ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The leaves and stem-bark of Lavandula officinalis were investigated for activity against some pathogenic organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, volatile oil and fatty acids. Twenty six and twenty were characterized representing 84.5% (leaf oil) and 91.4% (stem oil) of the lot of components detected. The leaf oil of the major constituents was identified as borneol (23.6%), 1, 8-cineol (17.6%), camphor (12.6%). In the stem oil of plant 1, 8-cineol (20.8%), borneol (19.2%), α-cadinol (11.3%), caryophyllene oxide (10.4%) and camphor (7.4%) were the predominating compounds. The hexane extracts of leaf and stem of plant were obtained by soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derived to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC/MS) systems. The main components of the leaf and stem (hexanic extracts) were ω-3 (43.2 and 21.0%), ω-6 (3.4 and 14.5%), palmitic acid (7.4 and 12.4%) and Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (12.8 and 16.7%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol, hexane extracts and essential oil from leaf and stem were evaluated using agar diffusion method. Results, suggest potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of L. officinalis, which may find those application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(3), pp. 455-460, 23 January, 2012 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1166 ISSN 1996-0875 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Lavandula
officinalis leaves and stems against some pathogenic
microorganisms
Ali Shafaghat*, Farshid Salimi and Vahid Amani-Hooshyar
Department of Chemistry, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.
Accepted 4 October, 2011
The leaves and stem-bark of Lavandula officinalis were investigated for activity against some
pathogenic organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of coumarins, tannins,
flavonoids, volatile oil and fatty acids. Twenty six and twenty were characterized representing 84.5%
(leaf oil) and 91.4% (stem oil) of the lot of components detected. The leaf oil of the major constituents
was identified as borneol (23.6%), 1, 8-cineol (17.6%), camphor (12.6%). In the stem oil of plant 1, 8-
cineol (20.8%), borneol (19.2%), α-cadinol (11.3%), caryophyllene oxide (10.4%) and camphor (7.4%)
were the predominating compounds. The hexane extracts of leaf and stem of plant were obtained by
soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derived to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatograph
and mass spectrometer (GC/MS) systems. The main components of the leaf and stem (hexanic extracts)
were ω-3 (43.2 and 21.0%), ω-6 (3.4 and 14.5%), palmitic acid (7.4 and 12.4%) and Bis (2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate (12.8 and 16.7%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol, hexane extracts
and essential oil from leaf and stem were evaluated using agar diffusion method. Results, suggest
potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of L. officinalis, which may find those
application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.
Key words: Lavandula officinalis, Lamiaceae, fatty acid, essential oil phytochemical, crude extract,
antimicrobial activity.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Lavandula (lavender, Lamiaceae) is
represented in the flora of Iran by two species: Lavandula
stricta Del. and Lavandula sublepidota Rech. f. of which
L. sublepidota is endemic plant (Mozaffarian, 2007). This
genus is distributed from the Canary and Cape Verde
Islands and Madeira, across the Mediterranean Basin,
North Africa, South, West Asia, the Arabian Peninsula
and tropical NE Africa with a disjunction to India. The
*Corresponding author. E-mail: shafaghata@yahoo.com.
Abbreviations: GC-MS, Gas chromatograph and mass
spectrometer; IOOC, international olive oil council; TLC, thin
layer chromatography; DDM, disc diffusion method; PUFAs,
polyunsaturated fatty acids; ALA, α-linolenic acid; LA, linoleic
acid; EFAs, essential fatty acids; HCL, hydrogen chloride;
GC/FID, gas chromatography - flame ionization detector; UFA,
unsaturated fatty acid.
English lavender is widely cultivated in gardens and is
also an important essential oil crop from which many
cultivars have been selected (Imelouane et al., 2009).
This herbal drug is popular in folk medicine as
spasmolytic, carminative, stomachic and diuretic.
Nowadays, it is applied as a mild sedative and
cholagogue in various phytopharmaceuticals as well
(Wichtl, 1994). In food manufacturing, lavender essential
oil is employed in flavoring beverages, ice-cream, candy,
baked goods and chewing gum (Kim and Lee, 2002).
Leaf and flower of Lavandula has the highest amount of
essential oils. Lavender oil, which is the essential oil
obtained by the aerial part of L. officinalis, is
predominantly used in aromatherapy as a relaxant and
sedative agent (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002; Sanz et
al., 2004). Also, it was traditionally used as an antiseptic
agent in swabbing of wounds, for burns and insect bites
and in veterinary practice to kill lice and other animal
parasites. There are various reports about combination of
456 J. Med. Plants Res.
Lavandula component in different regions of the world
and most of them showed that phenol compounds are the
main components (Meftahizade et al., 2011).
An ample literature exists on the essential oils in
Lavandula, reviewed by Boelens (1995). For taxonomists,
use of essential oils as characters for the classification is
limited by inherent problems of natural variability,
although at lower taxonomic levels this can be used to
help recognize cultivars (Grayer et al., 1996). The
chemical composition and ratios of the individual
components making up the oils are also known to change
in response to environmental conditions, such as water
and nutrient stress or time of year (Ross and Sombrero,
1991). Lavender essential oil is one of the most
appreciated in the perfume and soap industry. Generally,
it is produced by short steam distillation of fresh flowers.
The quality of the essential oil, besides other parameters,
strongly depends on the total amount of ester
compounds, which has to be 35 to 55%, calculated as
linalyl acetate. Because of the great usage of both, the
flowers and the essential oil, lavender is cultivated in
many countries worldwide (Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Cyprus, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Russia,
Spain, Turkey, Japan and United Kingdom) (Trease and
Evans, 1978). Several plants of this genus have been
studied from the chemical, biological and
pharmacological point of view (Pascual et al., 1983;
Gamez et al., 1987; Kokkalou, 1988; Ghelardini et al.,
1999; Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1999; An et al., 2001;
Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002; Nogueira and Romano,
2002). In this study, antimicrobial activity of the crude
methanol and hexane extracts and essential oil from leaf
and stem of L. officinalis cultivated in Ardabil (northwest
Iran) were examined using different bacterial species. In
addition, phytochemical active constituents and
composition of volatile compounds from leaf and stem
were also determined.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Phytochemical
Plant materials
Leaf and stem of L. officinalis were collected separately in the
botanical farm of agricultural research center (belong to I.A.
University Ardabil Branch) at an altitude of 1550 m in August 2010.
A voucher specimen (L-112) is kept at the Herbarium of Agriculture
Research in Ardabil Center, Iran. The samples were air-dried in the
laboratory at ambient temperature (30±2°C) for 14 days; pulverized
using a mechanical grinder and the obtained powders was stored
until further use.
Essential oil isolation
Air dried leaf (110 g) and stem (250 g) of L. officinalis were
submitted to Hydro distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type
apparatus. Briefly, the samples were immersed in water and heated
to boiling, after which the essential oil was evaporated together with
water vapour and finally collected in a condenser. The distillates
were isolated and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The oils
were stored at 2°C until analysis by GC–MS.
Preparation of methanol extract
100 g of dried and powdered of each plant part (leaf and stem)
were packed in a Soxhlet extractor and extracted with methanol
(MeOH). The methanol extracts were evaporated to dryness using
a rotary evaporator to obtain 21.3 g (leaf) and 19.7 g (stem) of
crude extracts. The various crude extracts were later subjected to
bioassay analyses.
Preparation of hexane extract
100 g of dried and powdered of each material (leaf and stem) were
extracted with hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus (70°C, 4h) to
obtain the fatty acids and the other apolar components. During
extraction procedures, Merck hexane (95%) was used. The hexane
extracts were concentrated by rotary evaporator under vacuum at
45°C to obtain 13.1g (leaf) and 12.4 g (stem) of extracts.
Methylation of hexane extract
After removing hexane using rotary evaporator, the oily mixtures
were derived to their methyl esters by the International Olive Oil
Council (IOOC, 2001) reports by trans-esterification process. In this
process, dried hexane extracts were dissolved in hexane and then
extracted with 2 M methanolic KOH at room temperature for 30 s.
The upper phases were analyzed by gas chromatography- flame
ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/MS systems.
GC/MS analysis of hexane extract and essential oil
GC analysis: Gas chromatograph (GC) analysis was performed on
a Shimadzu 15 A GC equipped with a split/splitless injector (250°C)
and a flame ionization detector (250°C). N
2
was used as carrier gas
(1 ml/min) and the capillary column used was DB-5 (50 m × 0.2
mm, film thickness 0.32 µm). The column temperature was kept at
60°C for 3 min and then heated to 220°C with a C/ min rate and
kept constant at 220°C for 5 min. The relative percentages of the
characterized components are given in Table 1 (essential oil) and
Table 2 (hexane extract).
GC/MS analysis: GC/MS analysis was performed using a Hewlett
Packard 5973 with an HP-5MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm, film
thickness 0.25 µm). The column temperature was kept at 60°C for 3
min and programmed to 220°C at a rate of C/min and kept
constant at 220°C for 5 min. The flow rate of helium as carrier gas
was 1 ml/min. mass spectrometer (MS) were taken at 70 eV. The
fatty acids were identified by comparing their retention times and
mass peaks with those of standard methyl ester mixtures and by
NIST-Wiley library data search. Relative percentage amounts were
calculated from peak area using a Shimadzu C-R4A chromatopac
without the use of correction factors.
Phytochemical screening
Flavonoids: The alcoholic extract (0.5 g) was treated with a few
drops of concentrated Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and magnesium
turnings (100 mg). The presence of flavonoids was indicative if pink
or magenta-red color developed within 3 min. A pink or red color
Table 1. Chemical composition (%) of the essential oil from leaf
(l) and stem (s) of L. officinalis.
Compound * KI l (%) S (%)
Tricyclene 919 0.2 -
α-Pinene 938 3.2 1.0
Camphene 953 1.9 0.4
β-Pinene 981 3.8 1.0
β-Myrcene 991 1.6 -
δ-3-Carene 1011 2.5 0.9
1,8-Cineol 1032 17.6 20.8
γ-Terpinene 1061 0.9 -
α-Terpinolene 1088 1.4 -
Camphor 1142 12.6 7.4
Borneol 1168 23.6 19.2
α-Thujenale 1183 0.3 -
Trans-Carveol 1218 2.9 -
Phellandral 1248 1.0 -
Piperitone 1252 1.1 -
Bornyl acetate 1289 0.5 2.3
β-Cubebene 1391 - 1.9
β
-
Caryophyllene
1418
0.4
5.3
Aromadendrene 1438 0.1 -
Trans-β-Farnesene 1456 - 3.9
γ-Gurjunene 1477 0.2 1.3
α-Amorphene 1484 0.3 2.0
Valencene 1495 - 0.7
Germacrene A 1503 0.1 -
γ-Cadinene 1514 0.1 -
δ-Cadinene 1524 - 0.6
Ldol 1566 0.2 -
Caryophyllene oxide 1581 1.4 10.4
α
-
Cadinol
1653
2.0
β-Bisabolenal 1770 4.6 -
Eicosane 1999 - 0.6
2,13-Octadecadienol 2065 0.1 0.4
Total - 84.6% 91.4%
*The composition of the essential oils was determined by
comparison of the mass spectrum of each component with Wiley
GC/MS library data and also from its Kovats retention indices (KI).
developed which could be extracted with amyl alcohol. The
presence of flavonoids was numbered, according to color intensity
(Salehi- Surmaghi et al., 1992).
Tannins: 5 mg of the powdered extracts was stirred with 10 ml of
hot distilled water, filtered and ferric chloride was added to the
filtrate and observed for blue-black, blue-green or green precipitate
(Sofowora, 1986).
Coumarins: The methanolic extract was analyzed for coumarins by
running Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the extract on Silica
gel 60F 254 precoated sheets with 10% AcOH (Acetic acid) as
mobile phase and NH
3
/KOH as detecting reagent to observed deep
blue color (Horborne, 2005).
Shafaghat et al. 457
Antimicrobial activity
The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts and
essential oil were evaluated by the disc diffusion method (DDM)
using Mueller-Hinton agar for bacteria and Sabouraud Dextrose
agar for fungi (Baron and Finegold, 1990). Discs containing 30 µL
of the methanol and hexanic extracts of leaf and stem were used
and growth inhibition zones were measured after 24 and 48 h of
incubation at 37 and 2C for bacteria and fungi, resp ectively.
Gentamicin and tetracycline for bacteria and nystatin for fungi were
used as positive controls. The microorganisms used were: Bacillus
subtilis ATCC 9372, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228,
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC
25923, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 3583, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa ATCC 27852, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Aspergillus
niger ATCC 16404, Candida albicans ATCC 5027 and
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results obtained in the analyses of the essential oil
and hexane extract of leaf and stem from L. officinalis are
listed in Tables 1 and 2, respectively, in which the
percentage and retention indices of components are
given. As can be seen in Table 1, about 84.6% (27
components) of the oil of L. officinalis leaf and 91.2% ( 19
components) of the oil of stem oil were identified. The oil
of leaf was characterized by the presence of borneol
(23.6%), 1, 8- cineole (17.6%), camphor (12.6%), and β-
bisabolenal (4.6%). The volatile oil of stem, contained five
main compounds were characterized by 1, 8- cineole
(20.8%), borneol (19.2%), α- cadinol (11.3%),
caryophyllene oxide (10.4%) and camphor (7.4%). The
dominant compounds in the leaf and stem oils are
oxygenated monoterpenes (58.3 and 49.7%,
respectively). In investigation on the oil of the aerial parts
of L. officinalis collected in mountain Kozjak, Republic of
Macedonia, the main constituents were linalool (25.7%),
linalyl acetate (23.2%) and lavandulyl acetate (12.4%)
(Kulevanova et al., 2000). The chemical constituents of
the essential oil from flowers of L. officinalis growing in
Iran has been reported, the main constituents were
linalool (34.1%), 1,8- cineole (18.5%), borneol (14.5%),
camphor (10.2%), terpinen-4-ol (4.5%), linalyl acetate
(3.7%), α-bisabolol (3%), α-terpineol (2.2%) and (Z)-β-
farnesene (2.2%) (Afsharypuor and Azarbayejany, 2006).
According to the results, the hexane extract yields of
the studied different part of L. officinalis were found 3.1%
(leaf extract) and 2.4%( stem extract) on the basis of dry
weight of the plant materials. The highest total
percentage was detected in leaf. The total fatty acid
contents of hexane extracts varied from 95.6 to 96.2%
(Table 2). The major saturated and unsaturated
components including linoleic (ω-6) and palmitic acids
are shown in the Table. The major polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs) were α-linolenic and linoleic acids. As can
be seen in Table 2, about 96.2% (27 components) of the
extract from leaf, and 95.6% (25 components) from stem
extract were identified. There were some differences in
458 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 2. Chemical composition (%) of the hexanic extract from leaf (l) and stem (s) of L. officinalis.
Compound * (related fatty acid) Rt (min) l (%) s (%)
Dodecanoic acid, methyl ester (lauric acid) 7.8 1.3 0.6
Hexadecane 8.5 - 0.1
Tetradecanoic acid, methyl ester (myristic acid) 9.7 3.4 1.7
Pentadecanoic acid, methyl ester (Pentadecanoic acid) 10.6 0.2 0.3
2-Pentadecanone, 6, 10, 14-trimethyl. 10.7 0.2 -
1-Hexadecanol 11.0 0.1 -
Nonadecane 11.2 0.1 -
Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (palmitic acid) 11.4 7.4 12.4
Heptadecanoic acid, methyl ester (margaric acid) 12.2 0.2 0.3
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (linoleic acid) or ω- 6 12.7 3.4 14.5
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (linolenic acid) or ω- 3 12.8 43.2 21.0
Phytol 12.9 1.3 1.6
Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester(stearic acid)
1.6
-
Nonadecanoic acid, methyl ester (Nonadecanoic acid) 13.7 - 0.1
9-Tricosene 14.0 - 0.3
Tricosane 14.2 0.7 -
Eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (arachidic acid) 14.4 1.6 1.9
Tetracosane 14.9 0.4 -
Heneicosanoic acid, methyl ester ( Heneicosanoic acid) 15.1 - 0.2
Pentacosane 15.5 2.1 1.3
Docosanoic acid, methyl ester (behenic acid) 15.7 1.4 1.7
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 15.9 12.8 16.7
Oxirane, heptadecyl 16.4 1.8 7.8
Hexatriacontane
2.5
1.8
Tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester (lignoceric acid) 16.9 1.6 1.3
2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene 17.5 0.5 -
Squalene 17.51 - 0.6
Tetracosanal 17.6 2.2 -
Nonacosane 17.9 3.4 13.7
Hexacosanoic acid, methyl ester (cerotic acid) 18.1 1.3 0.7
1-Dotriacontanol 20.5 0.3 0.9
γ-Sitosterol 20.65 - 3.2
Stigmasterol, 22,23-dihydro 20.7 1.2 0.9
Total - 96.2 95.6
*The composition of the extracts was determined by comparison of the mass spectrum of each component with Wiley
GC/MS library data and also from its retention times (Rt).
the fatty acid profiles of the different part of this plant. The
unsaturated fatty acid contents were higher than
saturated ones, whereas some of the fatty acids were not
observed in all parts of this plant. In fact, both fractions
mainly include unsaturated fatty acids, with a clear
predominance of α-linolenic acid (ALA or ω-3), linoleic
acid (LA) and Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. One of the
essential fatty acids (EFAs), ω-3 (ALA) was a
predominant component in leaf of L. officinalis. The
hexanic extract of leaf had a higher proportion of
unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) compared to stem part.
Some hydrocarbon compounds were found in leaf and
stem (Table 2). The essential oils and extracts of leaf
and stem from L. officinalis were tested against four
Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, as well
as three fungi. The results, presented in Table 3, show
that the both essential oils and methanolic extracts
exhibited strong biological activities against all tested
fungi and bacteria, versus, the hexane extracts exhibited
moderate biological activity against all tested fungi and
bacteria except for two resistant Gram-negative bacteria,
K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, as well as a fungi, A.
niger.
The most sensitive microorganisms were S.
epidermidis and S. aureus, with inhibition zones of (8.9 to
25.6) mm. Other microorganisms were found to be less
Shafaghat et al. 459
Table 3. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils, MeOH and hexane extracts of leaf (l) and stem (s) of L. officinalis.
Zone of inhibition (mm) *
Essential oil MeOH ext Hexane ext Antibiotics
Microorganism l s l s l s G** N** T**
B. subtilis
18.7 16.3 22.1 21.3 11.7 12.3 NT
b
NT 22.3
S. epidermidis 25.6 23.7 24.9 22.6 9.7 8.9 NT NT 34.1
E. faecalis 16.3 16.7 22.3 19.9 10.3 9.2 NT NT 9.7
S. aureus 21.5 20.9 21.1 16.7 7.2 9.1 NT NT 21.6
K. pneumoniae
NA
a
NA
NT
NT
P. aeruginosa 10.3 10.6 9.9 10.8 8.4 NA 11.7 NT NT
E. coli 18.0 17.9 19.4 20.3 7.5 8.0 24.5 NT NT
A. niger 14.7 15.6 12.7 13.1 8.2 NA NT 16.7 NT
C. albicans 15.5 14.2 14.7 16.1 11.4 9.9 NT 18.9 NT
S. cerevisiae 13.9 14.7 16.9 16.3 10.0 9.5 NT 18.4 NT
*Inhibition zone diameter (mm), including diameter of sterile disk 6 mm. **
G: gentamicin; N: nystatin; T: tetracycline;
a
NA:
not active;
b
NT: not tested.
Table 4. Phytochemical analyses of the methanolic extract of leaf
and stem from L. officinalis.
Phytochemical* Leaf Stem
Flavonoids + +
Coumarins + -
Tannins + +
*: (+), present; (-), absent.
sensitive to the hexane extracts with inhibition zones
ranged from 8 to 12.3 mm. It is conceivable that the
antimicrobial property of the essential oils from L.
officinalis might be ascribed to its high content of
oxygenated terpenes and of the methanolic extracts
might be ascribed to its high content of phenolic
compounds. The phytochemical screening of the leaf and
stem revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and
coumarins in methanolic extracts (Table 4) and fatty
acids in hexanic extracts. The presence of flavonoids,
tannins, coumarins, fatty acids and volatile compounds in
the plant’s part is an indication that the plant is of
pharmacological importance (Hostettmann and Marston,
1995). The essential oil, hexane and methanolic extracts
evaluated in this work have a great variety of
phytochemicals that could be considered as responsible
for a larger or smaller part of the antimicrobial activities.
Although they usually occur as complex mixtures, their
activity can generally be accounted for in terms of their
major oxygenated monoterpenoid and natural
compounds. Research into the antimicrobial actions of
monoterpenes suggests that they diffuse into and
damage cell membrane structures (Sikkema et al., 1995).
Antimicrobial activities of essential oils are difficult to
correlate to a specific compound due to their complexity
and variability.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wish to thank Islamic Azad University of
Ardabil Branch for financial support for this investigation.
REFERENCES
Afsharypuor S, Azarbayejany N (2006). Chemical Constituents of the
Flower Essential Oil of Lavandula officinalis Chaix. from Isfahan
(Iran), Iranian J. Pharma. Sci., 2(3): 169-172.
An M, Haig T, Hatfield P (2001). On-site field sampling and analysis of
fragrance from living Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.) flowers by
solid-phase microextraction coupling to gas chromatography and ion-
trap mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A., 917: 245-50.
Baron EJ, Finegold SM (1990). Methods for testing antimicrobial
effectiveness. In: Diagnostic Microbiology. Stephanie M (Ed.).
Baltimore, Mosby, pp. 171-194.
Boelens MH (1995). Chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula
oils. Perfum. Flav., 20: 23-51.
Cavanagh HM, Wilkinson JM (2002). Biological activities of lavender
essential oil. Phytother. Res., 16: 301-308.
Gamez MJ, Jimenez J, Risco S, Utrilla P, Zarzuelo A (1987).
Hypoglycemic activity in various species of the genus Lavandula.
Pharmaz., 42: 706-707.
Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Salvatore G, Mazzanti G (1999). Local
anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia.
Plant. Med., 65: 700-703.
Grayer RJ, Kite GC, Goldstone FJ, Bryan SE, Paton A, Putievsky E
(1996). Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet
basil, Ocimum basilicum. Phytochem., 43: 1033-1039.
Horborne JB (2005). Phytochemical Methods, A guide to techniques of
plants analysis, Spinger (India) Private limited, New Delhi. 3: 54.
Hostettmann K, Marston A (1995). Saponins. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, pp. 12-75.
Imelouane B, Elbachiri A, Ankit M, Benzeid H, Khedid K (2009).
Physico-Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial Activity of
Essential Oil of Eastern Moroccan Lavandula dentata. Int. J. Agric.
Biol., 11: 113-118.
International Olive Oil Council (2001). Method of Anal., COI/T.20/ Doc.
no. 24.
Kim NS, Lee DS (2002). Comparison of different extraction methods for
the analysis of fragrances from Lavandula species by gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A., 982: 31-47.
460 J. Med. Plants Res.
Kokkalou E (1988). The constituents of the essential oil from Lavandula
stoechas growing wild in Greece. Planta Medica, 1: 58-59.
Kulevanova S, Stetkov G, Ristic M (2000). Examination of flowers and
essential oil of Lavandula officinalis grown on Mountain Kozjak
(Macedonia), Bullet. Chem. Technolog. Macedonia, 19(2):165-169.
Lis-Balchin M, Hart S (1999). Studies on the mode of action of the
essential oil of Lavander (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller). Phytother.
Res., 13: 540-542.
Meftahizade H, Moradkhani H, Fayazi Barjin A, Naseri B (2011).
Application of Lavandula officinalis L. antioxidant of essential oils in
shelf life of confectionary. Afr. J. Biotech., 10(2): 196-200.
Mozaffarian V (2007). A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. Farhang
Moaser Publishers, Tehran, Iran, p. 314.
Nogueira JMF, Romano A (2002). Essential oils from micropropagated
plants of Lavandula viridis. Phytochem. Anal., 13: 4-7.
Pascual TJD, Caballero E, Caballero C, Machin G (1983). Constituents
of the essential oil of Lavandula latifolia. Phytochem., 22: 1033-1034.
Ross JD, Sombrero C (1991). Environmental control of essential oil
production in Mediterranean plants. In: Harborne Clarendon Press,
Oxford, J.B. and F.A. Tomas Barbara (eds.), Ecological Chemistry
and Biochemistry of Plant Terpenoids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp.
83-94.
Salehi-Surmaghi MH, Aynehchi Y, Amin GH, Mahmoodi Z (1992).
Survey of Iranian plants for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and
tannins. IV. Daru., 2: 281-291.
Sanz J, Soria AC, Garcia MC (2004). Analysis of volatile components of
Lavandula luisieri L. by direct thermal desorption gas
chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A., 1024: 139-146.
Sikkema J, De Bont JAM, Poolman B (1995). Mechanisms of
membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons. Microbiol. Rev., 59: 201-222.
Sofowora A (1986). The state of Medicinal Plants Research in Nigeria.
University Press, Ibadan, Nigerian 86.
Trease GE, Evans WC (1978). Pharmacognosy, 11
th
edition, Bailliere
Tindall, London.
Wichtl M (1994). Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, CRS,
Press/Scientific Publishers, pp. 292-294.
... In the research that was done on plant leaf essential oil, 26 compounds made up 84.5% of plant leaf essential oil. Borneol 23.6%, Cineol 17.6%, Camphor 12.6%, were the most constituent compounds of plant leaf essential oil (Shafaghat et al., 2012). Examination of available sources showed that not many studies have been done on antioxidants in different parts of the plant and the need for antioxidant studies in different parts of the plant seems absolutely necessary. ...
... In the research that was done on plant leaf essential oil, 26 compounds made up 84.5% of plant leaf essential oil. Borneol 23.6%, Cineol 17.6%, Camphor 12.6%, were the most constituent compounds of plant leaf essential oil (Shafaghat et al., 2012). The difference in effective compounds can be related to the different weather conditions of the cultivation areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aim: Lavandula officinalis is one of great importance due to its aromatic compounds and medicinal uses but not many studies have been done on the antioxidant power of different plant organs. Experimental: Antioxidant ability of Lavender leaves, flowers, seeds and essential oil based on inhibition of free radicals and nitric oxide, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation by ferric thiocyanate and inhibition of malondialdehyde by thiobarbituric acid in compare with synthetic antioxidants Butyl Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) and Butyl Hydroxy Anisole (BHA) were measured. Results: The phenolic and flavonoid content of the leaf was 96.49±6.35 (μg gallic acid per mg dry weight of the extract) and 39.97±3.36 (μg of catechins per mg dry weight of the extract) respectively, more than other samples. In the study of antioxidant power, plant leaf extract with 48.66±5.5 μg was able to inhibit 50% of DPPH radicals, which had a weaker ability than synthetic antioxidants. The leaf extract of the plant had a higher ability than the synthetic antioxidant BHA to inhibit nitric oxide radicals and its ability was as high as BHT. The ability to inhibit the linoleic acid peroxidation of leaf and flower extracts at the beginning of the functional test showed similar BHT and BHA, at the end, the ability of leaf extract was stronger than BHA and weaker than BHT. The inhibitory potential of malondialdehyde leaf extract (82.66±1.5%) was better than BHA and weaker than BHT. Pearson correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of samples were high. Examination of leaf essential oil using GC-MS technique showed the presence of phenolic compounds in the plant. Recommended applications/industries: Due to the dangers of synthetic antioxidants in the food industry, the results of this study could introduce another application of this plant in terms of strong antioxidant properties.
... Cryptome is registered as yet another compound present in the leaf (Hassanpouraghdam et al., 2011). A phytochemical-screening study conducted by Shafaghat et al. (2012) revealed the presence of different coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, volatile oils and several fatty acids in the leaf and stem-bark. In addition, leaf oil contains several other compounds like borneol, 1,8-cineol and camphor as the main components; whereas, stem oil contains 1,8-cineol, borneol, α-cadinol, camphor, and caryophyllene oxide as the dominant compounds. ...
... There are various phenolic compounds of lavender oil that show antimicrobial properties due to the presence of oxygenated terpenoids (Shafaghat et al., 2012). An experiment conducted by Martucci et al. (2015) also proved that essential oil of L. angustifolia with gelatin film increased the antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lavandula angustifolia (Syn. L. officinalis Chaix) is a member of the Lamiaceae family and an essential oil-bearing medicinal plant. This genus is native to Cape and Canary Islands and Madeira, distributed in different parts of the world from Europe to Asia across the Mediterranean Basin and in Southwest Asia and also to Southeast India. In Lavandula plant, leaves and flowers have the highest amount of essential oil. Essential oil is extracted from the aerial parts of the plant and is used as a sedative and relaxing agent in aromatherapy. Besides, it can also be used as an antidepressant, sedative, antibacterial and antifungal agent.
... The phytochemical analysis of the L. officinalis Chaix plant with GC/MS revealed the presence of certain compounds similar to those identified in previous studies conducted on the phytochemistry of these plants [19][20][21]. Other compounds, such as sterols, triterpenes, and anthraquinones, were also identified [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We earlier emphasized in vivo the lavender plant’s (Lavandula officinalis Chaix.) anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activities and described the chemical compositions of its hydro-ethanolic (HE) extract. We used LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses to profile the phytochemical composition of the HE extract and to assess the analgesic and wound-healing effects of both the hydro-ethanolic (HE) and polyphenolic (LOP) extracts in vivo and in silico. The analgesic activity was studied using two methods: acetic acid and formalin injections in mice. The wound-healing activity was carried out over 25 days using a burn model in rats. In the in silico study, the polyphenols identified in the plant were docked in the active sites of three enzymes: casein kinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. The LC-MS/MS identified some phenolic compounds, mainly apigenin, catechin, and myricetin, and the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 volatile compounds with triazole, D-glucose, hydroxyphenyl, and D-Ribofuranose as the major compounds. The HE and LOP extracts showed significant decreases in abdominal writhes, and the higher licking time of the paw (57.67%) was observed using the LOP extract at 200 mg/kg. Moreover, both extracts showed high healing percentages, i.e., 99.31 and 92.88%, compared to the control groups, respectively. The molecular docking showed that myricetin, amentoflavone, apigenin, and catechin are the most active molecules against the three enzyme receptors. This study sheds light on the potential of L. officinalis Chaix as a source of natural products for pharmaceutical applications for analgesic purposes as well as their utility in promoting burn-healing activity.
... Therefore the circulation would help to transport the AMP to its target site [6]. In insects, AMPs / polypeptides are manufactured mainly in a fat body (similar to mammalian liver) and are released into hemolymph where they play a vital role in innate immune systems and host defense mechanisms, and having a broad spectrum of activity against both gram + ve and gram -ve bacteria and against fungi [7]. ...
... Essential oils have a diuretic effect (parsley and juniper oils), are used as a base for expectorant syrups (anise oil, fennel oil or thyme oil), have strong anti-inflammatory properties (chamomile oil), choleretic properties (peppermint oil) and have a calming effect (valerian oil, melissa oil) [17]. The bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities of essential oils are used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries [18]. ...
Article
It is widely believed that phthalates are xenobiotic pollutants whose prevalence in the environment is associated with their facilitated diffusion from plastic materials. Studies into the effect of synthetic phthalates on living organisms revealed their extremely negative action on the metabolism of animals and humans. The acting mechanism of these compounds is realised through a ligand-receptor pathway. Along with dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and similar compounds, phthalates are classified as endocrine disrupters. However, at present, sufficient evidence has been accumulated confirming the natural origin of phthalates. Thus, phthalates were de novo biosynthesised from labelled precursors in an algae culture. These compounds were detected in closed experimental systems, including cell cultures of highest plants, as well as those isolated from a number of bacterial, fungi, lowest and highest plant forms located far from the sources of technogenic pollution. The concept of phthalate biogenesis assumes the action of these compounds on living systems. Phthalates exhibit bactericidal and fungicidal action and compose allelopathic exudates, suppressing the growth of competing plant forms. Phthalates possess insecticidal and repellent properties. An analogy can be traced between the action of phthalates and endocrine disrupters of another chemical category, namely phytoestrogens, which regulate herbivorous mammal populations. A hypothesis is proposed about the biological role of endogenous plant phthalates representing secondary metabolic compounds. Exhibiting predominantly a shielding function, these compounds participate in the network of interactions between plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms. It should be noted that synthetic and endogenous phthalates are characterised by essential stereochemical differences, which can explain their different action on living organisms.
Article
Full-text available
Biostimulants are friendly to the soil environment and can effectively improve the plant growth and yielding. The aim of field and laboratory studies was to establish the effect of biostimulants on the growth and on the health status of Scorzonera hispanica L. plants. The field experiment was carried out in south-eastern Poland on Haplic Luvisol. The biostimulants were applied according to the manufacturers’ recommendations. Moreover, the biostimulants Asahi SL (active components: nitroguaiacolate and nitrophenolates), Beta-Chikol (a.s. – chitosan) and Bio-Algeen S90 (extract from seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum) were applied for the pre-sowing seed dressing of scorzonera cv. ´´Duplex´´. For comparison, the fungicide Zaprawa Nasienna T 75 DS/WS (a.s. – tiuram 75%) was used. Untreated seeds served as control. Moreover, the biodiversity of soil-borne fungi colonizing the roots of this vegetable was determined. The number of seedlings and the health status of scorzonera plants were determined during three growing seasons. In each year of the study, both scorzonera seedlings with necrosis symptoms on the roots and the infected roots obtained after scorzonera harvest were subjected to laboratory mycological analysis. The experiments showed that, the emergence and health status of scorzonera seedlings after the application of biostimulants, especially after Beta-Chikol, were significantly better than in the control. Asahi SL and Beta-Chikol were more effective than Bio-Algeen S90 in limiting the occurrence of fungi pathogenic towards scorzonera plants. Diseased scorzonera roots were most frequently colonized by Alternaria scorzonerae, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium spp., especially by Fusarium oxysporum. In conclusion, Asahi SL, Beta-Chikol and Bio-Algeen S90 can be recommended as effective biostimulants in field cultivation of Scorzonera hispanica.
Article
Full-text available
Lavender with the scientific name Lavandula stricta Del from the mint family is one of the herbs used in traditional Iranian medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the functional groups and qualitative identification, the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Lavandula stricta essential oil. Essential factor groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 500–4000 cm⁻¹. Total phenols and flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride colorimetry, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also determined by two methods of free radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS. The peaks observed in Lavandula stricta essential oil confirmed the presence of O-H, C-H, C=O, C=C, C-C and C-O functional groups of bioactive compounds. The amount of phenol and flavonoids in total essential oil was 68.60±0.68 mg GAE/g and 19.10±0.52 mg QE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also obtained based on the percentage of free radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS equal to 59.50±0.63 and 67.68±0.53, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was evaluated by four methods: disk diffusion, agar well, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The results of measuring the antimicrobial activity of essential oil by disk diffusion and agar well showed that Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is the most sensitive strain to Lavandula stricta essential oil. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil for Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was equal to 3.125 mg/ml and for Bacillus cereus it was equal to 6.25 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentrations for Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi was equal to 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml, respectively, and for other bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli) it was more than 400 mg/ml.
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants have a broad range of bioactive substances due to the secondary metabolite compositions and used in treatment of several diseases. This study aimed at investigating the methanolic extraction of the bioactive compounds in two Yemeni medicinal plants (Dorstenia foetida and Lavandula pubescens Decne) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed method provided a tentative identification of several constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoid, steroids, terpenoids and coumarin in the studied plants.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A total of 180 plant extracts representing 53 different families has been screened for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The number of positive tests obtained was 163(90%) for saponins, 83(46%) for alkaloids, 100(55%) for flavonoids and 51(28%) for tannins.
Article
Microbial transformations of cyclic hydrocarbons have received much attention during the past three decades. Interest in the degradation of environmental pollutants as well as in applications of microorganisms in the catalysis of chemical reactions has stimulated research in this area. The metabolic pathways of various aromatics, cycloalkanes, and terpenes in different microorganisms have been elucidated, and the genetics of several of these routes have been clarified. The toxicity of these compounds to microorganisms is very important in the microbial degradation of hydrocarbons, but not many researchers have studied the mechanism of this toxic action. In this review, we present general ideas derived from the various reports mentioning toxic effects. Most importantly, lipophilic hydrocarbons accumulate in the membrane lipid bilayer, affecting the structural and functional properties of these membranes. As a result of accumulated hydrocarbon molecules, the membrane loses its integrity, and an increase in permeability to protons and ions has been observed in several instances. Consequently, dissipation of the proton motive force and impairment of intracellular pH homeostasis occur. In addition to the effects of lipophilic compounds on the lipid part of the membrane, proteins embedded in the membrane are affected. The effects on the membrane-embedded proteins probably result to a large extent from changes in the lipid environment; however, direct effects of lipophilic compounds on membrane proteins have also been observed. Finally, the effectiveness of changes in membrane lipid composition, modification of outer membrane lipopolysaccharide, altered cell wall constituents, and active excretion systems in reducing the membrane concentrations of lipophilic compounds is discussed. Also, the adaptations (e.g., increase in lipid ordering, change in lipid/protein ratio) that compensate for the changes in membrane structure are treated.
Article
The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Lavandula dentata essential oil, collected in eastern Morocco (Taforalt, Talazart). The sample of essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. From the 29 compounds representing 99.87% of the oils: 1, 8 cineol (41.28%), sabinene (13.69%), bicycle [3.1.0] hexan-3-Ol, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl) (6.76%), myrtenal (5.11%) and α-pinene (4.05%) appear as the main components. The oil also contained smaller percentages of borneol, linalool oxide cis, linalool, myrtenol, bicyclo [3.1.1] heptan-2-one, 6, 6-dimethyl-, (1r) and pinocarvone. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antimicrobial test results showed that the oil had antimicrobial activity against all 22 bacteria strains included in the study, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results, suggest potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of L. dentata, which may find its application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.
Article
Thirty components were identified in Lavandula latifolia essential oil (spike oil). One of the compounds, espliegol (δ-terpineol), is a new natural product.
Article
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, P. Miller) is used in aromatherapy as a holistic relaxant and is said to have carminative, antiflatulence and anticolic properties. Its sedative nature, on inhalation, has been shown both in animals and man. Lavender has a spasmolytic activity on guineapig ileum and rat uterus in vitro and it also decreases the tone in the skeletal muscle preparation of the phrenic nerve–diaphragm of rats. As the mechanism of action has not been studied previously, the spasmolytic activity was studied in vitro using a guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle preparation. The mechanism of action was postsynaptic and not atropine-like. The spasmolytic effect of lavender oil was most likely to be mediated through cAMP, and not through cGMP. The mode of action of linalool, one of lavender's major components, reflected that of the whole oil. The mode of action of lavender oil resembled that of geranium and peppermint oils. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.