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Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

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The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter). Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05), except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher thanthat in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter). The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The a-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellentquality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA a-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.
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Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 72 No. 1/2014
INTRODUCTION
Plant products are currently popular to combat various
physiological threats. Scientific evidence has been
provided that dietary phytochemicals can play important
roles in the treatment and prevention of many diseases.
With increasing public health awareness, demand for
functional foods with multiple health benefits has also
increased. It is possible to say that all foods are functional
because they provide varying amounts of nutrients for
growth or support of vital processes. Functional foods are
generally considered as the foods which offer various
benefits that may promote optimal health or reduce the risk
of disease (Hasler et al., 2000).
The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and
can provide a lot of health benefits. Flax seed and chia
seed are renowned as good nutritional sources. These
seeds originate from agricultural crops: Flax (Linum
usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.).
Flax is a member of the family Linaceae. It is a food and
fibre crop (Flax varieties grown for human consumption
are different from flax varieties grown to produce fibre)
that is grown in cooler regions of the world. Flax is an
annual plant growing to about 1.2 m tall, with slender
stems. The flowers are usually blue, with five petals; they
can also be bright red. The fruit is a round and dry capsule
(5-9 mm), contains several glossy, flat, oval seeds with a
pointed tip, 4 - 6 mm in length (Daun, et al., 2003). The
seeds have a chewy texture and a pleasant nutty taste
(Carter, 1996). There are two basic varieties, brown and
yellow or golden. Seed colour is determined by the amount
of pigment in the outer seed coat.
Salvia hispanica, or more commonly known as chia, has
a long history of use as a food in South and Central
America, not only for humans but for animals as well. It
was one of the main foods of the old Aztecs and Mayas.
Chia is a biannually cultivated plant which is a member of
the family Labiatae. It is a low water user plant which is
well adapted to arid and semiarid climates (Ayerza, 1995).
Chia can grow up to 1 m tall, has opposite arranged leaves
and chia flowers are small and usually purple (3-4 mm)
with small corollas. The seed coat colour ranges from
black, grey, and black spotted to white and the shape is
oval with size varying from 1 to 2 mm (Ixtaina et al.,
2008).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): linoleic acid (C18:2
n-6) and α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) are essential nutrients, i.e.
humans and animals must obtain them by food because the
body requires them for many metabolic processes, but
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 72-76
doi:10.5219/332
Received: 10 February 2014. Accepted: 20 Februaryl 2014.
Available online: 7 May 2014 at www.potravinarstvo.com
© 2014 Potravinarstvo. All rights reserved.
ISSN 1337-0960 (online)
AMINO ACIDS AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE OF CHIA (
SALVIA HISPANICA
L.)
AND FLAX (
LINUM USITATISSIMUM
L.) SEED
Soňa Nitrayová, Matej Brestenský, Jaroslav Heger, Peter Patráš,
Ján Rafay, Alexander Sirotkin
ABSTRACT
The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this
study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia
and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia
hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was
about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter).
Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05), except that
for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality,
was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of
these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry
matter). The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty
acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and
63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio.
Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There
was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA
α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a
balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do
not.
Keywords: amino acid; α-linolenic fatty acid; chia seed; fatty acid; flax seed
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 73 No. 1/2014
cannot synthesize them (Gorjao et al., 2009). Then highly
unsaturated metabolites can be created from these fatty
acids; arachidonic acid and γ-linolenic acid (n-6 PUFA)
from linoleic acid (LA) and the most important
metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic
acid (n-3 PUFA) from α-linolenic acid (ALA).
The well-known source of n-3 PUFAs are marine fish
(Gorjao et al., 2009), but flax seeds and chia seeds are
important plant sources as well. These are the two vegetal
species having the highest concentration of ALA (Ayerza,
1995; Coates and Ayerza, 1998; Oomah et al., 1995).
Most of studies have been carried out with fish and fish
oils, which are rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and
docosahexaenoic acid, but also with various plant seeds
and their oils as a source of ALA.
A low ratio of n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFAs in daily food is
the best way how to help many metabolic processes in the
body. The problem is that for today’s diets the high
content of saturated fatty acids and n-6 PUFA and low
content of n-3 PUFA is typical (Simopoulos, 2004).
Typically modern diets have greater ratio
n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA than 15:1. This imbalance increases
the risk of heart disease and support body’s inflammatory
processes. The ideal ratio is from 1:1 to 3:1.
The aim of this study was to determine and compare
differences in nutrient content (fat, fatty acids, crude
protein and amino acids concentrations) for chia and flax
seed.
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
The object of our analyses were six samples of brown
and gold flax seed (Figure 1) and three samples of chia
seed (Figure 2) which were obtained from health food
stores.
Tested seeds were milled and analyzed for content of dry
matter, crude protein and ether extract in accordance with
AOAC (1990) standard procedures.
The amino acid composition of tested samples was
analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography (Llames and
Fontaine, 1994). The content of amino acids after
hydrolysis with 6 M HCl and Met with Cys after oxidative
hydrolysis were determined using an automatic AA
analyzer (AAA 400; Ingos, Prague, Czech Republic).
The content of long chain fatty acids we analysed after
extraction of samples with petroleum ether and subsequent
esterification with esterifying agent such as methyl esters
of fatty acids by gas chromatography using gas
chromatograph GC 6890N (Agilent Technologies).
Experimental data were analysed by ANOVA using
Statgraphic Plus package (version 3.1; Statistical Graphics
Corp.,Rockville, MD). Differences were considered
statistically significant if P <0.05. When a significant value
for treatment means was observed, differences between
means were assessed using Fisher’s LSD procedure.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The main values for studied nutrients: dry matter, fat,
crude protein and amino acids are summarized in Table 1.
The values of dry matter show a close similarity between
the chia seed, brown and gold flax seed.
The concentration of crude protein in all samples ranged
from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter. Numerically highest
content of crude protein was determined in chia seed
(252.5g/kg dry matter) and this value was about 13.10%
higher than the average value of crude protein content in
brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter).
Difference in the content of crude protein between brown
and gold flax seed was also close to ten percent (9.78%).
Our values of crude protein content correspond to those in
the literature. Sammour (1999) reported that the total
proteins in flax seed represent about 20-30% of the seed
meal, which makes it a good source of proteins.
The highest amount of total amino acids was in brown
flax seed (202.0 g/kg dry matter). Crude protein content
was higher in chia seed but total amino acid content was
higher in brown flax seed, due to higher content of
nonessential amino acids especially glutamic acid, glycine
and aspartic acid (Table 1). There was only one
statistically significant difference - for glutamic acid in
chia and brown flax seed. The amount of total essential
amino acids was the lowest in the gold flax seed (64.0 g/kg
dry matter) and almost practically the same in chia and
gold flax seed (68.6 and 68.2 g/kg dry mater). All the
above mentioned differences were not statistically
significant (P <0.05).
Figure 1 Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) and flax seed
Figure 2: Chia ( Salvia hispanica) and chia seed
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 74 No. 1/2014
When comparing the proportions of amino acids in
brown and gold flax seed, except methionine and
threonine, all other amino acids in gold flax seed were
lower compared with brown flax seed, but differences
were not statistically significant (P <0.05). Proteins of flax
seeds are limited by lysine, threonine and tyrosine
(Thompson and Cunnane, 2003). Our values of lysine
content in both colour varieties of flax seeds were lower
than the content of lysine in chia seed (Table 1). Proteins
of flax seeds are characterized by a high coefficient of
digestibility (89.6%) and biological value (77.4%)
(Martinchik, 2012). Brown flax seed proteins contain
relatively higher levels of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and
arginine (Table 1). These values indicate the high content
of amides (Ayad, 2010). The amino acid pattern of flax
protein is similar to that of soybean protein, which is
viewed as one of the most nutritious of the plant proteins
(Oomah and Mazza, 1993). Flax seed proteins, brown
and gold variety, contain 33.76% and 35.18% as
percentage of the essential to the total amino acids. The
value of this indicator for chia seed was 37.87%. Proteins
with such high values are considered as a high quality
protein. Ayad (2010) reported 36% for flax seed protein in
his study.
The protein quality of chia has been demonstrated to be
higher than that of common cereals and oil seeds (Weber
et al., 1991; Reyes-Caudillo et al., 2008), which is in
accordance with our results. All tested seeds were rich in
fat (Table 1). The average fat content of both varieties of
flax seed was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia
seed, but there were no significant differences in total fat
content. There was close similarity to the results of
Capitany et al. (2013), which present 327 ±8.0 g/kg for
chia seed in his study.
Gas chromatography analysis of the fatty acids
composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic,
oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all
tested samples. In addition, three more fatty acids were
identified in all analyses: lauric, myristic and palmitooleic.
However, all of them were present just in traces. Only one
significant difference among fatty acids was detected, it
was for oleic acid (Table 2). The fatty acid profile for
Table 1 Content of studied nutrients in analysed seeds, g/kg DM
Chia seed
Brown Flax seed
Gold Flax seed
Dry matter
930.3
935.0
925.1
Fat
321.37
383.44
402.13
CP*
252.5
234.7
211.8
Arginine
20.0
24.0
20.7
Phenylalanine
11.6
10.2
9.2
Histidine
6.1
5.1
4.8
Isoleucine
7.4
8.6
7.7
Leucine
14.2
12.9
11.7
Lysine
9.3
9.1
8.8
Methionine
6.7
4.9
5.1
Threonine
5.4
7.1
7.5
Valine
7.9
10.3
9.2
Alanine
9.4
9.9
9.1
Aspartic acid
12.8
14.1
11.3
Cystine
4.2
3.2
2.8
Glutamic acid
28.7a
45.1b
39.6b
Glycine
9.1
13.3
12.0
Proline
12.8
9.1
8.3
Serine
9.4
10.2
9.4
Tyrosine
6.1
4.9
4.7
Total AA*
181.1
202.0
181.9
Total EAA*
68.6
68.2
64.0
Total NEAA*
112.5
133.8
117.9
abc means in row are significantly different (P ˂0.05)
*CP - crude protein, AA - amino acids, EAA - essential amino acids, NEAA - non-essential amino acids
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 75 No. 1/2014
tested seeds was similar to that reported by another authors
(Ayerza, 1995, 2009, 2010; Coates and Ayerza, 2009;
Martinchik, 2012). ALA constitutes on average 54.38%
of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia
seed and for LA it was 15.30% and 18.89%. Our results
are in accordance with Bhatty (1993) who reported the
ratio of LA in chia seed with about 18% and ALA with
about 64% as unique. There was 53.3% of ALA for flax
seed in his study. All these dates are close to ours. Both
chia and flax seeds are rich in ALA, but chia seed is the
highest plant-based source of ALA (Ayerza and Coates,
2011).
All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio (Table 2).
This observation has important health implications. The
best way to lower the risk of coronary heart disease is to
keep dietary n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratios as low as
possible (Jones et al., 2006).
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans states
reported that an adequate intake of ALA ranges between
1.1 and 1.6 grams/day for adults. Since 12 to 18 grams
(2 to 3 teaspoons) of chia contain between 2.5 and 3.6
grams of ALA, this is more than a sufficient amount to
meet this recommendation.
The EFSA Journal (2009) published labelling reference
value for the n-3 PUFA ALA which is 2 g per day. This
amount is consistent with recommended intakes for
individuals in the general population in European countries
based on considerations of cardiovascular health.
Flax seeds and chia seeds can be also used for feeding to
animals to enrich their eggs and meat with omega 3 fats.
Eggs from hens fed with chia had higher ALA content as
compared to hens fed with flax seed (EFSA Journal,
2009; Coates and Ayerza, 2009).
It is necessary to know that chia seeds can be consumed
directly and do not need to be ground unlike flax, which
must be ground or milled prior to consumption. Since flax
seed content is protected by a thick shell and to obtain
benefits from flax seeds it is necessary to use not whole
seeds. Whole seeds passing through the digestive system
undigested.
CONCLUSION
The quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and
gold flax seed samples is excellent. Chia seed is the best
known plant source with the highest content of n-3 PUFA
α-linolenic fatty acid. Both flax seed and chia seed are the
good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum
lipid profile. These seeds can be an appropriate alternative
to n-3 PUFA sources for vegetarians and people allergic to
fish. Flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients,
but chia seeds do not.
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Chia seed
Brown Flax seed
SEM
12:0
Lauric acid
0.03
0.03
0.00
14:0
Myristic acid
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α- linolenic acid
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Arachidic acid
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abc means in row are significantly different (P ˂0.05)
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Acknowledgments:
This article was written during realization of the project
"ZDRAVIE no. 26220220176" supported by the
Operational Programme Research and Development
funded from the European Regional Development Fund.
Contact address:
MVDr. Soňa Nitrayová, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: nitrayova@vuzv.sk
Ing. Matej Brestenský, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: m_brestensky@vuzv.sk
Doc. Ing. Jaroslav Heger, PhD., National Agricultural
and Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal
Production Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951
41 Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: jaroslavheger@gmail.com
Ing. Peter Patráš, PhD., National Agricultural and Food
Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production Nitra,
Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41 Lužianky,
Slovakia, E-mail: patras@vuzv.sk
Doc. Ing. Ján Rafay, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institute of Small Farm Animals, Hlohovecká 2, 951
41 Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: rafay@vuzv.sk
Prof. Ing. Alexander Sirotkin, DrSc., National
Agricultural and Food Center, Reasearch Institute of
Animal Production Nitra, Institute for Farm Animal
Genetics and Reproduction, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: sirotkin@vuzv.sk
... Due to reduced global fish resources, the use of fish products for supplementation of animal feeds with omega-3 fatty acids is not deemed appropriate to produce a richer meat (Salem and Eggersdorfer, [11]). Numerous authors have shown that flaxseed and microalgae feed supplements could be a good source for supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids to poultry meat (Coates and Ayerza, [12], Zuidhof et al., [13], Mariey et al., [14], Nitrayová et al., [15], and Yan and Kim, [16]). Taulescu et al., [17] observed that muscle tissue PUFA content in broilers increased considerably after dietary supplementation of their diet with flaxseed. ...
... Panayotova, [43], reported that n-6/n-3 ratios in algae -Ulva rigida (green) Chaetomorpha linum (green) Gelidium crinale (red), Cystoseira barbata (brown) and Cystoseira crinita (brown) are within the range from 0.57 tо 8.01. Nitrayová et al., [15], reported that chia seed, brown flax seed and gold flax seed had a low omega-6 PUFA / omega-3 PUFA ratios: 0.30, 0.28, and 0.29 respectively. Jankowski et al., [44], observed a relatively low n-6/ n-3 PUFA ratio of 3.8 : 1 after 3 weeks of feeding turkeys a diet supplemented with 2.5% flax oil, and a ratio attaining 2.5 : 1 after two months of dietary supplementation. ...
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Fatty acids, especially essential fatty acids, are gaining importance in poultry feeding systems not only for improving the health and productivity of birds, but also because of our health-conscious society that prefers properly balanced diets to minimize adverse health issues. Numerous studies have shown that flaxseed and microalgae feed supplements could be a good source for supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids to poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of rations of broiler turkeys with additives rich in omega-3 fatty acids on production and slaughter traits and fatty acid profile of meat. The effect of dietary supplementation with microalgae meal All-G Rich (algae grown in a closed and controlled system) at two levels: 1% and 2% and Wisan ® Omega (product based on flaxseed and selected cereals) at 0.5% in fattening broiler turkeys was investigated. The live weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion and slaughter traits were monitored. The fatty acid content of breast and thigh samples was determined by means of gas chromatography after extraction and transformation of fatty acids in methyl esters. Fatty acids were expressed as a percentage of the sum of identified fatty acids. The total PUFA content in breast and thigh turkey meat was calculated as well as omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio. Highest live weight was demonstrated by turkeys from groups supplemented with All-G Rich 2%-8.935 кg and All-G Rich 1%-8.418 kg compared to those fed fodder with Wisan ® Omega-7.903 kg and controls which were with lowest body weight (7.543 kg). Over the entire fattening period, turkeys supplemented with 2% All-G Rich had lower feed expenditure by 14% compared to control birds and birds that received Wisan ® Omega. The meat of experimental groups supplemented with PUFA additives was outlined with higher omega-3 fatty acid content. The ratio of studied omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA in breast meat and thigh meat was lower in experimental groups compared to controls. The results of this study prove that flaxseed and microalgae supplements can be a good source for improving productivity and enriching meat with omega-3 fatty acids in turkeys.
... The calculated molar ratios between palmitic and stearic acid (P/S) ranged between 2.1 and 2.5. These values could refer to the use of the vegetable oil extracted from the Chia seeds, as reported in the specific literature (Kulczyński et al. 2019;Ciftci et al. 2012;Nitrayová et al. (2014);Ayerza 1995). This hypothesis is reinforced by some studies related to the use of this siccative oil by the Maya populations (Vázquez De Ágredos Pascual et al. 2016b). ...
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Ancient Maya believed in life after death. They used to prepare dead bodies during burial ceremonies whose purpose was to celebrate the dead and to help them passing through the way from earthly life to the beyond one. Bodies preparation included coloured scented body ointment application, with a deep symbolic connotation and probably also a conservative purpose. The aim of this research was to characterize pigments and binders used by ancient Maya in the preparation of body ointments used to paint human bones. Emblematic painted bone samples from Xcambó (Maya archaeological site located in the municipality of Dzemul, in the Mexican state of Yucatán) were investigated through a non-destructive and micro-destructive analytical techniques. Results pointed out the presence of two mainly red pigments, i.e. red ochre and cinnabar, as already observed in other Maya painted bones. The new insight of the research is the identification of the organic compounds used as binding media in the ointments: a mixture of vegetable drying oil (probably Chia seed oil) mixed with an aromatic compound (bitumen). This knowledge, together with that obtained in the last decades, is important to reconstruct the cultural habitat and social customs of this pre-Hispanic civilization and transfer them to today’s context. Graphical abstract
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In the recent years, there has been immense focus on the underutilized pseudocereals due to their high nutritional value, potential health benefits, bioactive properties and also as ideal candidate for gluten free products. The major focused pseudocereals are Amaranth, Buckwheat, Quinoa, Chia, Wattle and Album. The immense potential of these grains has led to the development of techniques for the isolation of important compositional components. Being rich in the proteins, different isolation techniques have been employed such as the physical, enzymatic and chemical methods. The high value of the pseudocereals extracted proteins in comparison to the conventional cereals was established by essential amino acid index, biological value and nutritional index. Based on the above, a clear perspective towards the isolation techniques was critically reviewed in this article. This review also documents amino acid composition, amino acid scores, in vitro digestibility values and protein efficiency ratio of the isolated proteins.
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Chia seeds are becoming more and more popular in modern diets. In this contribution NIR and 2D‑fluorescence spectroscopy were used to determine their nutritional values, mainly fat and protein content. 25 samples of chia seeds were analysed, whereof 9 samples were obtained from different regions in Kenya, 16 samples were purchased in stores in Germany and originated mostly from South America. For the purchased samples the nutritional information of the package was taken in addition to the values obtained for fat and protein, which were determined at the Hohenheim Core Facility. For the first time the NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the analysis of chia. For the spectral evaluation two different pre‑processing methods were tested. Baseline correction with subsequent mean‑centring lead to the best results for NIR spectra whereas SNV (standard normal variate transformation) was sufficient for the evaluation of fluorescence spectra. When combining NIR and fluorescence spectra, the fluorescence spectra were also multiplied with a factor to adjust the intensity levels. The best prediction results for the evaluation of the combined spectra were obtained for Kenyan samples with prediction errors below 0.2 g/100 g. For all other samples the absolute prediction error was 0.51 g/100 g for fat and 0.62 g/100 g for protein. It is possible to determine the amount of protein and fat of chia seeds by fluorescence and NIR spectroscopy. The combination of both methods is beneficial for the predictions. Chia seeds from Kenya had similar protein and lipid contents as South American seeds.
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