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Calquing: A Means of Terminological Enrichment



This paper investigates a widely practiced process of term-formation in modern standard Arabic, particularly in technical fields, namely calquing. This process, also known as loan translation, which typically consists in the direct, morpheme-for-morpheme translation of foreign terms, is looked at in light of various linguistic and extralinguistic factors. Depending on the morphological and semantic nature of the Arabic counterpart resulting from this process and the extent to which it reproduces the source language term, the study identifies seven types of calques: full, partial, semantic, compound, hybrid, and acronymic calques, in addition to foreign-induced neologisms. The paper further shows that the process in question plays an increasingly important role as a means of terminological growth and enrichment in present-day Arabic. In the course of the discussion, many examples from different technical fields are provided to support the views and arguments put forward.
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... Calque is literal translation of a foreign word or phrase; it can be lexical or structural,.This process, also known as loan translation, which typically consists in the direct, morpheme-for-morpheme translation of foreign terms, is looked at in light of various linguistic and extralinguistic factors (Ali, 2005), e.g., the English translation Normal School for the French Écolenormale. ...
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Every human has their own characteristics of languages and in order to understand one language to another languages, then, translation was essential and fully needed. In order to avoid the awkward translation, therefore the translator must use a technique in translating the texts. The research aimed at analyzing the equivalence between the source language and its translations based on the translation techniques applied by translator. This research focused on the amplification and transposition techniques could be seen on the imperative sentences especially command. The research was conducted by applying qualitative method. The research was conducted by applying library research and observation methods. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative method. The study applied two methods to present the analysis of data as follows informal and formal method. Target of research did not involve participants however, this research focused on analyzing data was English commands and its translation into Indonesian by using amplification and transposition found in the novel. The result of research showed amplification and transposition were dominant used in translating the English commands (SL) into Indonesian (TL). The translator applied amplification and transposition to find equivalences when transferring the meaning from the source language (SL) into target language (TL). Therefore, the overlapping translation could be minimized. Amplification had a role especially the addition of information. The phenomena occurred when the detail information did not contain in the SL and the translator must be sensitive by putting the necessary information in TL. Transposition created three parts of shift: structure, unit, and class of shift.
This article compares the use of calques modelled on anglicisms in different European languages, especially Spanish and German, which do not only show structural differences (e.g. with regard to the use of noun-noun compounds, which are more common in German) but also reflect different attitudes towards English. Aspects covered range from the factors generally favouring the coinage of such replacive forms, to the reasons for the emergence of different types of calques, to variations in their use and challenges concerning their identification. To unravel the main patterns and trends in calquing, this study includes numerous examples from written and oral language, i.e. items of different register affiliation, age, length, and semantic transparency. On a theoretical level, the article incorporates findings from the fields of lexicology, contact linguistics and sociolinguistics.
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