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Filipino Adolescents’ Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: Results from a University Cohort


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This research describes the sexual attitudes and behaviors of a cohort of adolescents, 15–24 years old, attending a large state university in Manila, Philippines (N = 1,412). Results revealed high percentages for both male and female adolescents who still value virginity, and disclosed disagreement with premarital sex (PMS), multiple sex, casual sex, pornography, cohabitation, same-sex relationship, petting and female masturbation. However, male masturbation, necking, and holding hands and kissing were found to be acceptable. Results likewise indicated an increase in adolescents who engaged in PMS over time, although generally low (27.7%) compared to the findings of other studies. Of those who have engaged in PMS, 80% did not use condom, which puts the adolescents into risks of unplanned pregnancy and exposure to STIs or HIV. The study also examined the correlates and predictors of sexual behaviors of a cohort of students. Fourteen variables served as independent/predictive factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was their scores on self-report sexual behaviors measured on a Likert Scale. Six of the predictive factors (gender, sexual preference, age, school allowance, monthly family income, and attitude towards sex) were significantly correlated with sexual behavior. Stepwise regression analyses identified only four factors-attitude towards sex, monthly family income, gender, and sexual preference-as significant predictors of sexual behaviors. This composite term explains 16.1% of the total variance, with the overall equation significant at p < .001. Implications for adolescent sexuality and reproductive health programs and future research were noted.
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E-ISSN 2281-4612
ISSN 2281-3993
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies
MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy
Vol 2 No 8
October 2013
Filipino Adolescents’ Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: Results from a University Cohort
Elmer G. De Jose
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Development,
Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
This research describes the sexual attitudes and behaviors of a cohort of adolescents, 15–24 years old, attending a large state
university in Manila, Philippines (N = 1,412). Results revealed high percentages for both male and female adolescents who still
value virginity, and disclosed disagreement with premarital sex (PMS), multiple sex, casual sex, pornography, cohabitation,
same-sex relationship, petting and female masturbation. However, male masturbation, necking, and holding hands and kissing
were found to be acceptable. Results likewise indicated an increase in adolescents who engaged in PMS over time, although
generally low (27.7%) compared to the findings of other studies. Of those who have engaged in PMS, 80% did not use
condom, which puts the adolescents into risks of unplanned pregnancy and exposure to STIs or HIV. The study also examined
the correlates and predictors of sexual behaviors of a cohort of students. Fourteen variables served as independent/predictive
factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was their scores on self-report sexual behaviors measured on a Likert Scale.
Six of the predictive factors (gender, sexual preference, age, school allowance, monthly family income, and attitude towards
sex) were significantly correlated with sexual behavior. Stepwise regression analyses identified only four factors - attitude
towards sex, monthly family income, gender, and sexual preference - as significant predictors of sexual behaviors. This
composite term explains 16.1% of the total variance, with the overall equation significant at p < .001. Implications for
adolescent sexuality and reproductive health programs and future research were noted.
Keywords: Filipino adolescents, adolescent sexuality, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, premarital sex, sex education
1. Introduction
Adolescence is a stage in life in which sexual behaviors are developing and becoming established (Bayley, 2003). During
this stage both sexual ideation and engagement in a spectrum of sexual behavior increase (Crokett, Rafaelli & Moilanen,
2003) such as talking about sex, sexual intimacy, solitary masturbation, oral sex, and sexual intercourse (Chi, Yu &
Winter, 2012). Reviews of recent scientific literature have revealed profound changes over the past decades in sexual
behavior of adolescents. college students, and other young adults (Langer, Warheit & McDonald, 2001; Irala, Osorio, Del
Burgo, Belen, De Guzman, Calatrava & Torralba, 2009; Teva, Bermudez & Buela-Casal, 2009). These changes include
the decline in the age of onset of sexual intercourse; increase in percentage of adolescents who reported casual sex,
multiple sex partners, and oral sex; and high rates of unprotected sexual activity both for males and females (Aras,
Semih, Gunay, Orcim & Ozan, 2007; Chi, et al, 2012; Irala, et al, 2009; Ryu, Kim & Kwon, 2007; Teva et al, 2009).
This increasing sexual involvement posed alarming consequences. In particular, premarital sex (PMS) has
significant impact on public health concerns. Despite efforts by competent authorities to increase awareness and
education, the age of initial sexual contact among adolescents remains very low while unplanned pregnancies and
exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is still high (Irala, et al., 2009). While these issues have long been
recognized in many developed countries, there is still a dearth of literature and empirical data in different Filipino
In the Philippines, the cases of HIV are relatively low but slowly increasing. As of January 2013, there were 380
new HIV Ab seropositive cases which was 79% higher than the 212 cases registered in January 2012; the 20 to 29 years
old had the most number of cases, 61%, which is higher than the 59% in previous year (National Epidemiology Center,
Department of Health, 2013). The vulnerability of adolescents to HIV and other STIs have also increased due to
behavioral factors such as initiating sexual relations at a young age and having multiple (concurrent or serial) sexual
partner (Irala, et. al, 2009).
The nationwide Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study among youth aged 15-24 (YAFS3, 2002) revealed that
23.2% adolescents have had engaged in premarital sex (PMS) (31% males and 16% females), with mean age at first sex
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of 17 for males and 18 for females. Only 27.6% males and 14.5% females used contraception during first PMS. Females
(90%) usually had PMS with a boyfriend. Majority among males, 60%, also had their first PMS with a girlfriend, while
about 32% had it with a friend or acquaintance. Of the sexually active adolescents 50% males while 9.1% females
reported having more than one PMS partners, with 4 and 3 partners on the average, respectively. About four percent
(4%) males have received payment for sex and 6.4% have paid for it.
Prior to YAFS 3, Sandoval, Mangahas, and Guerrero (1998) also conducted a nationwide survey on the situation of
the Filipino Youth, which revealed serious problems in the areas of criminality, gambling and sexuality. An estimated 6%
youths claimed to have ever sold illegal drugs; 7% claimed to have used them; 18% watched pornographic movies; 13%
have ever had a premarital sexual relation; and 5% have ever engaged in sex that they paid for, while the same
proportion have engaged in sex and been paid for it. Eight percent (8%) Filipino youths had sex against their own will;
and 4% have ever forced someone to have sex with them.
Lee (1997) looked into the sexual lifestyle, dating activity, and sexual behavior, role of peer groups and families,
and perceptions of pregnancies and STD infections and preventive methods, of adolescents in five universities. The
salient findings indicated that unmarried adolescents have dating and heterosexual relationships in varying context in
which physical intimacies, including penile-vaginal penetration, appear to be part and parcel of these relationships. Young
people were perceived to experience unwanted pregnancies more than they experienced STD infections. Despite these,
teenagers generally do not have adequate access to pertinent activities and services in the campus. Given the complexity
and dynamic nature of adolescents, it is helpful to keep on updating and identifying research gaps and challenges in
understanding the Filipino adolescents (Cabigon, 1999) particularly on the aspect of their sexuality.
The current study produced baseline information about sexual attitudes and behaviors of undergraduate students
enrolled at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university of the country with more than 70,000
students, during the academic year 2012-2013. The cohort’s personal and family characteristics, their attitude towards
sex, and how they are correlated with sexual behavior were examined. The paper hopes to provide data about the
college students’ views on sex as well as their actual sexual practices or involvements, which can be utilized in the
planning and implementation of educational policies, and in espousing development programs that address the needs of
the students, particularly in the sexuality and reproductive health domains.
2. Method
This is a descriptive survey participated by 1,412 undergraduate students enrolled in various courses in the largest state
university in the country (in terms of student population) located in an urban center in Manila. Respondents came from 15
colleges which were all based on five Manila campuses. The survey was conducted during the second semester of SY
2012-2013. Permission to administer the questionnaires was obtained from the Office of the Vice President for Research,
Extension, Planning and Development.
Two sampling techniques were employed in the study. The first was cluster random sampling where the researcher
selected the classes to be included in the study. The second phase involved inviting the students in the selected classes
to participate in the study, on a voluntary basis. The nature and purpose of the study were explained to the students and
their verbal consent was obtained. Confidentiality was assured as no student names or numbers were collected with the
data. The participants were advised that they are free to withdraw at any point without jeopardy on their grades or
academic status.
The instrument was written in English language, which is a language of instruction in the University. It consists of
the following parts: (1) the adolescents’ personal characteristics [gender, sexual preference, age, year level, marital
status, employment while studying, and school allowance] and family characteristics [father’s educational attainment,
mother’s educational attainment, family income, number of siblings, birth order, parents’ living arrangement, and whether
the adolescent lives/stays with both or any of the parents]; (2) 15-item Sexual Attitude Scale; and (3) 15-item Sexual
Behavior Inventory.
A modified Likert Scale was used for both the sexual attitude and sexual behavior. To facilitate interpretation, the
theoretically relevant variables were all coded so that higher scores reflect more positive attitude and signify more liberal
sexual practices. Responses to the sexual attitude items ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). A five-
point response format was also employed for each of the sexual behavior indicators: 1 (No. I have not done it, and will
never do it); 2 (No I have not done it, but I am open to doing it); 3 (Yes, I have done it only once); 4 (Yes, I have done it
a few number of times); 5 (Yes, I have done it frequently/many times).
The instrument was self-administering and contains instructions for responding. However, verbal instruction was
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also provided during the actual survey. A team of senior psychology students enrolled in their Research I course assisted
during the gathering and tabulation of data. Data were analyzed using statistical software. Frequency and percentage
were calculated to draw a descriptive profile on the personal and family characteristics, the sexual attitude, and the
sexual behavior of a Filipino university student. Bivariate analyses were used to examine association between sexual
behavior and the personal and family characteristics of the respondents. Point-biserial correlation was conducted to
determine the correlation between a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender, with female coded as 2 and male coded as 1;
living arrangement, living with parent/s was coded 2 while not living with parent/s was coded 1) and the total score in
sexual behavior. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was employed for non-dichotomous variables. The variables
that flagged a significant correlation were used in the subsequent stepwise regression analysis to identify which factor or
composite factors contributed to the total scores on sexual behavior.
3. Results
3.1 Descriptive Analyses
3.1.1 Personal and Family Characteristics
Table 1 describes the personal characteristics of the respondent adolescents. Of the 1,412 students, 58.9% are females
and 40.9% are males. In terms of sexual preference, a great majority, 84.3%, declared that they are heterosexuals; 1.6%
exclusively prefer same-sex partners, and 6.3% are bisexuals. In terms of year level, 22.8% are in their first year, 40.5%
are in second year, 24.6% are in third year, and 9.4% are in their fourth or fifth year in college. Mean age of 18.2
approximates the median age of 18 years old. The majority or 52.2% are 17 to 18 years old; 30.9% are 19 to 20 years
old; 6.7% are aged 15 to 16 years old, while 4.4% are between 21 to 24 years old. The respondents are mostly single,
97.0%. Only 0.5%% are married while 1.3% live with a partner. There are 15.9% work while studying, and the majority,
72.0%, are non-working or full time students. The percentage of students, 42.7%, who have a weekly school allowance of
500 to 1,000 pesos is significantly higher than any other subgroups. A US dollar is equivalent to an approximately 45
Philippine pesos at the time of study. There are 19.9% who are in the lowest school allowance subgroup of 500 pesos
and below; 11.2% have 1,000 to 1,500 pesos per week; and 4.5% have 1,500 to 2,000 pesos. Very few (0.6% to 1.6%)
have weekly school allowance between 2,000 to 10,000 pesos.
Table 2 reveals that majority of the adolescents’ fathers (42.1%) and mothers (44.6%) are college graduates,
followed by 38.9% and 37.0% who have only finished high school, respectively. In terms of total household monthly
income, the biggest subgroup is 10,000 to 20,000 pesos with a percentage of 25.7%, followed by 21.7% whose family
monthly income is below 10,000 pesos; 18.5% have 20,000 to 30,000 pesos; and 15.7% have 30,000 to 50,000 pesos.
The rest of the adolescents are distributed in the three upper subgroups: 50,000 - 80,000, 8.1%; 80,000 - 100,000, 5.9%;
and 100,000 - 200,000, 2.5%.
More than half of the respondents (67.3%) have 1 to 3 siblings; 18.8% have 4-5 siblings. Nearly half of the
respondents, 42.7%, are middle born; 37.3% are first born or only child; 13.6% are last born. In terms of parents’ living
arrangement, 67.8% of the parents live together, while 31.0% live in separate places or residences. Majority of the
respondents, 62.3%, are living/staying with either one or both parents, while 36.3% do not.
3.1.2 Sexual Attitude
Table 3 shows the respondents’ degree of agreement on the fifteen-item questionnaire that measures their attitude
towards some aspects of sexuality. The adolescents demonstrated agreement on four items. More than half, 56.7%,
strongly agreed that sex is sacred and should only be enjoyed by married couple (mean = 4.15). There are 47.6% who
strongly believe that a woman should be a virgin at the time of her marriage (mean = 3.97). Likewise, 36.1% are strongly
convinced that a man should also be a virgin at the time of his marriage (mean = 3.73). Virginity in this study refers to not
having engaged in sexual intercourse. Nearly half of the respondents, 43.6%, agreed that holding hands and hugging in
public is acceptable (mean = 3.71). The adolescent cohort disagreed (48.8%, mean = 2.12) with multiple sex partners.
The rest of the items registered a neutral attitude based on the mode and mean statistics.
However, when the percentages of the ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ responses were combined, as well as the
percentages of those who ‘strongly disagree’ and ‘disagree’ on an item, the data suggest significant results. For instance,
positive attitude was revealed in the following items: male masturbation (45.8%); necking (40.8%); and kissing in public
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(27.8%). Although 36.9% favors premarital sex, a slightly higher percentage (37.4%) disclosed disapproval.
Furthermore, the adolescents who revealed negative attitude outnumbered those who indicated positive attitude on
the following items: viewing/reading pornography through internet or other media (47.8%); cohabitation (45.2%);
expressing one’s sexual feelings with a partner (41.8%); same-sex sexual relationship (41.6%); petting (45.1%); and
female masturbation (38.9%).
3.1.3 Sexual Behavior
Table 4 discloses the adolescents’ self-report on their sexual experiences. Using mode as the central tendency measure,
it could be said that this university cohort is generally inexperienced when it comes to most indicators of sexual behavior.
When the percentages of those who reported having experienced it at least once, few, and many times were again
combined, data suggest that significant number have had the following experiences: having an intimate partner (48.1%);
watching/reading pornographic videos/materials (44.2%); intimate kissing (42.8%); masturbation (39.7%); necking
(39.5%); petting (31.7%); petting in a generally public but dark and secluded place (30.8%); oral sex (26.3%); premarital
sex with person they like and intend to marry (27.7%); and, premarital sex with someone they like but do not intend to
marry (25.9%). Few have reported having engaged in casual or “one-night stand” sex (19.2%), sex with person of the
same-sex (14.2%), paying for sex (14.2%), and being paid for sex (11.1%). One important finding is in the use of
condoms or pills during sexual intercourse. Of the 365 respondents who have had experienced PMS, 80.2% of them
engaged in unprotected sex.
3.2 Correlation Analyses
The results of the correlation analyses are reported in Table 4. As shown, four of the individual factors were found to be
significantly correlated with scores on sexual behaviors. These were: gender (male), r = .244, p < .000; sexual
preference (bisexual), r = .119, p < .000; age (older), r = .075, p .006; school allowance (higher), r = .123, p < .000; and
sexual attitude (positive), r = .308, p < .000. Year level and working while studying were not significantly correlated with
sexual behavior. Marital status was excluded from the analyses since very little variation was observed among the
respondents (97% are single). In terms of family factors, only the total monthly household income was significantly
correlated with sexual behavior, r = .205, p < .000. No significant relationship was observed between the adolescents’
sexual behavior and the rest of the family factors, namely, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational
attainment, number of siblings, birth order, parents’ living arrangement, and whether the adolescent is living or staying
with his/her parent/s.
3.3 Regression Analysis
Step-wise regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors or composite factors provided the most powerful
predictors of sexual behaviors. Only the factors found to be significant in the correlation analyses were included in the
subsequent regression equations. The outcomes from the step-wise regression are presented in Table 6. Only sexual
attitude, gender, sexual preference, and monthly family income were found to be significant predictors of the adolescents’
sexual behavior. Age and school allowance were not significant and were excluded in the model. As shown in the Table,
sexual attitude was entered first and accounted for 7.5% of the total explained variance. In the second equation, monthly
family income was added to sexual attitude and accounted for 11.9% of the total explained variance. In the third equation,
Gender was added to both sexual attitude and monthly family income, which accounted for 15.3% of the total explained
variance. Sexual preference entered last and increased the explained variance by 16.1%. The R2 score changes
occasioned by adding each of the terms were significant, and the overall equation was also highly significant at p < .001.
4. Discussion
4.1 Sexual Attitude
Data revealed that Filipino adolescents still hold conservative attitude towards sex. Specifically, this was evidenced in the
belief that sex is sacred and should only be enjoyed by married couples. More than half (56.7%) strongly agreed that sex
is sacred and should only be enjoyed by married couple. The same conventional attitude was observed in the aspect of
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virginity. There are more adolescents who believe that a woman as much as a man should be a virgin at the time of her
marriage. Furthermore, higher percentage also reported disagreement on the following: premarital sex, multiple sex,
casual sex, pornography, cohabitation, same-sex relationship, petting, and female masturbation. These findings reflect
the generally traditional cultural mores about premarital and non-marital sexual activity. This conservative attitude may be
influenced by strong religious beliefs and deep-rooted cultural values. As a predominantly Christian country, the
Philippines considers sex between married couples as morally and legally acceptable. The Catholic Church remains
influential in legal, political and religious views on sexuality, contraception, including how sex education should be taught
in school. Premarital sex, pornography, prostitution, nudity, cohabitation and similar variants are still considered illegal
and taboo.
Male masturbation, necking, and holding hands and kissing were found to be acceptable to a certain degree. The
Church prohibits masturbation as sinful and unnatural but this religious proscription has began to loosen up with male
sexual exploits provided by an abundance of social opportunities (e.g., birthdays and community celebrations, public
dances, fraternities) (Leyson, 1991), and exposure to various forms of media (e.g. romantic teen television programs,
showbiz personalities, internet), which generally encourage sensual and erotic activities. Furthermore, adolescents are
faced with social and biological pressures to engage in sexual activities, and may find it difficult to match what they
practice with what they believe to be desirable (Adaji, Warenius, Ong’any & Faxelid, 2010). This situation is specifically
prevalent among adolescents with friends who are sexually active and view sex as a defining aspect of masculinity
(Somers & Gleason, 2001).
4.2 Sexual Behavior
There is an increase in the percentage of adolescents who engage in sexual behavior over time. Engagement in intimate
relationships have increased from 21% females and 38.6% males (Cabigon, 1999) to 48.1% for both genders; and from
18% (Cabigon, 1999), 23.2% (YAFS 3, 2002) to 27.7% in the present study who have had experienced premarital sex.
Despite this increase however, the figures reflected a generally low sexual behavior of this cohort of university students
compared to the findings of other studies.
In the study of Nahom et al (2001) involving early adolescents of an urban district in the Pacific Northwest, the
percentage of teens who have engaged in sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal) increased across grades: 18% among 8th
graders; 30% among 9th graders; 43% among 10th graders. In Spain, Teva et al (2009) reported that 37% males while
9.5% females had sex with a casual partner; 52.1% males and 46% females in the age group between 15 and 16 years
have oral sex once or more a month; 91.1% males and 87.6% females between ages 15 and 19 years used condom in
their first sexual intercourse. The mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 for males and 15 for females.
A study of 1,048 Asian-American adolescents, Hahm, Lahiff and Barreto (2006) found that 24% women and 20%
men reported having sexual intercourse. Foreign-born adolescents who spoke English at home had the highest rates of
sexual intercourse for both women (37%) and men (34%). But for most acculturated group, a much higher proportion of
female than male U.S.-born adolescents who spoke English reported having had sexual intercourse (31% and 18%,
respectively). In a more recent study involving students of a Canadian university, Dalton and Galambos (2009) stated that
penetrative sex (sex in which the penis penetrates the vagina or anus) was experienced by 31% respondents, and 38%
have received oral sexual contact from a partner, both in at least one month during the first year in college.
In Jamaica, 64% males but only 6% females reported having engaged in premarital sex. However, mean age at
first sex for both gender is considerably low at 11.3 years old for girls and 9.4 for boys (Eggleston et al., 2007). In Turkey,
masturbation was high at 51.3% (82.5% males and 14.5% females), sexual intercourse with intimate girlfriend/boyfriend
(42.6%), casual sex (28.9%), sex with paid sex worker (28.5%), and multiple or more than two sex partners (54.5%). The
median age at first sexual intercourse is 16 (11-18 range) for males, and 17 (14-18 range) for females (Aras, et al, 2007).
Nwankwo and Nwoke (2009) reported that 47.4% of Nigerian student cohort from nine schools/colleges have ever had
sex; in the last six months, 63.2% have had sex more than four times, more than three times, 11.3% one to two times,
and 3.4% more than 5 times; 43.9% of them are with multiple or more than three partners while 42.7% are with single
partner; and 53.6% have tried having sex with an unknown partner.
The present findings, however, indicated higher percentage of engagement in some sexual activities among the
Filipino adolescent cohort compared to their Asian counterpart. An investigation on the prevalence and correlates of
sexual behaviors among university students in China showed that: 10.8% of students are engaged in oral sex; 12.6% had
heterosexual intercourse; 2.7% had same-sex sexual activities. However, higher proportion of Chinese students had
experienced masturbation (46%) and more than half (57.4%) viewed pornography (Chi et al, 2012). Among Korean
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adolescents, the study of Ryu, et al. (2007) indicated that 14.4% of high school students had experience sexual
intercourse; 6.8% of those who reported having had sexual intercourse have no girl-/boyfriend, suggesting casual sex
These variations in the proportion of adolescents who were engaged in various sexual practices may be explained
by differences in cultural and social context. One alarming finding is in the use of condoms or pills during sexual
intercourse; 80% of those who have experienced sexual intercourse also reported that they did not use or does not like
using condom, which puts the adolescents into high risk of unplanned pregnancy and exposure to STIs or HIV.
4.3 Correlation Analyses
The relationships between individual and family factors and the scores on sexual behaviors were consistent with some of
those reported in the literature, and inconsistent with others. This study found out that although adolescents may hold
different values concerning sexuality, their attitude about sex are related to behavior. Sexual experience increased with
more positive attitudes towards sexuality (Huerta-Malacara, 1999; Werner-Wilson, 1998). Moreover, investigations into
the effects of human sexuality generally support the assertion that sexual experience has a reciprocal relationship with
sexual attitudes (Eggleston et al, 1999; Tobin, 2011). Greater average positive affect was associated with oral sex, and
permissive attitudes toward sex were associated with more positive affect in relation to experience of penetrative sex
(Dalton & Galambos, 2009).
The positive correlation between the respondents’ sexual preference and sexual behavior suggests that
adolescents with bisexual orientation tend to engage in sexual behavior higher than the homosexuals, while both genders
have more liberal sexual practice than the heterosexuals. There is a dearth of investigation on this area as most of the
studies specifically focus on a particular group of sexual orientation [i.e., bisexual and homosexual risk behaviors
(Matteson, 1997; Rosario, Meyer-Bahlburg, Hunter & Gwadz, 1999; Rew, Whittaker, Taylor-Seehafer & Smith, 2005)].
Available literature comparing heterosexuals, homosexuals and bisexuals were focused on patterns of sexual arousal
and sexual attraction (Cerny & Janssen, 2011; Lippa, 2007).
The significant correlation between age and sexual behavior supported the findings of Huerta-Malacara (1999),
Langer, et al (2001), Hahm, et al. (2006), Aras, et al (2007), Mustanski (2008) and Teva (2009) but was contrary to what
was reported in Chi, et al. (2012) and Akinwande and Brieger (2007). These discrepancies may be due to different
samples, methods, and modes of analyses used by investigators, aside from the fact that these studies were conducted
in different temporal and cultural context.
The relationship between gender and sexual behavior indicated higher sexual permissiveness and activity among
males than females provided support to Werner-Wilson (1998), Langer (2001), Hahm, et al (2006), Akinwande and
Brieger (2007), and Chi (2012). Adolescent males are much more likely than adolescent females to engage in sexual
activities. Furthermore, the significant correlation between total monthly household income and sexual behavior among
adolescents was consistent with Aras et al. (2007) who also found that mean household income were higher for sexually
experienced males, (Aras, et al., 2007).
4.4 Regression Analyses
Statistical analyses were conducted separately and simultaneously for individual and family characteristics because they
are both theoretically relevant and have been identified as important predictors of sexual attitudes [and behavior]
(Werner-Wilson, 1998). The findings from the regression analyses indicated that the combined factors (sexual attitude,
gender, sexual preference, and total monthly family income) in the final equation were powerful predictors of sexual
behavior. These data are quite informative and contributed to the understanding of Filipino university adolescents. In the
case of university adolescents, it could be assumed that they already possess the assets and resources that will allow
them to maximize the benefits of sexuality, minimize the risks and mitigate any negative consequences that may arise
(Dalton & Galambos, 2008). The important role of the school administrators, guidance and counseling centers, and
relevant units in the university is to provide appropriate sexual education programs that will address the sexual issues
and promote healthy sexual development among students. The challenge is to balance the demands of the social mores
and the reality. Adolescent sex education should first and foremost strongly advocate abstinence, while at the same time
providing comprehensive and informed knowledge on reproductive health, condom and contraception use, and the
negative consequences of risk behavior (e.g. unwanted pregnancy, STIs, HIV, etc.) that will help foster a safe, healthy,
and responsible sexual behavior among young people.
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The findings of this study indicated that several of the factors were not always significantly correlated with sexual
behavior and/or they were not significantly correlated with sexual practices. This does not mean, however, that they
should no longer be considered when designing future sex education programs or interventions, since research with other
samples might alter the findings reported in this paper. This study, like the others, is not without limitations. First, the data
are based on self-report of the respondents and the use of questionnaire may only have evaluated their sexual attitudes
and behaviors without further exploration of the motivations and influences behind the attitudes and behaviors. However,
questionnaire-based studies of this sort have been employed in several sexual and reproductive health surveys (Adaji,
2010; Aras, 2007; Chi, 2002; Eggleston, et al 1999; Langer, et al, 2001; Langstrom, 2004; Ryu, 2002; Teva et al, 2009).
The study may not totally represent the views of all Filipino adolescents, since the sample was limited to only one
university. Adolescents from other state or private universities, the out-of school youths, and those coming from various
socio-economic status also maintain certain attitudes and may behave in a similar or different ways from the sample of
this study.
Future studies may also focus on other factors that influence sexual behavior such as peer pressure to conform to
sexual standards; and parent’s influence on sexuality (i.e., parent-child communication parent) (Werner-Wilson, 1998;
Somers & Gleason, 2001); and further examination of the multiple and distinct and simultaneous influences of individual
and family factors, and gender differences on sexual attitudes and behavior to expand our understanding of Filipino
adolescents. Furthermore, studies using qualitative methods may be helpful, particularly in identifying the subgroups that
are most at-risk, and suggesting effective means of intervention.
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Table 1. Respondents’ Personal Characteristics
characteristics Subgroups %
Gender Male
No response
Sexual preference
Opposite sex onl
Same sex only
No response
17 – 18
19 – 20
21 – 24
No response
Year Level
1st year
2nd year
3rd year
4th year/5th year
No response
Marital status
Single but living with a partner
No response
Employment Working while studying
Not employed
No response
School allowance
per week (in
Philippine peso)
Below 500.00
500 to 1,000.00
1000.00 to 1500.00
1500.00 to 2000.00
2000.00 to 2500.00
2500.00 to 3000.00
3000.00 to 5000.00
5000.00 to 10000.00
No response
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Table 2. Respondents’ Family Characteristics
characteristics Subgroups %
Fathers’ education
High School
No response
Mother’s education
High School
No response
Total household
monthly income
(in Philippine peso)
Below 10,000.00
10,000.00 to 20,000.00
20,000.00 to 30,000.00
30,000.00 to 50,000.00
50,000.00 to 80,000.00
80,000.00 to 100,000.00
100,000.00 to 200.000.00
No response
Number of siblings
None (only child)
1 sibling
2 siblings
3 siblings
4-5 siblings
More than 5
No response
Birth order
First born (and only child)
Middle born
Last born
No response
Parents living
Parents live together
Parents do not live together
No response
Living arrangement Living/staying with parents
Not living/staying with parents
No response
Table 3. Sexual Attitude
Item Strongly
agree Agree Neutral Dis-
disagree Mean Verbal
1. Sex is sacred that only married couple should
engage on it. 56.7 18.1 14.9 3.8 6.5 4.15 Agree
2. I do not find anything wrong with a man and a
woman who kiss in public. 8.4 19.4 36.8 23.7 11.7 2.89 Neutral
3. It is alright for an unmarried couple to have sex
as long as it is their own decision and that no one
has been forced to do it. 13.4 23.5 25.8 18.1 19.3 2.94 Neutral
4. It is alright for a couple to hold hands and hug in
public. 20.8 43.6 24.3 7.7 3.4 3.71 Agree
5. I believe that a woman should be a virgin at the
time of her marriage. 47.6 20.2 20.0 5.8 6.4 3.97 Agree
6. I believe that a man should be a virgin at the time
of his marriage. 36.1 21.1 29.5 6.4 6.9 3.73 Agree
7. It is alright for a couple to live together and make
love without the benefit of marriage as it is their 8.9 18.0 27.9 25.7 19.5 2.71 Neutral
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own free decision.
8. I do not find anything wrong with enjoying
pornography, e.g. pornographic movies, internet
videos and sites, magazines, etc. 10.3 16.7 25.5 21.2 26.6 2.63 Neutral
9. I do not find anything wrong with having sex with
more than one person (not at the same time) as I
like/love the person I’m having sex with. 9.7 8.7 14.1 18.8 48.8 2.12 Disagree
10. Necking (caressing/touching body parts from
head to shoulder) is acceptable between a
couple. 8.8 32.0 33.0 15.5 10.7 3.13 Neutral
11. Petting (caressing/touching private body parts
from breast/chest and down) is acceptable
between a couple. 8.5 17.9 28.6 22.6 22.5 2.67 Neutral
12. There is nothing wrong with a male who
masturbates. 17.7 28.1 30.0 13.2 11.0 3.28 Neutral
13. There is nothing wrong with a female who
masturbates. 11.4 18.2 31.5 19.8 19.1 2.83 Neutral
14. Nowadays, teens have the right to express
their sexual feelings with partners. 8.6 18.4 31.4 20.9 20.9 2.73 Neutral
15. Gays and lesbians have as much right as the
heterosexuals to enjoy sex with the persons
they choose as long as there is mutual
11.4 16.3 30.7 17.1 24.5 2.73 Neutral
4.50–5.00 = Strongly agree; 3.50–4.49 = Agree; 2.50–3.49 = Neutral; 1.50–2.49 = Disagree; 1.00–1.49 = Strongly disagree
Table 4. Sexual Behavior
Yes, I
done it
Yes, I
done it a
Yes, l
done it
No, But I
am open
to doing it
No. I will
never do
Mean Verbal
1. I have had an intimate partner/
boyfriend/girlfriend. 16.4 19.4 12.3 27.3 24.6 2.55 Yes, once.
2. I have intimately kissed my partner.
9.1 19.1 14.6 32.1 25.1 2.76 Yes, once.
3. I have engaged in mutual necking with my
partner. 13.5 17.5 8.5 26.7 33.9 2.50 Yes, once
4. I have engaged in petting/touching of private
parts with my partner. 13.4 11.9 6.4 24.3 43.9 2.27 No, but
I’m open to it.
5. I have had premarital sex with the person
whom I like/love and intend to marry. 12.8 9.8 5.1 20.4 51.8 2.11 No, but
I’m open to it.
6. I have had sex with the person whom I like
but I do not intend to marry. 12.8 7.4 5.7 13.0 61.2 1.98 No, but I’m
open to it.
7. I have tried oral sex with my partner. 14.1 8.0 4.2 15.3 58.4 2.04 No, but I’m
open to it
8. I have tried kissing and petting in a generally
public, but dark, hidden, and rather secluded
place (e.g. movie house, comfort room,
13.4 8.4 9.0 13.1 56.2 2.10 No, but I’m
open to it
9. I use/have used some form of contraceptives
(e.g. pills, condoms) when I engage in
sexual intercourse with my partner. (n = 365)
9.7 6.7 3.5 57.1 23.1 2.23 No, but I’m
open to it
10. I enjoy/ have enjoyed reading or watching
pornographic materials/ videos. 14.0 18.8 11.4 12.6 43.3 2.48 No, but I’m
open to it
11. I do/have had experienced self-
masturbation. 16.5 17.1 6.1 9.7 50.7 2.39 No, but I’m
open to it
12. I have had experienced casual or a “one-
night-stand” sex. 8.7 4.7 5.8 12.2 68.7 1.72 No, but I’m
open to it.
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13. I have had engaged in a sexual activity with
a person of the same sex. 8.8 2.8 2.6 6.3 79.5 1.55 No, but I’m
open to it
14. I have tried paying to satisfy my sexual
fantasies/urges. 8.5 2.8 2.9 9.5 76.3 1.58 No, but I’m
open to it
15. I have tried receiving/accepting money or
material things or have engaged in sexual
activity in exchange of a seriously wanted
8.0 1.3 1.8 4.8 84.1 1.00 No. I will never
do it.
4.50–5.00 = Yes, many times 2.50–3.49 = Yes, but only once 1.00–1.49 = No, I will never do it
3.50–4.49 = Yes, a few times 1.50–2.49 = No, but open to it
Table 5. Correlation between Predictive Factors and Sexual Behavior
Predictive Factors N
Personal characteristics
1. Gender 1406 -.244** .000
2. Sexual Preference 1301 .119** .000
ge 1328 .075** .006
4. Year Level 1373 .042 .116
5. Working while studying 1259 .019 .503
6. School allowance 1158 .123** .000
7. Sexual attitude 1410 .308** .000
Family Characteristics
8. Father’s educational attainment 1360 .003 .921
9. Mother’s educational attainment 1367 .009 .728
10. Total household monthly income 1384 .205** .000
11. Number of siblings 1323 -.011 .694
12. Birth order 1319 .001 .959
13. Parents’ living arrangement 1393 -.033 .223
14. Living/staying with parents 1390 .015 .580
** Correlation is significant at the p < .01.
Note: Gender and Sexual preference were categorical variables. For gender variable, male was coded 1, female was
coded 2. For sexual preference variable, opposite sex was coded 1, same-sex was coded 2, bisexual was coded 3.
Table 6. Regression Analysis of Predictive Factors on Sexual Behavior Scores among the University Cohort
Independent Variable(s) R2 R2 change Beta
Sexual attitude .273 .075 .273
Sexual attitude
Monthly family income .345 .119 .236
Sexual attitude
Monthly family income
.392 .153 .203
Sexual attitude
Monthly family income Gender
Sexual preference
.401 .161 .197
Note: All R2 changes are significant; F = 32.395, p < .001
... On a traffic data of the most popular websites published by Clement (2022), the combined number of visits from the top three pornography websites, namely Pornhub, Xvideos, and Xnxx, was 5.81 billion per month. Although pornography is considered taboo in the Philippines because of its conservative culture and strong religious beliefs (Cordero, 2019;De Jose, 2013;McTavish, 2020), recent statistics showed that the Philippines ranked 9th in the list of countries with the most daily viewers and ranked 1st in terms of duration of consumption with an average of 11 minutes and 9 seconds per visit (Pornhub, 2021). The data also demonstrated that more Filipino females (52%) visited the site than males (49%), with the age range of 18-24 having the most visitors (37%). ...
... It should be considered that the Philippines is predominantly Catholic, which holds a strong conservative attitude towards sex. Moreover, even though young people have a tendency to engage in premarital sex more than before, practices of sexual morality are still observed among Filipinos (Cordero, 2018;De Jose, 2013). That being the case, the impact of pornography consumption in the Filipino context may not be as drastic as in those countries that are more liberated in terms of sex. ...
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With the advancement of technology, the usage of pornography has reportedly increased due to its accessibility through mobile devices. Pornography consumption has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes, including negative sexual consent attitudes, which are frequently depicted on mainstream pornography websites. Moreover, past researches demonstrated that exposure to pornography is more likely to result in problematic sexual behaviors when consumers perceive its contents as realistic. This study aims to explore the mediating effect of perceived pornography realism in the relationship between pornography consumption and intent to seek sexual consent among Filipino young adults. A total of 405 pornography consumers who are in a committed, sexually active relationship participated in the online survey that was based on the Consumption of Pornography Scale—General, Perceived Pornography Realism Scale, and Sexual Consent Scale—Revised. Using a quantitative simple mediation model, results revealed that perceived pornography realism significantly mediates the relationship between pornography consumption and intent to seek sexual consent. This implies that frequent and prolonged exposure to pornography may increase the consumers’ perception that its contents are real, lowering their intentions to ask consent from their partners. Thus, the null hypotheses are rejected. A full mediation was concluded as consumption of pornography did not directly affect sexual consent intent. The findings of this study provide consumers as well as relevant organizations and professionals with insight into the possible effects of pornography exposure on sexual consent attitudes and ways to mitigate them.
... They found that religiosity was unrelated to actual sexual behavior when measured with the sexual attitude variable. Other research shows that religiosity is related to pre-marital sexual attitudes (Gyimah et al., 2013;Lefkowitz et al., 2004;McMillen et al., 2011;Pluhar et al., 1998) and pre-marital sexual attitudes with pre-marital sexual behavior (Chen et al., 2016;Earle & Perricone, 1986;Jose, 2013;Wong, 2012). The results of these studies form the basis for the assumption in this study that pre-marital sexual attitude mediates the relationship between religiosity and pre-marital sexual behavior. ...
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Pre-marital sex before marriage in adolescents is a severe problem associated with increased transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, having more than one partner, and early pregnancy. Even though Indonesia is considered a society with high religious values, free-sex behavior is considered increasingly concerning. This study investigates the relationship between religiosity and attitudes toward pre-marital sexual behavior with pre-marital sexual behavior in adolescents. Respondents of this study were 200 adolescents aged 10-19 years old, selected through a purposive sampling technique, with criteria: have religion, not married, and currently dating. Data were analyzed using a linear regression method. The results showed that pre-marital sexual attitude fully mediates the effect between religiosity and pre-marital sexual behavior. The present study findings contribute to pre-marital sexual research by explaining that religiosity does not decrease pre-marital sexual behavior if the person is permissive or has a supportive attitude towards it. With this outcome, it is expected that the relevant parties will focus more on changing adolescents’ thoughts, attitudes, and perspectives regarding pre-marital sexual behavior and not only rely on religious teachings as the only framework for preventing pre-marital sexual behavior
... Furthermore, sexual attitudes demonstrate positive associations with a sexual desire among males and females (Dosch et al., 2016). While sexual behaviors vary across cultures (Abboud et al., 2021;De Jose, 2013;Ip et al., 2001;Jaya & Hindin, 2009), the measures to quantify sexual attitudes affecting behavior remain scarce. ...
Background and Purpose: It is essential to address sexual health to ensure quality of life and sexual well-being; however, studies to measure sexual attitudes remain scarce. This aimed to find reliability and validity evidence of the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (BSAS) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) among Filipino men. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Results: BSAS shows Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90. CFA demonstrates goodness of fit (adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .82; goodness-of-fit index = .86; comparative fit index = .91; incremental fit index = .91; expected cross-validation index = 2.27; root mean square error of approximation = .08; [χ ² (213) = 927.45, p ≤ .001], χ ² / df ratio 4.35). Conclusions: BSAS is a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess sexual attitudes among Filipino men. Further research is needed to evaluate sexual attitudes in the promotion of sexual health across cultures.
... This finding is similar with the previous studies of Weaver et al. (2011) and Letcher and Carmona (2015) that individuals who are involved in FWBRs tend not to use protections such as condoms during sexual intercourse. Also, this finding supported the study of Williams and Adams (2013) that sexual partners usually do the 'oral, vaginal, and anal sex' which are prone to acquiring infections as well as the 'acquisition of STIs, HIV, and AIDS' are prevalent (De Jose, 2013). Moreover, Williams and Adams (2013) found that sexual partners may disregard the use of protection because of their trust and confidence in each other. ...
... While younger adolescents especially in Romania and the Philippines found the items on sexual abuse difficult to interpret or inappropriate, they faced no issues in interpreting items on other types of abuse and neglect. The sensitivity of sexual abuse items may be due to dominant cultural norms surrounding discussions around sex in the Philippines (Gipson et al., 2020;De Jose, 2013) and in Romania (Rada, 2014). This finding must be borne out by adolescent preferences in Romania and the Philippines who still felt questions on sexual abuse should be asked, and therefore, this can be managed by more careful pre-survey cognitive testing with adolescents of varied backgrounds in these countries to ensure appropriateness. ...
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Background The International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool (Children's Version), known as the ICAST-C Version 3, is used widely to assess violence against children, but there is limited psychometric evidence, especially on content validity. Objective This study aimed to assess the content validity of the ICAST-C with adolescents in Romania, South Africa, and the Philippines. Methods A purposive sample of adolescents (N = 53, 51 % female) were recruited from urban areas in Romania, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and Metro Manila, Philippines. Semi-structured one-on-one in-depth cognitive interviews sought adolescent perspectives on the relevance, comprehensibility, and comprehensiveness of the ICAST-C. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results The ICAST-C was broadly perceived to be relevant and comprehensive in measuring violence against children in all study locations. However, there were issues with the comprehensibility of the measure, described at three levels: interpreting items, undertaking coherent elaborations of relevant behaviors and places, and generating a coherent response to the questions. Conclusions Suggestions to revise the ICAST-C include, among others, adding a practice or how-to section on answering the survey, clarifying the intent of questions, especially on neglect and sexual abuse, emphasizing that questions cover all locations, and asking more positive questions. Pilot studies testing the content validity and cultural appropriateness are needed as a matter of practice in large self-report surveys.
... Being a predominantly Catholic country, the Catholic Church remains influential in legal, political, and religious views on sexuality, relationships, and contraception, including how sex education should be taught in school (Austria, 2004;Pui-lan, 2005). Premarital sex, pornography, prostitution, nudity, cohabitation, and similar variants are still considered illegal and taboo (De Jose, 2013). As such, Filipinos consider sexual intercourse between married couples as the only morally acceptable sexual behavior (Tan et al., 2001). ...
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This study aimed to determine the role of sex guilt as a mediating variable in the association between relationship and sexual satisfaction in the Filipino culture. Sex guilt is the generalized expectancy for self-mediated punishment for violating, or for the anticipation of violating, proper sexual conduct. Using intersectionality as a lens, this study imposed a mediation model on four categories: (1) Unmarried Filipino Women; (2) Married Filipino Women; (3) Unmarried Filipino Men; (4) Married Filipino Men. Secondary analysis of data from 630 Filipino participants completing an online questionnaire of sexual behaviors was done. Results showed that sex guilt has no significant associations with relationship and sexual satisfaction in both Married Filipino Women and Unmarried Filipino Men. However, sex guilt exhibited a significant indirect effect in the link between relationship and sexual satisfaction in both Unmarried Filipino Women and Married Filipino Men. Results of this study could aid in finding a culturally grounded definition of sexual satisfaction, implementation of sexual health programs, education, and addressing needs of married couples in marital and relationship therapy in the country.
Echague is one of Isabela’s most populated place in the province because it is one of the largest towns composing of 64 barangays with 6 regions, and according to the 2021 data reported by the Rural Health Unit-Echague, there are 107 total cases of adolescent deliverieswhich is a great concern due to lack of knowledge and attitude towards contraception and protection during sexual intercourse. In relation to sexually transmitted infections, due to lack of information and misinformation, sexually transmitted infections can be acquired or transferred during intercourse due to these certain factors. In January – December 2021 there are 165 cases of Syphilis and 274 cases of Hepatitis B mostly pregnant women regardless of agewas reported by the Rural health Unit-Echague, which is quite alarming because it shows that there are people who are still not knowledgeable enough concerning sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to know and be aware with the knowledge and attitudes of the college students of Echague, Isabela particularly the riverside region towards sexually transmitted infections. Data were collected from 104 college students in Riverside Region, Echague, Isabela. Results showed in knowledge that majority of the respondents knew about other sexually transmitted infections other than HIV as well as the transmission, causes, kinds, signs and symptoms and complications. Majority of the respondents also knew the Infections through different sources and most of the respondents knew no one who has an STI. Results showed in attitudes that the respondents believed that contraceptive pills is a method to avoid STIs, little did they know that contraceptive methods are only ways to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The rest of the result showed majority on the about their concerns in getting an HIV when having sexual intercourse, their worries in acquiring those diseases, condom use, education to boost knowledge regarding STI’s, seeking professional medical consultation if they are unsure whether they acquire the disease or not, treatment, and the danger it can bring. The result showed in the relationship between knowledge and demographic profile has significant relation in terms of what respondents think are the possible causes of STI’s, and the rest shows no significant relationship. In relationship between the respondent’s demographic profile and attitude, the result shows significant relationship in terms of avoiding a person with STI, people who are infected with STI should get treatment, and the use of contraceptive pills in avoiding STI. The rest of the result showed no significant relationship
This research describes the sexual attitude and behaviors of a cohort of millennials, 18-36 years old, working in Makati City (N = 30). The study revealed that young millennials working in a highly urbanized city such as Makati City has a conservative attitude towards pre-marital sex. Public display of affection is acceptable among the surveyed individuals. Intimate activities, such as necking and petting between couples, male masturbation, and expression of sexual feelings towards their partners are acceptable among the respondents. An open and accepting attitude towards LGBTs expressing themselves as long as there is mutual consent is acceptable as well. The study also revealed that the respondents are generally experienced when it comes to sexual activity but are apprehensive towards paid sex. The study also examined the correlates and predictors of sexual behaviors of a cohort of young millennials. Sixteen variables served as independent/predictive factors in the analysis. The dependent variable was their scores on the self-report sexual behaviors measured on a Likert scale. Five of the predictive factors or indicators (sexual preference, sexual attitude, educational attainment, employment status, and mother’s educational attainment) were significantly correlated with sexual behavior. Stepwise regression analysis identified only three factors or indicators – sexual attitude, sexual preference, and employment status – as significant predictors of sexual behavior. This composite term explains 73% of the total variance. Implications for planning and implementation of health-related policies, information dissemination, and in espousing development programs that address the needs of young professionals, particularly in the sexuality and reproductive health domains, and future research were noted.
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This study determined the perception of college students towards premarital sex (PMS) amid the continuum of sexual conservatism and liberalism. It also investigated on the engagement and extent of awareness of the students to the various consequences of engaging in PMS. The cross-sectional descriptive study was participated by 320 respondents chosen through cluster random sampling form the different colleges in the town. Results revealed that students continue to hold a conservative view of PMS. However, degree of conservatism has diminished. Immorality and social unacceptability of PMS were slightly agreed on; although virginity and sanctity of sex were concepts respondents hold a tight view on. PMS is permissible if done by engaged couples and loving partners. One out of five respondents engaged in PMS which is relatively low compared to the regional and national data. Respondents' awareness of the various consequences of PMS was fairly low with a mean of 1.6 responses, and the most common were, unwanted pregnancy, sexually-transmitted disease, can affect schooling and social stigma. This study recommends PMS education and the integration of these results in the content of instruction, focusing on health-related effects of PMS.
This study examined the attitude towards romantic relationships and knowledge of HIV of 250 Filipino and 150 Indian students. It also explored how the students' profile and knowledge of HIV influenced their attitude towards romantic relationships. The comparative research method determined the differences in the attitude towards romantic relationships and knowledge of HIV between the Indian and Filipino students. The correlational method on the other hand, determined the influence of HIV knowledge and profile on their attitude. The study utilized survey questionnaires to gather the needed data. Results show that there is a statistically significant difference between the students of the two counties in their knowledge of HIV. Indian students are more knowledgeable about HIV than the Filipino students. Both the Filipino and Indian students are undecided in their attitude towards romantic relationships. Number of close friends and romantic relationships and knowledge of HIV significantly influence attitude towards romantic relationships of the Filipino students. Personal factors and knowledge of HIV, taken singly and as a whole do not significantly influence attitude of the Indian students towards romantic relationships.
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Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic relationships and urban native settings predicted sexual behaviors. Conclusion Sexual behavior among University students in China is not uncommon, although there are limited ways for students to acquire sex-related knowledge: male students showed significantly more sexual behaviors than female students. Having romantic relationships and more time spent online were important predictors of sexual behaviors among university students. To guide healthy sexual behaviors in young people, comprehensive sex education programs that provide necessary sexual health knowledge about safe sex should be developed and implemented in universities in China, particularly for students who have romantic relationships and those who spend long periods of time on the Internet.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal.
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This was a cross-sectional study to examine the attitudes of Kenyan in-school adolescents towards premarital sex, unwanted pregnancies/abortions and contraception. Data collection was undertaken using a structured questionnaire. Kenyan in-school adolescents have conservative attitudes toward premarital sex, disagreeing that adolescent boy and girls should be left alone to satisfy their sexual needs. The girls had the view that boys have uncontrollable sexual appetites. With regards to unwanted pregnancies, the majority of the respondents disagreed with allowing abortions for pregnant school girls while they agreed that a pregnant school girl should be allowed to return to school. However, the majority of the girls held the view that a school boy who had impregnated a school girl should be expelled from school. The attitudes of the respondents to contraception were also largely conservative. The conservative attitudes of the respondents conflicts with the findings of high levels of unsafe sex and reproductive ill-health among Kenyan adolescents. There is need to help Kenyan in-school adolescents to develop more realistic attitudes toward sexuality in order to improve their reproductive health.
Maiksi subalit masalimuot ang panahon ng kabataan sa buhay ng tao. Ang suliranin ng pagsasaayos sa mga problemang kaakibat nito ay nangangailangan ng ganap na pag-unawa sa kabataang Pilipino ng kasalukuyang panahon. Nais ibahagi ng papel na ito ang pagtutukoy sa mga mahahalagang isyu na karaniwang di natugunan sa mga nauna nang pag-aaral. Ilan sa mga suliraning pampananalikssik ay binigyang pansin at inaasahang mapupunan ang mga puwang na patuloy pa ring naiiwan sa larangan. Ang mga kakulangang nais tugunan ay ang mga sumusunod na usapin: pagkakaisa sa pagpapakahulugan sa konsepto ng "kabataan" at sekswalidad; di-kumpletong datos ukol sa ugnayan ng bilang ng kabataan at bilang ng kabuuang populasyon; antas ng kamalayan ng mga stakeholders at kabataan mismo tungkol sa paglaki ng bilang ng huli; ang pangangailangan ng mga stakeholders ng napapanahon at bagong pagkaunawa tungkol sa antas, mga tagapagtakda, at kahihinatnan ng sekswalidad ng kabataan, pati ng kanilang fertility at reproductive health; at, ang kanilang kamalayan at pakikilahok sa mga gawaing panlipunan. Ilan sa mga rekomendasyon ay ang pagkakaroon ng pambansang sarbey sa mga bagong erya ng pag-aaaral kaakibat ang kwalitatibong pananaliksik, pananaliksik pampatakaran (policy research) at operations research. Ang artikulo ay isang pagtatangka sa paghahanap ng mga pamamaraan upang maimulat sa mga kabataan at sa lipunang Pilipino ang kahalagahan ng maturidad at pagbibigay ng mga safety nets sa ating mga kabataan bilang gabay sa transisyunal na panahong ito sa pagitan ng kanilang pagiging mamamayan na may sapat na gulang.
Seventy bisexually or homosexually active men primarily of Chinese‐, Filipino‐, and Korean‐American backgrounds participated in extensive interviews focusing on acculturation and sexuality. Impressionistic data showed higher involvement in gay culture than Asian culture, a shift away from the complexity of bisexual lifestyles, and two patterns of exogenous selection of male partners. The findings suggest that Asian‐American men who had sex with men were more likely than comparison groups to comply with safer sex; acculturation to Asian society enhanced this compliance, but identification with Western Protestantism, or traditional Latin homosexual roles, was related to higher risk behavior. The reported behavior of the men who had sex with both men and women did not substantiate fears that bisexuals were a conduit for transmitting the virus from the gay to the heterosexual community. Impressionistic data suggested that a combination of inaccurate information about HIV transmission, unfounded trust of partners, poor assertiveness skills, and guilt may result in sexual risk taking. Suggestions for prevention included providing explicit information in ethnic and mainstream media, emphasizing risks of heterosexual transmission, providing electronic interactive learning situations that allow privacy rather than face‐to‐face interaction, and organizing support groups that affirm the men's dual identity as Asian‐American and gay or bisexual.
Context: Jamaica has high levels of adolescent sexual activity and pregnancy: Forty percent of Jamaican women have been pregnant before the age of 20. Understanding the reproductive attitudes and behavior of adolescents aged 14 or younger may aid in the development of educational programs designed to combat teenage sexual activity and childbearing. Methods: Data from a 1995 survey of 945 Jamaican students aged 11-14 and information from a set of focus-group discussions with a subset of survey respondents in 1996 are used to explore the reproductive behavior and attitudes of low-income Jamaican youth attending schools of poor academic caliber. Results: Sixty-four percent of boys said they had experienced sexual intercourse, compared to 6% of girls. Both boys and girls had inaccurate knowledge about reproductive health and behavior. Clearly defined gender norms regarding sexual behavior were perceived by the 12-year-olds in the focus groups and suggested that boys perceive social encouragement and pressure to be sexually active. In contrast, girls who have sex, particularly if a pregnancy reveals their sexual activity, are branded as having inferior moral standards. These social norms probably influenced the dramatic differences between boys and girls in reported sexual experience. Conclusions: The sexual attitudes and behavior of young adolescents in Jamaica have already been significantly shaped by sociocultural and gender norms that send mixed messages about sexuality and impose different standards of behavior for boys and girls. Gender-specific family life education should be introduced among younger children in Jamaica, not just those entering puberty. Young adolescents in this environment also need better access to family planning services.
This research identifies the correlates and predictors of risky sexual behaviors among an ethnically diverse multiethnic sample of college students attending a large state university in the southeastern U.S. (N=338). Nine risk and five protective factors served as independent! predictive factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was scores on a risky sexual behaviors scale. Six of the nine risk factors and four of the five protective factors were significantly correlated with scores on the risky sexual behaviors scale. Regression analyses identified six significant predictors of risky sexual practices: number of partners in last six months; religious values; condom attitudes; age at first sex; binging on alcohol; and residential locus. These terms explained 29.4% of the total variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Implications for prevention programs and future research are noted.
The emerging sexuality that accompanies adolescence poses fundamental challenges for young people. These include adjusting to the altered appearance and functioning of a sexually maturing body, learning to deal with sexual desires, confronting sexual attitudes and values, experimenting with sexual behaviors, and integrating these feelings, attitudes, and experiences into a developing sense of self. The challenge is accentuated by the unfamiliar excitement of sexual arousal, the attention connected to being sexually attractive, and the new level of physical intimacy and psychological vulnerability created by sexual encounters. Adolescents’ responses to these challenges are profoundly influenced by the social and cultural context in which they live. In the United States, in contrast to many other Western nations, adolescent sexuality has typically been viewed as inappropriate and troublesome rather than as normal and healthy. In part, this reflects cultural mores about nonmarital sexual activity; in part it reflects well-justified concerns about potential negative consequences of sexual activity. Cultural proscriptions against nonmarital sex are counterbalanced by permissive attitudes reflected in the media and in the values of many adults. These competing perspectives co-mingle, creating a situation where adolescents are exposed to sexual material in settings of daily life but given inadequate preparation to behave responsibly in sexual situations. Feelings of sexual desire and love collide with social prescriptions to show restraint, setting the stage for psychological conflict and behavioral inconsistency. Despite a recognition of the subjective aspects of adolescent sexuality, the scientific literature has focused primarily on objective indicators such as having sex at certain ages, the behaviors adolescents practice, and the health-related outcomes of teen sexual activity (Moore & Rosenthal, 1993). While this approach helps define the scope of the “problem,” it fails to address the intrapsychic and interpersonal processes that influence whether intercourse occurs and whether protection is used. Understanding these subjective dimensions is key to developing effective interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior; it is also critical for grasping the meaning young people ascribe to their experiences, and the ways in which sexuality is integrated into their identities and intimate relationships (e.g., Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff , 1997). To provide an integrated picture of adolescent sexuality, we address three related issues: (1) recent trends in sexual behaviors among US adolescents; (2) individual and social factors influencing adolescent sexual behavior; and (3) how adolescents make sense of their sexual feelings and experiences. We highlight variations related to gender and ethnicity, but our scope is limited to heterosexual behavior. Wherever possible, we rely on recent national surveys for information on the attitudes and experiences of contemporary youth.
Researchers examined individual characteristics and peer influences related to adolescents' sexual behavior, taking gender and sexual experience into account. As part of a larger, longitudinal study investigating youth health awareness, 8th, 9th, and 10th graders reported their intentions to engage in sexual activity and use condoms in the next year, the amount of pressure they felt to engage in sexual activity, and their perceptions about the number of their peers engaging in sexual activity. Findings suggest intentions to engage in sexual behavior and use condoms, feelings of pressure to have sex, and perceptions about the number of friends engaging in sexual intercourse differ by gender and sexual experience status. Implications of these findings for health and sexuality education, as well as HIV prevention programs targeted at adolescents, are discussed.