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Advances in Life Sciences 2012, 2(2): 17-20
DOI: 10.5923/j.als.20120202.04
Biological Properties of Thuja Orientalis Linn
Priya Srivastava1, P. Kumar2, D. K. Singh2, V. K. Singh2,*
1Department of Zoology, St. Xavier’s College, Ranchi, Jharkhand, 834001, India
2Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur , 273009, India
Abstract Thuja orientalis (Commonly- Morpankhi, Family- Cupressaceae) is an evergreen, monoecious trees or shrubs
used in various forms of traditional medicines and homeopathy in various ways. In traditional practices Thuja is used for
treatment of bronchial catarrh, enuresis, cystitis, psoriasis, uterine carcinomas, amenorrhea and rheumatism. Recent re-
searches in different parts of the world have shown that T. orientalis and its active component thujone have the great poten-
tial against a various health problems. T. orientalis preparations can be efficiently used against microbial/worm infection. It
can be used as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Instead of these effects, it can be also used as insecti-
cidal, molluscicidal and nematicidal activity against different pests. The present review highlights the some important bio-
logical properties of T. orientalis.
Keywords Thuja Orientalis, Morpankhi, Thujone, Antimicrobial, Molluscicidal, Antimicrobial
1. Introduction
Thuja orientalis (Commonly- Morpankhi, Family- Cu-
pressaceae) is a genus of coniferous trees. T. orientalis is an
evergreen, monoecious trees or shrubs growing to 10-60 feet
tall. The shoot are flat, leaves are scale like. The leaves are
arranged in flattened fan shaped growing with resine glands
[1]. Their leaves contain essential oils used to treat fungus
infections, cancer, moles and parasitic worms. The essential
oil derived from the leaves is toxic. α-thujone is useful as an
insecticide and an antihelminthic agent for the treatment of
parasitic worms[2]. However, α -thujone is a toxic substance
that disrupts neurological signals in the brain. Ingestion of
the essential oils of Thuja leaves can cause death[2]. Seed
with a pair of narrow lateral wings, seedlings produce 2
cotyledons. The wood is light, soft and aromatic. Thuja poles
also often used to make fence posts and rails. The wood of
Thuja is commonly used for guitar sound boards[3]. It is
used as a medicinal plant in various forms of traditional
medicines like folk medicine, homeopathy and treatment of
bronchial catarrh, enuresis, cystitis, psoriasis, uterine carci-
nomas, amenorrhea and rheumatism[4-6]. Oil of Thuja
contains thujone which has been studied for its GABA
(gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor antagonistic, with po-
tentially lethal properties[2]. A yellow dye is obtained from
the young branches[7]. Thuja is also occasionally used for
treating diseases of skin, blood, gastrointestinal tract, kid-
ney, brain, warty excrescences, spongy tumors[6]. Dubey
and Batra[8,9] reported that the hepato-protective activities
* Corresponding author: (Vinay Kumar Singh)
Published online at
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and antioxidant activity of Thuja occidentalis. Anti- prolif-
erative and apoptosis- inducing properties of Thuja occi-
dentalis has been evaluated by Biswas et al.,[6].
2. Chemical Constituents
Thuja orientalis leaves contain rhodoxanthin, amentofl-
avone, hinokiflavone, quercetin, myricetin, carotene, xan-
thophylls and ascorbic acid. The fruit and roots are strongly
aromatic. Distillation of the dried roots yields an essential oil
having the following properties-, 0.971[α]D, -22.50
nD20, 1.5055: acid val, 2.1 ester. Val. 26.27; ester. Val. After
acetylation, 89.39; Carbonyls (as C10H16O), 5.65% and 50%
in 7-8 vols of 95% alcohol[10]. The composition of the oil is
as follows: a new bicyclic sesquiterpene 51.10; l-borneol,
17.10; bornyl acetate, 9.1; α-thujone and camphor, 5.6; and a
new sesquirterpenenic alcohol. The seed yields fatty oil
having the fallowing composition palmitic 5.28, stearic, 7.3;
C18 unsaturated acids, 1829 (linolenic, 44.6%); and C20 un-
saturated acids, 6.10%. The heartwood contains aroma-
dendrin, taxifolin, widdrene, cedrol, thujopsadiene, dehydro
-α-curcumene, β-isobiotol and Curcumenether. It also con-
tains an essential oil C is a complex blend of: Sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons (cuparenes) 40; alcohols (Cedrol, widdrol,
cuparenols) 50; monoterpenic acids[10]. Nickavar et al.,[11]
19 and 28 compounds have been identified in the volatile oils
of the fruit and leaf, respectively, while the fruit oil contained
α-pinene (52.4%), 3-carene (14.2%), α-cedrol (6.5%) and-
phellandrene (5.1%), the leaf oil contained α-pinene (21.9%),
α-cedrol (20.3%), 3-carene (10.5%) and limonene (7.2%) as
the main components.
Thujone is a ketone and a monoterpene that occurs natu-
rally in two diastereomeric forms: α-thujone and β- thu-
18 Priya Srivastava et al.: Biological Properties of Thuja Orientalis Linn
(−)-α-thujone (+)-α-thujone
(+)-β-thujone (−)-β-thujone
Schema 1. Structure of diastereomeric isomer of thujone
3. Biological Effects
The main constituents of essential oils mono- and ses-
quiterpenes including carbohydrates, phenols, alcohols,
ethers, aldehydes and ketones are responsible for the bio-
logical activity of aromatic and medicinal plants[12,13].
Thuja orientalis is used internally in the treatment of coughs,
haemorrhages, excessive menstruation, bronchitis, asthma,
skin infections, mumps, bacterial dysentery, arthritic pains
and premature blandness[14]. The leaves are antipyretic,
astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant,
refrigent, and stomachic[15,16]. Their use is said to improve
the growth of hair[15]. The seed is aperients, lenitive and
sedative. It is used internally in the treatment of palpitations,
insomnia, nervous disorder and constipation in the elderly.
The bark is used in the treatment of burn and scalds. The
stems are used in the treatment of coughs, cold, dysentery,
rheumatism and parasitic skin diseases[16]. Thujone was a
weak inhibitor of acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl-
transferase activity in mouse brain synaptosomes compared
to psychoactive cannabinoids[17].
3.1. Antibacterial Activity
Plants and their essential oils are potentially useful
sources of antimicrobial compounds. Thuja orientalis con-
tain large amounts of three substances (alpha, beta and
gamma thujaplicin) that in low concentration would serve as
chelators for Solmonella typhimurium[18]. T. orientalis was
very effective in inhibiting the growth of serotypes c and d of
Solmonella mutans (MIC less than or equal to 2.0-7.8
3.2. Antifungal Activity
The essential oil showed antifungal activity in the inhibi-
tion zone against Alternaria alternata and Currularia lunata
in a direct bioautography assay by lipophilic leaf extract of T.
orientalis. Best bioactive component (Rf = 0.80) were ob-
served and noted for antifungal activity. It produced an in-
hibition zone of 30 and 22 mm in diameter against A. al-
ternata and C. Lunata, respectively[20,21]. Mishra et al.[22]
reported antifungal activity of aqueous leaf extract of T.
orientalis against Curvularia lunata. The essential oils from
leaves, twigs and stems of large trees and shrub-like trees of
Thuja sutchuenensis were extracted by hydrodistillation and
supercritical fluid extraction and analysed by GC and
GC-MS. The essential oils exhibited a certain degree of
antifungal activity against six strains of human pathogenic
3.3. Antiviral Activity
The chemical composition of the essential oil of T. ori-
entalis was determined by GC/MS analysis. Essentials oils
have been evaluated for their inhibitory activity against
Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-
Coronavirus) and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1)
replication in vitro by visually scoring of the virus-induced
cytopathogenic effect post-infection[24,25]. Several re-
searches have demonstrated that allopathic extracts of T.
orientalis could be used as strong antiviral agents against
plant and animal viruses[26,27].
3.4. Inflammatory Activity
Vascular inflammation is involved in the inhibition and
progression of cardiovascular disease including atheroscle-
rosis. Anti-vascular inflammatory activity of an aqueous
extract of T. orientalis (ATO) and its possible mechanisms
were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
(HUVECs)[28]. Pre- incubation of ATO inhibited tumor
necrosis factor and also inhibited U937 monocytes adhesion
to HUVECs stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
suggesting that it may inhibit the binding of monocytes to
endothelium. Furthermore, ATO significantly inhibited
TNF-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen
species (ROS). Overall, ATO has an anti- inflammatory
activity which is at least in part, is due to the decrease in the
TNF-induced endothelial adhesion to monocytes by inhib-
iting intracellular ROS production, NF-kB activation and
cell adhesion molecule in HUVECs[28,29].
3.5. Anticancer Activity
Strong 5αa-reductase inhibitor are extracted and fraction-
ated from T. orientalis and purified as diterpenes in isolated
form[30]. The inhibitors are used either on their own or as
active ingredients of therapeutics in the treatment of diseases
caused by the over activity of 5αa-reductase or the hyper-
secretion of androgens, such as male baldness, androgenetic
alopecia, hirsutism, acne, prostatomegaly and cancer of the
prostate[30,31]. Dubey and Batra[8,9] reported that the
hepato-protective activities and antioxidant activity of
Thuja occidentalis linn. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-
inducing properties of thujone-rich fraction (TRF) separated
from Thuja occidentalis. Their possible anti-cancer poten-
tials have been noted in the malignant melanoma cell line
A375[6]. Sunila et al.,[32] concluded that a polysaccharide,
Advances in Life Sciences 2012, 2(2): 17-20 19
or long-chain sugar molecule, derived from Thuja leaves
extract decreased the inflammation caused by cancer. It also
prevented the cancer from metastasizing, or spreading
throughout the body.
3.6. Larvicidal Activity
Larvicidal activities of T. orientalis oil against 4th-instar
larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens has been
observed by Ju-Hyun et al.[33]. Larvicidal activity of T.
orientalis leaf oil was higher than those of stem, fruit, and
seeds oils. Essential oils of leaves and fruits of T. orientalis
at 400 ppm caused 100% and 71.6% mortalities against A.
aegypti[33]. The lavricidal activity was observed from
various age class (I-III) and found strong mortality in age
class of II of T. orientalis against Aedes aegypti and Culex
pipiens pallens larvae. Leaf part and age class II of T. ori-
entalis has strong larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti
and Culex pipiens pallens. Leaf oil of T. orientalis shows
natural larvicides against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens
3.7. Insecticidal Activity
Leaf extracts of T. orientalis shows a repellent activity
against Chilo partellus. T. orientalis ether extract (68.63%),
acetone extracts (67.51%) have sufficient repellent action
[34]. Foliar application of semi-solid crude extract of T.
orientalis on maize was very effective against Chilo partel-
3.8. Nematicidal Activity
Ethanolic extract of Thuja orientalis leaf concentrations
(20,40,60, and 80%) at 3 time intervals caused mortality in
egg juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita[36]. It revealed a
linear relationship between the concentration of the plant
extract and the number of eggs hatched. Mortality of juve-
niles was directly proportional to the concentration and time
of plant extracts[36].
3.9. Molluscicidal Activity
Singh and Singh[37] reported that the ethanol extract of T.
orientalis leaf (24 h LC50- 32.74 mg/l) and column purified
fraction (24 h LC50- 29.25 mg/l) were potent molluscicide
against Lymnaea acuminata. Thujone (24 h LC50- 08.09
mg/l) was identified as active molluscicidal component in T.
orientalis. The molluscicidal activity of leaf/fruit of Thuja
orientalis and their active components/column purified
fraction with synergist Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-
264 (ENT 8184) was studied in binary combination (1:5)
against L acuminata. Combination of T. orientalis leaf/
thujone or fruit powder/ column extract of T. orientalis fruit
with PB or MGK-264 indicate synergised the toxicity up to
189.02 times. Toxicity of binary combination was increased
hundreds folds than their individual components indicating
synergistic action[38]. Sub-lethal (40% and 80% of 24h
LC50) in vivo treatments of column purified fraction of
Thuja orientalis and their active molluscicidal component
thujone significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase
(AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activi-
ties in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata [39].
It can be concluded from the ongoing literature that T.
orientalis has the great potential against a number of health
problem viz. bacterial, fungal and worm infection. It has
antioxidant, antiviral, insecticidal nematicidal and mollus-
cicidal activity. Recently, it has shown carcinogenic prop-
erty. It needs greater attention by the researchers to explore
its full potential and efficient use in the human welfare.
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3rd International Conference on Climate Change, Forest
Resource and Environment (ICCFRE), The Ecoscan, Special
issue-1, 87-92.
... TOP contains a lot of chemical components including amento avone, quercitrin, myricetin, afzelin and Kaempferol. Several studies have reported that TOF has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant [12], anti-in ammatory action [13], anticancer activity, [14] as well as reducing fever [15]. The essential oil, in particular, has been used for mycotic infection and the treatment of roundworm [15]. ...
... Several studies have reported that TOF has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant [12], anti-in ammatory action [13], anticancer activity, [14] as well as reducing fever [15]. The essential oil, in particular, has been used for mycotic infection and the treatment of roundworm [15]. The previous studies showed that TOF contains the antiviral activity against in uenza virus A/PR8/34 [16], but the report only demonstrated the inhibitory effect on cytopathic effect and viral M2 gene expression. ...
... TOF has been widely used as a botanical medicine herb to treat regular seasonal in uenza [15]. It has been demonstrated to have antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus[18], antiviral action on Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1(FLMaV-1) [19], especially fungi toxic activity in essential oils [20], as well as anti-cancer and neurotoxicity effects. ...
Full-text available
Background: Morbidity and mortality as a result of influenza is an ongoing global health issue. Macrophages are part of the immune defense mechanism, as they play a role in the inflammatory response that blocks viral replication. Thuja orientalis Folium (TOF) has been prescribed traditionally as an expectorant for inflammatory airway disease. In this investigation, we have assessed the anti-viral properties of TOF water extract on the infectivity of the influenza A (H1N1) virus in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Method: We assessed the ability of GFP-tagged influenza A virus (A/PR/8/34-GFP) to infect murine macrophages. To determine the potential of antiviral activity using Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), fluorescent microscopy with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. Hemagglutination inhibition assay, Western blotting, and Immunofluorescence analyses were performed to find the target protein. To investigate which stage of viral infection is associated with the TOF antiviral impact, we evaluated viral infection at three stages: attachment, entry, and virucidal in the presence of TOF. Results: FACS and immunofluorescence analyses results showed that TOF significantly inhibited viral infection and 100 μg/mL of TOF repressed that up to 98% of untreated control. Consistently, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses against the influenza viral protein confirmed the TOF extract reduced the influenza viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Time of addition and hemagglutination assays elucidated that TOF suppresses influenza A viral infection at early stages and interfere with HA protein. Conclusion: The TOF extract was thus found to exhibit inhibitory effects on influenza virus infection by inhibiting hemagglutination, blocking viral attachment and entry, and through virucidal effects. Based on our results, TOF may be a potential natural resource that could be utilized to develop an antiviral reagent.
... The maximum zone of inhibition formed by the test extract at 2% concentration was 30.32, 32.24 and 37.22 mm in A. alternata, C. lunata and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. Srivastava et al. (2012) (21) reported that the essential oil of Thuja orientalis showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and Curvularia lunata in a direct bioautography assay by lipophilic leaf extract of T. orientalis. Mahmud et al. (2009) (22) reported that crude extract of fruits (seed) of Vitex negundo showed excellent inhibition of growth of Fusarium solani (90%). ...
... The maximum zone of inhibition formed by the test extract at 2% concentration was 30.32, 32.24 and 37.22 mm in A. alternata, C. lunata and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. Srivastava et al. (2012) (21) reported that the essential oil of Thuja orientalis showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and Curvularia lunata in a direct bioautography assay by lipophilic leaf extract of T. orientalis. Mahmud et al. (2009) (22) reported that crude extract of fruits (seed) of Vitex negundo showed excellent inhibition of growth of Fusarium solani (90%). ...
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Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most famous cut flowers with a high ornamental value, occupying an irreplaceable position in international flower commerce. But most frequently occurred fungal diseases limit the production of this ornamental plant. A total of five fungicides viz., CM-75 WP, Dithane M 45, Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG, Rovral 50 WP and Score 250 EC were selected to evaluate in vitro efficacy at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm concentrations against two pathogenic fungi of Chrysanthemum morifolium namely, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium moniliforme. Rovral 50 WP showed complete growth inhibition of C. lunata and CM 75 WP showed complete growth inhibition of F. moniliforme at all concentrations used. Five plant extracts viz., Azadirachta indica, Citrus limon, Datura metel, Psidium guajava and Vitex negundo were selected to evaluate in vitro efficacy at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations against the test pathogens. Out of the five plant extracts, A. indica showed complete growth inhibition of C. lunata at 15 and 20% concentrations. On the other hand, P. guajava showed complete growth inhibition of F. moniliforme at 20% concentrations.
... The manifestation of neurotoxicity in brine shrimp nauplii was accompanied by the spasmodic twitching and a decline of movement prior to their death [7]. Clarkson's toxicity criteria were used to differentiate the toxicity of P. orientalis fractions [47]. ...
... The current finding showed that the aqueous and methanolic plant fractions were non-toxic while the remaining four plant fractions were moderately toxic (LC 50 = 0.1-0.5 mg/ml). The presence of α-thujone which is a gamma-aminobutyric receptor antagonist could have contributed to the toxicity of P. orientalis [7]. ...
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The extraction of plant bioactive compounds from Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco remains a great challenge due to the different chemical groups. This study aimed to compare the bioactive compounds with enzyme inhibitory effect from P. orientalis via solvent partitioning method. Dried leaf samples were macerated and fractionated with six solvents of different polarities. The phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-glycation potential were compared across the six plant fractions. Toxicity assessment was performed with an in vivo brine shrimp model. The varying levels of bioactive compounds in ethyl acetate (phenolics, flavonoids), hexane (saponins, tannins) and chloroform (alkaloids) fractions clearly demonstrated the significant impact of solvent polarity on the extraction of bioactive compounds. The reducing potential (r = 0.67), IC50 of α-amylase inhibition (r = −0.71), IC50 of advanced glycation end-product inhibition (r = −0.93) and dicarbonyl compound inhibition (r = 0.57) in the plant fractions were correlated (p<0.05) with the flavonoids. Besides, the alkaloid, saponin and tannin were associated with cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity. Principal component analysis confirmed that solvent polarity (23.9%) and plant extraction yield (37.1%) collectively contributed to 61% of bioactivity variation in P. orientalis. Among the six plant fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited relatively high anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-glycation potential while the non-toxic methanolic and aqueous fractions displayed optimal hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities, respectively. The current study has identified semi-polar ethyl acetate fraction of P. orientalis as a good alternative source of bioactive compounds for future pharmaceutical product development. Graphical abstract
... Hair development is assumed to be assisted by their use. Antipyretic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, refrigerant, and stomachic are all properties of the leaves (Srivastava et al. 2012). ...
... There are five species in the genus, two of which are endemic to North America and three to eastern Asia. Vidya plant, scientific name Thuja, is a non-flowering, seed-bearing evergreen garden shrub native to India (Srivastava et al. 2012). ...
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Background Nanotechnology's rapid development has been in great demand, particularly for silver nanoparticles, which are useful in a variety of industries including medicine, textiles, and home appliances. Silver nanoparticles are extremely essential due to their unique physicochemical and antibacterial properties, which can be used in a variety of applications. Green synthesis is an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional synthesis because it uses fewer chemical reagents and lowers temperature and pressure. Aloe vera and Thuja orientalis have a wide medical use because it contains a large number of compounds derived and was decided to use for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Main text The combination of silver nanoparticles has a wide range of applications, which has encouraged researchers to focus on the methods for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera and Thuja orientalis leaves extract, characterization techniques of synthesized silver nanoparticles, and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The synthesized AgNPs can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The various types of silver nanoparticles, various strategies for silver nanoparticle synthesis, nano-based drug delivery systems, taxonomy and chemical constituents of Aloe vera and Thuja orientalis plants, the general mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles in bacteria, and various applications of silver nanoparticles have also been discussed. Conclusion This review covers a wide range of research on silver nanoparticles to gain a better understanding of their physicochemical feature characterization, production, mechanisms of action, and applications. Various AgNP factors, such as size, surfactant, and structural shape, influence the unique physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles. Even though there are a variety of ways to make AgNPs, green synthesis has a high yield and biocompatibility because it uses natural agents and harmless chemicals. In this paper, we describe the green manufacture of silver nanoparticles utilizing Aloe vera and Thuja orientalis leaf extracts, as well as the method to test their antimicrobial and antifungal activity .
... Because P. orientalis can grow in various climates and soil environments, this plant species is widely distributed all over the world, including India, China, Japan, and Korea [14]. It has been reported that the P. orientalis extracts have exhibited various activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities [15][16][17], and terpene compounds identified from the P. orientalis extracts have shown pharmacological activity [13,18]. However, little is known about the P. orientalis extracts and their active compounds against plant diseases caused by fungi. ...
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Plants contain a number of bioactive compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, which can be recognized as an important source of agrochemicals for plant disease control. In searching for natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides, we found that a methanol extract of the plant species Platycladus orientalis suppressed the disease development of rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. Through a series of chromatography procedures in combination with activity-guided fractionation, we isolated and identified a total of eleven compounds including four labdane-type diterpenes (1–4), six isopimarane-type diterpenes (5–10), and one sesquiterpene (11). Of the identified compounds, the MIC values of compounds 1, 2, 5 & 6 mixture, 9, and 11 ranged from 100 to 200 μg/mL against M. oryzae, whereas the other compounds were over 200 μg/mL. When rice plants were treated with the antifungal compounds, compounds 1, 2, and 9 effectively suppressed the development of rice blast at all concentrations tested by over 75% compared to the non-treatment control. In addition, a mixture of compounds 5 & 6 that constituted 66% of the P. orientalis ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited a moderate disease control efficacy. Together, our data suggest that the methanol extract of P. orientalis including terpenoid compounds has potential as a crop protection agent.
Thuja orientalis is widespread in limestone zone of Korea. It is an aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine and aromatheraphy. No comparative data are available on the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from wild and planted T. orientalis. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils. The essential oils of the leaves from wild and planted T. orientalis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analysis of the essential oils from wild and planted T. orientalis leaves revealed the presence of artemisia triene (1771.45 mg/l, 1930.44 mg/l), trans-isolimonene (1716.31 mg/l, 753.10 mg/l), terpinolene (506.16 mg/l, 679.60 mg/l), isopulegol (478.76 mg/l, 355.64 mg/l), caryophyllene (462.71 mg/l, 568.43 mg/l), sabinene (405.44 mg/l, 395.34 mg/l) and myrcene (316.09 mg/l, 406.74 mg/l) as major constituents. The antibacterial assay revealed that the two kinds of essential oil showed activity. Results obtained in this study revealed that there is some quantitative differences of the chemical composition and antibacterial activity were noted between wild and planted T. orientalis.
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The extracts of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco leaves have shown promising anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potency with the traditional knowledge of healing HPV associated warts. The purpose of this research is to assess the synergistic activity of sorafenib and Platycladus orientalis (L) leaf extraction on cervical cancer cells. The cytotoxicity efficiency of different concentrations of Sorafenib and ethanol extract of Platycladus orientalis (L.) leaves were tested on HeLa cells by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The synergistic effect of the IC50 concentrations of Sorafenib and Platycladus orientalis (L.) on HeLa cell by MTT assay, and mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene and apoptosis modulator (Bcl-2) gene by RT-PCR were evaluated with individual treatments. Combination treatment showed a relatively more expression of TIG3 and less expression of Bcl-2 and PCNA was observed. Growth factor-induced MAPKP activation was arrested by compound combination treatment, which and suppression of proliferation-induced apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. Based on the our results, the combination of sorafenib and crude leaf extract from Platycladus orientalis (L.) can effectively suppress cervical cancer cell growth, thereby providing an interesting rationale for further clinical trials and in-vivo studies.
Botanical pesticides targeted to avoid the pesticide resistance to synthetic ones that conventionally affecting ecosystems diversity. The study designed to evaluate the larvicidal potentials of leaves and fruits extracts (methanol, acetone, hexane, and aqueous) from Thuja orientalis (Pinales: Cupressaceae) against Culex pipiens 3rd instar larvae and to identify the extracts compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of analysis. Leaves and fruits extracts used in concentrations, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm against the 3rd larval instar of Cx. pipiens in five replicates and larval mortalities recorded after 24 and 48 h post exposure. The larvicidal potentials of extracts showed concentration dependent and varied between leaves and fruits extracts. At 400 ppm concentration, leaves extracts showed 100% larval mortality except in hexane extract exhibited 98%. Acetone, methanol, aqueous and hexane leaves extracts recorded LC50 values, 58.04, 70.20, 77.19 and 84.25 ppm, respectively. Fruits extracts by hexane and methanol exhibited 100% larval mortality and LC50, 68.26 and 83.21 ppm, respectively, while, acetone and aqueous fruits extracts showed 98% and 96% larval mortality and LC50, 92.81 and 102.97 ppm, respectively. Terpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, fatty acid esters mainly identified in both extracts. The present study showed that extracts from Thuja orientalis leaves and fruits acquired promising larvicidal potential for the control of Cx. pipiens larvae with the role of their chemical constituents.
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Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using Thuja orientalis aqueous extract and AgNO3 as a precursor. UV–Vis showed a distinct absorption peak at 424 nm attributed to silver nanoparticles due to their surface plasmon resonance. Atomic absorption analysis reflected an increase in the concentration of nanoparticles in relation to the progress of the synthesis, obtaining a peak concentration value of 15.7 mg/L at 50 min. The FTIR spectra revealed the characteristic functional groups of phytomolecules involved in the silver–ion binding process, such as R–O–H (3335 cm−1) O=C–OH (2314 cm−1) and C—C=C (1450 cm−1). At 50 min, zeta potential showed the stability of the nanoparticles with the value of −21.73 mV. TEM micrographs revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of about 85.77 nm. Furthermore, films incorporated with nanoparticles exhibited a Tg from 66.42 °C to 73.71 °C and Tm at 103.31 °C. Films from the G22 formulation presented excellent antibacterial properties inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Thuja orientalis aqueous extract could be a low-cost, eco-friendly, and efficient reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of nanometric-sized Ag particles. Gelatin films with nanoparticles are expected to have high potential as an active food packaging system.
The present investigation validated the synthesis and characterization of AgNPs using the leaf extracts of Platycladus orientalis (L.). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV- visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) spectroscopy and the average size of nanoparticle was measured to be 8 nm. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal isolates.
Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae), commonly known as Arbor vitae or white cedar has been used in folk medicine to treat bronchial catarrh, enuresis, cystitis, psoriasis, uterine carcinomas, amenorrhea and rheumatism and is mainly used in homeopathy as mother tincture. Extract of this plant has shown anti oxidant, anti viral, anti diarrhoeal activity since this plant contains flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharides. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective activity of Thuja occidentalis aerial part. The hepatoprotective potential effect of ethanolic fraction of Thuja occidentalis has been assessed against CCL 4 induced liver damage in rats. A dose of EFTO 400 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant protection from liver damage in acute and chronic CCL 4 induced liver damage model. Histopathological examination was carried out after the treatment to evaluate hepato protection. The fraction was found to possess good hepatoprotective property.
Six aboriginal plant species were screened to observe possible repellent action against khapra beetle. Repellent property has been confirmed in all the plant species using olfactometer. Acetone extract of Emblica officinalis exhibited maximum repellency whereas minimum repellency was recorded in Ziziphus jujuba pet ether extract.