ArticlePDF Available

Human Resource Information Systems -A Review

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract: Over the last decade Human Resource Information Systems have been adopted by many companies as it contributes to the development and profitability of the organization by reducing costs, facilitating information flow and thereby helping the HR managers to take effective decisions and gain a competitive advantage. In the past few years HRIS has been acting as an effective tool for organizational performance. The objective of HRIS is to support creation, transfer and application of information related to human resources or employees in organizations. Thus, effective development and implementation of HRIS requires a foundation in several rich literatures. To be credible, HRIS research and development should conserve and construct upon the significant literature that exists in different but related fields. This paper presents the functions, applications and various concepts of HRIS with a focus on its potential role in an organization. Drawing upon the literature review and analysis of HRIS concepts, several important research issues surrounding the role of HRIS have been discussed. Key words: HRIS, organizational development, information flow, decision making, cost saving.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
74
January
2013
Human Resource Information Systems -A
Review
Dr M Nishad Nawaz
Abstract:
Over the last decade Human Resource Information Systems have been adopted by many
companies as it contributes to the development and profitability of the organization by reducing
costs, facilitating information flow and thereby helping the HR managers to take effective
decisions and gain a competitive advantage. In the past few years HRIS has been acting as an
effective tool for organizational performance. The objective of HRIS is to support creation,
transfer and application of information related to human resources or employees in
organizations. Thus, effective development and implementation of HRIS requires a foundation in
several rich literatures. To be credible, HRIS research and development should conserve and
construct upon the significant literature that exists in different but related fields. This paper
presents the functions, applications and various concepts of HRIS with a focus on its potential
role in an organization. Drawing upon the literature review and analysis of HRIS concepts,
several important research issues surrounding the role of HRIS have been discussed.
Key words: HRIS, organizational development, information flow, decision making, cost saving.
Department of MBA & Research Centre, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
75
January
2013
Introduction:
In today’s dynamic business environment and in the era of knowledge workers, Human Resource
Information Systems (HRIS) has significantly contributed to the effectiveness of an organization.
HRIS provides a lot of information to human resources (HR) professionals to become strategic
partners with top management and they provide the future needs to the organization. The HRIS
directs to make use of the HR functions in a more efficient manner and provides better
information for decision making.
The job contents and the expectations from HR managers have changed over the last few years,
with functional and strategic pressures ever growing on them. Armstrong (1984) (1994), Kinnie
and Arthurs (1996) Ball, (2000) Mabey et al. (2000) state that HRIS is a system used to acquire,
store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve and distribute pertinent information about an organization’s
human resources.
HRIS is often regarded as a service, provided to an organization in the form of information.
However, the promise is that, as the use of these systems becomes more widespread, higher level
forms of HRIS will evolve. Lengnick-Hall and Moritz (2003) have postulated that HRIS will be
implemented at three different levels namely, evolving from information to automation and from
automation to transformation. Walker, (2001) and Haines and Petit, state that HRIS will create
informational efficiencies and cost savings such that HR departments can turn their attention to
provide better analysis of current data and creative uses of the HRIS to provide better and more
accurate data upon which the strategic decisions are made.
Human Resource Information System Concept and Need
There are different definitions of HRIS. It is defined as a process, as a tool and recently as a
strategy Gerardine De Sanctis, (1986) states that HRIS is not limited to the computer hardware
and software applications that comprise of the technical part of the system, it also includes the
people, policies, procedures and data required to manage the HR function.
It is a system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distribute information
regarding an organization’s human resources. Kavanagh (1990) states HRIS is not simply a
computer hardware and an associated HR related software. Although an HRIS includes hardware
and software, it also includes people, forms, policies, procedures and data. Tannenbaum (1990)
defines HRIS as a technology based system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
76
January
2013
and distribute pertinent information regarding an organization’s human resources. John Reh
(1997) views Human Resource Information System is a system that lets you keep track of all
your employees and information about them.Kovach Kenneth et., al.(1999) defines HRIS as a
systematic procedure for collecting, storing, maintaining, retrieving, and validating data needed
by organization about its human resources, personnel activities and organization unit
characteristics. Haines, Victor Y et.al. (2000) is of the opinion that Human Resource Information
System is a systematic way of storing data and information for each individual employee to aid
planning, decision making, and submitting of returns and reports to the external agencies.
Historical Development of HRIS
In the 1960’s and 1970’s, large companies felt a need to centralize their personnel data part to
facilitate record keeping and meet regulatory needs. Programs were written on large mainframe
computers that acted as a central data repository with little transactional processing, usually only
for payroll. The Human Resource Information System (HRIS), also known as a Human Resource
Management System (HRMS) became prevalent in the 1980’s with the popularity of Enterprise
Resource Planning (ERP) applications and the move from mainframe systems to client server
technology. This trend was based on a new school of thinking, one that saw the transformation of
transactions into business processes and data into information. HR information can empower
companies with “intelligence” enabling management to make more timely and more informed
decisions. All the tier One ERP software vendors such as Oracle, PeopleSoft and SAP included
some flavor of human resource management in their suite of applications providing their users
with a single, holistic view of their workforce.
At the same time, the 1980’s saw a shortage in skilled workers, especially in the technology
sector. Human Resource Management had long evolved from the basis of a skills management
discipline to more of an employee satisfaction and productivity tool. However, by the
1980’s, HRIS systems now included a host of feature sets and functional capabilities aimed at
attracting, retaining and properly compensating the workforce. By 2000, the human resource
software industry saw HRIS grow to include recruitment, benefits management, time
management, payroll, compensation management, learning management, expense reporting and
reimbursements, and performance management. Self-service applications built on top of the
underlining data empowered employees to manage their own data and make timely changes.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
77
January
2013
Online employee portals further consolidated disparate systems, documents and information into
one place.
As computer hardware prices fell and computing power simultaneously grew, more and more
companies were able to afford enterprise software systems and vendors saw a market for
standalone HRIS software. Data connectors and application programming interfaces empowered
customers with HR systems that need not be delivered with their financial accounting software.
They now have an a la carte option and can leverage a higher fit system that better fulfills their
HRIS needs and can integrate information such as payroll and headcount to their financial
system. Vendors such as Sage Software and Ultimate Software saw a niche in the midmarket
sector for their HRIS offerings.
However, Software as a Service (SaaS) found significant adoption in a downsizing economy.
Companies can now have all the advantages of an HRIS that fits their specific needs and
requirements, integrate relevant information with their financial applications, massage the data
with a business intelligence (BI) reporting suite and make management decisions based on facts,
figures and trends. And they need not incur the burden or cost of managing the hardware or
software environment themselves. Not to be left behind, the Tier One ERP software vendors
follow the pack by providing their ERP solutions, packaged with HRIS, as a SaaS option. This
offering usually benefits small to midsized companies. However, organizations looking for a
SaaS option for their HRIS will have a host of choices.
Why is HRIS needed?
According Beckers & Bsat (2002) there are several advantages to firms in using HRIS. They
broadly include - providing a comprehensive information picture as a single and comprehensive
database; this enables organizations to provide structural connectivity across units and activities
and increase the speed of information transactions. Lengnick-Hall & Lengnick-Hall, (2006),
increases competitiveness by improving HR operations and improving management processes,
collecting appropriate data and converting them into information and knowledge for improved
timeliness and quality of decision making, producing a greater number and variety of accurate
and real-time HR-related reports, streamlining and enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of
HR administrative functions, shifting the focus of HR from the processing of transactions to
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
78
January
2013
strategic HRM, reengineering HR processes and functions and improving employee satisfaction
by delivering HR services more quickly and accurately to them.
In assessing the benefits and impact of an HRIS to an organization, typical accounting methods
do not work with the HRM function Huselid et al., (2005), Ulrich & Smallwood,(2005). While
there are several tangible benefits in implementing an HRIS, such as payroll efficiencies and
reduction in labor costs due to automation, there are several intangible or hidden benefits as well.
Furthermore, HR practices can help organizations untangle the rigidity and inertia associated
with the mechanistic, routine nature of enterprise resource planning (ERP). ERP software
applications are a set of integrated database applications or modules that carry out the most
common business functions, including HR, general ledger, accounts payable, accounts
receivable, order management, inventory control, and customer relationship management.
Obviously, HRM’s emphasis on knowledge management, human capital stewardship, and
relationship building can provide considerable assistance in the implementation and use of ERPs
Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall, (2006). Therefore, active engagement of HR professionals in
the introduction and ongoing functioning of an ERP is important so that organizations can realize
the strategic benefits associated with these systems Dery & Wailes, (2006).
Objectives of HRIS
The common objectives of HRIS are to make the desired human resource information available
in the right form to the right person and at the right time, at a reasonable cost, process the data
by using most efficient methods, provide necessary security and secrecy for important and
confidential information, and to keep the information up to date.
Processes of Human Resource Information System involves Data Collection and Data
Management
Literature Review
Research on human resource information system is of recent origin in India. There are many
studies in other countries like UK and US. An attempt is made hereunder to brief the different
studies that are made in India and abroad.
Usman Sadiq, Ahmad Fareed Khan, Khurram Ikhlaq and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba (2012) analysed
The Impact of Information Systems on the Performance of Human Resources Department and
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
79
January
2013
concluded that HRIS is positively used as a tool to achieve greater administrative efficiency by
adding value in the department. Mohammad Al-Tarawneh, Haroon Tarawneh (2012) studied the
effect of applying Human Resources Information System in corporate performance in the
banking sector in Jordanian firms and found that there is a significant effect between the quality
of the output of human resources information system and institutional performance; between
motives and corporate performance; between training and organizational performance in the
banking sector in the Jordanian firm. Manar Al-Qatawneh ,Bandar Abutayeh Fawwaz A and Al
Hammad (2012) analysed the effect of the implementation of Human Resource Information
Systems on job related decisions in commercial banks in Jordan and concluded that all Human
Resource Information System implementations have a positive effect on the quality of job related
decisions. Dr. Shikha N. Khera and Ms. Karishma Gulati (2012) made a research on Human
Resource Information System and its impact on Human Resource Planning: A perceptual
analysis of Information Technology companies and concluded that HRIS identifies occupied and
unoccupied positions in an organization very effectively and accurately. K P Tripathi (2011)
analyzed the role of Management Information System (MIS)in Human Resource and developed
an MIS model to keep the control on working of the staff at various levels. The system has been
tested in Birla Corporation Ltd and it helped in taking effective decisions concerned with human
resource in attendance recording and capturing. Huub Ruël, Rodrigo Magalhães, Charles C.
Chiemeke (2011) made a research on Human Resource Information Systems: An Integrated
Research Agenda that aimed at setting an agenda for HRIS research from an integrative
perspective. Bader Yousef Obeidat (2012) analysed the relationship between Human Resource
Information System (HRIS) functions and Human Resource Management (HRM) Functionalities
and it was found that performance development, knowledge management, and records and
compliance as dimensions of human resources information systems have a relationship with
human resources functionalities. According to Carole Tansley and Sue Newell (2009) before
HRIS design HR managers and IS mangers had to prepare agenda which includes theoretical,
practical, real oriented and easy learning processes. John Edwards (2008) suggested that HRMS
lifts the HR activities fast, in respect of streamline processes, reduces errors, collects more data,
improves budgeting, simplified access, enhance distribution, reduce duplication, improve
security, better hires easier compliance and enhances the employee morale. Jim
Spoor.al.et.(2008) asserted strongly that working in Employee Self Service (ESS), updates the
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
80
January
2013
employee and policy manuals, product brochures, organizational charts, phone numbers and in
future HRIS can be used as personal digital assistants, pocket PCs, and web enabled phones.
Mary Ipe (2008) studies suggested that HRIS sub modules like recruitment, employee self
service are useful to organizations. Al Doran (2007) identified HRIS usage in request for
proposal (RFP) module which generates daily activities reports, response data reports, number of
copies etc. Asoke and Sathiyanarayana (2007) in their case study analyzed the issues faced by an
organization while implementing technology in HR. Organization needed application oriented
programs like HR portal SAP HR Module that integrates all areas of business. Employee Self
Service (ESS) Module and HR Portal will have come like single gateway to customized and
personalized information on one single place. Brijesh Kapil (2007) explained about IT impact on
recruitment process among 1200 scientists in Ranbaxy Laboratories and concluded that HRIS
acts as a wonderful decision making tool. Dipankar Sarkar (2007) identified the IT usage in HR
the major objectives have been to find ways to reduce human costs and calculate human resource
returns meaningfully, through a maze of indirect costs and long term benefits. Ellen Vebber
(2007) studied Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago, one of the nation’s leading pediatric
hospitals with more than 5,000 employees. It was found that manual loading of all information
into HRIS system, creates a great risk of input errors. Joseph Rasquinha (2007) concluded that all
HR consultants felt that implementation of HRIS enables to get more profit, like fast, effective
and efficient work. Stuart Maguire and Tom Redman, (2007) examined the inherent weaknesses
in the approaches that most organizations use to develop and implement information system in
their organizations. It examined the role of information system development in human resources
management practices. Steven Phillip Brown (2007) in his humble attempt identified issues
raised in human resource with information technology, issues like new technology, data security,
new updates and new legal policies.
Thompson.S.H.Teo (2007) examined the relationship between innovation, organizational and
environmental characteristics, for adoption of HRIS. The results indicated that organization size
has a significant relationship with the extent of HRIS adoption. In a study Tim Smedley (2007)
from Canfield School of Management report, studied 10 UK organizations to study the impact
and advantage of HR and Technology. The study concluded that HRIS empowers the line
managers performance in improving the quality of information, reducing administrative burden
etc.Vincent Kiarie (2007) conducted a study on the HRIS usage in Africa. He stated that an HRIS
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
81
January
2013
database makes it easier to streamline collaborative work and shape the HRH (Human Resource
for Health) policy in the developing countries. Ngai and Wat (2006) conducted a survey on the
implementation of HRIS in Hong Kong. The researcher examined the use and applications of
HRIS.Chartered Institution of Personnel & Development (2006) found that technology is
supporting the HR activities and processes. Florkowski.Gary.W (2006) evaluated the diffusion of
eight information technologies that are transforming HR service-delivery in North America and
Europe. According to them such information technologies include HR functional applications,
integrated HR suits, HR intranets, HR extranets, and HR portals. Hussain et al. (2006) made a
study on 450 organizations in UK firms which confirmed that HRIS is playing a big role in
development of professional status of HR professionals. Jose Fernandez (2006) conducted survey
in Spanish firms to identify the use of HRIS in selection and recruitment processes and found
that HRIS is adding competitive value to the firm as a whole and to the HRM department in
particular. Sandeep (2006) studied the HRIS and its implementation in nine organizations in India
and suggested that the problems of proper knowledge and consideration of HR department as
unimportant could be solved with proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Stuart
Maguire (2006) found that information system failure is often associated with lack of attention to
softer management practices such as culture change, organization development and user
involvement. Steven Landberg (2006) identified that Insurance and Financial Services Business
are highly dependent on human capital for their success in their roles as financial intermediaries.
HRIS and outsourcing are alternatives to lower transaction processing costs; the highest long
term returns are possible via technology enablement of talent management processes.Aston
Beadles (2005) in their research work on usage of HRIS in public sector held that HRIS
contributed organization’s a valuable information, decreased costs, improved communication
and time spent on mundane activities, paved way for more strategic role in the organization.
Laila Marouf (2005) made a study in 30 Kuwait corporate companies. The researcher selected
five IT operations and found that the organizations widely used tools like web applications,
system development and database management. Tanya Bondarouk. et.al (2005) suggested that
before implementation of the reward system into human resource department, organizations have
to provide adequate training for the employees regarding HRIS. Thomas.W.Ferratt (2005)
studied 106 organizations and found that if organizations implement information technology into
their human resource practices, such organizations find employee turnover to a large extent.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
82
January
2013
Buckley et.al (2004) in their study explained about the role of HRIS in US Universities. All
universities were found to be doing their activities like enrollments of the students, applicants’
details, hire professional performance scores and performance rating of the students with HRIS.
Researcher found that HRIS can reduce employee turnover, staffing costs, and increase the
hiring processes efficiency. Gasco.Llopis and Gonzalez (2004), investigated that IT is useful in
the designing of flexible training model and success of organization was dependent on the
training policy. Ordonez de Pablos (2004) the study built a causal model and tested it with a
sample of firms from Spanish manufacturing industry. It provided a conceptual framework to
establish a link between HRMS strategic organizational resources and the creation of a sustained
competitive advantage of organization through the creation and development of knowledge-
based resources. Al Doran (2003) in his study stated that HR managers need to realize the value
of the security of personnel information of employees. Anthony.M.Toensed (2003) found that
HRM in IT provides clear picture about the HR issues. Implementation of IT in HRM shows the
future challenges and opportunities being faced by the HR professionals. Gardner et al., (2003)
tried to study IT influence on HR professionals and they suggested that HR professionals need
more training for effective use of HRIS. Mayfield (2003) proposed human resource information
systems (HRIS) model. This model is based on general systems theory. The model addresses all
major HRIS components and offers information on how these facets interact to support each
other and larger organizational outcomes. These model units consist of organizational vision,
strategic integration, personnel development, communication and integration, records and
compliance, knowledge management, forecasting and planning. Penny Bassett (2003) made
study on HRIS advantages. He found that HRIS is largely restricted and useful in administrative
concern and basically acts as a payroll system and works like electronic filling cabinet. Amy
Trappcy (2002) in his paper stressed the need for and the importance of HR module as it provides
efficient and effective manpower management that leads to effective utilization of human
resources for the development of distribution center operations. Andrew Winthorp (2002)
highlighted the benefits of HRIS and stated that, a modern organization requires an integrated
human resource system to replace manual processes for the effective utilization of human
resources. This has resulted in reducing labour requirements and administrative work burden.
Baran.et.al. (2002) conducted a study covering 253 firms in Turkey with reference to comparison
of existing human resource practices and new practices, existing HR practices with manual base
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
83
January
2013
system, new HR practices with base of technology. They suggested that new technologies are
generating new problems and talented workers were suffering with stress and management was
advised to apply new concepts and techniques for meeting those technology changes. Astrid
(2002) concluded in his article that the Decision Support System provides an organization with a
competitive advantage and guides an organization towards improving the value of what the
organization brings to the marketplace. Gary S. Fields (2002) conducted a study on Engineering
Solutions Company with 100 engineers and found that HRIS was the best tool for measuring the
performance of employee for promotion. Haven Cockerham (2002) suggested after his study of
merging the HRIS applications with Web stated that organizations found effectiveness in internet
recruitment, cost savings, speed, accuracy and effectiveness in work. Hammers (2002)
concluded in his study that some organizations were not successful in the implementation of
human resource information systems. The HRIS failed because various software programs were
not integrated and information was often missing and gave suggestions for the problem.
Kanthawongs (2002) conducted a study on usage of HRIS in Thailand focusing on the usage of
HRIS and found that HRIS is improving the HR administrative activities. Steven (2002) brought
out a report on HRIS and the evolution of wireless HRIS in future. HRIS would work through
mobile units like PDAs, laptops and using web browsers. Sue Shaw (2002) viewed that computer
education becomes a strategic tool for human resources. Willard (2002) interviewed IT managers
regarding how to manage new IT. Carole Tansley, Frank.Jossi (2001). Bill Roberts (1999)
highlighted the importance of the training, before implementation of HRIS and suggested that
organizations should impart adequate training. Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler (KPMG)
(2001) report on assessment of human resource information system (HRIS) identified the HR
need in processing transactions and data reporting and recommended that usage of web based
HRIS is very useful in day-to-day transactions. Rothman (2001) investigated 50 outstanding
companies in the business world to determine how they achieved their success. Some of these
companies are Apple computer, Netscape, Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard. IBM, Intel, and
Yahoo and tried to establish how technology assisted the companies in improving their strategic
alignment, business intelligence, efficiency, and effectiveness and how they can be examples for
human resource information systems development. Jim Meade (2000) attempted to explain web
HRIS multiple advantages in employee and manager self-service, basic personal information,
pay, background information of the employee etc. Carole Tansley and Tony Watson (2000) in
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
84
January
2013
their study mentioned that at the period of designing HRIS issues like implementation, strategic
enhancement, career development will arise and found that issues get solution with HRIS.
Walker (1999) found that most of the organizations wanted to establish good operational services
and effective development in a way that organizations can keep all information of their
employees using ERP applications or organizational design applications.
According to Wilson et.al (1999) implementation of information technology into human
resources held that it directly develops the quality of product and services in any type. Joel
Lapointe (1998) felt that in current scenario all organizations are implementing new HRIS and
that there should be user adaptation and acceptance before implementation. All organizations
have to provide training online support that will support the employees. Joan.C.Hubbard et.al
(1998) concluded that HR managers must be constantly aware of the changing laws. The main
role of HR Managers is to protect the ethical and legal issues at the time of designing of HRIS.
Carolyeh Yun Lin (1997) study showed that HRIS usage is more to the top management, HR
Staff and low level management. James Schultz (1997) in his study stated twelve parameters and
cautioned that while implementing HRIS those are not expected to be included. Sonia Liff
(1997) inferred that HRIS contains different types of data of the organization. It showed the total
picture from the input data to strategy making. Victor and Andre Petit (1997) stated that
computer-based HRIS professionals want to know the relationships between individual/task,
organizational and system conditions. Two measures are taken for system’s success i.e,
individual/task and second condition is organizational conditions, size, availability of internal
user support and organization computer experience. Third would be conditions involvement,
training, support, documentation and applications development. The results of the study
indicated that conditions were the most important antecedents of success. William Pyle (1996) in
his paper tilted “Information Technology and Human Resource” found that there is a significant
role in information technology on human resources such as human resource planning, human
function, human resource reengineering and system level problem solving. Arthur Yeung (1995)
made a study in five organizations with five questions on reengineering of HR process done with
the help of information technology in Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer, AT & T, GE and
Nuclear Energy. The study stated that reengineering is clearly in vogue and reengineering is one
of the best tools to redesign the organization. Ken Gregson (1995) found that the information is
very important resource for the organizations and also acquiring and storing the information,
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
85
January
2013
making use of all information wisely and effectively towards the organization. Spencer (1995)
pointed out that 80 per cent of the organizations are doing their human resource activities with
help of information technology, through personal computers and interactive voice systems.
Jeffrey B. Arthur Jun (1994) made a study on HRIS usage in cotton industry with two objectives.
The first one to study HRIS and its impact in controlling employees’ turnover and second is
HRIS in developing of the organization and employees’ commitment. Lado and Wilson (1994)
discussed how HR systems facilitated the development and utilization of organizational
competencies and how HR systems could destroy those competencies or inhibit their
exploitations. Kinnie and Arthurs (1993) held that extending the use of IT into the strategic area
is one way of showing the added value; extending IT usage in human resource function will
enhance the speed of work and accuracy. Huo.P.Y. and Kearns (1992) was of the opinion that
Human Resource Information System has a true value and powerful analytic tool for decision
making especially in IT sector. Boudreau, John W (1991) made exploratory study in 500 firms
and conducted interview with top HR leaders to know the usage of computers in HR department.
The researcher hoped that the computers usage will be more in HR department in coming future.
Gerardine De Sanctis (1986) made a survey in 171 U.S.Companies, to know whether HRIS is
independent from the centralized MIS. To him if an organization chooses the independent HRIS,
it supports following activities like human resource planning, selection, administration, decision
making, placement, payroll, pension, and benefits management. Hall and Torrington (1986)
concluded that computer was seen “as a tool to be used for record storage and to carry out
routine clerical tasks”. In other words, it was nothing more than an electronic filing cabinet.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
86
January
2013
Model of HRIS
A Model of Organizational System Centered on HRIS
National Culture Environment
Government Regulation Labor Market Societal Concerns
Corporate Culture
Technology HRM Research
Competition
Source: Lengnick-Hall.C.A.,Lengnick-Hall.,M.L.(2006).HR.ERP, and knowledge for
Competitive advantage, Human Resource Management,26(3),15-29.
Different Types of HRIS
There are multiple typologies for the classification of computer based systems. One of the
earliest books in the field of computer based systems (Sprague & Carlson, 1982) placed systems
under three basic categories: Electronic Data Processing (EDP), Management Information
Systems (MIS), and Decision Support Systems (DSS). EDP is primarily electronic storage of
information and was first applied to automate paper work. In the MIS category, Sprague and
Carlson (1982) state that the characteristics of MIS include an information focus, aimed at
middle managers, structured information flows, integration of EDP jobs by business function
(production MIS, marketing MIS ) and inquiry and report generation (usually with a data base).
Strategic Management
System
Business Plan & Goals
HR Programs
Planning
Recruitment & Selecting
Training
Performance Management
Compensation
Quality of Life and Safety
Employee and Labor
HR Programs Evaluation
HR Metrics
HR Scorecard
Value-Added
Return on Investment
Legal Compliance
Strategic Human
Resource Management
HR Goals
Retention Climate /
Morale Productivity
Accident Rate
Human Resource Information System
IT Knowledge
HR Knowledge
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
87
January
2013
Sprague and Carlson (1982) note that DSS are focussed still higher in the organization, with an
emphasis on the characteristics like decision focused aimed at top managers and executive
decision makers, emphasis on flexibility, adaptability and quick response, user initiated and
controlled and support for the personal decision-making styles of individual managers. There is
another type of HRIS, identified by Kavanagh (1990), which should be used in organizations to
maximize the effect of computer generated knowledge on managerial decision making. All HRIS
software is designed to generate a standard set of reports, but surveys and reports from both
managers and HR professionals indicate that many of these reports are typically discarded.
Thus, it is apparent that another type of HRIS exists in the Human Resources Management
Decision System (HRMDS). This system could be described as the ideal system since it provides
critical information for decisions, involving the human resources of the company, and thus
should be used as a standard for the development and application of any HRIS.
System Development Process for an HRIS
From the engineering and information processing literature, the formal design of any information
processing system is supposed to follow a set of steps labeled, the System Development Life
Cycle (SDLC). However, as Sprague & Carlson (1982) and other writers Aktas (1987); Davis,
(1983) have noted, the traditional SDLC is difficult to use, but there are five general phases:
Planning, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance. Kavanagh M J.,Gueutal (1990)
applying the main concepts and phases of the traditional SDLC to the HRM function,
recommended the following system development process for an HRIS: “The HRIS development
process refers to the steps taken from the time a company considers computerizing its human
resources functions through the analysis, design, development, implementation, maintenance,
evaluations, and improvement of the system” This system development process is quite similar
to the one proposed by Walker (1982). He indicated that development of an effective HRIS
should follow seven stages: Proposal to Management Needs Analysis System Specifications,
System Design, System Development, Installation and Conversion and Evaluation.
This evaluation must be continuous and occurs not only after the system has been implemented
but also at every stage of the development. The quality of these evaluations of the system will
depend heavily on the documentation of the stages of the entire system development process.
The documentation of the planning and development of a system is one of the most important
determinants of successful system implementation and continued improvement.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
88
January
2013
HRIS Architecture
It comprises of Single Tier that includes access to the mainframe (Computer) & could be via a
desktop monitor; no processing was done locally (in the 1970), Two Tier [Client-Server] that
means access to the computer via Structured Query Language, communication with DBMS
(Database Management System) in the 1980, Three Tier [DBMS-SERVER-Application Server]
i.e., access to the computer via DBMS, Server, Application Server in the 1990 and N-Tier
[DBMS-Application Server-Web Servers-HTML] i.e. access to the computer via DBMS, Web
Server, Application Server and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) in the present
HRIS - Applications
Some of the applications in HRIS include all the functional areas that are computerized like
Personnel Administration application which contains each employee’s name, address, date of
birth, date of joining the organization and related personnel information, salary administration
which details about present salary, last increment and the proposed increase are contained, Leave
/ Absence Recording that covers the leaves, absences, timings and rules, Skill Inventory that
maintains and monitors the skills of the employee and the organization, Medical History that
maintains the health, accidents and other health related records about the employee and Accident
Monitoring that records and maintains accident information of the injured employees.
Performance Appraisal application helps in maintaining all the employee records about the
performance appraisal data, like score of the employee in appraisal period, criteria, potential for
promotion, Training and Development maintains the records of all employees with respect to the
employee training & development, courses completed and under progress as well as training
cost, Manpower Planning that is used for connecting employees’ positions and keeping track of
movements and identification of vacancies, present manpower and future requirements of
manpower, Recruitment shows the recruitment activities like method of recruitment, cost, and
total picture of the recruitment process, Career Planning maintains records that provide the
success plans to identify which employees have been earmarked for which positions, Collective
Bargaining module provides wages, hours, rules and working conditions.
According to Biswajeet Pattanayak (2006) the steps followed in setting up an HRIS in
organization would be Inception of Idea i.e. idea might originate somewhere. Feasibility study
i.e. the present system should be studied to highlight the problem areas and the likely benefit of
an HRIS and it should carry out a cost benefit analysis of the HRIS in terms of labour and
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
89
January
2013
material as also the intangible savings, such as increased accuracy and fewer errors, next step
would be Selecting a Project Team i.e. once the feasibility study has been accepted and the
resources allocated, a project team consisting of a human resource representative should be
made. Defining the Requirements a statement of requirements specifies in detail exactly what
the system needs to do. Vendor Analysis - the purpose of this step is to determine what hardware
and software are available that will best meet the organization’s needs for the least price.
Contract Negotiations i.e. the contract stipulating the price, delivery, vendor’s responsibilities
with regard to installation, service maintenance, training to organization employees. Training
project team members to use the system and then they could train all users from other
departments., Testing the System - purpose of testing is to verify the output of HRIS and make
sure that it is doing what it is supposed to do. Audit- after a year or so, the project team should
audit the performance of HRIS and if required corrective actions should be taken. While
designing the HRIS, Raymond (1994) suggested that the companies have to follow the following
steps in order to project the security to HRIS such as, training all users, not allowing passwords
to be shared and changed frequently, running the software through a virus-detection program
before using it on the system, ensuring that backup copies, data files, software, and printouts are
used only by authorized users, making backup copies of data files and programs, ensuring that all
software and mainframe applications include an audit train (a record of the changes and
transactions that occur in a system, including when and who performed the changes) and using
edit controls (such as passwords) to limit employees’ access to data files and data fields.
Potential benefits and uses of HRIS
A survey in 1992 by Overman (1992) concluded that the potential advantages of HRIS are faster
information processing, greater information accuracy, improved planning and program
development and enhanced employee communications. Some authors like Awazu and Desouza
(2003) have proposed that HRIS would reduce HR costs by automating information and reducing
the need for large numbers of HR employees by helping employees to control their own personal
information.
Many of these researchers believe the future to be bright for HRIS as it creates new paths for
human resources and for the organizations that effectively use HRIS. A study even goes as far as
to suggest that there is evidence that HRIS can improve shareholder value Brown David (2002).
A significant problem with deciding whether HRIS benefits the organization is that of measuring
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
90
January
2013
the effect of HR and more particularly HRIS on the bottom line. There are few clear cut ways to
measure the value of HRIS. It is difficult to measure precisely the return on investment and
specific improvements in productivity within the HR departments Mayfield, and Lunce (2003)
user satisfaction and perception of the system has often been used as a proxy measure for the
effectiveness of the system as the control of extraneous variables is difficult Haines and Petit
(1997).
HRIS helps the organizations in HR Planning & Analysis which includes, manpower inventory,
manpower requirement, skill requirement, turnover analysis, absenteeism analysis, placements,
job matching, job descriptions and workforce utilization.
HRIS is used for HR Development in employee profile training requirements, succession
planning, career interest & planning. It also aids in Staffing, acting as a source of recruitment and
in application tracking and job offer refusal analysis. It is also useful in planning of
compensation, like pay structure, compensation administration and incentive plans analysis and
legal regulations implementation HRIS aids in Performance Appraisal functions like employee
competency records and comparing actual performance with standards. It also assists the HR
managers in Health Safety & Security such as safety training, maintenance of accident records,
health records and compliance with acts. It also finds its use in Labour Relations as it helps in the
maintenance of union negotiation records, attitude survey results, exit interview analysis and
employee job history
Scope of Further Research
Based on the secondary data, the researchers have to select and opt for wireless HRIS in various
sub modules. The future of HRIS lies in SaaS and cloud computing. However, as more and more
companies outsource their HR department’s functionalities, outsourcing organizations such as
Randstad and ADP are adding technology to their menus. HR outsourcing services such as
TriNet and Achilles Group all offer HRIS tools and solutions for their clients. As the human
resources outsourcing market is predicted by Gartner to reach $1.102 billion worldwide by 2012,
outsource companies will provide majority of HRIS processes and management. The immediate
future of HRIS is a marriage between outsourced functions and outsourced technology. After
that, the pendulum could swing in either direction further, whereby all workers are outsourced,
not just in HR; or it could swing the other way, where organizations take back control of their
workforce, workforce management but probably not the technology.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
91
January
2013
Conclusions
Human Resource Information Systems, of late, have made much head-way in selecting right
person at the right time and fitting him/her to the right job. If this process is systematically
implemented, it will ensure the development of individuals’ competence and reaps fruits of
competitive advantage to the organization. Therefore, the importance of HRIS and its usage in
HR processes has emerged as an important module for discussion, debate and research among all
information technologists, management thinkers, corporate giants and host of others who are
using HRIS for gaining a competitive advantage in various domains of HR processes especially
in software companies.
References
1. Al Doran, (2003).,Protecting our HR systems from Disaster, HR Professional pp 39-40.
2. Amy Trappcy (2002).,Human Resource Assignment System for Distribution Centers,
Industrial Management Data Systems. Vol 102, pp 64-72
3. Andrew Winthorp (2002),Importance of A Human Resource System to an organization,
Website: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Andrew_Winthorp.
4. Anthony.M.,(2003),Toensed Human Resources and Information Technology, Journal of
Labor Research Vol XXIV
5. Armstrong.M (1984)., A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice,2nd edition, Kogan
Publisher Ltd, pp 47-48
6. Armstrong.M.(1994).,Using the HR Consultant: Achieving results, adding values, IPM, pp
23.
7. Arthur Yeung (1995)., Reengineering HR through Information Technology, Human
Resource Planning, Vol.18,pp12-17.
8. Asoke and Sathiyanarayana (2007).,E-Enable HR Management,IIPM Intelligence Unit
Publication India, pp 46-55.
9. Aston Beadles (2005)., Impact of Human Resource Information System: An Exploratory
Study in the Public Sector, Communication of the IIMA,Vol.5, Issue.4.pp39-46.
10. Astrid M (2002).,A DSS classification model for research in human resource information
systems, Journal of information Systems Management,Vol.19, No.3, pp 41-50.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
92
January
2013
11. Awazu,Yukika.,Desouza, Kevin .C.,(2003) Knowledge Management, HR Magazine,48(11),
p107.
12. Bader Yousef Obeidat,The Relationship between Human Resource Information System
(HRIS) Functions and Human Resource Management Functionalities,Journal of Management
Research,4,(4).
13. Baran.M.,Karabulut,E.,Semercioz.F.,Pekdemir,I.(2002).,The new HR practices in changing
organizations:
an empirical study in Turkey, Journal of European Industrial Training,Vol.26
No.2/3/4,pp.81-7.
14. Beckers.A.M.,Bsat.M.Z.(2002).,A DSS classification model for research in human resource
information systems,Journal of Information Systems Management,19,3,pp 4150.
15. Bill Robert (1999).,Who’s change in of HRIS, HR Magazine Vol 3 pp 23-26
16. Boudreau.John.W.(1991).,the evolution of computer use in human resource management:
interviews with ten leaders, Journal of Human Resource Management,Vol.30 issue 4,pp 485-
508.
17. Brijesh Kapil (2007).,Focused Approach by Leveraging IT in HR,IIPM Intelligence Unit
Publication India,12 pp 17-18.
18. Brown.David.,(2002).,eHR-Victim of Unrealistic Expectations, Canadian HR Reporte,Vol15,
pp 1- 6.
19. Buckley,Kathleen,Joy.,Michaels (2004).,The use of an automated employment recruiting and
screening system for temporary professional employees: A case study” Journal of the
Intersection of Information Technology and Human Resource Management,Vol 43 Issue 2-3,
pp 233-241
20. Carole Tansley and Sue Newell, (2009).,“A Knowledge-based View of Agenda-formation in
the Development of Human Resource Information Systems”,.Management Learning, Vol.38,
No.1, pp 95-119.
21. Carole Tansley and Tony Watson,(2000).,Strategic exchange in the development of Human
Resource Information Systems (HRIS),New Technology,Work and Employment, Vol 15
Issue 2,pp 108-122.
22. Carolyeh Yun Lin.,(1997).,“Human Resource Information Systems: Implementation in
Taiwan”, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, Vol 5(1),pp 57-72
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
93
January
2013
23. CIPD Report (2006)., HR and Technology CIPD,(Chartered Institution of Personnel &
Development),
Website: http://www.cipd.org.hrtechnology.inc.
24. Dery Kristine., Richard Hall.,Nick Wailes., (2006)., ERPs as technologies-in- practice
social construction, materiality and the role of organizational factors, New Technology,Work
and Employment Vol 21 Issue 3,pp 229-241.
25. Dr.Shikha N.Khera.,and Ms.Karishma Gulati,(Sep-Oct2012),Human Resource Information
System and its impact on Human Resource Planning: A perceptual analysis of Information
Technology companies (Delhi School of Management,Delhi Technical University, India)
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSRJBM),3,(6),pp06-13.
26. Ellen.Vebber,bswift (2007).,case study,Children’s Memorial Hospital,22,4,North Des
Plaines,6th floor Chicago.Website:www.bswift.com
27. Florkowski.Gary.W.(2006)., The diffusion of human-resource information technology
innovations in US and non-US firms, Emerald GroupLimited,Personnel, Review,Vol 35 No
6, pp 684-710.
28. Gardner.S.Lepak,D.P.,Bartol,K.M.(2003).,Virtual HR: The impact of information technology
on the human resource professional. Journal of Vocational Behavior, pp159-179.
29. Gary S. Fields (2002).,“Predicting Potential for Promotion, How the Data in Human
Resource Information Systems Can Be Used To Help Organizations Gain Competitive
Advantage” Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies,(CAHRS),CAHRS Working
Paper Series, Cornell University ILR School,pp 02-14.
30. Gasco, Llopis.,Gonzalez.,(2004)., The use of information technology in training human
resources” An e learning case study,Journal of European Industrial Training,24,5,pp 281-
290.
31. Gerardine De Sanctis,(1986)., Human resource information systems A current assessment,
Journal of MIS Quarterly, Vol 10, (1), pp15-27.
32. Haines, Victor Y., Petit, Andre (1997), Conditions for Successful Human Resource
Information Systems, Journal of Human Resource Management ,Vol 36( 2), pp 261-275.
33. Hall.L.,Torrington,D(1986).,Why Not Use the Computer? The Use and Lack of Use of
Computers in Personnel, Personnel Review, Vol. 15,pp 3-7.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
94
January
2013
34. Hammers,(2002).,Website:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2pNfy7sKrRIC&pg=PA570&
lpg=PA570&dq=Hammer,+M.+2002.+%22Recharging+your+HRMS.
35. Haven Cockerham, (2002)., How Employers Save on HRIS Costs,HR FOCUS,pp 22-26.
36. Huub Ruël,Rodrigo Magalhães,Charles C.Chiemeke (2011),Chapter 2 Human Resource
Information Systems: An Integrated Research Agenda,in Tanya Bondarouk,Huub Ruël,Jan
Kees Looise (ed.) Electronic HRM in Theory and Practice (Advanced Series in Management,
Volume 8),Emerald Group Publishing Limited,pp.21-39.
37. Huo.P.Y.,Kearns.J.(1992)., Optimizing the Job person Match with Computerized Human
Resource Information Systems, Personnel Review,Vol.21, No.2, pp 3-18.
38. Huselid, M. A., Becker, B. E., Beatty, R. W. (2005)., The workforce scorecard: Managing
human capital to execute strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.p12.
39. Hussain.Z., Peter Prowse (2006)., the use and impact of human resource information systems
on human resource management professionals, Working Paper by the Bradford University
School of Management pp1-22.
40. James Schultz,(1997)., Avoid the DDTs of HRIS implementation-things to avoid in
implementing human resource information systems,HR Magazine,Vol 3 pp1-9.
41. Jeffrey.B.Arthur, (1994).,“Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing
Performance and Turnover” Journal of The Academy of Management,Vol.37,No.3,pp.670-
687.
42. Jim.Meade,(2000).,Web-based HRIS Meets Multiple Needs” HR Magazine,pp 1-10.
43. Jim Spoor,(2008).,Do it yourself HRIS,Credit Union Magazine,pp10-15.
44. Joan C. Hubbard, Karen A.Forcht, Daphyne S. Thomas (1998)., Human Resource
Information Systems: An Overview of Current Ethical and Legal Issues, Journal of Business
Ethics Vol.17: pp 1319-1323
45. Joel Lapointe,(1998).,People make the system go or not human resources information
systems, HR Magazine,pp 1-5.
46. John Edwards,(2008).,HRMS:Helping HR Out of the Cost Center,HR Review Vol 13 pp 12-
37.
47. John Reh,(2006)., Key Performance Indicators (KPI), How an organization defines and
measures progress toward its goals, Website:http://management.about.com/cs/general
management/a/keyperfindic_2.htm.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
95
January
2013
48. Jose Fernandez (2006),Use of HRIS in Recruitment Process the Spanish Case European and
Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS),HRM Review, pp 1-7.
49. Joseph Rasquinha.et.al, (2007), Technology in HR Consulting, IIPM, Intelligence Unit
Publication India, pp 11-12.
50. Kanthawongs,(2002).,Website:http://www.bu.ac.th/knowledgecenter//epaper/jan_june
2002/penjira.pdf.
51. Kavanagh.D (1990)., British Politics Today, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp
11-13
52. Kavanagh.M..J.,Gueutal.H.G.,Tannenbaum.S.I.(1990).,Human Resource Information
Systems:
Development and Application.PWS-KENT Publishing
Company,Boston,Massachusetts,p10.
53. Ken Gregson (1995)., Information resource management, Journal of Work Study 1995 Vol
44 Issue: 1 pp 20-21.
54. Kenneth.A.Kovach (1999)., Technology Transfer &Human Resource Development, Journal
of Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol:26 (11) pp 17-21.
55. Kinnie.,Arthurs (1993).,Will Personnel People Ever Learn to Love the Computer?, Journal of
Personnel Management, Vol.25, pp.46-48.
56. Kinnie.N., Arthurs.A.J,(1996).,Personnel specialists advanced use of information
technology: Evidence and Explanations, Personnel Review Vol.25,(3), pp 3-19
57. KPMG (2001)., Consulting Higher Education, University of California HRIS Need
Assessment Journal of Information Technology ,Vol 2 pp 34-39.
58. K P Tripathi,Role of Management Information System (MIS) in Human Resource, JCST,
2,(1), (2011)
59. Lado,A.A.,Wilson,(1994)., HRIS Impact,Academy of Management Review,(19),pp 699-727.
60. Laila Marouf (2005).,Organizational & human resource aspects of IT management,A case
study of Kuwaiti corporate companies,The Electronic Library,(23) pp383-397.
61. Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Lengnick-Hall, M. L.,(2006)., op.cit.
62. Lengnick-Hall.C.A.,Lengnick-Hall.M.L.(2006).,HR, ERP, and competitive advantage.
Journal of Human Resource Management, (45), pp 179-194.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
96
January
2013
63. Lengnick-Hall and Moritz (2003),ERP and knowledge for competitive advantage,Journal of
Labor Research, 24 pp.365-79
64. Manar Al-Qatawneh, (2012),The Effect of the Implementation of Human Resource
Information Systems on Job Related Decisions in Commercial Banks in Jordan,
European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences,48.
65. Mary Ipe (2008)., Technology Interface with Human Resources,Journal of HRM,Review Vol
3 pp 51-56
66. May field.M.May field.J.,Lunce.S.(2003)., Human resource information systems: a review
and model development, Advances in Competitiveness Research,pp139-151.
67. May field,J., Mayfield,M., Lunce,S (2003).,Human Resource Information Systems: A
Review and Model Development, Advances in Competitiveness Research.11( 1), pp 139-
151.
68. May field (2003),Human resource information systems: a review and model
development,Advances in Competitiveness Research, pp 139-151.
69. Mohammad Al-Tarawneh, Haroon Tarawneh,The Effect of Applying Human Resources
Information System in Corporate Performance in the Banking Sector in Jordanian Firms,
Intelligent Information Management,4,(2),32-38,(2012)
70. Ngai.E.W.T.,F.K.T. Wat (2006)., Human resource information systems: a review and
empirical analysis.,Personnel Review,35 (3).
71. Ordonez de Pablos,(2004),Human resource management system and their role in the
development of strategic resources, Journal of European Industrial Training,28(6),pp 474-
489.
72. Penny Bassett (2003), Use of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), Working Paper
Series, School of Management, Victoria University, Melbourne,Australia.
73. Rothman (2001).,Information Technology in HRD, Journal of Management and Labour
Studies, XLRI Jamshedpur India pp 39-42.
74. Sandeep (2006).,Issues and Concerns in the Implementation and Maintenance of Human
Resource Information System, Journal of Information System Indian Institute of
Management Ahmedabad, India,pp1-21.
75. Sonia.Liff,(1997).,Constructing HR information systems, Journal of Human Resource
Management,7 (2) pp18 -31.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
97
January
2013
76. Spencer,(1995).,Information technology is transforming human resource
management,Journal of HRM, Vol 2 pp 23-34.
77. Sprague,H.R.,Carlson,E.D.,(1982).,Building Effective Decision Support Systems, Prentice
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp 23-27.
78. Stuart Maguire., Tom Redman (2004)., the role of human resource management in
information systems development, Journal of Management Decision, Vol 4,5 issue 2, pp 252-
264.
79. Steven Landberg (2006).,Enabling Human Resources, Journal of Best’s Review,p79.
80. Steven Phillip Brown (2007)., pp3-5,Website:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steven_Phillip_Brown>
81. Steven (2002)., How an HRIS can Impact HR: A Complete Paradigm Shift for the 21st
Century”, Vol 12 pp 9-12.
82. Stuart.Maguire.,Tom Redman, (2007).,The role of human resource management in
information systems development, Journal of Information Technology, Vol 45,2, pp 252-264.
83. Sue Shaw Integrating IT into the Human Resource Management Curriculum: Pain or
Pleasure? Journal of Education Training 36 Issue 2 pp 25-30.
84. Tanya Bondarouk, Jan Kees.,Looise, (2005).,HR Contribution to IT Innovation
Implementation,Results of Three Case Studies, Creativity and Innovation
Management,Vol.14,pp160-168.
85. Tannenbaum,(1990).S.I.,HRIS information: user group implications, Journal of Systems
Management, Vol. 41 No.1 pp.27-32, 36.
86. Tim Smedley,(2007).,All Systems go, from CIPD Report HR and Technology Impact and
Advantage.Website:
http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/ema_uk_he_torrington_hrm_7/79/20384/5218344.cw/cont
ent/index.html
87. Thomas.W.Ferratt (2005)., IT Human Resource Management Configuration and IT
Turnover: Theoretical Synthesis and Empirical Analysis, Information System Research,16,
No.3,pp 237-255.
88. Thompson.S.H.Teo (2007).,The adoption and diffusion of human resources information
systems in Singapore, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources,45(1) pp 44-62.
IJMIE Volume 3, Issue 1 ISSN: 2249-0558
__________________________________________________________
A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories
Indexed & Listed at: Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, U.S.A., Open J-Gage as well as in Cabell’s Directories of Publishing Opportunities, U.S.A.
International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering
http://www.ijmra.us
98
January
2013
89. Ulrich.D., Smallwood.N. (2005)., HR’s new ROI: Return on intangibles, Journal of Human
Resource Management, 44(2), pp137-142.
90. Usman Sadiq, Ahmad Fareed Khan, Khurram Ikhlaq,and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba, (2012) Nova
Southeastern University. The Impact of Information Systems on the Performance of Human
Resources Department Journal of Business Studies Quarterly,3,(4),77-91.
91. Victor.Y.Haines.,André.Petit (1997). Conditions for successful Human Resource Information
System, Journal of Human Resource Management,Vol.36, No.2, pp: 261-275.
92. Vincent Kiarie,(2007).,Information Technology and Human Resource Information Systems
Assessment for the Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG)Report Draft,pp 23-
34,Website: http.www.hris.org/chag/hrisreport.
93. Walker,A.J.(2001).,How the web and other key trends are changing human resources in
Walker”, A. (Eds), Web-Based Human Resources, McGraw-Hill,pp xiii-xxviii..
94. Walker (1999).,Information for Human Resource Management, School of public Health,
University of the Western Cape Report.pp19-31.
95. Willard (2002)., Information technology is transforming HRM, Journal of Nida
Development, Thai, pp 10-13.
96. Wilson.K.Cherukulath.,R.N.Raghuraman.,et.al.(1999).,Information management : An
overview on human resource planning, Workshop on Information Management, Institute of
Armament Technology, Pune,pp 23-26.
97. William Pyle (1996)., Information Technology and HR, Journal of Human Resource
Planning,19,pp 2-9.
... Digital HR [7] is the process of automating the HR associated function to enhance the efficiency, effortless management, eliminates the need for preserving the humongous amount of paperwork, cutback a lot of effort, money and time of the HR department as well as employees. In addition, this software helps to look at the opportunities and the possible difficulties of HR technology [8]. This paper explains how the process has been incorporated in software and to what extend it can assist an employee and HR personnel for successful execution of process and lastly concludes with the progresses that made known evidently after the implementation of digitizing the Skill-set based Academic Training management process. ...
... Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a software solution developed to aid Human Resource Management (HRM) (within the problems in question). HRIS has been applied [58] to aid the decision-making process in the analysis and planning of human resources, which included such spheres as manpower requirement, skill/competence requirement, absenteeism analysis, placements, job matching, job descriptions, workforce utilisation, payroll, safety training, maintenance of accident records, etc. HRIS also enables selecting the right person at the right time and assigning them to the right job. According to the classification of HRIS functionalities presented in the work of Nawaz and Gomes [59], questions (analysis/synthesis) related to AAPDO/AAPDA (see Figure 1) are associated with selected HRIS areas: HR acquirement (recruitment), HR planning (rostering/scheduling/staffing) and HR development (qualification management). ...
Article
Full-text available
Featured Application: The competency framework for matching student needs and lecturer competencies subject to disruptions caused by teacher absenteeism and curriculum changes. The model is adjusted to perform at the expected robustness level of resultant lecturer allocation. The main strength of the model, as well as the main contribution of this work, consists in that it can absorb the disruptions and produce robust teacher assignment schedules. Abstract: This paper focuses on a teacher allocation problem that is specifically concerned with assigning available academic lecturers to remaining courses from a given student curriculum. The teachers are linked to tasks according to competencies, competence requirements enforced by the curriculum as well as the number and type of disruptions that hamper the fulfilment of courses. The problem under consideration boils down to searching links between competencies possessed by teachers and competencies required by the curricula that will, firstly, balance student needs and teacher workload and, secondly, ensure an assumed robustness level of the teaching schedule. The implemented interactive method performs iterative solving of analysis and synthesis problems concerned with alternative evaluation/robustness of the competency framework. Its performance is evaluated against a set of real historical data and arbitrarily selected sets of disruptions. The computational results indicate that our method yields better solutions compared to the manual allocation by the university.
... In the present most of the companies implemented human resource information system into their human resource department [1]. Human resource information systems extend the human resource department to run effectiveness in the functional level [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The paper developed and tested a human resource management system in the university. To achieve the aim, objectives, the stud y designed methodology and taken the opinion from the users . To reach to the results percentage methods was adopted and data collected with a structured questionnaire. The study found that the program well executed and employees usage human resource management system in the human resource department of universitie s. The tools were useful for developers , researchers and Keywords: Human resource management system, universities, visual basic, oracle and employees. Classification: Technical paper.
... The another piece of research work concluded that organizations heavily depend on the HRIS SaaS and cloud computing.( Nishad Nawaz 2012a) Other areas of concerns in HR technology (i) The ERP vendors have to concentrate in advance technologies of HR, which take from quantity to quality (ii) The vendors should not facilitate dazzle, hype and complicated products, they need go with smart technologies that are very user friendly and deliver targeted results. (iii) The companies should smart while implementation of technologies, these technologies are to be easy to implement and my employees are going to adopt. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper aims to review on the topic of HR and Technology to establish the current trends of HR Technology and, on this basis, to suggest some promising avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: The study consists of systemic review of articles and reports on HR and Technology. Findings: The findings contribute to a more holistic view of the topic and complete the study of HR and Technology. Additionally, a conceptual framework is proposed that aims at guiding and informing future research activities. Research Limitations / implications: This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all articles and reports in the HR and Technology. Yet, based on the chosen research methodology, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large share of the studies available. Originality/value: To the best of the author knowledge, no systematic literature review on HR and Technology has previously been published in academic journals.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to focus on workforce planning and its importance to the company as well as the role of human resources information system in activating the function of forecasting the functions and skills of the British Petroleum Institute. In our study we used the case study methodology through analyzing the reality of human resources information system, (GPEC). In our study, we adopted the interview as a key tool by interviewing human resources management frameworks. We found that the organization has a fairly acceptable HR information system, as it has not been used Especially with respect to performance assessment and career management, especially with regard to Algerian employment, but exploited for foreigners. As for the expected management of jobs and skills, human resources management seeks to provide the human resource needs in terms of numbers and competencies. The information system has contributed to activating this function, especially by providing a database of all employees in the institution in addition to their specialties and skills. (Skills stock). Keys Words: Human resource information system, Strategic workforce planning, HR strategic.
Article
Full-text available
Research on Human Resource Information Systems within an Arabic context is limited. This research aims to investigate the impact of the implementation of Human Resource Information Systems on the quality of job related decisions in commercial banks in Jordan. Five major implementations of Human Resource Information Systems are included in this study, namely: Human Resource planning, recruitment, training, compensation, and performance appraisal. Surveys were administrated to 12 commercial banks in Jordan and sample of 279 valid cases was acquired. Results show that all Human Resource Information System implementations have a positive effect on the quality of job related decisions. When considering the quality of job related decisions, recruitment exhibits the highest effect, whereas performance appraisal has the lowest effect. Implications of the results are discussed and directions for future research in the field are suggested.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between Human Resource Information System (HRIS) functions and Human Resource Management (HRM) functionalities. The theoretical framework of this paper is based on previous HRM and HRIS research where the contributing role of HRIS is measured by the compliance and application level of HRIS functions to HR functionalities. A survey questionnaire was sent to five different banks and a response rate of 61.5% was received. The target groups of the questionnaire were HR departments that include HR managers and professionals in the Jordanian banking sector. In this study, human resource information system functions were found to have a relationship with HRM functionalities. More specifically, it was found that strategic integration, forecasting and planning, human resources analysis, and communication and integration have no relationship with human resource functionalities. Whereas, it was found that performance development, knowledge management, and records and compliance as dimensions of human resources information systems have a relationship with human resources functionalities. Keywords Human Resource Management, HRM functionalities, Human Resource Information System.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of the effectiveness of the Application of human Resources Management System in Corporate Performance which perspective of workers in the Banking Sector in Jordanian Firm, and to achieve the purpose of the study questionnaire was developed to measure the impact of the effectiveness of the Applica-tion of human Resources Management System in Corporate Performance, and the sample consists of the study (500) employees in the banking sector, and used statistical methods appropriate to answer the study questions and test hy-potheses. The study found asset of results, including: 1) There is a significant effect between the quality of the output of human resources information system and institutional performance in banking sector in the Jordanian firm; 2) There is a statistically significant effect between motives and corporate performance in the banking sector in the Jordanian firm; 3) There is a significant effect between training and organizational performance in the banking sector in the Jordanian firm. The study was presented a set of recommendations, including: activating the role of human resources information sys-tem, where still the information system performs the function of traditional supply the decision maker authorized one to read the outputs historical information when they want, either directly or after completing a series of routine procedures that enable it, without that, this applies to access information system to avoid problems that many occur later. Must go beyond human resources information system (HRIS) traditional role in the process of selection and appointment of the new human resource to work in the organization, which is merely providing information to decision makers about the people who stepped forward to fill a job order that differentiation among those application. That the ambitious goal of that system to provide a base for data (data bank) includes all of the details of the employment available in the market.
Article
Full-text available
Human resource information system (HRIS) is not new concept but it is recuperating day by day with changing environment. Its major role is in human resource planning (HRP) which itself a crucial activity in any organization. Ineffective HRP can lead to extra or fewer numbers of employees than needed. Both over and under number of employees can create crappy situations. HRIS helps in proper planning of human resources. This paper focuses on the role of HRIS in HRP. The research is empirical in nature as 127 respondents from top 7 IT companies (as per their market share) are taken to see the sights of the objectives. The survey is done with the assistance of the questionnaire. After investigation it is concluded that HRIS has various benefits but the foremost is HRIS stores ample data about the employees of the organizations that helps in escalating the snail's pace of HRP. HRIS also helps in the strategic activities of HR managers and more in training and development, succession planning, applicant tracking in recruitment and selection and manpower planning. While analyzing the overall contribution of HRIS in HRP it is concluded that HRIS identifies occupied and unoccupied positions in an organization very effectively and accurately.
Article
Human resource information systems (HRIS) have become a major MIS subfunction within the personnel areas of many large corporations. This article traces the development of HRIS as an entity independent of centralized MIS, assesses its current operation and technological base, and considers its future role in the firm, especially its relationship to the centralized MIS function. The results of a survey of HRIS professionals from 171 U.S. corporations are described in order to provide an overview of the current design, operations, and effectiveness of HRIS. The findings of the survey are discussed in terms of their implications for management of human resource information systems.
Article
today's organizations Human Resource is considered as one of the key resources of business organizations. The transaction processing layer of MIS in human resource function deals with routine activities like attendance recording and payroll calculations. The operational level activities also include maintaining the employee records which is used as a basis for strategic layers. With the growing importance of human resource management and increasing size of the organizations, maintenance of employee related data and generating appropriate reports are the crucial aspects of any organization. Therefore more and more organizations are adopting computer based human resource management systems (HRMS). This paper is an attempt to highlights the role of information systems in Human Resource Management and show how it helps in taking management decisions related to management function especially for the top management.