foreign vocabulary. This study presumed that, a learning material created with the help of an appropriate image would be more effective in recalling memory compared to the one created with an inappropriate image. As the first step to finding appropriate images for nouns, concrete nouns have been considered as the subject of investigation. Therefore, this study, at first proposed a definition of an appropriate image for a concrete noun. After that, an image re-ranking algorithm has been designed and implemented that is able to extract an appropriate image from a finite set of corresponding images for each concrete noun. Finally, immediate-after, short- and long-term learning effects of those images with regard to learners' memory retention rates have been examined by conducting immediate-after, delayed and extended delayed posttests. The experimental result revealed that participants in the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in their long-term memory retention, while no significant differences have been observed in immediate-after and in short-term memory retention. This result indicates that our algorithm could extract images that have a higher learning effect. Furthermore, this paper briefly discusses an on-demand learning system that has been developed to assist foreign language learners in creation of vocabulary learning materials.
... Schmitt (1997) stressed that the use of physical action has been shown to facilitate language recall. Anonthanasap, He, Takashima, Leelanupab, & Kitamura, (2014) and Anonthanasap, and Leelanupab, (2015) proposed a new system called iMnem to learn vocabulary based on a mnemonic technique by applying phonetic algorithms for mnemonic word generation. The mnemonic word generation is achieved by three algorithms: Link system, phonetic algorithm and Levenshtein distance. ...
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This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary-teaching methods on Saudi students' acquisition of English word meanings in their L1 using technology. Ninety-nine EFL students tried each of the three methods: (a) associating the words' meanings with relevant audios, (b) associating the words' meanings with relevant images, (c) associating the words' meanings with relevant videos, without sounds inside language leaning laboratories. The study used two instruments: a lesson treatment to examine the effectiveness of the three treatments and a questionnaire to understand students' attitudes toward the three treatments. The results of the lesson treatment showed statistically significant improvement in memorizing words' meanings that are associated with images but not for words' meanings that are associated with audios or videos without sounds. The questionnaire results revealed that the students perceive the image associative method as the most helpful, followed by the audio associative method and the video associative method respectively. The results of the treatment lead to the conclusion that the students remember the foreign language words' meanings in their L1 better when the words' meanings are associated with images. This might be because (a) strong links between the nodes that contain words' meanings and the nodes that contain images in human memory, (b) the image associative method draws the attention of the students more strongly, (c) stronger positive attitudes of participants toward the use of image associative methods in language classrooms than video or audio associative methods.
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a new methodology that automatically generates English mnemonic keywords to support the learning of basic Japanese vocabulary. A new phonetic algorithm, called JemSoundex, is also introduced for phonetically transliterating the Japanese and English languages for phonetic matching. The effective mnemonic keywords are selected and ranked by considering their phonetic, orthographic and semantic similarities, as well as psycholinguistic power. A system-oriented evaluation is conducted to evaluate the proposed methodology, and in particular an approach on the basis of the JemSoundex algorithm. The experimental results show that the JemSoundex outperforms other comparative approaches, i.e., IPA, the original Soundex and Metaphone.
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Traditionally, vocabulary was neglected in language teaching programs and curriculums for the sake of grammar and other parts of language. Nowadays, however, researchers have realized that vocabulary is an important part of language learning and teaching and worthy of attention and research. A proliferation of studies done on vocabulary can be taken as a proof to it. Students are, however, reported to frustrate when they face with new words, since they have difficulty retaining them. This paper provides information on how mnemonics devices can be used to solve this problem and to improve vocabulary learning, boost memory and enhance creativity.
We propose D-FLIP, a novel algorithm that dynamically displays a set of digital photos using different principles for organizing them. A variety of requirements for photo arrangements can be flexibly replaced or added through the interaction and the results are continuously and dynamically displayed. D-FLIP uses an approach based on combinatorial optimization and emergent computation, where geometric parameters such as location, size, and photo angle are considered to be functions of time; dynamically determined by local relationships among adjacent photos at every time instance. As a consequence, the global layout of all photos is automatically varied. We first present examples of photograph behaviors that demonstrate the algorithm and then investigate users’ task engagement using EEG in the context of story preparation and telling. The result shows that D-FLIP requires less task engagement and mental efforts in order to support storytelling.
Considers nonverbal imagery and verbal symbolic processes in relation to associative learning and memory. These 2 hypothesized processes are operationally distinguished in terms of stimulus attributes and experimental procedures designed to make them differentially available as associative mediators or memory codes. The availability of imagery is assumed to vary directly with item concreteness or image-evoking value, whereas verbal processes are presumably independent of concreteness but functionally linked to meaningfulness (m) and codability. Stimulus characteristics are hypothesized to interact with mediation instructions, presentation rates, and type of memory task. Performance and subjective-report data resulting from experimental tests of the model indicated that imagery-concreteness is the most potent stimulus attribute yet identified among meaningful items, while m and other relevant attributes are relatively ineffective; that both processes can be effectively manipulated by mediation instructions, but imagery is a "preferred" mediator when at least 1 member of the pair is relatively concrete; and that the 2 mechanisms are differentially effective in sequential and nonsequential memory tasks. Findings substantiate the explanatory and heuristic value of the imagery concept. (4 p. ref.)
This article assesses one individual's level of recall for foreign vocabulary learned ten years previously using the keyword method. Without any revision at all, he remembered 35% of the test words with spelling fully correct and over 50% with only very minor errors of spelling. After 10 minutes spent looking at a vocabulary list, recall increased to 65% and 76% respectively. After a period of revision lasting a further 1½ hours, recall was virtually 100%. This level of recall was maintained for at least one month. The results indicate 1) that the keyword method (as incorporated in Linkword courses) may be used to learn a large list of vocabulary; and 2) this method of learning is not inimical to retention in the long term. Some theoretical aspects of the findings are discussed.
Evaluated the effectiveness of a mnemonic procedure, the keyword method, for learning a foreign language vocabulary. The method used divides the study of a vocabulary item into 2 stages. The 1st stage requires the S to associate the spoken foreign word with an English word, the keyword, that sounds like some part of the foreign word; the 2nd stage requires him to form a mental image of the keyword interacting with the English translation. The experiment compared the keyword method with an unconstrained control procedure using Russian vocabulary. Ss were 52 undergraduates. On all measures the keyword method proved to be highly effective, yielding for the most critical test a score of 72% correct for the keyword group compared to 46% for the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Dflip: Dynamic and flexible interactive photoshow
  • C Vi
  • K Takashima
  • H Yokoyama
  • G Liu
  • Y Itoh
  • S Subramanian
  • Y Kitamura
C. Vi, K. Takashima, H. Yokoyama, G. Liu, Y. Itoh, S. Subramanian, and Y. Kitamura. Dflip: Dynamic and flexible interactive photoshow. In Advances in Computer Entertainment, volume 8253 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 415-427. Springer International Publishing, 2013.