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Structural changes in the economic transformation of Malaysia from an agricultural-based to an industrial-based economy after the 1970s, were accompanied by an increase in the employment of women. This resulted in two predominant trends: firstly, an increase in dual earner families and secondly, the number of female university students surpassed males. However, due to the difficulty of juggling work and home, there has been a low female labour force participation of less than 48 percent in recent years. Trying to reconcile the issue of work and home, many economists and policy makers argue that workplace flexibility could be a major tool to retain talent and women in the labour market. This study uses evidence from a primary survey conducted among 14 organisations in the services industry in the central business hub in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were answered by women on their perception of the relationship between flexible working arrangements and work life balance. We conclude that flexible working arrangements are preferred by women who are more educated and earning a higher income while the MANOVA analysis shows that flexible working arrangements have the potential to achieve work life balance. Index Terms—Flexible working arrangements, Malaysian women, women and labour, workplace flexibility.
AbstractStructural changes in the economic
transformation of Malaysia from an agricultural-based to an
industrial-based economy after the 1970s, were accompanied by
an increase in the employment of women. This resulted in two
predominant trends: firstly, an increase in dual earner families
and secondly, the number of female university students
surpassed males. However, due to the difficulty of juggling
work and home, there has been a low female labour force
participation of less than 48 percent in recent years. Trying to
reconcile the issue of work and home, many economists and
policy makers argue that workplace flexibility could be a major
tool to retain talent and women in the labour market. This study
uses evidence from a primary survey conducted among 14
organisations in the services industry in the central business
hub in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were
answered by women on their perception of the relationship
between flexible working arrangements and work life balance.
We conclude that flexible working arrangements are preferred
by women who are more educated and earning a higher income
while the MANOVA analysis shows that flexible working
arrangements have the potential to achieve work life balance.
Index TermsFlexible working arrangements, Malaysian
women, women and labour, workplace flexibility.
Structural changes in the economic transformation of
Malaysia from an agricultural-based to an industrial-based
economy after the 1970s, were accompanied by an increase
in the employment of women. This led to an increase in dual
earner families in the country. On the other hand, although
currently, Malaysian women make up more than 63 percent
of students in tertiary educational institutions, less than half
of them get absorbed into the workforce. Women’s
participation is as high as 65 percent in the 25-29 years age
group but women often drop out of the workforce between
the ages of 30 to 34 years due to household and family
responsibilities [1]. For example, in the 2011 Labour Force
Survey, 67 percent of women cited this as a reason for not
seeking work [2]. As such, one of the objectives in The Tenth
Malaysian Plan (2011 - 2015) is to increase the female labour
force participation from the current 47.6 percent to 55
percent by 2015.
Very few local companies in Malaysia have implemented
flexible working arrangements (FWAs) while many
Manuscript received September 15, 2013; revised November 27, 2013.
Geetha Subramaniam is with the Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
John Overton is with the Development Studies at Victoria University of
Wellington, New Zealand (email:
Bala Maniam is with the Finance at the Sam Houston State University,
USA (e-mail:
multinationals are very proud to highlight this workplace
reform. The more common modes of FWAs in Malaysia are
flexi-time, working from home, teleworking, permanent
part-time and career break.
In an attempt to understand the low participation of women
in the labour force in Malaysia, this paper seeks to examine
the possible impact of workplace reforms on women’s work
life balance. This is investigated in the context of whether
demographic and socio-economic factors have an effect on
women's preference for FWAs at the workplace. This is
further examined to see whether FWAs may have an impact
on women’s ability to juggle work and home to achieve work
life balance. This paper finally concludes with discussions on
family friendly policies and long-term measures which might
have an effect on women’s continued participation in the
labour market.
A. Women and the Labour Market
Labour economists note that life cycles of female labour
force participation (FLFP) rates vary more than males and
differ between each country and are generally lower than
men’s at all stages of life. The “twin peak” phenomenon is
observed in most countries and involves two periods of
relatively high participation separated by a trough of lower
rates in the central age groups. It is closely related to marriage
and the family [3]. However, this phenomenon varies from
country to country. Developed countries such as Japan and
South Korea continue to have a double peak with a trough at
ages 25-29 years, although this used to be at 20-24 years in
1990. The drop in FLFP rates has shifted to five years older
and is not as sharp as before, “indicating later childbearing
and childrearing as well as more women opting to continue
working” [4]. However, this is not the case in some countries
with relatively better pension and welfare systems.
According to the neo-classical model of labour supply, a
primary factor affecting female LFP is female wages. Several
studies have included wages in women’s LFP equations.
Aaberge et al., (2006) estimated significant positive effects of
female wages on participation [5]. At low levels of economic
development, women have high employment rates, primarily
in agriculture or self-employment. As incomes rise, women
leave the labour market, in part because of a preference that
women not work outside the home in manual labour. But
with greater development, and increases in women’s human
capital, white-collar opportunities become available and
draw women back into the labour force.
The neo-classical theory of household choice and resource
Flexible Working Arrangements, Work Life Balance and
Women in Malaysia
A. Geetha Subramaniam, B. John Overton, and C. Bala Maniam, Member, IEDRC
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2015
DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH.2015.V5.417
allocation is useful to explain the factors which influence the
labour force participation of women. As the aim of all
households is to maximise total utility by optimal allocation
of resources, some factors will have a greater influence on
women’s decision to participate in paid work outside the
home [6].
Women work due to economic and social reasons. As far
back as the early 1980s, [7] clearly spells out that it was
women from poor households in Malaysia who resorted to
wage labour to supplement family income and in the course,
were affected by wage differentials and gender
discrimination. In this study, it was noted that poor
female-headed households who have very little access to
alternative childcare support systems have a high opportunity
cost of working outside and this situation actually aggravated
their dual-role burden.
In another study among college students, it was revealed
that the majority of both men and women wish to participate
in paid labour. This is an indication that the dual career
family is likely to continue to be common in the future.
However, this study showed that gendered expectations are
still prevalent when it comes to the division of labour at home
and work.
Paid work is now an integral part of women's lives. Not all
women leave their jobs after childbirth [8]. Many debates and
discussions on what causes women to exit the labour market
point to family responsibilities either directly, due to
dependent care or indirectly, due to employer policies [9],
[10]. However, the fact remains that inflexibility at the
workplace and inability to balance work; life and home are
important factors why married women leave the labour force
What influences a woman to leave an organisation after
childbirth and not return has been a debate among
organisational behaviourists and feminists and a few
interesting points can be deliberated on. Theoretically,
women who exit the labour force are making a rational
decision anticipating the outcomes of alternative courses of
action. The major assumptions in other economic theories is
that people are rational when making major decisions,
including quitting a job. Therefore, it is argued that women
will not leave their paid jobs without a reasonable reason and
a rational individual will choose the alternative that is likely
to give them the greatest satisfaction.
Flexible Working Arrangements and Work Life Balance
The workplace of the future is one that will be driven by
new energy and with vision as workplace flexibility and
worker-friendly management strategies are becoming more
important. FWAs are alternatives to the traditional “9-to-5”
workday, the standard work week, or the traditional
Most of the reasons why female employees want FWAs
centre on family responsibilities and work life balance [12].
Studies in the United Kingdom [13] and the United States [14]
reveal that “spending time with family” was the most popular
reason why women opted for FWA companies. According to
[14] women face many constraints as they choose how they
will balance work and family and what priority they will give
to one over the other at particular times.
Employing the theory of work adjustment of Dawis,
England & Lofquist, (1968), [16]’s study tried to examine the
relationship between FWAs and quality of working life and
employee productivity. The study showed the attitude
difference in a FWA organisation explained in terms of stress
associated with work arrivals being reduced and the possible
increase in performance.
Studies have shown that an organisation which values its
employees and recognises the importance of work life
balance stands to win in terms of staff morale and
commitment [17]. Employers should begin by revamping
their recruitment policies to facilitate work life balance.
FWAs, if used with quality practices at the workplace, can
actually become the core of human resource management and
lead to good work performance and higher productivity [18].
As argued by [19], FWAs are beneficial for both employers
and employees and they also further described how highly it
is valued by elderly parents, whose children work under
flexible working arrangements.
Recent trend studies show that part-time work influences
the ability of mothers with young children to balance work
and family responsibilities. Mothers will be less likely to
leave the labour market if more part-time jobs are available.
This concept of part-time jobs and family friendly policies
such as flexible working arrangements will enable more
women to contribute to both, work and home. With more
flexible work and part-time work, literature suggests that
possible benefits for these young mothers will be better
monitoring of the children and more quality time with the
children [20].
In the neighboring country of Singapore, the Civil Service
introduced flexitime as early as in 1970 with the main
objective of easing traffic congestion during peak hours. But
today, it is favourably received by staff as it enables better
work life balance and the scheme has helped to better attract
and retain valuable talents.
While FWAs have many benefits such as the ability to
juggle work and home, men and women seek them for
different reasons. For example, [21]’s study found that for
senior management men, FWAs help them resolve
commuting time, whereas for the women, FWAs are utilised
more for family responsibilities and better quality of life.
Existing literature shows that women’s participation in the
labour market is affected to a certain extent by their
workplace environment which affects their work life balance.
Therefore, to retain women in paid labour, it might be
pertinent to look at whether FWAs may reconcile work and
home responsibilities, which is the main focus of this study.
This paper seeks to examine the experience and perception
of working women in flexible and fixed working
organisations in the context of work life balance (WLB).
This study was conducted in the Klang Valley, the central
business hub of Malaysia, using a quantitative method
adapted from [22]. Based on the statistics from the Labour
Force Survey Report Malaysia, 2011, six sub-groups in the
services sector which had a substantial number of working
women were identified. This was further narrowed down by
using the Malaysian Employers Federation list, where
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2015
organisations in the services sector which had FWAs and
non-FWAs were identified.
Using the purposing sampling technique, a total of
fourteen organisations which have FWAs were identified,
and these organisations were sub-grouped further into
Finance, Logistics, Petroleum Shared Services,
Telecommunication, Educational Institutions and Small and
Medium Professional companies. Random sampling was
employed to reduce selection bias within each organisation,
whereby respondents were selected at random by the Human
Resource Manager of each organisation. A total of 500
self-administered questionnaires were distributed, 250 to
FWA organisations and 250 to non-FWA organisations. The
response rate was slightly lower for the non-FWA
organisations compared to the response rate from FWA
organisations. The total sample size was 396, which
consisted of 57 percent respondents from FWA organisations
and 43 percent respondents from non-FWA organisations.
The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: Part A consisted of
five items on the demographic profile of the respondents;
Part B consisted of two items on the income level; Part C
consisted of three items on family responsibilities; and Part D
consisted of four questions on WLB where respondents
indicated on a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly
Agree) on their perception on statements with regard to WLB.
Data was analysed using the SPSS 20 software. Cross
tabulations and the MANOVA analysis were used to analyse
the findings.
A majority of the respondents (86%) in this study were
interested in FWAs at the workplace. The results indicate that
socio-economic status affects female employees' desire to
take up FWAs at the workplace. Women holding a degree,
earning an income above RM7000 (1USD = RM3.10), and in
the higher occupational status were the ones who were more
interested in FWAs.
To examine the first objective of whether demographic and
socio-economic factors have an effect on women's preference
for flexible working arrangements at the workplace, cross
tabulations were done. Table I shows the summary of the
cross tabulations and the significance at 10 percent. In terms
of demographic profile, FWAs were preferred among the
Chinese ethnicity, women who were in the 30-39 years age
group and among married women. However, none of these
demographic factors were statistically significant. In terms of
socio-economic factors, it was found that women who were
at the management level, earning an income above RM7000
and having a university degree, were more interested in
FWAs at the workplace. And these findings were statistically
significant at 10 percent.
As for the second objective, whether FWAs may have an
impact on women’s ability to juggle work and home to
achieve WLB, a multivariate analysis of variance was done.
Based on focus group discussion with women’s groups, and
women employees, items which measure work life balance
were included in the questionnaire. There were four items for
work life balance. Respondents indicated on a scale of 1
(Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) their perception on
statements with regards to the three selected indicators.
In this study, the independent variable "Working
Arrangements" was being tested against the dependent
variable "Work Life Balance" to determine whether working
in organisations which have FWAs have an effect on WLB.
For the concept of "Work Life Balance", an exploratory
factor analysis, a dimension reduction technique, was
performed using a varimax rotation [23]. Based on the
eigenvalues, only one factor with value more than 1 was
retained in the construct WLB. In this analysis, the KMO
value for WLB was 0.6, which is considered to be acceptable.
A single factor was extracted that explained more than 63
percent of the variability in the data. The norm is that at least
50% of the total variance must be explained by the factor.
The factor loading, KMO values and explained variation are
shown in Table II.
Variable Sub Group Interested
in FWAs
Ethnicity Malays 183/215 85 0.744
Chinese 82/92 89
Indians 66/78 85
Age 20-29 143/167 86 0.846
30-39 136/155 87
40-49 44/52 85
50 and above 18/22 82
Marital Status Married 216/250 86 0.470
Single 125/146 85
Status Clerical Level 64/92 70 0.000*
Technicians 17/18 94
Executives 163/182 90
Lecturers 49/55 89
Level 46/47 98
Income RM1000-
RM2000 112/141 79 0.012*
RM3000 77/91 85
RM4000 36/42 86
RM5000 19/20 95
RM7000 43/45 96
Above RM7000 41/42 98
Level SPM/ “O”
Levels 60/81 74 0.000*
Levels 20/24 83
Diploma 71/89 80
Degree 145/153 95
Post-Graduate 45/49 92
* Significant at 5 percent
No of Items
KMO Explained
WLB 4 0.6 63 %
Using the MANOVA test, it was found that the mean for
work life balance was p = 0.025, which shows significant
difference between women in the FWA organisations and
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2015
non-FWA organisations. The MANOVA test showed that
working arrangements had an effect on women’s well-being
in terms of work life balance.
Evidence from this analysis shows that FWAs have a
positive effect on WLB which might have a predominant
effect on women's decision to work in paid labour. Three
main conclusions which can be drawn from this study are:
Firstly, quantitative analysis reveals that socio-economic
factors have an effect on women’s uptake of FWAs in the
workplace. Higher educated women who are holding
university degrees, and earning a higher income with higher
occupational status are more interested in FWAs at the
workplace compared to women who do not possess higher
In a knowledge economy, human capital is given
paramount importance as the knowledge worker’s
competencies are a key component of value in realising
organisational goals. This in turn relates to the impending
issue of women leaving their careers to care for their families
as a serious economic issue, as these women are mostly
young and educated women in their mid-thirties. This
conforms to micro level studies done recently [24].
Secondly, findings show that women perceive that the best
benefit of FWAs is a better relationship among family,
children and siblings. This arises from the better WLB
achieved among women who use FWAs.
This conforms to studies of teleworkers in Singapore by
[25] who also found that more family time and less
commuting time were the main reasons women prefer
flexible time and flexibility in location. This is an indication
that FWAs offer female employees time flexibility, less
commuting stress, more autonomy and better job satisfaction.
Finally, in terms of demographic and socio economic
factors, even though FWAs do not statistically have any
significant effect on WLB, it was the women in the 30-39
years age group who were having caring responsibilities who
preferred FWAs.
This is due to the patriarchal values which still persist in
the Malaysian culture where the women are responsible for
household chores and caring responsibilities as well.
Although this study has several notable contributions
which are relevant to FWAs, WLB and low participation of
women in the labour market in Malaysia, several issues can
be investigated further. Firstly, the sample size could be
increased. Secondly, this study focused on the services sector,
further studies could be done to examine primary and
secondary sectors.
What does this all mean to Malaysian society in general
and Malaysian women specifically?
Many working women have a serious issue with WLB.
This research findings reveal that the two main reasons are:
firstly, the inability to juggle work and home well and
secondly, the patriarchal views that home is the responsibility
of the women, which still very much exists.
Some implications of this study are as follows:
Firstly, there is a pragmatic need to align labour market
policies with prevailing and future family structures. In this
sense, the government has to provide an enabling
environment in a more institutionalised way for childcare
facilities which are more affordable and reliable.
Secondly, awareness needs to be created as to how WLB
can be achieved by men and women who work in the paid
labour market.
Thirdly, and most importantly, there needs to be attitudinal
shifts in the society as family-friendly policies alone are not
enough to ensure WLB. The stereotype of a woman as a
homemaker should be challenged and society should move
towards a new level of thinking where caring and sharing are
shared responsibilities. Though this has to start from the
home, employers also need to take a step forward by
providing more family-friendly policies which not only
benefit women but also the family.
As the former US Secretary of State announced, “So often,
it takes only one woman to make a difference. If you
empower that woman with information, training, or a
microloan, she can lift up her entire family and contribute to
the success of her community. Multiply that one woman’s
impact by a hundred or a thousand, and perhaps a million
lives can change.
As for policy recommendations, firstly, FWAs such as
flexi time, working from home, permanent part-time and
teleworking may allow women with caring responsibilities to
reconcile work and family responsibilities. Secondly, though
FWAs are very beneficial to women and society, they come
with some limitations as well. Hence, it is not a simple
concept which can be offered to all but it is a policy which
needs to be configured well and offered on a case-to-case
basis. Last but not least, the challenge of a successful
implementation of FWAs lies collectively on employers,
policymakers, and society in general.
As Malaysia moves towards achieving an industrialised
nation status by 2020, many policies set to bring women into
the labour force show the government's increasing concern
on this issue. Even though patriarchal concerns in the home
front need to be addressed, the equally significant issue of a
paradigm shift in the working environment to facilitate
women’s juggling of paid and unpaid labour, needs to be
delved in further.
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2015
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Geetha Subramaniam is a senior lecturer on
Economics at the Faculty of Business Management,
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
She obtained her Ph.D. from Victoria University of
Wellington, New Zealand in the area of Development
and Economics. Her research interests include labour
economics, women issues and development
Balasundram Maniam is a minnie stevens piper
professor and Texas State University system regents’
professor of Finance at Sam Houston State
University, USA. He obtained his Ph.D. in Finance
from University of Mississippi. He has published in
over 150 peer-reviewed journals and presented in
over 250 international and national conferences. He
was also the recipient of the Excellence in Research
and Excellence in Teaching awards at Sam Houston State University in 2003
and 2008 respectively.
... According to Song & Gao (2019), contrast with working in the workplace, telework increases stress in both weekdays and weekends and it also decreases net affect and increases conflict in the weekends. Not only that, based on Subramaniam et al., (2015) evidenced that socio-economic factors have considerable effect on employees when accomplishing work life balance. Greenhaus et al., (1985) was also discovered that having a manager who was supportive of an employee's family requirements was favorably related to the employee's work-life balance. ...
... Regarding, Subramaniam et al., (2015) evidenced that socio-economic factors have major impact on employees when achieving WLB. Moreover, in compared to less educated women, skillful women with high professional rank, a bachelor's degree, and a higher wage are more capable of balancing work and home life. ...
... Based on the sample that he used to conduct his study, the main benefits of homeworking to those who are higher in the income, education and occupation involved higher work-life balance satisfaction. In addition to that, Subramaniam (2015) conducted the study related to the WLB of the women in Malaysia. His study utilizes the proof from primary survey done among 14 organizations in service industry. ...
... An FFP is a potential alleviator of WLC, and it is related to a myriad of different employee attitudes and behavioral outcomes in many contexts and different sectors of the population. It has been shown that an FFP is directly or indirectly (as a mediator) associated with increased job satisfaction in Asia [10][11][12] and globally [13,14], as well as in different career categories, such as for federal employees [15], and those in different life situations, particularly for working mothers [12,13]. In addition to job satisfaction, an FFP is also related to an increased commitment to organizations [10,[16][17][18] and intention to stay in the workplace [19][20][21]. ...
... An FFP is a potential alleviator of WLC, and it is related to a myriad of different employee attitudes and behavioral outcomes in many contexts and different sectors of the population. It has been shown that an FFP is directly or indirectly (as a mediator) associated with increased job satisfaction in Asia [10][11][12] and globally [13,14], as well as in different career categories, such as for federal employees [15], and those in different life situations, particularly for working mothers [12,13]. In addition to job satisfaction, an FFP is also related to an increased commitment to organizations [10,[16][17][18] and intention to stay in the workplace [19][20][21]. ...
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The need for family-friendly policies to balance work and life demands is growing. Many studies have addressed how family-friendly policies relate to a variety of employees’ work attitudes and behavioral outcomes, but not how they (positively or negatively) affect them, especially the affective components of family-friendly policies that provide “felt” support to an employee. To fill this gap, this study adopts a moderated mediating mechanism to analyze how affective components of family-friendly policies impact employees’ attitudes and behaviors through signaling and social exchange theory. We examined how this impact is mediated by factors such as work–life conflict, perceived organizational support, and control over working hours, as well as whether having a supportive supervisor moderates the mediated effect through further limiting the degree of work–life conflict or strengthening control over working hours. Data were collected through a survey with 401 employee–supervisor dyads from organizations in Hong Kong. We found that family-friendly policies do not necessarily affect work attitude and behavior, but they work through the sequential mediators of having more control over working hours and perceived organizational support. The role of supportive supervisors is also significant, in that they are likely to be key in molding the organizational environment for the gradual provision and uptake of family-friendly policies. The results of this study contribute to the development of signaling and social exchange theory and have theoretical implications for supervisors regarding them utilizing their position to improve employee work attitudes and behavioral outcomes.
... Prestasi kerja merupakan isu serius dan perlu diberi perhatian yang konsisten di dalam sesebuah institusi kerana ia adalah salah satu prinsip utama dalam bidang psikologi organisasi dan pengurusan sumber manusia [15]. Struktur kerja yang fleksibel menjadi salah satu dimensi keseimbangan kerja dan kehidupan, justeru itu sekiranya ia diamalkan, tempat kerja berpotensi menjadi pusat pengurusan sumber manusia yang akan menyumbang kepada hasil kerja yang baik serta penghasilan produktiviti yang lebih besar [16]. ...
... Pengaturan masa mengikut rutin harian dengan membuat jadual kerja pejabat dan urusan keluarga dengan teratur juga mungkin antara faktor yang membantu pensyarah dapat menyeimbangkan kerja harian mereka dengan baik. Sebagaimana menurut [16] mendapati apabila manusia dapat seimbangkan kerja dan kehidupan berdasarkan kepada struktur kerja yang fleksibel, maka mereka akan dapat menyumbang hasil kerja yang baik serta penghasilan produktiviti yang lebih besar. Walaupun pensyarah agak tertekan dalam menyeimbangkan di antara tugas hakiki dan tanggungjawab terhadap keluarga sewaktu menjalani arahan bekerja dari rumah semasa pandemik COVID-19 namun pensyarah dilihat masih dapat mengekalkan prestasi kerja dengan baik. ...
Conference Paper
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The COVID-19 pandemic has given a huge impact and immediately changed the landscape of the lecturers’ life who currently serving at Ungku Omar Polytechnic (PUO), Ipoh. They are still holding their responsibilities as lecturers despite having to work from home. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify whether the impact of working from home strategy and work-life balance during the COVID-19 pandemic affects the job performance among the PUO lecturers. Boundary theory is used as the grand theory in this study. A pilot study involving the total of 30 lecturers from 8 academic departments at PUO was conducted to determine the reliability of the instrument. The instrument consists of three (3) constructs, namely i) aspects of working from home ii) aspects of work-life balance and iii) aspects of job performance that have been distributed online by google form. Data were processed and analyzed through Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) software which involved reliability testing using Cronbach's Alpha values. The findings of the analysis obtained from the three constructs is above value of 0.70 that showed it is good and acceptable. The pilot study found that the majority of lecturers described the challenges of working during the COVID-19 pandemic to be the same scenario as when before the pandemic struck. The studies also show that there is a significant influence between working from home and work-life balance on the job performance of lecturers. Thus, in conclusion the instrument items used in this pilot study can be applied for the purpose of the actual study.
... Labih lanjut lagi, Subramaniam et al., (2015) Berdasarkan survey awal yang telah dilakukan, didapatkan bahwa penerapan kebijakan Flexible Working Arrangement selama pandemi ini disambut baik oleh pekerja perempuan, terutama bagi mereka yang telah memilki anak usia sekolah. Sebanyak 80% responden menyatakan mereka terbantu dengan kebijakan ini karena mereka bisa menghabiskan lebih banyak waktu untuk menemani anak mereka bersekolah secara daring di rumah. ...
... Fleksibilitas dalam bekerja akan bermanfaat bagi pekerja karena memungkinkan keseimbangan pekerjaan dan kehidupan yang lebih holistic (Albion, 2004). Penelitian terdahulu oleh Subramaniam et al., (2015), Stefanie et al. (2020), dan Tongam et al. (2021) Selby et al. (2001)) yang terdiri atas dua indikator, yaitu: 1) tempat kerja, dan 2) waktu kerja. Sedangkan, kuesioner untuk variabel Work-Life Balance diadaptasi dari kuesioner oleh Dua & Hyronimus (2020) yang terdiri atas tiga indikator, yaitu: 1) time balance, 2) involvement balance, dan 3) satisfaction balance (Greenhaus et al., 2003). ...
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This study aims to analyze the effect of Flexible Working Arrangement on Work-Life Balance and performance of female workers in Banjarmasin during the pandemic. This research is a quantitative research. The population and sample in this study were 50 female workers who worked in government offices and institutions that had implemented Flexible Working Arrangements during the Covid-19 pandemic. The data was collected by distributing questionnaires both online and in person. Moreover, the data analysis was performed using the regression method. The results of the analysis showed that the Flexible Working Arrangement has an effect on the Work-Life Balance and the performance of female workers in Banjarmasin. This indicates that if Flexible Working Arrangement policy can be implemented properly and provided with supportive working conditions, a balance between work and life as well as a good performance of female workers can be achieved.
... In Malaysia, flexible work arrangement is more preferred by working women age 30-39 years old who has married (A. G. Subramaniam, Overton, & Maniam, 2015). Moreover, women with high education degree are tend to prefer flexible working arrangement than women without high education degree (Subramaniam, Overton, & Maniam, 2015). ...
... G. Subramaniam, Overton, & Maniam, 2015). Moreover, women with high education degree are tend to prefer flexible working arrangement than women without high education degree (Subramaniam, Overton, & Maniam, 2015). Figure 16 confirms that highly educated women such as lecturers prefer to keep working-from-home if their institutions allow. ...
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All forms of formal education were abruptly shifted into online-learning when Covid-19 hit globally. This unexpected change has forced education practitioners to adapt and conduct their work remotely in order to minimize the virus spread. However, sudden changes are seldom arduous and work from home came with its many challenges. This research seeks to examine the working conditions and job requirements, the time and task management, work related stress, performance at work lecturer’s experience during online-learning and their inclination towards work from home in the future. This research is an exploratory study and the data is analyzed with a statistic descriptive method to describe the phenomenon. Using online questionnaire, a total of 120 lecturers responded. The study discovers that lecturers find the conditions of work from home to be acceptable, they are able to organize their task and time to some extent, and it does not affect their work performance and does not have a negative impact on their stress level. In the future, the lecturers will feel neutral about work from home after the pandemic subsidence. More are leaning towards going back to work in office settings, but open to do hybrid-working, which is a combination of work from office and work from home.
... Pekerja yang menjalani BDR bukan sahaja mampu untuk memantau anak-anak mereka tetapi juga dapat membimbing perkembangan anak mereka. Kelebihan ini dapat mengeratkan hubungan antara ahli keluarga (Subramaniam, Overton, & Maniam, 2015). (ii) Menjimatkan masa dengan tidak memerlukan sebarang perjalanan. ...
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ABSTRAK Pandemik Covid-19 telah melanda dunia sejak penghujung tahun 2019. Ini bermakna penduduk dunia dan Malaysia sudah menghadapi wabak ini selama lebih dua tahun. Keadaan yang melanda ini sudah tentu memberi pelbagai cabaran dan impak terhadap institusi kekeluargaan di seluruh dunia dan Malaysia tentunya. Kajian ini membincangkan beberapa cabaran utama yang dihadapi oleh ibubapa dalam menangani isu utama dan impak kepada kehidupan mereka dan institusi kekeluargaan secara umumnya. Isu ketua keluarga hilang pekerjaan, kehabisan wang simpanan, dan sekiranya bekerja, sudah hampir dua tahun Bekerja Dari Rumah (BDR), anak-anak melalui sistem pendidikan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Rumah (PdPR); semua ini adalah cabaran besar yang perlu dihadapi oleh keseluruhan ibubapa di Malaysia. Kajian ini adalah berbentuk konseptual dibuat berdasarkan kepada data sekunder dimana tinjauan literatur adalah digunakan dalam melihat cabaran dan impak yang berlaku melalui bahan bacaan daripada jurnal, laman web, penulisan akhbar dalam talian, dan lain-lain hasil pembacaan dalam talian yang dijalankan. Dapatan kajian membuat saranan agar ibubapa kekal bersemangat positif dalam menjalankan urusan kerja dan urusan harian supaya semangat yang sama dapat diterap kepada semua ahli keluarga yang lain. BDR dan PdPR adalah norma baharu yang perlu disesuaikan dalam kehidupan harian. Dalam menghadapi revolusi industri yang ke-empat ini, BDR dan PdPR, ilmu perkomputeran dan kemahirannya perlu dipertingkatkan dari masa ke semasa. Persekitaran BDR sudah tentu memberi impak besar kepada kebanyakan pekerja. Pengurusan atasan terutama bahagian sumber manusia dan kementerian sumber manusia perlu menitikberatkan cabaran yang dihadapi oleh pekerja mereka supaya BDR secara produktif dapat diwujudkan. Dengan ini, pekerja secara BDR dapat menghasilkan prestasi kerja dan daya pengeluaran yang terbaik untuk diri sendiri, institusi keluarga, organisasi dan juga negara secara keseluruhan. Sesungguhnya kehidupan bersama pandemik adalah satu kehidupan yang pada awalnya dilalui tanpa persediaan yang rapi dari semua warga Malaysia dan warga dunia. Namun begitu secara perlahan-lahan, semua warga berusaha menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan kehidupan yang mencabar ini. Satu resolusi pasca pandemik seharusnya dicadangkan bagi melihat kualiti kehidupan institusi kekeluargaan di Malaysia utuh seperti dahulu. Dasar Keluarga Negara (DKN) pasca pandemik seharusnya diperkukuhkan dengan mengambilkira semua permasalahan dan cabaran utama yang dihadapi oleh ibubapa dalam mengendalikan keluarga mereka. Kata Kunci : Cabaran, Impak, Institusi Kekeluargaan, Pandemik Covid-19. PENGENALAN Pandemik Covid-19 adalah wabak yang melanda seluruh dunia bermula dari Disember 2019 hingga sekarang. Boleh dikatakan hampir semua negara yang menghadapi pandemik ini mengenakan kaedah penutupan atau penyekatan (lockdown) bagi memastikan rakyat dapat dirawati dan dilindungi. Di Malaysia, dalam menghadapi pandemik ini, kerajaan mengenakan Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan (PKP) atau PKPD (yang diperketatkan bagi satu kawasan tertentu) supaya kawalan wabak dapat dibuat dengan lebih berkesan. Tidak dapat dinafikan PKP ini memberi kesan besar kepada individu dan masyarakat secara keseluruhan. Norma normal telah berubah menjadi 'norma baharu', samada ianya disukai atau tidak, sehingga tahun 2021 ini ianya telahpun berjalan hampir dua tahun. Dalam hal ini, Tan Sri Dr Jemilah Mahmood yang merupakan penasihat khas Perdana Menteri mengenai kesihatan awam, menyatakan dalam Malay Mail pada 3 Mei 2020 bahawa PKP/D adalah bukan untuk mengakhiri Covid-19 tetapi ianya adalah bertujuan untuk meratakan lekukan untuk memastikan sistem kesihatan dilindungi dan dapat mengatasi jumlah pesakit yang dijangkiti (Mahmood, 2020). Beliau juga menekankan bahawa Covid-19 tidak akan berakhir dalam masa dua tahun dan penguatkuasaan adalah penting untuk memastikan kepatuhan di kalangan orang ramai. Dari ini, ia menunjukkan bahawa PKP/D Covid-19 menyebabkan kehidupan norma semasa berubah menjadi norma baharu dalam banyak aspek kehidupan. Dari keadaan yang dilalui ini, boleh dikatakan bahawa pandemik Covid-19 adalah gangguan yang bukan sahaja memberi kesan kepada kesihatan tubuh badan, tetapi ianya juga memberi kesan kepada institusi kekeluargaan di Malaysia secara keseluruhannya. Semasa PKP/D ini, institusi kekeluargaan yang dikemudi oleh ibubapa sebagai ketua rumahtangga menghadapi cabaran yang berbeza. Ia bergantung kepada taraf kehidupan dan ekonomi rumahtangga tersebut. Sekiranya ibubapa masih ada pekerjaan untuk menyara anak-anak dan ahli keluarga, ianya sudah tentu menjadi faktor bertahan yang utama untuk keluarga tersebut. Tetapi bagi ibubapa yang hilang pekerjaan dan punca pendapatan, kemelut keluarga yang mereka hadapi adalah semakin memuncak. Ibubapa menghadapi cabaran PKP/D ini dengan cara yang berbeza bergantung kepada jenis pekerjaan yang dilakukan, gaya kehidupan, komitmen keluarga dan sifat keperibadian keluarga tersebut. Sudah tentu bagi ibubapa yang mempunyai anak-anak yang ramai, kesannya terhadap kehidupan adalah lebih kerana cabaran yang dihadapi adalah pelbagai. Secara ringkasnya, semua pihak terjejas dengan keadaan pandemik yang berpanjangan ini dan tidak dapat dinafikan institusi kekeluargaan sangat terkesan terutamanya impak kepada kemandirian kewangan/ekonomi, kestabilan emosi, dan kecekalan/daya tahan diri (self resilience).
... Sehingga kini, PKF telah dikaji oleh penyelidik dari pelbagai disiplin ilmu. Kebanyakan literatur PKF memfokus pada keperluan wanita (Rogier & Padgett 2004;Subramaniam, Overton & Maniam 2015), isu-isu yang membangkitkan keperluan PKF bukan sahaja pada wanita tapi juga lelaki (Hegewisch 2009;Pini & McDonald 2008;Atkinson & Hall 2009), prestasi kerja (Menezes & Kelliher 2011Stavrov, Spiliotis & Charalambous 2010), produktiviti (Regus 2012;Voordt 2004). Selain itu, konsensus literatur yang sedia ada menekankan manfaat PKF bagi pekerja dan majikan. ...
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Over the decades, flexible working arrangements (FWAs) have been of concern due to socioeconomic challenges, technological advancements, globalisation of businesses, and the latest is a pandemic crisis that has prompted most businesses to continue operating through the FWAs. Through this study, a relatively new research frameworks were introduced to pioneer the hybridisation between human resource management (HRM) and management accounting (MA) research so that the FWAs can be planned more effectively. The study was based on the epistemology of interpretivism and social constructive approaches. The results show that HRM and MA are two different business functions but have intersecting and overlapping roles and responsibilities within the organisation. Therefore, the hybridisation of strategies between HRM and MA in formulating a more effective and efficient FWAs implementation plan is appropriate. The originality of this study is to develop a strategic conceptual framework between HRM and MA and develop a more conclusive research platform and assist organisations in the preparation of strategic plans in the implementation of flexible working arrangements. Keywords: Flexible working arrangement; human resource management; management accounting ABSTRAK Sejak beberapa dekad pengaturan kerja fleksibel (PKF) telah menjadi perhatian disebabkan oleh cabaran sosio-ekonomi, kemajuan teknologi, perniagaan tanpa sempadan dan terkini ialah krisis pandemik yang telah mendesak kebanyakan perniagaan untuk terus beroperasi melalui PKF. Menerusi kajian ini suatu kerangka penyelidikan yang agak baharu diperkenalkan bertujuan untuk mempelopori penyelidikan penghibridan pengurusan sumber manusia (PSM) dan perakaunan pengurusan (PP) agar PKF dapat dirancang dengan lebih berkesan. Kajian ini berdasarkan epistemologi interpretivisme dan pendekatan konstruktivis sosial. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa PSM dan PP adalah dua fungsi perniagaan yang berbeza tetapi mempunyai peranan dan tanggungjawab yang bersalingan atau bertindih di dalam organisasi. Oleh itu penghibridan strategi antara PSM dan PP dalam merangka pelan pelaksanaan PKF yang lebih efektif dan efisien adalah wajar. Keaslian kajian ini ialah mengembangkan kerangka konseptual strategik antara PSM dan PP dan mengembangkan landasan penyelidikan yang lebih konklusif dan membantu organisasi dalam penyediaan pelan strategik dalam pelaksanaan pengaturan kerja fleksibel. Kata kunci: Pengaturan kerja fleksibel (PKF); pengurusan sumber manusia (PSM); perakaunan pengurusan (PP)
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Penelitian yang dilakukan bertujuan untuk mencari peran mediasi quality of work life yang dipengaruhi bornout terhadap employee engagement. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel yang diambil sebanyak 125 responden dari 314 populasi dengan menggunakan perhitungan rumus slovin error sampling 5 %. Responden diambil dari karyawan jasa logistik pengantaran barang yang ada di Kota Tangerang, DKI Jakarta dan Depok. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode PLS dengan perangkat lunak yang digunakan adalah SmartPLS 3.0. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa variabel burnout berpengaruh negatif terhadap employee engagement. Variabel quality of work life berpengaruh positif terhadap employee engagement. Burnout, terhadap quality of work life memiliki pengaruh yang positif. Sedangkan peran mediasi work life balance yang dipengaruhi bornout terhadap employee engagement sebesar t-statistics 1,926 dengan P value 0,054 artinya mediasinya sangat rendah. Penliti menemukan Novelty untuk penelitian ini agar bornout tidak terjadi dan dapat meningkat employee engagement dengan mediasi quality of work life yaitu : perusahaan perlu meningkatkan rasa semangat dalam bekerja, Karyawan harus menjadi bagian dari strategi perusahaan, harus merasa bahagia, karyawan diberikan bekal kemampuan untuk mengerjakan tugasnya dan dapat menyelesaikan masalahnya sendiri, memberikan program yang melibatkan keluarga.
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يهدف البحث الى التعرف على آثر ترتيبات العمل المرنة وهو (عملية تعديل لنظام العمل الناتج عن التطورات التكنولوجية ، لا سيما في مجال الاتصالات ، بما يسمح للموظف بالعمل بحرية في مكان ووقت العمل واثرها في تقليل دوران العمل وهي عبارة (عبارة عن التغيرات التي تحدث في قوة العمل الناتجة عن خروج وانسحاب أو فصل الموظفين وتعیين موظفين جدد بدلا منهم). استخدم المنهج الاستطلاعي لقياس المتغيرات بالاعتماد على استمارة استبانة اليكترونية على برنامج (Google Forms) اعدت لهذا الغرض تم توزيعها على 82 فرد من اعضاء الهيئة التدريسية والموظفين العاملين في بعض كليات جامعة الموصل وهي ( كلية الادارة والاقتصاد – كلية علوم البيئة وتقناتها – كلية العلوم الاسلامية – كلية الزراعة والغابات)، تم الاعتماد على البرنامج الاحصائي (IBM SPSS Statistics 22) لتحليل البيانات المحصلة واظهار النتائج. اظهرت نتائج البحث ان الافراد يستطيعون ممارسة عملهم من خارج مكتب العمل وعدم الالتزام بموقع مادي للعمل وانما الاعتماد على الافكار الجديدة لحل المشاكل التي تواجههم في بالاعتماد على وسائل الاتصال المختلفة مثل (الهاتف المحمول – البريد الاليكتروني، ..الخ). واخيراً، يوصي البحث على انه يجب ان تتوافق الوظيفة مع القيم الشخصية للموظف وكذلك مع طموحاته الشخصية وذلك مما يؤدي الى عدم تخليه عن وظيفته في حال حصوله على وظيفة أفضل.
Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) on employees’ perceived productivity, quality of work and organisational commitment (OC) with a special focus on the United Arab Emirates. It also analyses the mediating effect of employee happiness on the relationship between FWA and employees’ perceived productivity, OC and perceived work quality. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative, non-experimental correlational study was used for this research project. The study yielded numerical data, which were analysed using a deductive approach. The analysis aimed at exploring the relationships between the constructs, which were viewed as variables; these relationships were considered correlations, mediation and moderation. The sample comprises employees currently working at different public and private sector organisations, representing all major service industries in the UAE. Nine questions were used to assess the flexibility at work and six out of the nine questions were used to measure the level of FWAs using the Likert scale. Findings FWA has a significant and positive association with the employees’ perceived productivity, quality of work and OC. It was confirmed that happiness plays a mediating role in the relationship between FWA and employee outcomes. The facility allows employees to manage their personal and professional lives with ease using their preferred work method. This ability promotes employee satisfaction. In conclusion, managers and employees around the world should view FWAs as a positive tool to enhance employee productivity and OC, particularly in an emergency like the Covid-19 pandemic. Research limitations/implications The participants’ honesty was a limitation, which could raise questions on the validity of this study. This limitation arises when the self-report method is used for data collection. Use of multiple instruments could be another limitation. Practical implications Organisational leaders can use FWAs to improve employee outcomes. When an organisation grants flexible work options to employees, it implies that the organisation trusts its employees to complete the task. This factor motivates all employees to work with dedication, which is particularly true if the employees are creative people and wish to work on their preferred time and place. Originality/value This study is significant because the findings will allow managers to assess the benefits of using FWAs to improve employee productivity, particularly in the service sector. It combines the aspects of perceived productivity, OC and perceived work quality, as well as employee happiness to assess the role of FWAs in organisations. The study also investigates the influence of FWAs in improving these employee outcomes. Based on the literature review, this study on FWAs is the first of its kind in the UAE, the country using a truly multinational workforce coming from more than 100 countries and cultures.
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Feminism has affected social and organizational position of females throughout the world. However, reflection of feminism on organizational issues is a subject that has not been investigated sufficiently by scholars of different sociocultural background. The aim of this article is to explore the reflections of post-feminist viewpoints on female related issues in organizations, as well as shortcoming of existing cultures and organizational structures from standpoint of postfeminism. Reflection of these views on females-related organizational issues, with more attention to women's lifestyle and career choices and constraints that shape these choices, challenges organizational ignorance of women managerial characteristics and policies towards their job-family decisions (e.g. deficiency of work-family balance policies, overemphasis on work hours, and pale role of men in making a balance on work-family issues).
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The widespread increase of women working in paid labour has a social and economic impact on the family and the household. Since the 1970s, export-oriented industrialisation policies and an increase in the educational attainment of women have seen an emerging pattern of dual career families in Malaysia. However, female labour force participation rates have been at a constant rate of 46-47 % in the last three decades. It emerges that a significant increase in the number of women leaving the labour market is due to the presence of their young children. Many international studies have tried to analyse the effect of child birth on working mothers but these studies are concentrated in countries with high female labour force participation rates. This study conducted in the Klang Valley, Malaysia is based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of working women who left the labour market. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the presence of their young children has an effect on women's decision not to work in paid labour. In this preliminary study of 80 respondents, it was observed that women quit their jobs mainly because of their young children. The study further analyses other socio-economic characteristics like household income which influenced women's exit from the labour market. Finally, the paper concludes with discussions on whether child care facilities and other family friendly policies might have an effect on women's decision to go back to work.
Balancing work and family responsibilities is a challenge for many employees. Increasingly employers are recognising their role in this challenge by introducing family friendly workplace initiatives such as flexible hours, flexible leave and childcare programmes. This paper reports on stakeholder perceptions of family friendly workplace initiatives in six large New Zealand organisations. In this research, organisational stakeholders included CEOs, human resource managers, employees, and union officials. Interviews were undertaken with CEOs, human resource managers and union officials. A survey was administered to 809 employees. Responses from organisational stakeholders showed a degree of commonality of perception. For example, stakeholders agreed about the importance of both flexible working hours and flexible leave in enabling employees to balance work and family responsibilities. However, there were differing perceptions on some issues, such as the consultation process, the dissemination of information on family friendly initiatives and the rating of the organisation’s overall family friendliness.
This study examines relationships between work role characteristics, family structure demands, and work/family conflict. The analyses use data from 757 married men and 270 married women interviewed in the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey. The findings indicate that amount and scheduling of work time, job demands, and the presence of children in the home are related to work/family conflict among men and women. Perceived control over the work situation buffers some relationships between work role characteristics and work/family conflict. Work role characteristics and family structure demands contribute additively to work/family conflict; family structure demands do not exacerbate relationships between work role characteristics and work/family conflict.
An elaboration of Davis, England and Lofquist's (1968) work adjustment model is employed to explain how flexible working hours can influence employee satisfaiction, performance, absenteeism, tenure, organizational commitment, and job involvement. Through need full illment, stress reduction, and the harmonization of work with human circadian rhythms, flexible working hours can contribute to a greater correspondence between (1) an individual's abilities and the ability requirements of the job, and (2) an individual's needs and the satisfaiction of those needs by, the work environment.