Article

The Arena of Masculinity: Sports, Homosexuality, and the Meaning of Sex

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... L'homophobie peut aussi exister chez les personnes homosexuelles (Bean, 2004;Bergling, 2001;Borrillo, 2000;Bull, 2001;Demczuk et Remiggi, 1998;Goffman, 1975;Jennings, 1998;Lajeunesse, 2001;Owens, 1998;Plummer, 1999;Tremblay P., 1995;Welzer-Lang, 1994 (2005). Ainsi, la crainte d'être associés à l'homosexualité et d'être par le fait même féminisés vient en tête de liste des préoccupations des hommes (Bean, 2004;Berling, 2001;Borrillo, 2000;Bull, 2001;Connell, 2005, Goffman, 1975Jennings, 1998;Lajeunesse, 2001;O'Neil, 1981;Owens, 1998;Plummer, 1999;Pronger 1990;Taywaditep, 2001;Tremblay P., 1995;Welzer-Lang, 1994 It is intended simply to describe a phenomenon whose existence is undeniable: a fear and loathing of men who behave in a "less manly than desired", or effeminate, manner (Bergling, 2001:3). ...
... Ainsi par comparaison, il est possible de dire que l'homophobie serait une haine envers l'homosexualité en général alors que, l'hétérosexisme serait une sorte de parade promotionnelle de l'hétérosexualité inconditionnelle. Cette notion se retrouve chez Wittig (2001) (Borillo , 2000 ;Jennings, 1998 ;Lajeunesse, 2001;Owens, 1998;Plummer, 1999;Pronger 1990;Tin, 2003 ;Welzer-Lang, 1994). ...
... À la lumière de ces faits, il serait possible de penser que l'activité sportive soit un rite de masculinisation homophobe en lui-même. Pour un homme, l'activité sportive offrirait plus qu'une occasion de réitérer son homophobie par la violence et la domination sur les autres hommes (Gagnon, 1996;Welzer-Lang et al, 1994;Pronger, 1990); elle constituerait aussi une occasion unique d'affirmer hors de tout doute sa masculinité et, par le fait même, son hétérosexualité. ...
Full-text available
Book
Paru aux Éditions H et O sous le titre de L'épreuve de la masculinité, sports, rituels et homophobie. Études sur les rituels de construction du genre chez les jeunes hommes sportifs de haut niveau.
... The weaponized body is not an asexual one either. In images of sporting bodies, they are eroticized as idealized forms and posed aesthetically like artistic objects (Farquhar and Wasylkiw 2007;Plummer 1999;Pronger 1992). ...
... Given the high importance of sports to the enactment of men and masculinity, men use certain strategies to downplay the homoeroticism of sports by using homophobic discourse and objectifying women (Messner 2001;Pascoe 2011;Pronger 1992). Pronger (1992, for example, describes the concealment of the homoeroticism in sport as a "paradox" or a strategy men use to preserve their status and patriarchal benefits. ...
... Given the high importance of sports to the enactment of men and masculinity, men use certain strategies to downplay the homoeroticism of sports by using homophobic discourse and objectifying women (Messner 2001;Pascoe 2011;Pronger 1992). Pronger (1992, for example, describes the concealment of the homoeroticism in sport as a "paradox" or a strategy men use to preserve their status and patriarchal benefits. Indeed, the dissonance men practice to conceal the irony of same-sex voyeurism in sports, media, and advertisements is well established (see Patterson and Elliott 2002 for review). ...
Article
Scant research puts magazines into conversation with sociological theories of masculinity or sexuality. Yet, magazines have long projected idealized images of masculinities, the male body, and men’s sexuality. In this dissertation, I examine representations of men in popular magazines, highlighting the multifaceted ways magazines have marketed masculinity and the sexualization of men. Using an explanatory sequential mixed method content analysis, I analyze 38 years (1980–2018; N=2,750) of magazine covers from GQ (n=516), Men’s Health (n=277), and Sports Illustrated (n=1,671). Each cover was coded using a standardized coding form developed for this dissertation. The coding scheme was tested using agreement and alpha intercoder reliability statistics. Additionally, I used multi-phase quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify underlying constructs and change over time among men on the covers. Exploratory factor analyses identify two underlying constructs around men’s aesthetic characteristics and sexualization. Using multinomial logistic regression, I identify how these factors change over time. In additional analyses, I calculated the Men’s Prevalence of Skin (MPoS) Index and predict the sexualization of men’s bodies over time. In exploratory analyses, I used qualitative, thematic analyses to explore the relationship between cover text and corresponding images. I contextualize findings with popular culture to illustrate how magazines influence or are influenced by social change. Representations of men and masculinity differ across magazines. GQ portrays a kind of man who accounts for their interest in fashion, have “style,” and be “cool.” Men’s Health primarily portrays young, white muscular men who show off their bodies, and are accompanied by text preying on their insecurities. Sports Illustrated, alternatively, portrays a diverse set of men with “winning” masculinities and referred to using violent rhetoric. This dissertation offers a window into how the marketing of American manhood has been siloed into particular categories. My findings demonstrate how these magazines perpetuate controlling images of masculinity that prioritize some groups over others and inform research on gender, sexuality, race, and the body.
... By doing so, the gay beefcake disrupts the visual norms of straight masculinity, which imposes discretion and asks that male beauty be on display only casually (Halperin 1995, 117). "Gay" muscles are therefore ironic: they subvert the patriarchal and heterosexual power traditionally associated with muscles (Pronger 2000) and in a certain way "homosexualize" the masculine body. Instead of being an instrument to ward off other men, these muscles are a homoerotic enticement (Pronger 2000). ...
... "Gay" muscles are therefore ironic: they subvert the patriarchal and heterosexual power traditionally associated with muscles (Pronger 2000) and in a certain way "homosexualize" the masculine body. Instead of being an instrument to ward off other men, these muscles are a homoerotic enticement (Pronger 2000). The gay beefcake thus becomes a potential threat for straight men, who are left without any unquestionably heterosexual identity and risk homoerotic identification and stigmatization (Healey 1994), leading to a form of homohysteria (Anderson 2011). ...
... The player does not conquer newly discovered territories but conquer (or con-queer) other men, and hopefully, the heart of a potential love interest. It is especially interesting to see how the hypermasculine ideal is queered through two characters-Phil, the military man, and Brad, the jock-whose stories take place in environments that are known for being homophobic and heterosexist but also for their homosexual practices (Zeeland 1996;Pronger 1999;Messner 2001;Belkin 2012). ...
Full-text available
Article
Class is over. Mark heads to the frat house where Brad lives to tutor him. Brad might be an excellent football player, but he is definitely not the best in English composition. Finding the entrance door unlocked, Mark gets in, goes upstairs, and enters Brad’s room. “Mark, that’s you?” asks Brad. “I just hopped out of the shower, give me a sec.” Brad appears a few seconds later, shirtless (see Figure 1). His well-defined pecs and impressive biceps are usually noticeable underneath his white T-shirt, but Mark is now speechless in front of Brad’s eight pack and hairy ginger torso. “Can you toss me that shirt behind you?” he asks, smiling. As Mark hopes Brad does not notice the swell in his jeans, the two young men sit at Brad’s desk and start working on his essay. **SEXUALLY EXPLICIT IMAGERY**
... The reinforcement of masculinity also led to near-compulsory heterosexuality through the creation of a homophobic sporting culture, thus largely excluding gay men (and other members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender -LGBT -community) (Pronger, 1990). ...
... Given this hostile environment, gay men at this time tended to avoid mainstream sport, hide their sexual orientation (e.g. Pronger, 1990), or restrict themselves to participation in gayonly sports leagues (Elling, De Knop & Knoppers, 2003). Unsurprisingly, researchers who examined the relationship between gay men and sport throughout the 1980s and 1990s largely agreed that sport existed as a hostile environment. ...
... IMT initially emerged from research that examined attitudes toward homosexuality among heterosexual sporting men (Anderson, 2009). Departing from the findings of previous research with heterosexual sporting men (e.g., Curry, 1991;Pronger, 1990), men in these studies espoused positive attitudes toward homosexuality, as well as embracing gay athletes onto their teams as equals (Anderson, Magrath & Bullingham, 2016). This body of research also shows that young men reject homophobia (Adams, Anderson & McCormack, 2010); include gay peers in friendship networks (Anderson, 2011a), eschew violence and bullying (Anderson, 2011b), are physically tactile (Anderson & McCormack, 2015), and enjoy emotionally open and intimate friendships with other men (Robinson, Anderson & White, 2018). ...
Article
While sport has traditionally been a hostile environment for gay men, attitudes toward homosexuality among youth in the West have changed significantly in recent years. This research uses Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, Revised Version (ATLG-R) to investigate attitudes toward homosexuality among 243 undergraduate male students in the UK. Overall, results revealed no significant differences in student attitudes toward gay men in the first three years of data collection, but significantly more positive attitudes onward from the fourth. Overall, incoming attitudinal dispositions of homophobia among young male student-athletes were minimal. Anderson's notion of inclusive masculinities is used to explain these findings, with the results supporting existing literature concerning positive attitudes toward homosexuality among young, sporting men in the UK.
... Hon menar att det är till följd av en heterosexuell manlig mekanism som uttryck för en heterosexuell hållning kunnat hyllas samtidigt som homosexuella och bisexuella har stigmatiserats inom idrotten. Brian Pronger (1990) för i sin undersökning av homosexuella mäns idrottsliga erfarenheter ett liknande resonemang. Genom att ta fasta på att de flesta sporter utövas i enkönade miljöer och att dessa miljöer vanligen tillhandahåller möjligheter för unga män att konstruera maskulinitet visar Pronger hur homosexuella atleter blir en förkroppsligad paradox inom idrotten. ...
... Konsekvenserna av en hegemonisk maskulinitet är snarare att de som avviker från det manliga idealet i allt för stor grad möts av olika typer av ifrågasättanden och svårigheter (se t.ex. Griffin 1998, Pronger 1990). Alvesson och Deetz (2000:101) menar att ett hegemoniskt system vanligen verkar och reproduceras genom att det blir till en del av det vanliga sättet att se på världen, förstå sig själv och uppleva behov. ...
... 5. Det finns gott om forskare som beskriver idrotten som ett manligt reservat där män tillsammans kan sexualisera kvinnor samtidigt som de konstruerar heterosexualitet som norm. Pronger (1990) beskriver idrotten som en av de tydligaste institutionerna i samhället där uttryck för idealiserad maskulinitet kan frodas och där unga pojkar kan lära sig vad det innebär att vara en man. Han menar att idrottens association med maskulinitet leder till att homosexuella idrottsmän konstrueras som paradoxala. ...
... Encouraging conventional masculinity is part of the relationship parents are expected to have with their sons especially in sport settings (Kane, 2006). When sons choose a sport based on skill and aesthetics rather than aggression (Pronger, 1990), this new gender practice contributes to "undoing" gender and challenges gender as it is expected to play out. ...
... In contrast to feminized sports where gender becomes a problem (AU-THOR, 2019; Piedra, 2017), Messner (2009) finds parents of children in traditional youth sports do not think about their sons as gendered beings, often struggling to find words to express gender in relation to their sons. A son's association with femininity through participation in a feminized sport is cause for alarm, however (Messner, 2009;Pronger, 1990). When such transgressions occur, certain forms of gender essentialism become activated (Messner, 2011). ...
Article
Families and sports are spaces for “doing” and “undoing” gender. The author presents qualitative interviews with 30 American men who recall their parents’ involvement in the gender atypical sport of baton twirling. The author analyzes the data using “doing” and “undoing” gender as well as “hard” and “soft” essentialism frameworks. Mothers are often supportive of their sons’ twirling, contributing to “undoing” gender and relaxing “soft essentialism.” Fathers do not see baton twirling as a normative pathway to manhood or masculinity, thus reinforcing “hard essentialism.” Fathers often take on an absentee role in their sons’ twirling. In rare cases, fathers “do” gender by reformulating their sons’ twirling into a more recognizable sport. Findings consider how parents navigate gender when sons cross gendered boundaries in sports and the consequences for gender inequality.
... During the last three decades sexual orientation in sport settings has been studied in deep in Western societies (Anderson, 2002;Griffin, 1998;Pronger, 1992) highlighting a positive evolution into this culture. Even in the last years some non-western scholars have begun to address LGTBI issues in their cultures (Kavasoğlu, 2021;Hamdi et al., 2017;Laurindo & Martins, 2022;Martins, 2022) analyzing how their own cultures and traditions impact on attitudes towards sexual diversity in sport. ...
Full-text available
Article
Sexual diversity in the world of sport has not been widely researched in the Spanish context. Studies on national and international sexual diversity tend to leave out transgender issues and intersexuality. The new framework of action of the International Olympic Committee in 2021 advocates for integration and non-discrimination based on gender identity and sex variations in sport. We analyzed attitudes toward sexual diversity in sport among a sample of PASS university students using the Scale of Attitudes Toward Sexual Diversity Among Athletes and the statistical package R. Each item was subjected to frequency analysis and the results were displayed in contingency tables. The sample comprised 610 students from three Spanish universities (68.85% male and 31.15% female, with a mean age of 21.72 years; SD = 4.12). Of the four factors analyzed, the lowest levels of rejection were Cognitive Attitudes (96.72%) and Attitudes Toward Transgression (86.89%). One of the most important variables was gender, with women showing greater tolerance toward sexual diversity in sport than men.
... Body image pressures from within GBQ communities increase the pressure to self-stylize in a masculinized form through "bulking up" (Wood, 2004). (3) Heteromasculinity is the notion that hegemonic masculinity is associated inherently with heterosexuality, thereby othering GBQ men and non-(cis)heterosexual acts and behaviours (Pronger, 1990, cited in Elder et al., 2015. As described by Downs (2012) and Elder et al. (2015), GBQ men might internalize (cis)heteromasculine ideals, which can then lead to emphasizing markers on the body of traditional masculinity, such as muscularity or a spornosexual, "fit" physique (Hakim, 2016). ...
... Thus, according to Polley (1998, p. 109), the male sporting body was seen as an "idealised, orthodox, heterosexual sign." Men, desiring to be thought straight, had to demonstrate their heterosexuality through repressing pain, concealing feminine and (homo)sexual desires, and behaviors, while committing acts of violence against oneself and others (Pronger, 1990). It was, therefore, through sport that boys and men could demonstrate what Burstyn (1999, p. 4) describes as "hypermasculinity," so much so that masculinity effectively became synonymous with homophobia (Kimmel, 1994). ...
Chapter
Purpose: The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between contemporary sport, social media, digital technology, and sexuality and to explore the historical context of sport and sexuality, before then outlining the decline of homophobia in recent years. Despite this decline, social media is one area where we still see the manifestation of homophobia. Design/methodology/approach: This chapter synthesizes a range of academic literature to chart how – despite improving attitudes toward homosexuality in sport – abuse and discrimination is still prevalent on social media. Findings: Eric Anderson’s (2009) Inclusive Masculinity Theory has been the most useful theoretical apparatus to underpin the changing nature of sport, gender, and sexuality. While this has been used in a variety of sporting contexts, these are primarily focused on gay male athletes in the West. Accordingly, there is a gap in knowledge around the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and trans athletes, as well as those outside of the Western context. Originality/value: Although there has been some literature to document discrimination on social media, very little focuses specifically on the manifestation of homophobia. Accordingly, this chapter provides an important contribution by being one of the first to tie together the literature on improved cultural attitudes toward homosexuality while simultaneously focusing on the prevalence of discrimination on social media.
... And, despite not directly focussing on the 'coming out to', Brian Pronger's (1990) classic 'The arena of masculinity' functions as an important conversation starter for exploring gay athletes' navigation of masculine power in connection to coming out. ...
Full-text available
Article
Coming out is a fast‐growing global research area with numerous interdisciplinary publications dedicated to its exploration. To contribute to a more organised and concise way of understanding this rapidly expanding field, I introduce a three‐lens typology. Based on the systematic categorisation of over 700 publications, coming out research can be viewed via the following three lenses: (1) the different social institutions in which individuals come out, (2) to whom individuals come out, and (3) the content of individuals' coming out. The identified lenses focus on ‘coming out in’, ‘coming out to’ and ‘coming out as’, which adds to current conceptual understandings of ‘coming out into’ and ‘coming out of’. Further, lens 3 demonstrates another usage shift of the coming out terminology. The concept of coming out originally was used outside of sexuality contexts and currently is being used more broadly again. However, in contrast to its original meaning, the new areas of application (e.g., fatness, atheism, illness) are still linked to conceptualisations and experiences of non‐normativity. This publication assists students, scholars, and practitioners with navigating the extensive amount of coming out literature. It further illustrates the potential and challenges of coming out research and points towards the future—the if, how and what—of this field.
... Since the 1980s, across the Western world, in particular, there have been considerable advances surrounding greater gender and sexual orientation equality. Initially, academic attention addressed the presence of homophobia in men's and women's sports (see, for example, Cahn, 1994;Griffin, 1998;Hekma, 1998;Lenskyj, 1986;Messner, 1988;Pronger, 1990), but subsequent research has illustrated how a range of sporting environments are increasingly more tolerant of gay men and lesbians than was found in previous decades (see, for example, Anderson, 2009;Anderson & Bullingham, 2015;Anderson et al., 2016;Bullingham & Postlethwaite, 2018;Cashmore & Cleland, 2011, 2012Caudwell, 1999Caudwell, , 2003Caudwell, , 2007Chawansky & Francombe, 2011;Cleland, 2014Cleland, , 2015Cleland, , 2018Cleland & Magrath, 2019;Cleland et al., 2018;Cox & Thompson, 2001;Drury, 2011;Krane, 2018;Magrath, 2017Magrath, , 2018aMagrath, , 2018bStott, 2018). Within this body of research, a range of factors are making a positive contribution to a more inclusive culture surrounding sexuality in sport: the inclusive attitude of fans; the way in which the media discuss sexuality and the favorable coverage provided to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues; the rise of the internet and social media which has given a range of stakeholders (fans, media, players, activists) a platform to comment on LGBT issues and policies in the context of sport; and the increasing numbers of athletes publicly coming out as LGBT. ...
Full-text available
Article
This article presents the responses of 1,432 male association football fans, collected via an online survey from March 2020 to April 2020, regarding their views on sexuality in women's football in the United Kingdom. The analysis focuses on two broad themes that emerged from the data: (1) the association of women footballers with masculinity and how they subsequently transgress the traditional characteristics of femininity; and (2) a reduced stigma surrounding sexuality in women's football given its lower profile in terms of coverage and the smaller number of fans in comparison to men's football. The article concludes by outlining how there is less homonegativity concerning sexuality in women's football in the United Kingdom, primarily because the heteromasculine position of male fans is not challenged, but fans also reaffirm the stereotypes and myths of nonheterosexual women playing a sport like football.
... Before the advent of the first openly all-gay men's team, the London Steelers, in the mid-1990s and then the San Francisco Fog in 2001, gay men were not seen as masculine enough (Anderson, 2005b), as one inclusive team player said, to play rugby after secondary school and into their university years. This sense of de facto discrimination against gay male athletes has been well documented in previous generations (Price & Parker, 2003;Pronger, 1990). What this separation of straight and gay rugby players effectively did was create a division of active rugby participation between the two groups beginning at age ten to twelve years (from secondary school to university) until well after university years. ...
... Before the advent of the first openly all-gay men's team, the London Steelers, in the mid-1990s and then the San Francisco Fog in 2001, gay men were not seen as masculine enough (Anderson, 2005b), as one inclusive team player said, to play rugby after secondary school and into their university years. This sense of de facto discrimination against gay male athletes has been well documented in previous generations (Price & Parker, 2003;Pronger, 1990). What this separation of straight and gay rugby players effectively did was create a division of active rugby participation between the two groups beginning at age ten to twelve years (from secondary school to university) until well after university years. ...
... Researchers who have examined the issue of same-sex attracted males, specifically, in sport within the 20th Century, and bleeding into the 21st century, concurred that that organized sports were, monolithically, a highly homophobic institution (Hekma, 1998;Pronger, 1990;Wolf Wendel, Toma & Morphew, 2001). Drawing on his study of heterosexual males in the late 1970s, Messner (1992, p. 34) wrote, "The extent of homophobia in the sports world is staggering. ...
Full-text available
Article
Rugby has traditionally existed as a leading definer of masculinity in British culture, which has included overt homophobia. However, cultural attitudes toward homosexuality have improved rapidly in the 21st century. To assess the impact of wider societal change on gay rugby teams, we employed a multiple methods investigation across five gay rugby teams in England. Results show that, whereas athletes once played for these teams to escape homophobia in broader rugby culture, this is no longer true. Affiliation with gay clubs is now primarily for social purposes, and gay rugby clubs now protect the physical safety of gay men from being less prepared to play the game, whereas before it was safety from homophobia. This research shows that gay rugby clubs have undergone an organizational shift in response to the increased social acceptance of sexual minorities.
... Among other contexts such as the military, police and corporate firms, men have historically performed and represented hegemonic masculinity through participation and success in violent, homosocial male team sports (Kalman-Lamb, 2020). This participation often includes misogynistic, homophobic and homoerotic behaviour and joking (Pronger, 1990. Canadian 'hockey masculinity', defined by Allain (2015) as 'a sense of masculine style linked to hitting, fighting, and physical confrontation' (119), is a close cousin of hegemonic masculinity. ...
Full-text available
Article
On 6 May 2020, photos were leaked from a conversation in which Brendan Leipsic of the National Hockey League’s Washington Capitals, his brother Jeremy of the University of Manitoba Bisons and several others made vulgar, misogynistic comments about women and about other hockey players’ girlfriends and wives. Following the release of the conversation and the subsequent dismissal of both Leipsic brothers from their respective teams, many took to Twitter to explain their thoughts on this situation. This study analyses nearly 1000 Twitter replies to the Leipsic situation and explores how these responses are shaped by questions of masculinity, accountability, legality, privacy and hockey culture. Contrasting responses to both the scandal and the institutional response to it are emblematic of larger contemporary questions regarding narratives of ‘cancel culture’, ‘woke capitalism’, acceptable masculinities and interactions between them.
... Organised team sport provides an avenue for displays of patriarchal structure, physical prowess, and heterosexual domination (Adams, 2011;Hargreaves, 1986;Murray & White, 2017;Pronger, 1990;Pringle, 2005). As a result, many note how it provides a vehicle that reinforces an orthodox or hegemonic form of 20th century masculinity . ...
Full-text available
Article
Rugby union, alongside other collision and contact sports, faces ever mounting pressure from increased recognition of concussive injuries and the risks they present to athletes, both in the short-term and long-term. Here, the media is a central component of increasing pressure for cultural change. This research analysed data from 524 self-selected survey respondents to examine rugby union fans' and stakeholders’ perceptions of media portrayal of concussion and how it might influence their own perceptions. We found evidence of a complex and heterogenous relationship between perceptions of masculinity, views and attitudes toward mass media, and degree of involvement in rugby union. Specifically, partisans of the sport generally saw mass media as hostile, with coverage biased against rugby, allowing them to manufacture doubt regarding risk information, as well as maintaining involvement in the sport. We conclude that critical commentaries from the media have the ability to challenge masculinities around concussion.
... In the early 1990s, the important topic of homosexuality and sport began to receive increasing scholarly attention (see, e.g., Blinde & Taub, 1992;Cahn, 1993;Griffin, 1992;Lenskyj, 1990Lenskyj, , 1991Pronger, 1990), and it continued to grow throughout the first decade of the twenty-first century (see, e.g., Anderson, 2002;Elling, De Knop, & Knoppers, 2003;Kian & Anderson, 2009;McCormack & Anderson, 2010;Sartore & Cunningham, 2009). Since then, scholars have conducted crucial contemporary studies with an emphasis on homosexuality and sport (see, e.g., Anderson & Bullingham, 2015;Anderson, Magrath, & Bullingham, 2016;Hamdi, Lachheb, & Anderson, 2017;Jarvis, 2015;Vilanova, Soler, & Anderson, 2020). ...
Full-text available
Article
Plurisexual is an umbrella term which refers to individuals who are, or who have the potential to be, attracted to more than one gender. Identities including bisexual, pansexual and fluid therefore fall under the category plurisexual. Academic research surrounding plurisexuality and sport has received limited academic attention in comparison to research based on homosexuality and sport. Existing academic research in relation to plurisexuality and sport concentrates predominantly on bisexuality, although this is also limited. For this reason, bisexuality takes a central focus within this article. The analysis highlights the complexities when defining the term bisexual. It then examines the impact of athletes and bisexuality in the media. A critical analysis of research based on the experiences and understandings of bisexuality and sport is then undertaken. Suggestions for future research are also given to increase academic knowledge in this currently marginalized area of sport.
... Thus, homosexuality is systematically denigrated in sport (Pronger, 1990). In many countries, homosexuality remains illegal and frequently sanctioned by criminal prosecution, including the death penalty. ...
Full-text available
Article
By using the method of Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA), this article examines how sport is a conservative institution so far as sexuality and gender identity of female athletes are concerned. The article enquires to know what it means for a sportswoman to be physically strong and active like a man. It explores how the process of binary sex segregation in competitive sports affects the non-heterosexual female athletes and how their sexuality and physicality are considered as a foil in the patriarchal domain of sports. It highlights how the ‘gender verification test’ as a discriminatory tool is used by the sports regulatory bodies to prove female athletes’ sexuality, especially heterosexuality and to maintain the system of patriarchal hegemony in the world of sport. The article looks into how the hegemonic masculinity within sport works to uphold male power, while subjugating the female athletes. It unveils the incidents, how the non-heterosexual female athletes fall victims of homophobia and go through mental stress to confirm to the societal norms of compulsory heterosexuality. More specifically, through in-depth analysis of two contemporary cases of intersexual hyper-androgenic female athletes, this article examines the status and challenges being faced by the non-heterosexual female athletes in sport and focuses upon how their sexuality are addressed in the field of competitive sports. The article also focuses on the agony as well as resilience of intersexual female athletes to break the gender stereotype in sport in postmodern era unlike before.
... O fragmento foi traduzido, mas alguns termos e/ou algumas gírias em inglês foram mantidos para demarcar os estereótipos presentes na fala do interlocutor, a partir da língua nativa. 9 "Capital masculino", segundo BrianPronger (1990), HenningBech (1997), EricAnderson (2005), é a quantidade de características masculinas apropriadas pelos sujeitos na "condição de homem", como ser "macho", corajoso, destemido, varão, viril, e manter-se numa posição hierárquica sempre superior aos "oponentes" (entenda-se, aqui, também a feminilidade como uma ameaça premente). É um elemento básico da masculinidade hegemônica. ...
Full-text available
Article
As políticas identitárias e as reivindicações por direitos e visibilidade feitas por grupos sociais minoritários em meados dos anos 1980 também atingiram o mundo esportivo. Surgem, então, expressões no esporte que vêm ao encontro de tais demandas, e, em 1982, os Gay (Olympic) Games são criados. De uma pauta centrada na participação inclusiva no esporte e numa descentralização da heterossexualidade como norma, os chamados “Jogos Gays” cresceram, se diversificaram e, amparados numa difusa pauta que varia entre participação, socialização, competição e “melhor de si”, eles têm atraído a participação em eventos internacionais de sujeitos outros, como lésbicas, bissexuais e pessoas trans. Dessa forma, tendo como referência as masculinidades esportivas protagonizadas pelos atletas homossexuais masculinos nesses eventos, este artigo pretende pô-las em perspectiva para entendê-las criticamente. Portanto, resgatando minhas experiências etnográficas nessas competições, proponho um duplo intento: a) explorar corporalidades e sexualidades não heteronormativas presentes nos jogos e b) destacar as masculinidades performatizadas nesses eventos, além de problematizar o binarismo de gênero reinante no sistema esportivo global.
... Sport thus functions as a core patriarchal and masculinist institution and operates within a contested gender order, and in so doing does not simply play a reactionary and regressive role in the fortification of binary gender relations. In the same way as postmodern theories of subjectivity and identity have sought to destabilize the bi-polar notion of gender by insisting on a spectrum of fluid identities, the postmodern queer and feminist deconstruction of essential gender has internally contested the world of gendered sport (Pronger, 1990;Kane, 1995). The revelation that the two sex system is ideological rather biological (Fausto-Sterling, 2000) has, in fact, nakedly exposed the role of sport as a significant factor in the cultural and economic marginalization of women and gender transgressors, both in the world of sport and beyond, and has energized women and LGBTQs to seek redress for their cultural disenfranchisement. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Tjønndal and Skauge map the expansion of Esports in Norway to explore if these new virtual sports have potential to meet social needs among youth that organized sports fail to do today. The chapter focuses on the introduction of Norway’s first professional sports video games (SVG) league—a national FIFA eFootball league, the inclusion of Esports in secondary school sport programs and the emergence of Esports in local voluntary sports clubs. As well as looking at the socially innovative potentials of including virtual sports in the Norwegian sports model, Tjønndal and Skauge outlines some challenges and dilemmas that voluntary sports organizations face with the inclusion of Esports and other digital sports.
... Previous research in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) has typically found that heterosexual undergraduate students have espoused high levels of homophobia (D' Augelli and Rose 1990;Epstein, O'Flynn, and Telford 2003;Herek 1988;Kurdek 1988). This has been especially true in male university sporting culture, where gay athletes have been shunned, excluded from participation, and marginalized by jocks attempting to assert their own heteromasculinity (Curry 1991;Pronger 1990). Since the turn of the millennium, however, scholars have documented a considerable improvement in cultural attitudes towards homosexuality (Taulke-Johnson 2008; see also Watt and Elliot 2019). ...
Article
This article examines the influence of ethnicity on sporting men's attitudes towards homosexuality. We employed Herek's Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men, Revised Version (ATLG-R) scale to collect data with British undergraduate sports students, as well as interview data with the players of an English Premier League (EPL) football academy, to show that black and minority ethnic (BME) men espouse more conservative attitudes towards homosexuality than their White counterparts. This, we theorize, is attributable to multiple factors, such as socialization into a fundamentalist version of Christianity by family, and the influence of immigration from countries where attitudes towards homosexuality remain more conservative in comparison to the UK. In documenting these findings, this research is consistent with other studies which document higher rates of intolerance among groups of BME men.
... LGBTQ persons have expressed they prefer less competitive and team sport environments during PA (Pronger 1990). Importantly, the overwhelming literature around LGBTQ persons and PA has been dominated by sport scholars (e.g., Anderson 2005; Hargreaves and Anderson 2014). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
There is a history of research that has documented sport and physical activity spaces as homophobic and precarious for LGBTQ persons. Yet, there is no literature exploring LGBTQ youth experiences in physical activity settings. This paper draws on research exploring the lived experiences of LGBTQ youth from New Zealand in health, physical activity, and education settings. In reflecting on two physical activity events, a camping trip and self-defense class, the author argues physical activity spaces can be positive an empowering for LGBTQ youth if they are developed appropriately. As such, the author draws on these experiences with LGBTQ youth to offer three guiding principles that can help shift physical activity programs from repressive places to empowering opportunities.
... The most noticeable outcome of bodybuilding is increased muscle development, which has historically been linked to masculine identities in the general population. 34,35 TM also consider it important to gain muscle volume to develop a masculine body. 36 The significant increase in bodybuilding in TM after GD thus shows the strategic use of PAS as a means of developing embodied gender identities. ...
Article
Background: This study describes the prevalence, frequency, and type of physical activity and sport (PAS) practiced by trans persons before and after their gender disclosure (GD). Methods: A face-to-face survey was administered to 212 Spanish trans persons, aged from 10 to 62 years old. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Results: About 75.5% of the trans persons in this study engaged in PAS and more than 50% did so ≥3 times/week, which is similar as in the general Spanish population. Participation was higher in trans men (78.7%) than trans women (72%). However, GD emerges as a key issue in characterizing trans persons' PAS participation. A group of 14.5% of them stopped activity after GD. Participation in nonorganized PAS was higher than in organized PAS, and this difference is greater after GD because most participants gave up organized PAS in favor of nonorganized PAS. Trans persons preferred individual sports and activities than team sports before and after GD, and the top 3 activities were jogging, walking, and bodybuilding. Trans men participation was higher than trans women in team PAS, whereas individual PAS were equally practiced before and after GD. Participation in football, swimming, basketball, dancing, and volleyball declined after GD, whereas bodybuilding increased in trans men. Conclusions: The results show that the high involvement of trans persons coincides with strategies used to hide or conceal their gender identities when participating in PAS. A decrease in PAS participation is observed after GD probably because it is an acute potential period of anxiety, discrimination, and victimization caused by trans persons' body exposure.
... Par conséquent, les hommes homosexuels sont incités à se distancer des comportements et des activités féminisées, et choisir de s'investir dans des domaines hétéro-masculins pour éviter les soupçons. A ce titre, le sport a été toujours décrit comme un site important pour la construction sociale de la masculinité et de la reproduction hétérosexuelle (Pronger, 1990). Il est reconnu comme un espace qui réfléchit les tendances dominantes de la société globale (Pociello, 1997). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Erasmus + Project, Gender Studies Curriculum: A step for Democracy and Peace in EU-Neighbouring Countries with Different Traditions (Gest), No.561785-EPP-1-2015-1-LT-EPPKA2-CBHE- The Summer School on Gender Studies 16-20 october 2017 Manouba University
Chapter
This paper draws from a messageboard corpus whose members (all self-identified gay men) wish to become “dumb jocks”: an identity privileging body-consciousness and an active disinterest in/inability to participate in scholarly/academic activities. I examine the posts of one user (RA), who creates the “Dumb Jock 100,” a series of activities meant to build community among messageboard members. RA demonstrates a strong adherence to a localized form of hegemonic masculinity (cf. Connell and Messerschmidt in Gender & Society 19:829–859, 2005) through the content and orthographic form of his posts. RA’s recommended activities, including completing specific workout routines and adhering to nutritious diets, demonstrate his successful achievement of an idealized dumb-jock identity, and offers himself as a model to which other posters can compare. Orthographically, RA also conforms to a “dumb jock” masculinity through the deployment of specific phonological/lexical (including /-g/ dropping in -ING forms, phonological reduction of “you” to , and the use of the lexical form as an intensifier) and syntactic (I-subject and existential-subject it deletion) forms that are meant to mimic the oral speech of a “dumb jock.” Ultimately, RA’s orthographic self-presentation demonstrates how posters can successfully utilize specific orthographic forms as part of a composite to perform a community-valued identity.KeywordsOrthographyMasculinityQueer linguisticsIdentityOnline discourse
Full-text available
Chapter
This chapter summarises recent studies on the experiences of lesbian women in sport to provide a better understanding of the body of knowledge on this topic. First, the review provides an overview of research published in English on lesbianism and sport in Europe. Second, it examines the main international studies on lesbianism, focusing on the incidence of heteronormativity and homonegativism in women’s sports. Third, it presents the role of sport as a safe zone for the construction of lesbian women’s identities. The final section explores significant data related to sports participation and the experiences of lesbian women.
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of professionalization and mediatization of rugby on the representations of masculinity in this sport over the last quarter century. Data used for both statistical analysis (using chi-square tests of independence and Multiple Correspondence Analysis) and qualitative content analysis were collected in France through a corpus of 799 rugby-related advertisements mainly dating from 1987 to 2015. The authors demonstrate that, alongside the hegemonic masculinity produced by the socialization of rugby players until the 1980s (the “Beast”), the marketization of elite rugby that began in the 1990s has led to the emergence of an alternative figure of masculinity that values aesthetics over physical strength (the “Beefcake”). The authors theorize this hybridization as a way for rugby players, who follow the lead of advertisers and communications agencies, to distance themselves from the increasingly stigmatized figure of masculinity embodied by their sport in order to entice new audiences. Simultaneously, while allowing them to seize the financial manna of advertising, this rebranding reveals the plasticity of the hegemonic masculinity conveyed by rugby, which is able to regenerate itself by evolving with the times. Based on this case, the authors then discuss the dialectic relationship between the hegemonic model and hybrid masculinities in both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective.
Thesis
p>In this thesis, I explore the life stories of five gay men. I begin by outlining the socio-political arena into which these men were born, through exploration of the history of the emergence of sexuality as a discrete entity. In so doing, I analyse how western society constructs sexuality, defining heterosexuality as 'normal' and thereby marginalising those not conforming to this construct. Further, I explore how hetero-normativity is reinforced, both through nurturing and within language and how this has impacted on the lives of the gay men involved in my research. The narratives of these white, middle class, educated, gay men are then located within this context. Their lives span seven decades and, in making sense of their stories, I explore the influences that have impacted on their differing life experiences. This study, which has been influenced by biographical researchers such as Erben, Roberts and Denzin, seeks to give voice to these men who have lived part of their lives in silence, on the margins of society. I draw on the work of Roberts, who suggests that life stories create a new literature of experiences from those who do not usually reach the public arena. Details are given of the open ended method of interviews employed, following the models presented by Roberts and Denzin and I explain the reasons for this selection. In addition, I discuss theories concerning the legitimacy of biographical research, in particular the views of Erben, that no life can be studied in isolation and further, that understanding the social context and using the researcher's imagination are both vitally important, alongside the analysis of empirical data. I present some differing views on queer theory in order to inform my analysis. Following this, I present my findings from the interviews, drawing on both queer theory and the emergent common experiences of my participants. Finally, I provide a more nuanced explanation of these common experiences, such as: bullying, secrecy, alienation, coming out and filial relationships.</p
Full-text available
Article
O esporte moderno já tem um percurso estabelecido que permite compreender seu modus operandi, particularmente no tocante à visibilidade da normalidade, à sincronia proposital entre corpos, gêneros e sexualidades e ao estabelecimento do rendimento esportivo, por meio do emprego de técnicas 'precisas' e ‘corretas’. A proposta deste texto é trazer casos de atletas que apareceram na história do esporte durante o século XX, a fim de edificar três problematizações trazidas por tais corpos, sendo elas: a) dissonâncias de gênero não visibilizadas tendem a apagar existências de registros oficiais; b) é nas modalidades esportivas mais conhecidas e valorizadas pela cultura ocidental que mais se identifica tal invisibilidade em comparação com esportes desconhecidos; e c) o nível de performance esportiva contribui para manter os ‘casos de exceção’ escondidos: quanto melhor a performance, mais um corpo tende a ser normalizado. A partir de uma analítica das variáveis ‘gênero’, ‘visibilidade’ e ‘nível de performance’ conclui-se que o próprio sistema se encarrega de estabelecer as (a)normalidades corporais e manter as invisibilidades esportivas para a manutenção do status quo.
Full-text available
Chapter
There is a scarcity of studies exploring LGBTQ people’s PAS participation and experiences. The objective of this chapter is to present the PAS panorama for LGBTQ people in Spain. To do so, in this chapter, we first introduce the Spanish legal framework and some initiatives and measures adopted to improve LGBTQ people’s inclusion and participation in PAS. Second, relevant Spanish studies on this topic are introduced to contextualise the situation of this population, and we finish off with some partial results of our current research and the future lines of actions necessary to promote their access and engagement in PAS.
Chapter
This chapter highlights that the outward expression of homophobia was not socially acceptable to men on this team. Gay men were viewed with respect and equality. While there were no openly gay men on this team, the men welcomed the notion of a gay man to join or come out. The men suggested that their own same-sex behaviors were the characteristic of their inclusivity and acceptance of homosexuality. Some had bromances with gay men, and many of the men had kissed other gay men, too.
Chapter
This chapter provides an analysis of the formation of a bromance. It interrogates the operation of the bromance, its meanings, and perceived benefits. In doing so, it helps us understand how friendships are developed, and eventually how some of those friendships find or earn their way into a bromance. The authors highlight that if two boys are first attracted to each other because of shared interests. They then go through a developmental process to enter a friendship. If it is to develop into a bromance, however, emotional disclosure must occur. This then leads to physical intimacy and a bromance.
Full-text available
Article
This article examines the responses by users of the social media platform, Twitter, to the English Premier League’s (EPL) support, via four tweets from their official Twitter account, for the annual Rainbow Laces anti-homophobia in football campaign. Locating our analysis within the corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda of the EPL, the four tweets received a total of 24,997 ‘likes’, 4,951 retweets, and 1,865 comments. Of those comments directly responding to the campaign and wider CSR agenda of the EPL (n = 407), 236 contained supportive comments and 171 contained negative comments. Despite support for the Rainbow Laces campaign, the comments also reflected some resistance to the overall CSR agenda of the EPL. Here, responses called for a greater focus on issues outside of LGBT+, such as mental health and reducing the financial burden placed on fans to consume football.
Chapter
This introductory chapter examines the relationship between gay, lesbian, bisexual male, bisexual female, male-to female transgender, and female to male transgender athletes, with a sociological examination of their relationship to sport. We first describe the conservative foundations of the sporting establishment, before turning our attention to documenting its liberalizing attitudes. Here were highlight unevenness within global sectors, and variance between those regions. We illustrate this history in regard to three phases, covering time periods relevant to significant events in the research regarding LGBT athletes. Throughout our analysis we highlight that there exists a lag between events in the global North and South. This chapter thus helps situate the need for this book: as a crack in the system of hegemonic homophobia has emerged within the global South.
Full-text available
Article
Before coming out of the closet and publishing a series of successful gay novels, Patricia Nell Warren was known as Patricia Kilina, wife of a Ukrainian émigré writer George Tarnawsky. Her early poetry, written in Ukrainian, includes numerous references to non-traditional gender roles which she further explored in her anglophone novels. The Front Runner (1974) was published when Warren had already divorced her husband and came out of the closet. It was met with commercial success and became the first contemporary American bestseller about gay love. In this paper, I focus on the mixed reader-response of The Front Runner in the LGBTQ+ community, as well as the role of homophobia and misogyny in Patricia Nell Warren’s novel. I argue that The Front Runner provides readers with a thought-provoking literary representation of the changing social attitudes towards non-binary gender roles and non-heterosexuality right after Stonewall and before the AIDS epidemic.
Article
(Title: The Representation of Female Character in “Edge of Tomorrow” (2014) Film Based on Feminist Film Critics). This research analyzes the female character in Edge of Tomorrow, Rita Vrataski. This research intends to understand how female character is described in the film and how female character is described according to feminist film critic. The method used is descriptive qualitative method. This research also uses theory character and characterization in film and theory feminist film critic. As the result, Rita is described as a female soldier who has characteristics as committed, brave, assertive, strong, muscular, intelligent and skillful soldier. Even though Rita, as the female character who has man’s characteristics, she still needs help from another male character. Rita character in this film is still passive because the one who finishes the mission in the story is the male character, William Cage. This film proves that male domination still exists in story of film. Thus, the female stereotype has been attached in film and it is difficult to change it.Keywords: female character ,women in film , feminist film critic
Article
This article is based on the views of 2,663 association football fans, collected via an online survey from March 2020 to April 2020, regarding the presence of homosexually-themed language at men’s professional football matches across the United Kingdom. The results indicate that whilst 95% would support a gay player at their club, 41% have heard language they interpret as malicious or toxic, while 37% believe it is not intentionally hostile and ascribe it as playful and humorous banter. The article subsequently addresses what appears to be a paradox: football fans challenge popular accusations that they are homophobic but also recognize the presence of homosexually-themed language that emphasizes heteronormativity, irrespective of how it is interpreted by other fans.
Article
Sport has traditionally been a hostile environment for lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people. More recently, however, research on a range of British sports has documented a considerable shift toward inclusivity for sexual minorities. Curiously, despite its global popularity, no research has yet measured attitudes toward homosexuality in cricket. By drawing on 12 semi-structured interviews with a club cricket team in the South East of England, we show inclusive attitudes toward homosexuality in sport and society. We also explore how forms of ‘banter’ among members of the club are complex and multifaceted. Accordingly, we propose that banter in grassroots cricket can be conceptualized into ‘inclusionary’ forms (incorporating how a close team relationship can facilitate inclusive forms of banter) and ‘exclusionary’ forms (incorporating jokes which transgress acceptable forms of banter). This research therefore acts as a point of departure for further investigations of the operation of banter across different levels of sport.
Article
In this paper, I discuss the relationship between sport, gender and sexuality, especially since the 1970s, when sport emerged as an object for social and cultural consideration. I first look at past research how theoretical perspectives have changed, and then examine how theories and research can be applied to real cases that have happened in the sporting world in the past 40 years. I emphasize the two points below, which highlight the significance of looking at sport in gender/sexuality studies: 1. Sporting culture has been emerged and developed as a highly male homosocial domain. 2. Sport is one of the most unique cultures left in postmodern society, as it uses the human body itself and makes the deference of capacities of bodies visible by displaying bodily performances. The emergence of queer theory since the 1990s increases the importance of these significances, as theories of homosociality state that the ideal of male gender itself includes a condition of sexuality―heterosexuality. Added to that, the idea that gender is socially constructed and performatively enacted discloses the arbitrariness of the coalition between sex and gender, and undermines the connection between ideal masculinity and the male body. In conclusion, I suggest that strategies of gender/sexual liberation in sport swing between universalizing (constructivism) and minoritizing (essentialism) views as pointed out by Sedgwick in her work.
Article
The absence of legal regulation in fishing activities has brought Indonesian waters to a serious degradation, especially in the population of game fish. The most reasonable solution to this problem is performing Catch and Release (CnR). However, very little has been explored regarding the activity of fishing and CnR in Indonesia. This study aims to identify masculinity traits in sportfishing as a masculine act. Furthermore, the result will hopefully be useful in designing an effective campaign for CnR. This study employs qualitative method to discover how sportfishing is produced and consumed, formulate the meaning of sportfishing to Indonesian anglers, and identify masculinity traits in the enactment and involvement of this activity. The study concludes that sportfishing is the new hegemonic masculinity, replacing the previous conventional fishing. It is a masculine bloc that inherits classic masculine traits and combines them with aspects of femininity, resulting in a new adaptive model of masculinity that sustains the patriarchal dominance toward subordinate masculinity and women.
Full-text available
Chapter
In the last decade, questions have arisen about social inequalities, domestic violence, or natural disasters that devastate communities. From the complexity that results, together with the rapid development of globalization, the concept of Social Responsibility has emerged. Social responsibility itself is a very controversial concept and difficult to understand, as there is no stagnant definition. In this research, we will try to verify this and, in some way, to understand the role of marketing in the management of the resulting changes. In this sense, the research problem of the present study was developed: to understand how the solidarity campaigns carried out by Sporting Clube de Braga influence the perception of the supporters about the sports organization. In this way, the following objectives were elaborated: to perceive in what sense corporate social responsibility acts in sports marketing; to study the opinion of the consumers of sporting events on the practices of social responsibility of SC Braga, with respect to the perception of how much they should or should not support institutions or causes of social solidarity; to know better the opinion of individuals about the social responsibilities associated with the sports organization, in order to know if it is more favorable to the support of social causes and to see if the supporters are more likely to buy products of the sporting organization when they support institutions or causes of social solidarity. Regarding the selected methodology, this was based on individual and semi-structured interviews; nine interviews were conducted with supporters of SC Braga and a professional of the sports organization was interviewed. The results obtained led to the conclusion that, in fact, supporters are influenced by the club’s connection to causes and social institutions and that this improves the way they evaluate the club. They consider it important that there is such an association, and this gives rise to very positive feelings that, in time, allow for a stronger and more lasting connection with the club, since they are aware that there are concerns on the part of the club that go beyond what takes place within the sports organization. The present study can be a contribution to the area of study of corporate social responsibility, since there is not much updated information on the subject and what the reality of the same in organizations in Portugal is. Finally, some limitations and suggestions for future research are presented.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.