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Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

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The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter). Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05), except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher thanthat in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter). The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The a-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellentquality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA a-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.
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Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 72 No. 1/2014
INTRODUCTION
Plant products are currently popular to combat various
physiological threats. Scientific evidence has been
provided that dietary phytochemicals can play important
roles in the treatment and prevention of many diseases.
With increasing public health awareness, demand for
functional foods with multiple health benefits has also
increased. It is possible to say that all foods are functional
because they provide varying amounts of nutrients for
growth or support of vital processes. Functional foods are
generally considered as the foods which offer various
benefits that may promote optimal health or reduce the risk
of disease (Hasler et al., 2000).
The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and
can provide a lot of health benefits. Flax seed and chia
seed are renowned as good nutritional sources. These
seeds originate from agricultural crops: Flax (Linum
usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.).
Flax is a member of the family Linaceae. It is a food and
fibre crop (Flax varieties grown for human consumption
are different from flax varieties grown to produce fibre)
that is grown in cooler regions of the world. Flax is an
annual plant growing to about 1.2 m tall, with slender
stems. The flowers are usually blue, with five petals; they
can also be bright red. The fruit is a round and dry capsule
(5-9 mm), contains several glossy, flat, oval seeds with a
pointed tip, 4 - 6 mm in length (Daun, et al., 2003). The
seeds have a chewy texture and a pleasant nutty taste
(Carter, 1996). There are two basic varieties, brown and
yellow or golden. Seed colour is determined by the amount
of pigment in the outer seed coat.
Salvia hispanica, or more commonly known as chia, has
a long history of use as a food in South and Central
America, not only for humans but for animals as well. It
was one of the main foods of the old Aztecs and Mayas.
Chia is a biannually cultivated plant which is a member of
the family Labiatae. It is a low water user plant which is
well adapted to arid and semiarid climates (Ayerza, 1995).
Chia can grow up to 1 m tall, has opposite arranged leaves
and chia flowers are small and usually purple (3-4 mm)
with small corollas. The seed coat colour ranges from
black, grey, and black spotted to white and the shape is
oval with size varying from 1 to 2 mm (Ixtaina et al.,
2008).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): linoleic acid (C18:2
n-6) and α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) are essential nutrients, i.e.
humans and animals must obtain them by food because the
body requires them for many metabolic processes, but
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 72-76
doi:10.5219/332
Received: 10 February 2014. Accepted: 20 Februaryl 2014.
Available online: 7 May 2014 at www.potravinarstvo.com
© 2014 Potravinarstvo. All rights reserved.
ISSN 1337-0960 (online)
AMINO ACIDS AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE OF CHIA (
SALVIA HISPANICA
L.)
AND FLAX (
LINUM USITATISSIMUM
L.) SEED
Soňa Nitrayová, Matej Brestenský, Jaroslav Heger, Peter Patráš,
Ján Rafay, Alexander Sirotkin
ABSTRACT
The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this
study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia
and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia
hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was
about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter).
Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05), except that
for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality,
was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of
these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry
matter). The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty
acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and
63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio.
Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There
was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA
α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a
balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do
not.
Keywords: amino acid; α-linolenic fatty acid; chia seed; fatty acid; flax seed
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 73 No. 1/2014
cannot synthesize them (Gorjao et al., 2009). Then highly
unsaturated metabolites can be created from these fatty
acids; arachidonic acid and γ-linolenic acid (n-6 PUFA)
from linoleic acid (LA) and the most important
metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic
acid (n-3 PUFA) from α-linolenic acid (ALA).
The well-known source of n-3 PUFAs are marine fish
(Gorjao et al., 2009), but flax seeds and chia seeds are
important plant sources as well. These are the two vegetal
species having the highest concentration of ALA (Ayerza,
1995; Coates and Ayerza, 1998; Oomah et al., 1995).
Most of studies have been carried out with fish and fish
oils, which are rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and
docosahexaenoic acid, but also with various plant seeds
and their oils as a source of ALA.
A low ratio of n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFAs in daily food is
the best way how to help many metabolic processes in the
body. The problem is that for today’s diets the high
content of saturated fatty acids and n-6 PUFA and low
content of n-3 PUFA is typical (Simopoulos, 2004).
Typically modern diets have greater ratio
n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA than 15:1. This imbalance increases
the risk of heart disease and support body’s inflammatory
processes. The ideal ratio is from 1:1 to 3:1.
The aim of this study was to determine and compare
differences in nutrient content (fat, fatty acids, crude
protein and amino acids concentrations) for chia and flax
seed.
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
The object of our analyses were six samples of brown
and gold flax seed (Figure 1) and three samples of chia
seed (Figure 2) which were obtained from health food
stores.
Tested seeds were milled and analyzed for content of dry
matter, crude protein and ether extract in accordance with
AOAC (1990) standard procedures.
The amino acid composition of tested samples was
analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography (Llames and
Fontaine, 1994). The content of amino acids after
hydrolysis with 6 M HCl and Met with Cys after oxidative
hydrolysis were determined using an automatic AA
analyzer (AAA 400; Ingos, Prague, Czech Republic).
The content of long chain fatty acids we analysed after
extraction of samples with petroleum ether and subsequent
esterification with esterifying agent such as methyl esters
of fatty acids by gas chromatography using gas
chromatograph GC 6890N (Agilent Technologies).
Experimental data were analysed by ANOVA using
Statgraphic Plus package (version 3.1; Statistical Graphics
Corp.,Rockville, MD). Differences were considered
statistically significant if P <0.05. When a significant value
for treatment means was observed, differences between
means were assessed using Fisher’s LSD procedure.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The main values for studied nutrients: dry matter, fat,
crude protein and amino acids are summarized in Table 1.
The values of dry matter show a close similarity between
the chia seed, brown and gold flax seed.
The concentration of crude protein in all samples ranged
from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter. Numerically highest
content of crude protein was determined in chia seed
(252.5g/kg dry matter) and this value was about 13.10%
higher than the average value of crude protein content in
brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter).
Difference in the content of crude protein between brown
and gold flax seed was also close to ten percent (9.78%).
Our values of crude protein content correspond to those in
the literature. Sammour (1999) reported that the total
proteins in flax seed represent about 20-30% of the seed
meal, which makes it a good source of proteins.
The highest amount of total amino acids was in brown
flax seed (202.0 g/kg dry matter). Crude protein content
was higher in chia seed but total amino acid content was
higher in brown flax seed, due to higher content of
nonessential amino acids especially glutamic acid, glycine
and aspartic acid (Table 1). There was only one
statistically significant difference - for glutamic acid in
chia and brown flax seed. The amount of total essential
amino acids was the lowest in the gold flax seed (64.0 g/kg
dry matter) and almost practically the same in chia and
gold flax seed (68.6 and 68.2 g/kg dry mater). All the
above mentioned differences were not statistically
significant (P <0.05).
Figure 1 Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) and flax seed
Figure 2: Chia ( Salvia hispanica) and chia seed
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 74 No. 1/2014
When comparing the proportions of amino acids in
brown and gold flax seed, except methionine and
threonine, all other amino acids in gold flax seed were
lower compared with brown flax seed, but differences
were not statistically significant (P <0.05). Proteins of flax
seeds are limited by lysine, threonine and tyrosine
(Thompson and Cunnane, 2003). Our values of lysine
content in both colour varieties of flax seeds were lower
than the content of lysine in chia seed (Table 1). Proteins
of flax seeds are characterized by a high coefficient of
digestibility (89.6%) and biological value (77.4%)
(Martinchik, 2012). Brown flax seed proteins contain
relatively higher levels of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and
arginine (Table 1). These values indicate the high content
of amides (Ayad, 2010). The amino acid pattern of flax
protein is similar to that of soybean protein, which is
viewed as one of the most nutritious of the plant proteins
(Oomah and Mazza, 1993). Flax seed proteins, brown
and gold variety, contain 33.76% and 35.18% as
percentage of the essential to the total amino acids. The
value of this indicator for chia seed was 37.87%. Proteins
with such high values are considered as a high quality
protein. Ayad (2010) reported 36% for flax seed protein in
his study.
The protein quality of chia has been demonstrated to be
higher than that of common cereals and oil seeds (Weber
et al., 1991; Reyes-Caudillo et al., 2008), which is in
accordance with our results. All tested seeds were rich in
fat (Table 1). The average fat content of both varieties of
flax seed was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia
seed, but there were no significant differences in total fat
content. There was close similarity to the results of
Capitany et al. (2013), which present 327 ±8.0 g/kg for
chia seed in his study.
Gas chromatography analysis of the fatty acids
composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic,
oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all
tested samples. In addition, three more fatty acids were
identified in all analyses: lauric, myristic and palmitooleic.
However, all of them were present just in traces. Only one
significant difference among fatty acids was detected, it
was for oleic acid (Table 2). The fatty acid profile for
Table 1 Content of studied nutrients in analysed seeds, g/kg DM
Chia seed
Brown Flax seed
Gold Flax seed
Dry matter
930.3
935.0
925.1
Fat
321.37
383.44
402.13
CP*
252.5
234.7
211.8
Arginine
20.0
24.0
20.7
Phenylalanine
11.6
10.2
9.2
Histidine
6.1
5.1
4.8
Isoleucine
7.4
8.6
7.7
Leucine
14.2
12.9
11.7
Lysine
9.3
9.1
8.8
Methionine
6.7
4.9
5.1
Threonine
5.4
7.1
7.5
Valine
7.9
10.3
9.2
Alanine
9.4
9.9
9.1
Aspartic acid
12.8
14.1
11.3
Cystine
4.2
3.2
2.8
Glutamic acid
28.7a
45.1b
39.6b
Glycine
9.1
13.3
12.0
Proline
12.8
9.1
8.3
Serine
9.4
10.2
9.4
Tyrosine
6.1
4.9
4.7
Total AA*
181.1
202.0
181.9
Total EAA*
68.6
68.2
64.0
Total NEAA*
112.5
133.8
117.9
abc means in row are significantly different (P ˂0.05)
*CP - crude protein, AA - amino acids, EAA - essential amino acids, NEAA - non-essential amino acids
Potravinarstvo® Scientific Journal for Food Industry
Volume 8 75 No. 1/2014
tested seeds was similar to that reported by another authors
(Ayerza, 1995, 2009, 2010; Coates and Ayerza, 2009;
Martinchik, 2012). ALA constitutes on average 54.38%
of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia
seed and for LA it was 15.30% and 18.89%. Our results
are in accordance with Bhatty (1993) who reported the
ratio of LA in chia seed with about 18% and ALA with
about 64% as unique. There was 53.3% of ALA for flax
seed in his study. All these dates are close to ours. Both
chia and flax seeds are rich in ALA, but chia seed is the
highest plant-based source of ALA (Ayerza and Coates,
2011).
All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio (Table 2).
This observation has important health implications. The
best way to lower the risk of coronary heart disease is to
keep dietary n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratios as low as
possible (Jones et al., 2006).
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans states
reported that an adequate intake of ALA ranges between
1.1 and 1.6 grams/day for adults. Since 12 to 18 grams
(2 to 3 teaspoons) of chia contain between 2.5 and 3.6
grams of ALA, this is more than a sufficient amount to
meet this recommendation.
The EFSA Journal (2009) published labelling reference
value for the n-3 PUFA ALA which is 2 g per day. This
amount is consistent with recommended intakes for
individuals in the general population in European countries
based on considerations of cardiovascular health.
Flax seeds and chia seeds can be also used for feeding to
animals to enrich their eggs and meat with omega 3 fats.
Eggs from hens fed with chia had higher ALA content as
compared to hens fed with flax seed (EFSA Journal,
2009; Coates and Ayerza, 2009).
It is necessary to know that chia seeds can be consumed
directly and do not need to be ground unlike flax, which
must be ground or milled prior to consumption. Since flax
seed content is protected by a thick shell and to obtain
benefits from flax seeds it is necessary to use not whole
seeds. Whole seeds passing through the digestive system
undigested.
CONCLUSION
The quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and
gold flax seed samples is excellent. Chia seed is the best
known plant source with the highest content of n-3 PUFA
α-linolenic fatty acid. Both flax seed and chia seed are the
good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum
lipid profile. These seeds can be an appropriate alternative
to n-3 PUFA sources for vegetarians and people allergic to
fish. Flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients,
but chia seeds do not.
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Chia seed
Brown Flax seed
SEM
12:0
Lauric acid
0.03
0.03
0.00
14:0
Myristic acid
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α- linolenic acid
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Arachidic acid
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abc means in row are significantly different (P ˂0.05)
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Acknowledgments:
This article was written during realization of the project
"ZDRAVIE no. 26220220176" supported by the
Operational Programme Research and Development
funded from the European Regional Development Fund.
Contact address:
MVDr. Soňa Nitrayová, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: nitrayova@vuzv.sk
Ing. Matej Brestenský, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: m_brestensky@vuzv.sk
Doc. Ing. Jaroslav Heger, PhD., National Agricultural
and Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal
Production Nitra, Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951
41 Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: jaroslavheger@gmail.com
Ing. Peter Patráš, PhD., National Agricultural and Food
Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production Nitra,
Institue of Nutrition, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41 Lužianky,
Slovakia, E-mail: patras@vuzv.sk
Doc. Ing. Ján Rafay, PhD., National Agricultural and
Food Center, Reasearch Institute of Animal Production
Nitra, Institute of Small Farm Animals, Hlohovecká 2, 951
41 Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: rafay@vuzv.sk
Prof. Ing. Alexander Sirotkin, DrSc., National
Agricultural and Food Center, Reasearch Institute of
Animal Production Nitra, Institute for Farm Animal
Genetics and Reproduction, Hlohovecká 2, 951 41
Lužianky, Slovakia, E-mail: sirotkin@vuzv.sk
... Fatty acids available include α-linolenic acid (an omega 3 fatty acid), linoleic acid (omega 6), palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid (da Silva Marineli et al. 2014). According to Nitrayová et al. (2014), chia has the highest contents of α -linolenic acid known in plants; and its low ratio to omega 3 fatty acids measured (Sargi et al. 2013;Nitrayová et al. 2014) points out to health-beneficial effects by lowering the risk of coronary heart disease (Simopoulos 2016). ...
... Fatty acids available include α-linolenic acid (an omega 3 fatty acid), linoleic acid (omega 6), palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid (da Silva Marineli et al. 2014). According to Nitrayová et al. (2014), chia has the highest contents of α -linolenic acid known in plants; and its low ratio to omega 3 fatty acids measured (Sargi et al. 2013;Nitrayová et al. 2014) points out to health-beneficial effects by lowering the risk of coronary heart disease (Simopoulos 2016). ...
Chapter
Several pseudo-cereals (plants not belonging to the Poaceae family but with uses similar to those of the traditional cereals) of Neotropical origin have been cultivated and consumed since pre-Columbian times by indigenous communities. Nowadays, some of these crops are gaining the interest of consumers, because of their functional properties and convenience in case of particular medical conditions (like celiac disease). For the food industry sector, these pseudo-cereals offer the opportunity to develop new ingredients and products to reach these new markets, by promoting them as new health-beneficial alternatives. In this chapter, we focus on eight Neotropical pseudo-cereals (i.e., common bean, amaranth, quinoa, chia, chan, jícaro seeds, ojoche and the Andean lupine). For each one, some background on the origin/distribution and traditional importance has been included, followed by data on its nutrition relevance and consumption habits, and finalizing with recent discoveries in terms of its functional properties and possibilities for industrialization. Information available varies according to crop, having some, like the common bean, more relevance, tradition and are more widespread. Others are barely and only locally known, and the information available is more limited.
... The content of fatty acids in quinoa obtained in the current investigation is relevant to the reported by Palombini et al. (2013). Nitrayová et al. (2014) have documented the fatty acid profile of linseed and chia seeds as follows: linolenic acid constituted on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of linseeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. The currently established results show a higher content of linolenic acid in chia and lower in linseed. ...
... The currently established results show a higher content of linolenic acid in chia and lower in linseed. The content of linoleic acid was established to be in a 1:1,23 (chia) and 1:1,29 higher content ratio compared to the results published by Nitrayová et al. (2014). A major part of the composition of fatty acids in einkorn wheat reported by Demir et al. (2015) was linoleic (49.43%), oleic (34.34%) and palmitic acid (10.27%). ...
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Grains are cultivated worldwide and comprise a big percentage of the world’s daily meals being at the base of the Food Guide Pyramid. Whole grains provide a wide range of nutrients and phytochemicals that optimize health. In the present study commercially available samples of eight grain and seed species (chia, common oat, proso millet, amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat, linseed, and einkorn) were studied in respect of their nutritional composition – dry matter, ash, macro-and microelement content, crude protein and fatty acid composition. The dry matter content in the grains ranged from 87.91% to 94.39%, whereas the ash was from 1.24 % to 3.29 %. The analysis of the mineral content shows the predominant content of K, Mg, P and Ca. The palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidic acid were the most abundant fatty acids of the evaluated ones. The crude protein content varied between 12.73% in common oat and 23.72% in chia. The established ash content among the investigated grains ranged from 1.24% to 3.29%. The results obtained revealed the nutritional content and the potential health effects of selected commercially available grains and pointed out their possible application in culinary. The consumption of a variety of whole grains ensures more health-promoting nutrients, as well as makes meals more attractive.
... The bulk of CP2 in flax (56.00%) and hemp (56.48%) consisted of the amino acids Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Leu, and Arg, whereas Glu and Gln dominated the amino acid profiles of chia, rye, quinoa, and spelt. The amino acid compositions obtained in this study for chia, rye, and quinoa were consistent with the values from published literature (FAO, 1981;Fujihara et al., 2008;Nitrayova et al., 2014). In general, the amount of amide-nitrogen (%) that was retrieved from each sample was very small. ...
... Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a rich source of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid (Nitrayová et al., 2014). Alpha-linolenic acid can produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) after metabolism in the human body (Zhou, Huang, Yan, & Li, 2000). ...
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Introduction Depression is a serious mental illness. However, a significant proportion of patients with depression fail to achieve remission with antidepressant therapies. This study was conducted to explore the antidepressant‐like effect of flaxseed oil and flour in an animal model with depression‐like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Methods Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control (Sham–Sham), CUS plus saline (S‐SN), CUS plus escitalopram (S‐Esc), CUS plus flaxseeds oil (S‐FO), and CUS plus flaxseed flour (S‐FF). Behaviors were tested using sucrose preference test and forced swimming test. The serum BDNF concentration, hippocampal BDNF mRNA, and protein expression were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay, real‐time PCR, and Western blot, respectively. Results The sucrose preference rate was significantly higher in S‐FO and S‐FF rats than in S‐SN and S‐Esc rats (p < .01), and lower in S‐Esc rats than in Sham–Sham rats (p < .01). The immobility time was significantly shorter in S‐FO and S‐FF rats than in S‐SN rats (p < .01), and shorter in S‐Esc rats than in S‐SN rats (p < .01). Plasma BDNF concentrations were significantly lower in S‐FO, S‐FF, and S‐Esc rats than in Sham–Sham rats (p < .01); BDNF was lower in S‐FO, S‐FF, and S‐SN rats than in S‐Esc rats. The hippocampal BDNF protein expression was significantly higher in S‐Esc rats than in S‐SN rats (p < .05). The hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was significantly higher in S‐Esc rats than in S‐SN rats (p < .01). The BDNF gene expression in plasma and the hippocampus negatively correlated with the immobility time (p < .05), but BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus positively correlated with the sucrose preference rate (p < .05). Conclusion Flaxseed oil and flaxseed flour exert antidepressant‐like effect in rats exposed to chronic stress. Flaxseed may have a therapeutic effect on depression.
... Other sources of omega-3 fatty acids primarily include: walnuts, linseed and hemp oil, seafood, and soy products. Increasing the consumption of these products while limiting vegetable oils, full-fat milk products, and red meat should be the foundation of the diet of every woman who cares about her health (50). It is also worth noting that a diet taking into account an adequate supply of omega-3 fatty acids is also an element of prevention of obesity, which is not only a disease in itself, but is also an important risk factor for cancer -including breast cancer (51). ...
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Background/aim: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women around the world and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The knowledge about modifiable risk factors, such as diet, can be an acceptable, cheap and non-pharmacological prevention tool. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary fat, dietary fatty acids, fish intake, and breast cancer in women. Patients and methods: A case-control study was designed. A total of 201 consecutive, newly diagnosed, polish female cancer patients (mean age: 58 years) and 201 one-to-one age-matched controls were enrolled. A standardised questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary characteristics was applied via face-to-face interviews. Detailed dietary intake information was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained using multiple unconditional logistic regression models controlling for non-dietary and dietary potential confounders. Results: Consumption of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) over 10% of total energy intake was associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer compared to low intake of PUFA (OR=0.4, 95%CI=0.19-0.85). Low (<0.2) omega-3/ omega-6 ratio (OR=2.04, 95%CI=0.996-4.17), fish consumption less than once every six months (OR=3.37, 95%CI=1.57-7.23) and being overweight (OR=2.07, 95%CI=1.3-3.3) were associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Residents of rural areas had a significantly higher risk compared to women from urban areas (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.06-3.03). Conclusion: High intake of PUFA can decrease the risk of breast cancer, while the low omega-3/omega-6 ratio increases the risk. In addition, overweight state, eliminating fish from the diet and living in rural areas can also increase the risk of breast cancer.
... Fatty acid composition of chia oil extracted from chia seeds is given in Table 1. ese findings are in accordance with the reports of Muñoz et al. and Nitrayová et al. [10,21]. According to their report, chia seed had more polyunsaturated fatty acid content than amaranth and flaxseed; its total fatty acid content was higher than quinoa and amaranth. ...
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The aim of the study was to develop and characterize marmalade having functional food ingredients such as omega-3 fatty acid, dietary fiber, protein, and antioxidants with the addition of chia seed ( Salvia hispanica L.). During the development of marmalade formulations, sweetener type and chia content in the strawberry marmalade were decided by two-step sensory analysis. In the first step, four different formulas were prepared separately by using sorbitol, isomalt, commercial Stevia™ powder, and isomalt together with sorbitol. The control formula was prepared with sucrose (refined commercial sugar). In the first part of the study, sensorial parameters showed good acceptability for sorbitol. Thereafter, in the second step, marmalades were prepared with 2.5% and 5% (by weight) chia seed including sorbitol. According to sensory panels, sorbitol had the highest acceptance level and the chia seed content was chosen to be used as 5% in the formulations. Chia seed and sorbitol addition increased the phenolic content by 15.45% and the dietary fiber content by 168% and decreased the caloric value by 48% compared to the control prepared with sucrose and without chia seed. The final product had 1.5% omega-3 fatty acid and could be declared as “omega-3 source” in the label. The viscosity of chia-added marmalade was found to be slightly higher than the viscosity of control, even though there was no distinct difference between the two samples. The gel-like character was more dominant in chia-added strawberry marmalade compared to the control. The addition of chia at 5% may contribute to the crosslinking without formation of a gel structure.
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Flax seed meal ( FSM ) is rich in various nutrients, especially CP and energy, and can be used as animal protein feed. In animal husbandry production, it is a long-term goal to replace soybean meal ( SBM ) in animal feed with other plant protein feed. However, studies on the effects of replacing SBM with FSM in fattening sheep are limited. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of replacing a portion of SBM with FSM on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis and growth performance in sheep. Thirty-six Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred rams (BW = 40.4 ± 1.73 kg, mean ± SD) were randomly assigned into four groups. The dietary treatments (forage/concentrate, 45 : 55) were isocaloric according to the nutrient requirements of rams. Soybean meal was replaced with FSM at different levels (DM basis): (1) 18% SBM ( 18SBM ), (2) 12% SBM and 6% FSM ( 6FSM ), (3) 6% SBM and 12% FSM ( 12FSM ) and (4) 18% FSM ( 18FSM ). The rams were fed in individual pens for 60 days, with the first 10 days for adaptation to diets, and then the digestibility of nutrients was determined. There was no significant difference in DM intake, but quadratic ( P < 0.001) effects on the average daily gain and feed efficiency were detected, with the highest values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups. For DM and NDF digestibility, quadratic effects were observed with the higher values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups, but the digestibility of CP linearly decreased with the increase in FSM in the diet ( P = 0.043). There was a quadratic ( P < 0.001) effect of FSM inclusion rate on the estimated microbial CP yield. However, the values of intestinally absorbable dietary protein decreased linearly ( P < 0.001). For the supply of metabolisable protein, both the linear ( P = 0.001) and quadratic ( P = 0.044) effects were observed with the lowest value in the 18FSM group. Overall, the results indicated that SBM can be effectively replaced by FSM in the diets of fattening sheep and the optimal proportion was 12.0% under the conditions of this experiment.
Chapter
Cereals are the crops which belong to the graminae family and are composed of endosperm, germ and bran. According to FAO cereal crops refer to those crops which are harvested for dry use and can be utilized in different food formulations. They are generally classified according to their genus but when two or more genera are grown and harvested together they are usually referred as mixed grains. However some plant species like buckwheat, quinoa and chia belong to dicotyledonous family and they are referred to as pseudo cereals. Cereals usually contain 12-14% moisture on dry weight basis and apart from moisture content cereals contain inedible substances such as cellulose along with traces of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates mainly starches (comprising 65-75% of their total weight), as well as proteins (6-12%) and fat (1-5%). They are considered as the staple foods for mankind worldwide and represent the main constituent of animal feed. Most recently, cereals have been additionally used for energy production, for example by fermentation yielding biogas or bioethanol. Among the cereal crops the major onese are wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, and rye. These major cereal crops occupy nearly 60% of the cultivated land in the world. Among these major cereal crops wheat, corn, and rice share the major portion of land for cultivation and hence produce the largest quantities of cereal grains.
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