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International Journal of Exercise Science 8(1) : 85-96, 2015. This study examined muscle recovery patterns between single-joint (SJ) versus multi-joint (MJ), and upper-body (UB) versus lower-body (LB) exercises and the utility of perceptual measures (ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceived recovery scale (PRS)) to assess recovery status. A 10 rep max (10-RM) was determined for 6 SJ and 4 MJ exercises (5 UB and 5 LB) for male recreational weightlifters (n = 10). Participants completed a baseline protocol including 8 repetitions at 85% of 10-RM followed by a set to failure with 100% of 10-RM. In a counterbalanced crossover design, participants returned at 24 or 48 h to repeat the protocol. PRS and RPE were assessed following the first and second sets of each exercise respectively. Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests determined performance improved (p < 0.05) for every lift type category from 24 to 48 h, but the only difference in ∆ repetitions from baseline at the same time point was between MJ (-1.7 ± 1.5 repetitions) and SJ (-0.5 ± 1.8 repetitions) at 24 h (p = 0.037). Higher RPE and lower PRS estimations (p < 0.05) support the utility of perceptual measures to gauge recovery as the only between group differences were also found between MJ and SJ at 24 h. Eighty percent of participants completed within 1 repetition of baseline for all exercises at 48 h except bench press (70%) and deadlift (60%); suggesting 72 h of recovery should be implemented for multi-joint barbell lifts targeting the same muscle groups in slower recovering lifters.
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Original Research
Resistance Training Recovery: Considerations for Single vs. Multi-
joint Movements and Upper vs. Lower Body Muscles
1Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State
University, Murfreesboro, TN USA; 2Department of Health and Physical
Education Recreation, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL, USA
Denotes graduate student author, Denotes professional author
International Journal of Exercise Science 8(1) : 85-96, 2015. This study examined
muscle recovery patterns between single-joint (SJ) versus multi-joint (MJ), and upper-body (UB)
versus lower-body (LB) exercises and the utility of perceptual measures (ratings of perceived
exertion (RPE) and perceived recovery scale (PRS)) to assess recovery status. A 10 rep max (10-
RM) was determined for 6 SJ and 4 MJ exercises (5 UB and 5 LB) for male recreational
weightlifters (n = 10). Participants completed a baseline protocol including 8 repetitions at 85% of
10-RM followed by a set to failure with 100% of 10-RM. In a counter-balanced crossover design,
participants returned at 24 or 48 h to repeat the protocol. PRS and RPE were assessed following
the first and second sets of each exercise respectively. Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests
determined performance improved (p < 0.05) for every lift type category from 24 to 48 h, but the
only difference in repetitions from baseline at the same time point was between MJ (-1.7 ± 1.5
repetitions ) and SJ (-0.5 ± 1.8 repetitions ) at 24 h (p = 0.037). Higher RPE and lower PRS
estimations (p < 0.05) support the utility of perceptual measures to gauge recovery as the only
between group differences were also found between MJ and SJ at 24 h. Eighty percent of
participants completed within 1 repetition of baseline for all exercises at 48 h except bench press
(70%) and deadlift (60%); suggesting 72 h of recovery should be implemented for multi-joint
barbell lifts targeting the same muscle groups in slower recovering lifters.
KEY WORDS: Weight training, RPE, perceived recovery scale, programming
Research indicates 1-7 days between
resistance training exercise bouts may be
needed for replication of previous
performance (4, 5, 9-11, 13, 15, 17, 18). As
general guidelines, the National Strength
and Conditioning Association (NSCA)
states that increased recovery time is
needed between heavy lifting days and that
upper body musculatures recovers faster
than lower body musculature and single-
joint lifts require less recovery time than
multi-joint lifts (16 p.389). However, a
careful review of the literature cited in the
NSCA guidelines reveals most of the
references are based on anecdotal evidence
in older review papers or other textbooks
and no quantitative evidence of recovery
patterns were collected in the investigations
cited supporting upper body versus lower
body recovery (6) or single versus multi-
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joint lift recovery (20). Recent investigations
have sought to quantitatively determine the
number of days needed for recovery to
occur (8, 15). While these investigations
have extended the knowledge concerning
lifting recovery as a whole, they have not
delineated if discrepancies exist between
multi-joint, single-joint, upper body, and
lower body.
Studies using repetitions to failure as a
performance measure show recreational
weightlifters are unlikely to be recovered at
24 hours (h), but show significant variance
at 48 and 72 h, which may possibly be
attributed to the inter-individual variability
of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
which typically peaks between 24-72 h (2, 8,
15, 25). In addition to a general
consideration for DOMS (2, 8, 15, 24) the
lifting protocols incorporated in previous
studies likely affects quantitative evaluation
for determining optimal time between
lifting sessions. McLester et al. (15) and
Jones et al. (8) both examined overall
recovery times after resistance training (3
sets of 10 repetitions) repeated at 24, 48, 72,
96, and 120 h to determine time needed to
return or exceed baseline performance
following a full body workout. A limitation
in interpreting these studies is that while
McLester et al. (15) used 8 total and Jones et
al. (8) used 6 different exercises (Table 1)
both examined recovery in terms of
differences in total repetitions.
Neither study reported recovery patterns
based on individual exercises or single (SJ)
Table 1. Comparisons for lifting protocols between the current study, McLester et al. (15), and Jones et al. 1
(8). Lifts include barbell bench press (BP), dead lift (DL), military dumbbell press (MP), leg press (LP), 2
knee extension (KE), machine chest fly (CF), tricep extension (TE), dumbbell side raises (SR), hip 3
adduction (HipAD), hip abduction (HipAB), lat pull down (LAT), bicep curl (BC), and leg curl (LC). 4
Current Study
McLester et al. (15)
Jones et al. (8)
10 tested twice
Exercises performed
Sets completed per
exercise/total sets
Reps completed per
Set 1 = 8
Set 2 = voluntary failure
Voluntary failure
every set
Voluntary failure
every set
Time between
90 seconds
30 seconds 1 min
2 min
Time between sets
2 min
30 seconds 1 min
2 min
Intensity (% 10RM)
Set 1 = 85% of 10RM
Set 2 = 10RM
All sets = 10RM
All sets = 10RM
Recovery time (h)
24, 48
24, 48, 72, 96
48, 72, 96, 120
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versus multi-joint movements (MJ) or
upper body (UB) versus lower body (LB)
muscle groups which are key
considerations when programing lifting
Determining ideal recovery time allows the
athlete to initiate a subsequent training
bout as soon as possible, limit detraining
and optimize training volume, while
avoiding overtraining to maximize training
adaptations. It is plausible that recovery
time for LB lifts may be shorter than UB
exercises as the legs are involved in
ambulatory tasks during daily living
possibly leading to increased blood flow
(23). Additionally, recovery time between
lifting bouts may need to be extended for
MJ core exercises such as bench press or
squat versus SJ secondary exercises such as
triceps or knee extensions as more total
musculature is recruited and greater motor
control is likely required during MJ lifts
(16). Therefore the current study quantified
muscle recovery patterns between SJ versus
MJ, and UB versus LB exercises at 24 and 48
h. A secondary objective was to examine
the efficacy to self-evaluate recovery using
the classic perceptual subject ratings of
perceived exertion scale (RPE) (22) and the
more novel perceived recovery scale (PRS)
Ten recreationally strength trained college
age males (26 ± 6 years) served as
participants and all were over the age of 18
years old. All provided written consent
prior to testing. Participants were excluded
if they reported completing fewer than 3
resistance training sessions per week on
average for the previous 12 weeks, were
unfamiliar with any exercises incorporated
in this investigation, or were not
categorized as “low risk” based on PAR-Q
and risk factor stratification questionnaire
(1). Nine participants reported lifting ≥ 4
times per week and the remaining
participant reported lifting 3+ times per
week. Height (Stadiometer, Betco, Webb
City, MO) and weight (BWB800, Tanita
Corps, Japan) were assessed and body fat
was estimated using a 3 site (chest,
abdomen, thigh) skin fold assessment
(Lange Calipers, Cambridge, MD, USA)
(19). Height, weight, and percent body fat
were (176 ± 6 cm, 83.1 ± 8.2 kg, 11.0 ± 3.0%)
respectively. This study was approved by
the local university’s Institutional Review
A 10 repetition maximum (10-RM) was
determined for 10 exercises during an
initial session. Participants reported 5-7
days later for a baseline trial during which
they completed 2 sets on the same 10
exercises. Eight repetitions (reps) at an
intensity equal to 85% of their 10-RM was
completed during the first set for each
exercise. The second set was completed
with 100% of 10-RM and participants lifted
to failure. The purpose of the first set was to
induce standardized fatigue before the
subsequent set to failure. The protocol was
replicated during two additional sessions
with days of rest (either 24 or 48h) between
the next two lifting sessions serving as the
independent variable. A counter-balanced
crossover design was used. Half of the
participants repeated their workout 24 h
after the baseline session and rested for 48 h
before their fourth and final session (e.g.
baseline Monday, 24 h session on Tuesday,
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and 48 h session on Thursday). The other
half completed their third session 48 h after
baseline testing and their fourth and final
session 24 h later (e.g. baseline Monday, 48
h session on Wednesday, and 24 h session
on Thursday). Participants were instructed
to refrain from other exercise, alcohol, and
to maintain regular diet and sleeping
patterns from 48 h prior to their baseline
testing session until completion of the
A protocol similar to that incorporated by
McLester et al. (15) was used to determine
the 10-RM for each exercise and establish
weight to be lifted during baseline and
experimental trials. Five to seven days
before the baseline session, a 10-RM was
obtained for each exercise (described
below) in the lifting protocol. Participants
started with a light 15 rep warm up. Once
the warm up was completed, participants
estimated their 10 RM. Participants lifted to
fatigue with 100% of their self-estimated 10-
RM. Successful determination of 10-RM
was measured by participants lifting the
estimated resistance between 9-11
repetitions. If unsuccessful in an attempt,
participant’s passively recovered three
minutes and resistance was adjusted by 2.3-
9.1 kg based on participant’s perception of
the needed adjustment until fatigue
occurred at 9-11 repetitions during a set.
The same sequence of exercises was
incorporated in the baseline and all
treatment sessions. All participants
completed 10 different exercises. Resistance
exercises included: flat barbell bench press
(BP), seated dumbbell military press (MP),
barbell dead lift (DL), machine leg press
(LP), knee extension (KE), machine triceps
extension (TE), dumbbell side raises (SR),
machine chest fly (CF), and seated machine
hip abduction/adduction (HipAB/AD).
Sets for BP, MP, DL, and LP were
considered core/multi-joint lifts and were
completed first in keeping with the NSCA
guidelines (16). BP and DL were completed
in a counter-balanced order between
participants, but kept constant within
individuals. Single-joint/secondary
exercises were conducted in an order that
allowed the greatest rest time between lifts
incorporating the same muscle groups (i.e.
UB and LB exercises were alternated). The
exercises were chosen to include single-
joint movements (SR, TE, HipAB, HipAD,
KE, CF), and multi-joint movements (BP,
LP, MP, DL). Participants were given 90
seconds of recovery between sets and 2
minutes recovery between different
exercises. The second set for all exercises
was completed to volitional failure at the
individualized 10-RM resistance with
repetitions completed recorded as the
dependent measure. The first set was
implemented to produce a standardized
amount of fatigue and was prescribed at
85% of the 10-RM resistances for 8
repetitions. This approach reduced the
variability in total repetitions between
bouts (outside of the fatiguing second set
that was completed to failure). After
completing the baseline session,
participants returned at 24 and 48 h to
complete the same testing protocol.
Participants that completed their third
session 24 h after their baseline session
returned for their final (fourth) session 48 h
after their 24 h session and vice versa.
Participants estimated their perceived level
of recovery (PRS) on a scale from 0-10 (0
being least recovered, 10 being fully
recovered) (14) after their first set of each
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exercise, and rating of perceived exertion
(RPE) on a scale from 0-10 (0being
extremely easy, 10 being extremely hard)
following the second set to failure of each
exercise (22). Session RPE was recorded 15
minutes after completing the entire
workout protocol.
Statistical Analysis
Due to the non-parametric nature of the
dependent values assessed during the
testing protocol repetitions from
baseline, RPE, PRS) Wilcoxon matched
sign-ranked tests were used to analyze all
data (SPSS v. 20, Chicago, IL). Data are
expressed in box and whisker plots or as
percentage of participants recovered
excluding session RPE and change in
performance for all lifts combined which
are expressed as mean ± SD since they are
not displayed in a box and whisker plot
form. Statistical significance was
determined when p ≤ 0.05.
Lifters were operationally defined as
recovered in this study if they were able to
complete within 1 repetition of baseline
performance during the second set to
failure for each exercise. The same criterion
was used for comparisons of all lifts
combined, MJ, SJ, UB, and LB after
averaging the ∆ repetitions from baseline
for all applicable lifts (i.e. -1 or greater =
recovered; -1.1 = not recovered). A
significant difference (p = 0.007) was found
for change in performance when the Δreps
for all exercises were averaged together
between 24 h (-1.0 ± 1.4 repetitions ) and 48
h (0.4 ± 1.2 repetitions ) with 50% of
participants at 24 h and 80% at 48 h
classified as recovered. Significant
differences (p 0.05) were observed for all
lift type categories between 24 and 48 h, but
the only difference (p = 0.037) detected
between performance of different lift types
at the same time point was between MJ and
SJ at 24 h (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Box and whisker plot comparisons of
cumulative means for Δ in repetitions from baseline
for upper body (UB), lower body (LB), multi-joint
(MJ), and single-joint (SJ) exercises at 24 and 48 h (n
= 10; middle line = median; top and bottom boxes
represent 2nd and 3rd quartiles; error bars represent
min and max scores). * = Significant difference (p <
0.05) between 24 and 48 h within lift type category. †
= Significant difference (p = 0.037) between MJ and
SJ at 24 h.
However MJ and SJ at 48 h approached
significance (Figure 1; p = 0.07). Tables 2
and 3 display the percentages of
participants classified as recovered from
MJ, SJ, UB, and LB and for each individual
exercise at 24 and 48 h respectively.
Collectively, these two tables and figure
reveal that as expected 48 h of recovery
offered marked improvement in
performance, and that while replication of
MJ lifts suffers more greatly at 24 h than SJ
lifts, most MJ and SJ exercises can be
replicated at 48 h for the majority of young
male recreational weightlifters. The
exception to the trend however appears to
occur for MJ barbell lifts with BP and DL
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being the only lifts in which 80% or more of
lifters were not recovered with 10% fewer
participants being recovered for BP versus
MP and DL versus LP at 48 h respectively
(Table 2).
RPE and PRS estimations for all
participants between UB, LB, SJ, and MJ at
24 and 48 h recovery are displayed in
Figures 2 and 3. No differences were
observed within lift category type between
24 and 48 h for RPE, but lifters reported
feeling more recovered (p 0.05) based on
PRS for all lift category types excluding UB
between 24 and 48 h. Increased RPE (p =
0.021) and lower PRS (p = 0.018) for SJ
versus MJ were both reported at 24 h.
Session RPE ratings (24 h = 7.7 ± 1.5; 48 h =
7.5 ± 1.9) did not differ (p=0.58) between
time points.
To our knowledge this is the first study that
has quantified lifting recovery based on lift
type category (LTC). Muscle recovery
patterns were examined between SJ versus
MJ, and UB versus LB exercise. The results
of this study will be compared primarily to
two key foundational studies that have
attempted to quantify resistance training
recovery time based on total changes in
repetitions in protocols incorporating both
MJ, SJ, UB and LB lifts (8, 15). A
description of methodological differences
between these investigations and the
current study is imperative before
comparison of results can be assessed, and
Table 1 details the protocols of each study.
The first major difference between studies
not represented in Table 1 is the criterion
definition for recovery. McLester et al. (15)
and Jones et al. (8) required full replication
of baseline repetitions, while the current
study based recovery on a less conservative
criterion of being able to complete 1
repetition versus the baseline trial
performance. Our rationale for requiring
completion within only 1 repetition was
primarily based on considerations for the
minor inherent intertrial variability that
exists when lifters are asked to replicate a
lifting protocol. In a practical sense,
completing an extra day of lifting in a week
with 1 less repetition than the previous
bouts efforts would plausibly represent a
transient state of overreaching and with
appropriate periodization would plausibly
lead to greater long term gains than lifting
fewer sessions during the training week.
Much consideration was also given
concerning the overall fatiguing effect of
24 h
48 h
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the lifting protocol in the current study.
Both previous studies (8, 15) incorporated a
design in which 3 versus 2 sets were used
for each lift, all sets were completed to
fatigue with the dependent variable being
recovery evaluated on the first set of each
exercise, and McLester et al. (15) allowed a
much shorter recovery period between sets
(Table 1). We opted not to lift to fatigue on
every set because of the potential
variability in preceding repetitions to
influence the final set to fatigue, and
because many lifters do not lift to failure
every set. The current study incorporated
more exercises and fewer sets so more
comparisons could be made between LTC.
Because of this consideration all upper
body lifts chosen focused on extensor
muscles (chest, triceps, and deltoids) to
hopefully result in more local fatigue since
each first set was less fatiguing than the
previous 2 investigations that both used
upper body pushing and pulling lifts. These
factors likely explain the reason why some
participants in the current study were able
to replicate some lifts during the 24 h trial.
Nonetheless, based on quantitative session
RPE results from investigators, the protocol
was considerably taxing for participants.
NSCA guideline’s (19) suggest at least 48 h
is needed for muscles to recover, and not
surprisingly significant performance
differences were found for all LTC between
24 h versus 48 h. All LTC exhibited
negative median repetition values at 24 h,
but returned to baseline or were slightly
positive at 48 h (Figure 1). Evaluating
cumulative repetition totals, Jones et al. (8)
found 8 of 10 participants were able to
replicate the numbers of repetitions
completed for 3 sets of 6 exercises at 48 h,
and 7 of the 10 same participants repeated
their performance after a 3 week washout
period. McLester et al. (15) found only 40%
of participants were able to replicate the
same number of repetitions completed
during the first of 3 sets of 8 exercises at 48
h and 0% replication for the 24 h recovery
trial. Recovery using our definition (within
1 repetition of baseline) revealed 50 and
80% of participants were recovered at 24
and 48 h respectively when performances
for all lifts were combined. However using
the McLester et al. (15) and Jones et al. (8)
standard for recovery (matching or
exceeding baseline) dropped the percentage
of participants recovered to 30% (24 h) and
60% (48 h). When examining each of the 10
exercises individually 60+% of participants
at 48 h were able to complete within 1
repetition of their baseline performance. If
the stricter criteria of complete replication
(8, 15) were used in the current study LP,
MP, and TE would have each been dropped
by 30%, as 3 participants in each lifted
completed only 1 less repetition from
baseline, further highlighting the impact
subtle differences (1 repetition) in
definitions can make when interpreting
data. It is plausible the lower recovery
levels in McLester et al. (15) were due to the
shorter recovery time between sets (30-60 s)
which was half of what was provided in
Jones et al. (8) and the current study (2
min). Simply increasing time between sets
may be a strategy that could be
incorporated to decrease the amount of
days rest needed between lifting sessions.
Although our data does not support lifting
on consecutive days, increasing time
between sets could possibly be beneficial
for individuals who require more than 48 h
to recover allowing more total lifting
sessions to be completed within the same
overall time frame.
International Journal of Exercise Science
The next two important performance trends
that our data reveals are (1) lifters recover
more effectively from SJ versus MJ at 24 h
but even though recovery patterns learn
toward similar results at 48 h, MJ exercises
still appear to be a little more stunted than
SJ exercises and (2) there appears to be no
basis to support UB exercise recovery
occurs more quickly than LB (16) under the
current paradigm. In regards to the first
finding, Table 3 shows 7 of 10 participants
were not able to perform within 1
repetition from the baseline trial for all MJ
lifts at 24 h rest versus 5 for all SJ exercise at
24 h.
This tendency is further exemplified when
looking at the differences in medians when
comparing SJ versus MJ at 24 h. While the
median change in repetitions is more
similar at 48 h, the distribution of scores for
MJ at 48 h trended downward towards
poorer performance versus upwards for SJ
(Figure 1). An additional consideration
revealed by the data is that all MJ exercises
are not equal in regards to time between
bout recovery needs. Heavy barbell
exercises are a clear exception to the rule in
terms of recovery as even MJ free weight
exercise with lighter resistance (e.g. MP)
and machine MJ exercises (LP) recovered at
a faster trend when compared to heavy
barbell exercises.
The NSCA (16) suggests UB musculature
recovers more quickly than LB exercises.
However, no differences in performance
were noted between the LTC at the same
time points when using Wilcoxon signed
rank tests (Figure 1). Table 3 also shows
that the same percentages of lifters were
recovered at 48 hours rest for UB vs. LB
exercises and 2 more participants were
considered recovered from combined LB
than UB exercises at 24 h. The hypothesis
that blood flow to the legs from daily
activities improves recovery time in LB
versus UB lifts was not supported under
the current paradigm. However, because
two of the ten participants seemed to
recover faster from LB lifts vs UB lifts at 24
h, further research should be conducted to
examine this variable. It is plausible that
future studies might indicate blood flow to
the legs from daily activities improves
recovery time in LB lifts vs UB lifts.
The efficacy of perceptual measures (RPE
and PRS) were also observed as both have
been promoted as tools to encourage
optimal strength and conditioning
programing by determining whether
athletes are adequately recovered.
Perceptual measures efficacy in resistance
training paradigms have received relatively
less consideration than for intermittent high
intensity sport or endurance type exercise.
For example, Impellizzeri et al. (7)
concluded that session-RPE is a good
Table 3. Percentages of participants classified as recoveredA from multi-joint (MJ), single-joint (SJ), upper 1
body (UB), and lower body (LB) exercises at 24 and 48 h when ∆ in reps from baseline was averaged 2
based on exercise type. (n = 10). 3
A = Lifters were considered recovered if the mean ∆ in reps from baseline was ≤ 1 repetition of their
baseline session repetition max.
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indicator of global internal load of soccer
training and high intensity interval training
(HIIT). Similar finding were concluded by
Wallace et al. (21) who found session RPE
provided a practical training load intensity
in 12 highly conditioned swimmers.
However, few studies have implemented
perceptual measures into resistance
training protocols. When lifting to failure,
post-lift RPE has been evidenced to not
differ even when participants have
completed fewer repetitions concurrent
with caffeine ingestion (3) or when lifting
occurs following dehydration of 3% body
mass (12). Although more repetitions were
completed for all LTC between 48 versus 24
h, and general trends of lower RPE were
observed at 48h, particularly for MJ vs. SJ,
no statistical differences were exhibited for
RPE. It is also worth noting that at least one
participant reported maximal average RPE
response that approached 10 for every LTC
and time point, but at least one participant
also averaged below 6 for all 48 h LTC
while no lifter responded with an average
RPE less than 7.5 for each LTC at 24 h
(Figure 2).
Figure 2. Box and whisker plot comparisons of
cumulative means for rate of perceived exertion
(RPE) ratings for upper body (UB), lower body (LB),
multi-joint (MJ), and single-joint (SJ) at 24 and 48 h
(n=10; middle line = median; top and bottom boxes
represent 2nd and 3rd quartiles; error bars represent
min and max scores). = Significant difference (p =
0.021) between MJ and SJ at 24 h.
Unlike RPE which is typically collected
during or after activity, the PRS scale was
developed to predict recovery prior to a
pending workout (14). Briefly, prior to
exercise, participants use a numerical scale
with verbal descriptors to assign a value
(higher number = more recovered)
regarding feelings of recovery. Laurent et
al. (14) developed the scale and initially
showed that using the PRS scale
participants were able to accurately predict
performance with a high degree of accuracy
(80% of trials). In the current study PRS
estimations differed within LTC between 24
and 48 h, and the only difference between
LTC within time period occurred between
MJ and SJ at 24 h (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Box and whisker plot comparisons of
cumulative means for perceived recovery scale
(PRS) ratings for upper body (UB), lower body (LB),
multi-joint (MJ), and single-joint (SJ) at 24 and 48 h
(n=10; middle line = median; top and bottom boxes
represent 2nd and 3rd quartiles; error bars represent
min and max scores). * = Significant difference (p <
0.05) between 24 and 48 h. = Significant difference
(p = 0.018) between MJ and SJ at 24 h.
Comparing subjective estimations with
actual performance results supports the
utility of using the PRS after a warm up to
determine if an extra day of recovery may
be needed. The validity of the PRS is
further strengthened when examining
changes in performance of individual lifts.
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The DL exercise experienced the lowest
percentage of participants returning to
baseline performance and concurrently
received the lowest mean PRS estimations
of any lift at 24 h (4.7 ± 2.0) and 48 h (6.3 ±
1.8) at 48 h recovery. The highest PRS
values (reflecting feelings of well-
recovered) were estimated for Hip AB and
HipAD which mirrored highest lift
replication levels. When lifting to failure
RPE appears to be less useful than PRS, but
measuring RPE after a lighter warm-up set
versus after a final set to failure may
increase the utility of using RPE in the
strength training paradigm. Furthermore, if
a participant completes a warm up set and
reports a low RPE rating, this should
indicate high performance on the
subsequent set. However, the PRS scale
seemed to be a greater predictor of
performance when compared to the RPE
scale (Figures 2 &3).
Coaches of high school and collegiate
athletes often are limited to weekday
strength and conditioning sessions only,
particularly during season. Jones et al. (8)
provide evidence that an acute assessment
period in which athletes are asked to
replicate lifting routines with different
between bout recovery period lengths (e.g.
24, 48, 72 h) can be used to reliably identify
how many days are required for
individuals to recover. With a
consideration that quality remains the
same, the more sessions that can be
completed within this time frame should
result in greater long term strength gains.
The present study suggests that the
majority of recreational weightlifters can
replicate within 1 repetition of baseline
work within 48 h for lifting protocols
incorporating 2 sets of repetitions for 10
exercises. However, free weight, multi-
joint exercises, and possibly lower body
lifts are less likely to be recovered than
single-joint or machine based exercises.
Identifying lifters who recover “slowly” or
“quickly” could allow program design to
incorporate the minimal amount of
recovery time needed and offer adjustments
such as incorporating exercises that require
less recovery time for individuals who
recover more slowly. Additionally, the
utility of PRS estimations corresponded
well with changes in performance and may
be beneficial in making on the fly decisions
concerning whether an extra period of
recovery is needed before a following
through with an entire low quality lifting
Certain limitations should be considered
when interpreting current results. The
primary concerns involve the goal and
proficiency level of the participants. Only
recreational lifters participated in this study
and both upper body pushing movements
and lower body lifts were incorporated in
the same lifting session. The protocol is
unlikely to resemble a lifting regiment for a
body builder where more focus would
likely be placed on distinct muscle groups
and include greater volume. Power sport
athletes would also likely include Olympic
style lifts, and depending on periodization
phase include lifts at a higher % of 1-RM.
Future studies examining recovery during
body building or power sport type training
at 48 h are warranted as are additional
investigations regarding the utility of
perceptual measures (i.e. PRS) for assessing
recovery status.
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... Collectively, these results are not baseless. Although some acute animal (Haddad and Adams, 2002) and human (Bickel et al., 2005;Flores et al., 2011;Radaelli et al., 2012;Korak et al., 2015) studies do point to at least 48 h of recovery between RT sessions for better strength recovery and muscle growth, other chronic RT studies are inconclusive regarding the optimal recovery period and do not indicate that C RT is indeed inferior to NC RT. Hunter (1985) found 4 C days to be superior to 3 NC days of RT per week, despite the same weekly volume, in increasing maximum bench press and bench press endurance after 7 weeks. ...
... Two other noteworthy findings from our study were that recovery requirement did not differ between (1) upper and lower body exercises, and (2) single-and multi-joint exercises, contrary to popular beliefs, since both groups improved 10RM similarly in all five exercises. These results echoed the findings of Korak et al. (2015) and Carvalho and Rodrigues Santos (2016), with one exception. Korak et al. (2015) found that multi-joint exercises required longer recovery period compared to singlejoint exercises, and that bench press and deadlift required longer recovery period of more than 48 h. ...
... These results echoed the findings of Korak et al. (2015) and Carvalho and Rodrigues Santos (2016), with one exception. Korak et al. (2015) found that multi-joint exercises required longer recovery period compared to singlejoint exercises, and that bench press and deadlift required longer recovery period of more than 48 h. The finding on bench press contradicted that by Carvalho and Rodrigues Santos (2016) who found no difference in 1RM bench press between C and NC groups after 7 weeks of RT. ...
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Health authorities worldwide recommend 2-3 days per week of resistance training (RT) performed ~48-72 h apart. However, the influence of recovery period between RT sessions on muscle strength, body composition and red blood cells (RBCs) are unclear. Aim: Examine the effects of three consecutive (C) or nonconsecutive (NC) days of RT per week for 12 weeks on strength, body composition and RBCs. Methods: Thirty young, healthy and recreationally active males were randomly assigned to 3 C (~24 h between sessions) or NC (~48-72 h between sessions) days of RT per week for 12 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 10-repetition maximum (RM) of leg press, latissimus pulldown, leg curl, shoulder press and leg extension for each session. Ten RM and body composition were assessed pre- and post-RT. RBC parameters were measured on the first session before RT, and 0 and 24 h post-3rd session in untrained (week 1) and trained (week 12) states. Results: No training x group interaction was found for all strength and body composition parameters (p = 0.075-0.974). Training increased strength for all exercises, bone mineral density, and total body mass via increased lean and bone mass (p < 0.001). There was no interaction (p = 0.076-0.994) and RT induced temporal changes in all RBC parameters (p < 0.001-0.003) except RBC corrected for plasma volume changes (time x training interaction; p = 0.001). Training increased hematocrit and lowered mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.001-0.041) but did not alter uncorrected RBC, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and RBC distribution width (p = 0.178-0.797). Conclusion: Both C and NC RT induced similar improvements in strength and body composition, and changes in RBC parameters.
... However, a study by Korak et al. [52] produced divergent results. In their study, ten trained males performed one session involving only MJ exercises (flat barbell bench press, seated dumbbell military press, barbell dead lift, and machine leg press) and another session with only SJ exercises (knee extension, machine triceps extension, dumbbell side raises, machine chest fly, and seated machine hip abduction/adduction). ...
... The difference between studies may lie in their methods: Soares et al. [51] performed standardized evaluations for both SJ and MJ exercises, while in the study by Korak et al. [52] participants were evaluated in two different situations (during SJ and MJ sessions). Therefore, the methods used by Korak et al. [52] provide information related to repeating SJ and MJ sessions, but did not provide direct comparison. ...
... The difference between studies may lie in their methods: Soares et al. [51] performed standardized evaluations for both SJ and MJ exercises, while in the study by Korak et al. [52] participants were evaluated in two different situations (during SJ and MJ sessions). Therefore, the methods used by Korak et al. [52] provide information related to repeating SJ and MJ sessions, but did not provide direct comparison. ...
Full-text available
Resistance exercises can be considered to be multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) in nature. Many strength coaches, trainers, and trainees believe that adding SJ exercises to a resistance training (RT) program may be required to optimize muscular size and strength. However, given that lack of time is a frequently cited barrier to exercise adoption, the time commitment resulting from these recommendations may not be convenient for many people. Therefore, it is important to find strategies that reduce the time commitment without negatively affecting results. The aim of this review was to analyze and discuss the present body of literature considering the acute responses to and long-term adaptations resulting from SJ and MJ exercise selection. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they were experimental studies comparing the effects of MJ, SJ, or MJ ? SJ on dependent variables; studies were excluded if they were reviews or abstracts only, if they involved clinical populations or persons with articular or musculoskeletal problems, or if the RT intervention was confounded by other factors. Taking these factors into account, a total of 23 studies were included. For the upper and lower limbs, analysis of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activation suggests that there are no differences between SJ and MJ exercises when comparing the prime movers. However, evidence is contrasting when considering the trunk extensor musculature. Only one study directly compared the effects of MJ and SJ on muscle recovery and the results suggest that SJ exercises resulted in increased muscle fatigue and soreness. Long-term studies comparing increases in muscle size and strength in the upper limbs reported no difference between SJ and MJ exercises and no additional effects when SJ exercises were included in an MJ exercise program. For the lumbar extensors, the studies reviewed tend to support the view that this muscle group may benefit from SJ exercise. People performing RT may not need to include SJ exercises in their program to obtain equivalent results in terms of muscle activation and long-term adaptations such as hypertrophy and strength. SJ exercises may only be necessary to strengthen lumbar extensors and to correct muscular imbalances.
... For example, one participant ( Figure 2H) saw a continuous decline in MBV and CMJ performance (approximately 40% of baseline) while another participant ( Figure 2C) was almost fully recovered (approximately 95% of The PRS decreased substantially from baseline to 24 hours and remained dampened at 48 hours following the fatiguing protocol, signifying that PRS is sensitive to perturbations to homeostasis 24 hours following a stressor. This is not surprising and, indeed, expected as similar trends have been observed in both resistance exercise 10,19 and repeated sprint work. 20,21 Korak et al 10 observed significant decreases in PRS 24 hours following a whole-body resistance bout, though PRS significantly improved at 48 hours while Sikorski et al 19 found greater overall decrements in PRS, which were still markedly lower at 48 hours as compared with Korak et al. 10 These incongruent findings can be explained by the resistance protocols as the higher numbers of total repetitions and similar (if not slightly higher) relative workloads in the Sikorski et al 19 study could have caused greater overall metabolic and mechanical stress, which would then be reflected in a lower recovery. ...
... This is not surprising and, indeed, expected as similar trends have been observed in both resistance exercise 10,19 and repeated sprint work. 20,21 Korak et al 10 observed significant decreases in PRS 24 hours following a whole-body resistance bout, though PRS significantly improved at 48 hours while Sikorski et al 19 found greater overall decrements in PRS, which were still markedly lower at 48 hours as compared with Korak et al. 10 These incongruent findings can be explained by the resistance protocols as the higher numbers of total repetitions and similar (if not slightly higher) relative workloads in the Sikorski et al 19 study could have caused greater overall metabolic and mechanical stress, which would then be reflected in a lower recovery. 22,23 Interestingly, PRS in the current study was lower than reported by Korak et al 10 despite total repetitions being higher in the latter. ...
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Although a variety of tools to monitor recovery have been developed, many are impractical for daily use due to cost, time, and challenges with interpretation. The Perceived Recovery Status (PRS) scale was recently developed as an expeditious, noninvasive tool to assess recovery status. While PRS has been strongly associated with repeated sprinting performance, a paucity of research exists relating PRS and performance recovery following resistance exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of PRS as a subjective marker of recovery up to 72 hours after a high-volume back-squat protocol. Methods: Eleven resistance-trained men reported to the laboratory on 5 separate occasions (1 familiarization session and 4 testing sessions). The first testing session was considered the baseline session and consisted of a nonfatiguing performance assessment (ie, countermovement jumps and back squats) and a fatiguing back-squat protocol of 8 sets of 10 at 70% 1-repetition maximum separated by 2 minutes of recovery. Participants returned 24, 48, and 72 hours following baseline to provide a PRS rating and complete the performance assessment. Results: Repeated-measures correlations revealed strong associations between PRS countermovement jump (r = .84) and mean bar velocity (r = .80) (both P < .001). Conclusions: The current findings suggest that PRS can be used as a method to effectively assess daily recovery following a fatiguing bout of resistance exercise. Practitioners are cautioned that the relationship between PRS and performance recovery is individualized, and equivalent PRS scores between individuals are not indicative of similar recovery.
... It seems that multi-joint exercises induce a higher rating of perceived exertion (RPE) when the same number of repetitions is performed, even with a greater inter-set rest interval for multi-joint exercise compared to single-joint exercise (Senna et al., 2012). Moreover, it seems the dynamic recovery process following single-and multi-joint exercises differ according to the neuromuscular performance as post-24 h resistance exercise, including only single-joint exercises, provides a faster recovery process than a session adopting only multi-joint exercises (Korak et al., 2015). Since the leg extension exercise is typically prescribed in the RT routine (Ema et al., 2016), it is important to investigate the effects of the dynamic recovery process on neuromuscular performance following this single-joint exercise considering different RT strategies. ...
... Despite this, our study revealed a similar CMJ performance following both experimental conditions. These results may be related to the different dynamic recovery process across multi-joint and singlejoint exercises (Korak et al., 2015), suggesting that one single-joint exercise may not acutely affect or slightly affect the ballistic exercise performance. Although the reduction in CMJ height was not statistically significant when the protocol of performing repetitions to failure was adopted, it is important to note that RF showed a decrease of -3.6%. ...
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Performing repetitions to failure (RF) is a strategy that might acutely reduce neuromuscular performance, as well as increase the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the internal training load (ITL) during and after a resistance training (RT) session. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of RF or repetitions not to failure (RNF) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and the ITL in trained male adults. Eleven men performed two experimental protocols in randomized order (RF vs. RNF). Under the RF condition, participants performed 3 sets of the knee extension exercise using 100% of the 10RM load and rest intervals of 180-s between sets. Under the RNF condition, participants were submitted to 6 sets of 5 repetitions with the same intensity and an 80-s rest interval between sets in the same exercise. The CMJ test was analyzed before and following (15-s and 30-min, respectively) each experimental session. The ITL was evaluated through the multiplication of the RPE and the total session time, 30-min after the protocol. No main effect or interaction time vs. condition was found for CMJ performance (p > 0.05). In contrast, the ITL showed higher values under the RF condition (p = 0.003). Therefore, even though RF-induced a greater ITL, our results suggest that adopting this strategy in one single-joint exercise for the lower limbs does not seem to be sufficient to reduce CMJ height.
... In a study conducted by Korak et al. [12], a slower recovery was reported in MJ exercises compared to SJ exercises (i.e. ive exercises for the upper and ive exercises for the lower limb muscles) after the performance of a full training session using eight repetitions at 85% of 1RM, followed by a set to failure using 100% of 1RM in male recreational weightlifters. ...
Full-text available
Purpose Strength training is performed using multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) exercises; however, it is not clear whether different time of recovery is necessary between the two types of exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the time course of recovery of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in the elbow flexors after performing MJ and SJ exercises. Methods Twenty-four (n = 24) untrained men were randomized in to the MJ (n = 12) or SJ group (n = 12). Exercise protocol to induce muscle damage consisted of four sets of ten repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) in front pull-down (MJ exercise) or biceps curl (SJ exercise). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction, muscle soreness during elbow extension, ultrasound imaging (muscle thickness and echo intensity) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured before and up to 96 h after exercise. Results Significant effect of time (p < 0.05) at all times after exercise was observed for isometric strength, muscle soreness, muscle thickness and at 48, 72 and 96 h for echo intensity, with no time × group interaction. However, significant time × group interaction (p = 0.03) was observed only for CK activity at 96 h (MJ = 3348 ± 2911 IU/l vs. SJ = 890 ± 1426 IU/l; p < 0.05). In addition, there was a significant increase in CK after MJ at 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after exercise (p < 0.05), while SJ increased only at 48 h after exercise. Conclusion Despite a dissimilar time course of CK response, MJ and SJ exercises induced a similar recovery pattern for muscle strength, thickness, echo intensity and soreness.
... However, the strength of untrained men and women did not recover after four days when they did 8 sets of 10 repetitions of dumbbell curls [60]. Another study found that 80% of the participants completed within 1 repetition of baseline for various exercises at 48 hours except bench press (70%) and deadlift (60%) [61]. Studies that examined daily the strength recovery of trained persons with whole body training protocols found that recovery needed 2-3 days for 70-80% of the subjects [62], with adaptations taking place after 3-4 days [39]. ...
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Increases in strength and muscle mass can be achieved with weight training and adequate recovery (including nutrition and sleep). The time course of recovery and adaptation (super-compensation) for different number of sets has not been adequately investigated in the literature. A 40-year-old well-trained male exercised the chest with (a) 3 sets of bench press, (b) 5 sets of bench press, (c) 5 sets of bench press and 4 sets of dips, all to momentary concentric muscular failure during a 6 months body split program. The recovery was assessed by comparing the number of repetitions of the first bench press set to the previous training session. The results showed that with 3 and 5 sets to failure adaptation (+1 repetition) took place after 5 days. 9 sets needed 7 days for recovery and no adaptation took place. The adaptation was faster when exercising the chest without training the back and/or legs, indicating that Selye's adaptation energy (resources potential) might be applicable to weight training as well. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and motivation (mood) were found to be useful indexes of recovery. Implications on training volume and frequency and how the findings can be applied in practice are discussed.
... although 2-3 days a week of rT is generally recommend for maximal strength gains, research indicates that isolated muscle groups are unique in their trainability and adaptability to rT. 7 There is evidence that athletes' ability to recover is larger with single-joint exercises than with multi-joint exercises. 11,38,39 upper-body muscles can recover more quickly from heavy-loading sessions than lower-body muscle. 38, 39 also fleck et al. stated that the need for the traditional day of rest between rT sessions may not apply to all muscle groups. ...
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Background: Previous studies have shown that total-body resistance training (RT) performed two to three alternating days per week has positive effects on muscle strength and body composition. However, no evidence exists to determine if total-body RT workouts done on consecutive days (CD) are beneficial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a total-body RT program performed on three con- secutive or nonconsecutive days (NCD) per week for 7 weeks on maximum strength and body composition in recreationally trained subjects. Methods: Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to a 3NCD (n = 11) or 3CD group (n =10). Prior and following training, anthropometric measures, and 1 repetition maximum values for leg press, and bench press were measured. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase for leg press strength and bench press strength for both groups (P < 0.01) from pre to post intervention. There was also a significant increase for arm and chest girth measures (P < 0.05) on the 3 CD group. No significant differences between groups were observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that RT programs performed on three consecutive or nonconsecutive days per week determine similar effects on maximum strength, and body composition.
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de Camargo, JBB, Braz, TV, Batista, DR, Germano, MD, Brigatto, FA, and Lopes, CR. Dissociated time course of indirect markers of muscle damage recovery between single-joint and multi-joint exercises in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study compared the time course of indirect markers of muscle damage after multi-joint and single-joint exercises. Ten resistance-trained men (years: 26.9 ± 3.0; total body mass: 83.2 ± 13.8 kg; height: 176 ± 7.0 cm; resistance training [RT] experience: 5.5 ± 2.4 years; RT frequency: 5.3 ± 0.7 sessions; relative squat 1 repetition maximum: 1.4 ± 0.3) performed, in a random order, 5 sets of 8 repetition maximum of the back squat (BS) and knee extension (KE) exercises. Rectus femoris muscle thickness (MTRF), leg circumference (LC), and muscle soreness (MS) were recorded at baseline (pre), 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours after each exercise protocol. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in dependent variables at every time point after both the multi-joint and single-joint exercise sessions. However, MTRF and LC were greater at 0 and 36 hours, and MS was greater at 24 and 36 hours after BS when compared with KE (all p < 0.05). This study shows that resistance-trained individuals can experience significant higher levels of indirect markers of muscle damage when performing a multi-joint lower-limb exercise compared with a single one.
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The present randomized cross-over controlled study aimed to compare the rate of recovery from a strength-oriented exercise session vs. a power-oriented session with equal work. Sixteen strength-trained individuals conducted one strength-oriented session (five repetitions maximum (RM)) and one power-oriented session (50% of 5RM) in randomized order. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, and squat and bench press peak power and estimated 1RMs were combined with measures of rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceived recovery status (PRS), before, immediately after and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Both sessions induced trivial to moderate performance decrements in all variables. Small reductions in CMJ height were observed immediately after both the strength-oriented session (7 ± 6%) and power-oriented session (5 ± 5%). Between 24 and 48 h after both sessions CMJ and SJ heights and 20 m sprint were back to baseline. However, in contrast to the power-oriented session, recovery was not complete 48 h after the strength-oriented session, as indicated by greater impairments in CMJ eccentric and concentric peak forces, SJ rate of force development (RFD) and squat peak power. In agreement with the objective performance measurements, RPE and PRS ratings demonstrated that the strength-oriented session was experienced more strenuous than the power-oriented session. However, these subjective measurements agreed poorly with performance measurements at the individual level. In conclusion, we observed a larger degree of neuromuscular impairment and longer recovery times after a strength-oriented session than after a power-oriented session with equal total work, measured by both objective and subjective assessments. Nonetheless, most differences were small or trivial after either session. It appears necessary to combine several tests and within-test analyses (e.g., CMJ height, power and force) to reveal such differences. Objective and subjective assessments of fatigue and recovery cannot be used interchangeably; rather they should be combined to give a meaningful status for an individual in the days after a resistance exercise session. Subjects Anatomy and Physiology, Kinesiology
Purpose: This study compared coach and athlete perceptions of effort and recovery and evaluated the efficacy of perceptually-based TL monitoring. Methods: Participants included 56 athletes (Women's volleyball, soccer, and basketball and Men's basketball) and their coaches (n = 4). Perceived recovery was estimated via the Perceived Recovery Status scale. TL scores were calculated using the Edward's HR method and by multiplying SRPE by duration. Coaches provided an intended SRPE (SRPE-CI) before practice. SRPE was independently estimated by coaches (SRPE-CO) and athletes (SRPE-A) ∼15-20 minutes post-practice. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlations were applied to make comparisons (α ≤ 0.05). Results: SRPE-CI, SRPE-CO, SRPE-A TLs were strongly correlated with Edwards' HR-based TLs (R = 0.74, 0.73, and 0.76, respectively). SRPE-CI (5.5 ± 1.9) and SRPE-CO (5.0 ± 1.9) was higher than SRPE-A (4.5 ± 1.9). Coaches estimated recovery (RPR-C) higher than athletes (RPR-A) (7.1 ± 1.3 vs 5.8 ± 1.6). Conclusions: TL estimates were strongly correlated with Edwards' TL regardless of information source (coach or athlete) or time point (SRPE-CI TL or SRPE-CO TL). Results suggest coaches' perceptions validly indicated TL. Coaches' perceptions provide parallel information (correlated strongly with Edwards TL), but not identical information (demonstrated by differences in SRPE) as athlete perceptions. Differences in perceived recovery indicate coaches overestimate recovery when compared to athletes' perceptions.
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The aim of this study was to develop and test the practical utility of a perceived recovery status (PRS) scale. Sixteen volunteers (8 men, 8 women) performed 4 bouts of high-intensity intermittent sprint exercise. After completion of the baseline trial, in a repeated-measures design, subjects were given variable counterbalanced recovery periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours whereupon they repeated an identical intermittent exercise protocol. After a warm-up period, but before beginning each subsequent bout of intermittent sprinting, each individual provided their perceived level of recovery with a newly developed PRS scale. Similar to perceived exertion during exercise, PRS was based on subjective feelings. The utility of the PRS scale was assessed by measuring the level of agreement of an individual's perceived recovery relative to their performance during the exercise bout. Perceived recovery status and change (both positive and negative) in sprint performance during multiple bouts of repeated sprint exercise were moderately negative correlated (r = -0.63). Additionally, subjects were able to accurately assess level of recovery using the PRS scale indicated by correspondence with negative and positive changes in total sprint time relative to their previous session. The ability to detect changes in performance using a noninvasive psychobiological tool to identify differences in performance was independent of other psychological and physiological markers measured during testing, because there were no differences (p > 0.05) among ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or session RPE values among any of the performance trials. Although further study is needed, current results indicate a subjective approach may be an effective means for assessing recovery from day to day, at least under similar conditions.
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Ergogenic effects of caffeine on aerobic or endurance exercise are well documented. Conversely, the ergogenic value of caffeine on high-intensity, primarily anaerobic performance is not well understood even though the proposed mechanisms of action for caffeine permit a strong theoretical basis for application to this type of exercise. This study examined effects of caffeine (Ca) on number repetitions (reps), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and peak heart rate (PHR) during resistance-training exercise with reps performed to volitional failure. Subjects (N = 17) were tested for 10-rep maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP). In sessions 2 and 3, Ca (approximately 6 mg/kg) or placebo (Pl) was ingested 1 hr beforehand in a double-blind manner and counterbalanced order. Subjects performed 3 sets to failure (BP and LP) with reps, PHR, and RPE recorded each set. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, 2 (trial) x 3 (set), were used to analyze dependent measures with the Tukey honestly significant difference used when necessary as the post hoc test. In BP, no significant differences (Ca vs Pl) were observed (reps, RPE, PHR). During set 3 of LP training, Ca was associated with significantly higher reps (12.5 +/- 4.2 vs 9.9 +/- 2.6) and PHR (158.5 +/- 11.9 vs 151.8 +/- 13.2). No significant RPE differences were found during LP. The findings of similar RPE concurrent with higher reps suggest that caffeine can blunt pain responses, possibly delaying fatigue in high-intensity resistance training. Ergogenic effects might be limited to the later sets in a resistance-training session. Further research is warranted regarding ergogenic effects of caffeine during resistance training and potential mechanisms of action.
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To examine endogenous anabolic hormonal responses to two different types of heavy resistance exercise protocols (HREPs), eight male and eight female subjects performed two randomly assigned protocols (i.e. P-1 and P-2) on separate days. Each protocol consisted of eight identically ordered exercises carefully designed to control for load, rest period length, and total work (J) effects. P-1 utilized a 5 RM load, 3-min rest periods and had lower total work than P-2. P-2 utilized a 10 RM load, 1-min rest periods and had a higher total work than P-1. Whole blood lactate and serum glucose, human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone (T), and somatomedin-C [SM-C] (i.e. insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1) were determined pre-exercise, mid-exercise (i.e. after 4 of the 8 exercises), and at 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post-exercise. Males demonstrated significant (p less than 0.05) increases above rest in serum T values, and all serum concentrations were greater than corresponding female values. Growth hormone increases in both males and females following the P-2 HREP were significantly greater at all time points than corresponding P-1 values. Females exhibited significantly higher pre-exercise hGH levels compared to males. The P-1 exercise protocol did not result in any hGH increases in females. SM-C demonstrated random significant increases above rest in both males and females in response to both HREPs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Information concerning frequency of training for resistance trained individuals is relatively unknown. Problems in designing training programs for student athletes are frequently encountered due to differential time constraints placed upon them. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selection of resistance training frequency on muscular strength. Sixty-one members of an NCAA. Division IAA football team participated in a 10-week winter conditioning program. Each subject was given the option of choosing from a three-day (3d, n=12) four-day (4d, n=15), five-day (5d, n=23) or six-day (6d, n=ll) per week resistance training program. In addition to the strength training, the subjects participated in a football conditioning program twice a week. Testing was conducted before and after the 10-week training program. Field tests common to football off-season conditioning programs were utilized to evaluate strength (1 RM squat and bench press), speed (40-yard sprint), endurance (two-mile run), vertical jump and anthropometric measurements. Posttests revealed significant changes for the 3d group in decreased time for the two-mile run (2mi), decreased sum of skinfolds (SF) and an increased chest girth (CH). The 4d program revealed significant decreases in body weight, 2mi, SF, and increases in 1 RM squat, CH and thigh girths (TH). The 5d group significantly decreased 2mi, and SF, and increased both 1 RM squat and bench press and CH and TH. The 6d group revealed significant decreases in 2mi, and SF, and an increase in 1 RM squat. Of the total variables measured, 4d and 5d frequency groups revealed the greatest amount of improvement. In conclusion, when resistance training frequency is self-selected by athletes (i.e., college football players) it appears that four or five days per week are the optimal choices for developing strength, endurance and muscle mass. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association
This study examined effects of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise workout. Ten males completed two trials: heat exposed (with 100% fluid replacement) (HE) and dehydration (approximately 3% body mass loss with no fluid replacement) (DEHY) achieved via hot water bath (approximately 39 degrees C). Following HE and DEHY, participants performed three sets to failure (using predetermined 12 repetition maximum) of bench press, lat pull down, overhead press, barbell curl, triceps press, and leg press with a 2-min recovery between each set and 2 min between exercises. A paired t test showed total repetitions (all sets combined) were significantly lower for DEHY: (144.1 +/- 26.6 repetitions) versus HE: (169.4 +/- 29.1 repetitions). ANOVAs showed significantly lower repetitions (approximately 1-2 repetitions on average) per exercise for DEHY versus HE (all exercises). Pre-set rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pre-set heart rate (HR) were significantly higher [approximately 0.6-1.1 units on average in triceps press, leg press, and approached significance in lat pull down (P = 0.14) and approximately 6-13 b min(-1) on average in bench press, lat pull down, triceps press, and approached significance for overhead press (P = 0.10)] in DEHY versus HE. Session RPE difference approached significance (DEHY: 8.6 +/- 1.9, HE: 7.4 +/- 2.3) (P = 0.12). Recovery HR was significantly higher for DEHY (116 +/- 15 b min(-1)) versus HE (105 +/- 13 b min(-1)). Dehydration (approximately 3%) impaired resistance exercise performance, decreased repetitions, increased perceived exertion, and hindered HR recovery. Results highlight the importance of adequate hydration during full body resistance exercise sessions.
There are few practical methods available for evaluating training loads (TL) during swimming. The purpose of this study was to examine the ecological validity of the session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method for quantifying internal TL in competitive swimmers using heart rate (HR)-based methods and distance as criterion measures. This study also examined the correspondence between athlete and coach perceptions of internal TL using the session-RPE method. Twelve (six male, six female) well-trained swimmers (mean +/- SD: age 22.3 +/- 3.1 years, weight 71.8 +/- 11.6 kg, height 175.0 +/- 9.0 cm) participated in this study. All subjects completed a swimming step test to evaluate individual HR zones and blood lactate profile before undertaking 20 swim training sessions where RPE, HR, and distance covered were recorded. Training load was then calculated for each session using the session-RPE, HR-based methods, and session distance. The session-RPE scores were correlated to HR-based methods for measuring internal TL as well as training distance for each swimmer. All individual correlations between session-RPE, HR-based methods (r = 0.55-0.94; p < 0.05), and distance measures (r = 0.37-0.81; p < 0.05) were significant. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction for training intensity x coach-athlete perception, indicating that coach RPE was lower than athlete RPE for low-intensity sessions and higher than athlete RPE at high-intensity sessions. The results of this study suggest that session-RPE may provide a practical, noninvasive method for quantifying internal TL in competitive swimmers.
This study was designed to investigate electromyographic (EMG), muscle glycogen and blood lactate changes in quadriceps muscle group during repeated 40 maximal eccentric and concentric contractions, and to follow the recovery in EMG, muscle glycogen and serum creatine kinase values during a 4 day period following the work test. The subjects were normal males and test order (eccentric or concentric) was randomly selected. The results indicated first, that the EMG parameters (IEMG, AMUP), muscle glycogen and blood lactate changed in a similar manner during the both fatigue loads. Despite the high tension work no selective depletion of glycogen could be observed in the slow or fast twitch muscle fibres in either type of work. The restoring of muscle glycogen occurred in a similar manner after the both fatigue loads, and no significant differences were present between eccentric and concentric works in the serum creatine kinase levels for a 2 days period. The eccentric work was associated with muscle soreness, which was strongest during the second day after the termination of the work test. The recovery of the EMG parameters were also delayed in eccentric fatigue. After concentric fatigue EMG-activity returned to normal values within 2 days.
Five men performed submaximal isometric, concentric or eccentric contractions until exhaustion with the left arm elbow flexors at respectively 50%, 40% and 40% of the prefatigued maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC). Subsequently, and at regular intervals, the surface electromyogram (EMG) during 30-s isometric test contractions at 40% of the prefatigued MVC and the muscle performance parameters (MVC and the endurance time of an isometric endurance test at 40% prefatigued MVC) were recorded. Large differences in the surface EMG response were found after isometric or concentric exercise on the one hand and eccentric exercise on the other. Eccentric exercise evoked in two of the three EMG parameters [the EMG amplitude (root mean square) and the rate of shift of the EMG mean power frequency (MPF)] the greatest (P less than 0.001) and longest lasting (up to 7 days) response. The EMG response after isometric or concentric exercise was smaller and of shorter duration (1-2 days). The third EMG parameter, the initial MPF, had already returned to its prefatigued value at the time of the first measurement, 0.75 h after exercise. The responses of EMG amplitude and of rate of MPF shift were similar to the responses observed in the muscle performance parameters (MVC and the endurance time). Complaints of muscle soreness were most frequent and severe after the eccentric contractions. Thus, eccentric exercise evoked the greatest and longest lasting response both in the surface EMG signal and in the muscle performance parameters.