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Abstract Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.
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ISSN: 0738-8551 (print), 1549-7801 (electronic)
Crit Rev Biotechnol, Early Online: 1–7
!2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993590
REVIEW ARTICLE
The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic
Siti A. Zaman and Shahrul R. Sarbini
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Jalan Nyabau, Bintulu,
Sarawak, Malaysia
Abstract
Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation
that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will
arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of
products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological
benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a
carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose–amylopectin ratio
and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch
is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that
benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial
bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic;
resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota
and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of
prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides.
Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can
contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.
Keywords
Functional food, gut microbiota,
oligosaccharide, prebiotic, resistant starch
History
Received 12 June 2014
Revised 6 November 2014
Accepted 6 November 2014
Published online 13 January 2015
Introduction
This review focuses on the potential of resistant starch (RS) as
a functional prebiotic. Prebiotic is defined as a non-digestible
food ingredient that benefit the host by selectively stimulating
the growth or activity of one or limited numbers of bacteria
in the colon, that can improved the host health (Roberfroid
et al., 2010). Meanwhile, RS is defined as the sum of starch
and the product of starch digestion that resists digestion in the
small intestine of a normal human being (Englyst et al., 1992).
Comparing both the definitions, one might realize the
similarities, but it is noteworthy to know that not all RS can
fulfill the criteria as a prebiotic.
Most studies on prebiotics were focused on inulin, fructo-
oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide. All three have
been approved as nutraceutical ingredients due to the
available data. The most prebiotic in demand currently is
the isomalto-oligosaccharide, which is imported from Japan
at a total of 69 000 tons/year (Nakakuki, 2003). The USA
prebiotic market is expected to reach a revenue of $198
million in 2014 (Charalampopoulus & Rastall, 2009).
Resistant starch, with its ability to resist human digestion,
has continued to receive attention, especially on the ferment-
ability properties in the colon and stimulation of bacterial
activities that could affect colon health. Studies on the effects
of RS on the glycemia index, insulin responses, anti-cancer
properties and satiety has been continuously progressing,
proving its role as a functional food. Some RS that have been
commercialized include: Hi-MaizeÕ, a type of RS extracted
from high amylose maize starch produced through natural
breeding program over the past 30 years; NoveloseÕ,a
retrograded high amylose maize starch and Fibersym, a
chemically modified wheat starch. As of last year, Hi-MaizeÕ
and FibersymÕhave obtained approval from Health Canada to
be listed and used as dietary fiber.
Prebiotics
Prebiotics are commonly conceived as carbohydrates of
relatively short chain length (2–10), but some polysaccharides
have also demonstrated prebiotic properties, i.e. inulin. The
most common candidate of prebiotic is the dietary carbohy-
drate, where non-digestible oligosaccharides are currently of
interest due to their selective metabolism. In the USA and
Europe, most marketed prebiotics are inulin-based fructose
oligomers (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) compo-
nents, which have been granted the prebiotic status of and
their health effects have been extensively studied (Macfarlane
et al., 2008; Panesar et al., 2013). A study on prebiotic
stimulation on Bifidobacterium has compared the effective-
ness of both FOS and GOS in an in vitro setting. Both are
proven to be able to stimulate growth of bifidobacteria, but
GOS are found to be a more preferable substrate for a wider
Address for correspondence: Shahrul R. Sarbini, Department of
Crop Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Universiti
Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Jalan Nyabau, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak,
Malaysia. Tel: +60 86855225. Fax: +60 86855415. E-mail:
s.r.sarbini@gmail.com
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range of Bifidobacterium spp. (Scott et al., 2014). In addition,
other potential prebiotic candidates such as isomalto-oligo-
saccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, soybean-oligosacchar-
ides, lactosucrose and polydextrose are still in need of
further studies. The assumption and claims of many carbo-
hydrates as prebiotics without due consideration to its criteria
will generate more confusion to the consumer. A manageable
set of in vitro and in vivo tests are required to fully understand
the digestion and fermentation of the prebiotic. The main
criteria used as a guideline to prebiotic labeling are as follows
(Roberfroid et al., 2010):
(1) Resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian
enzymes and gastrointestinal absorption.
(2) Fermented and utilized by the gut microbiota.
(3) Selectively stimulate activity and/or growth of one or
limited number of gut bacteria that contribute to host
health and well being.
Health benefit of prebiotics
Prebiotics will only be functional once it reaches the colon,
where it will be utilized by a specific group of gut microbiota.
The specificity is important, as prebiotic will only be
considered functional when it stimulates only the growth
and activity of the beneficial bacteria, i.e. Bifidobacterium
and Lactobacillus, subsequently producing metabolites such
as the short-chain fatty acids that could later benefit the host
(Sarbini et al., 2014). Figure 1 shows the proposed health
benefit of a prebiotic ingredient. The recommended daily
intake of a prebiotic is 5–8 g, while exceeding 20 g/day may
cause intestinal discomfort due to gas distension (Clausen &
Mortensen, 1997).
Resistant starch
Naturally occurring RS is often found in cereal grains,
seeds and heated starch and starch-containing foods
(Charalampopoulus et al., 2002). Resistant starches have
been classified into four classes. The RS Class 1 (RS
1
)
comprises of physically inaccessible starch such as legumes
and seeds. The resistance comes from the compact molecular
structure that limits the accessibility of digestive enzymes
(Haralampu, 2000). The RS Class 2 (RS
2
) comprises specially
structured granules that prevent digestive enzymes from
hydrolyzing them (Nugent, 2005), for example potatoes and
corns. The RS
1
and RS
2
are naturally occurring starches that
can easily be destroyed upon processing. Non-naturally
occurring RS2 can be produced through genetic engineering
and strategized breeding. The RS Class 3 (RS
3
) comprises
retrograded starches produced through gelatinization and
retrogradation process during food processing and manufactur-
ing. They are commonly found in cooked and cooled foods
such as bread. The RS
2
and RS
3
of different sources and origin
such as Hi-MaizeÕand NoveloseÕ, respectively, have been
successfully marketed in the European market. Hi MaizeÕis
one of the richest natural sources of RS (Ingredion, 2014).
The RS Class 4 (RS
4
) comprises starch that has been
modified with chemicals thus increasing their resistance. One
of the most popular marketed RS
4
is the FibersymÕflour. The
RS
4
which are chemically modified, have to comply with
strict regulations that limit the amount of chemicals allowed
for consumption. The USA and Japan are the only countries
that authorized chemically modified RS for their food market.
Meanwhile, the European Union has yet to approve the usage
of chemically modified RS for human consumption.
Factors affecting resistant starch content
The factors that influence resistance towards digestion
includes: the physical form of the grains and seeds, the size
and type of the starch granules and the association between
the starch with other dietary components resistance (Slavin,
2004). Food preparation process, such as cooking, can also be
a factor as demonstrated in rice where its resistance had
increased after milling and cooking (Enggum et al., 1993).
Extrusion with high feed moisture and low screw speed has
also been shown to increase RS content in green banana flour
(Sarawong et al., 2014).
Starch granules morphology
The morphology of the starch granule is dependable on their
botanic origin. The smaller the granules means the more
susceptible they are to enzyme digestion (Lehmann & Robin,
2007). This may be attributed to a larger specific surface area
which increases enzyme binding rate (Tester et al., 2006). The
enzyme binding rate is also relatable to the shape of starch
granules. The various shapes of the starch granules from
spherical to polyhedral may influence enzyme binding.
Another factor affecting the RS content is the surface of the
granule. Potato starch and high amylase starches has been
shown to have a smooth surface and very few pits or pores
(Lehmann & Robin, 2007). The pin holes, equatorial grooves
and small nodules often become the entry point of the
amylase enzymes (Singh et al., 2010).
Amylose–amylopectin ratio
It has been demonstrated that higher amylose content of
starches correlates with higher resistance towards enzyme
digestion. This is due to the compact linear structure of
amylose (Sajilata et al., 2006; Sievert & Pomeranz, 1989). In
addition, the presence of hydrogen bond linking the glucose
chain of the starch amylose confers them to more resistance
towards the enzyme activity (Sajilata et al., 2006). The
amylopectin can also contribute to an increase of RS content.
A previous study has shown that RS content of bakery products
proceeds during their storage time due to amylopectin
retrogradation (Eerlingen et al., 1994). The formation of RS
from amylopectin during retrogradation is due to an increase in
molecule entanglement in the gel network and/or an increase of
molecular order by the helix formation of the outer short chains
of amylopectin, in a three-dimensional, partially crystalline
structure (Polesi et al., 2011). Amylopectin debranching has
also been shown to be able to improve RS content, where the
end products of low-molecular weight polymers could promote
the retrogradation process (Polesi et al., 2011).
Interaction of starch with other food components
The most studied association of starch with food components
is the interaction between amylose and lipid. Association of
amylose with lipid increases the starch resistance properties
2S. A. Zaman & S. R. Sarbini Crit Rev Biotechnol, Early Online: 1–7
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by reducing the access of the active site of a-amylase to
the amylose chain. Several other studies has also recognized
the amylose–lipid complexes as RS by itself (Sajilata et al.,
2006). However, association of starch with protein, soluble
sugars, calcium and potassium has been shown to reduce the
RS content. The interaction between soluble sugars and starch
molecular chain decreases its crystallinity and subsequently
its resistance (Kohyama & Nishikari, 1991). The association
of starch to calcium and potassium caused a reduction of
hydrogen bonds due to the adsorption of the minerals, thus
decreasing the RS content (Escarpa et al., 1997). On the other
hand, its interaction with insoluble dietary fiber showed the
most minimal effect (Sajilata et al., 2006).
Health benefit of resistant starch
Some studies have demonstrated that RS is capable of
influencing the gut microbiota composition towards those that
are beneficial to the host. A study demonstrated that mice fed
with diets containing high amylose RS
2
were colonized by
higher levels of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacterium,
Akkermansia and Allobactum species (Tachon et al., 2013).
A recent nutritional intervention study exhibited that RS from
different geographical areas induced a 10-fold increase of the
gut bifidobacteria (Brussow, 2013).
One of the beneficial by products of RS fermentation are
short-chain fatty acids, i.e. acetate, propionate and butyrate.
A recent study demonstrated the fermentation of retrograded
maize starch increases the short chain fatty acids (Zhu &
Zhao, 2013). Another study with high amylose maize (RS
3
)
feedings in rats, shows an increase in propionate, acetate and
butyrate (Charrier et al., 2013). In addition, an increase of
propionate was demonstrated in rats fed with high amylase
maize starch (RS
2
; Kalmokoff et al., 2013).
Resistant starch has also been proven to be an excellent
fiber in terms of providing satiety to the consumer. Studies
with RS fed pigs showed RS were among the most satiating
fiber, possibly due to their fermentation properties (Silva
et al., 2012). Several other studies have also showed that the
ingestion of RS may enhance short- and long-term satiety
Figure 1. Proposed health benefit of a
prebiotic ingredient.
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(Anderson & Woodend, 2003; Bodinham et al., 2010). A study
using FibersymÕon healthy adults has also shown that
replacing rapidly digestible starch with RS decreases meal
caloric density (Hollis et al., 2014). Another perspective of RS
application currently being studied is their potential role as an
anti-colorectal cancer agent by altering the composition
or activity of the colorectal microbiota (Clark et al., 2012).
This study demonstrated that the crypt mitotic location, gene
expression and DNA methylation were improved after RS
consumption.
The RS has been shown to have an impact on insulin
response. A study explored the effects of RS on insulin
excretion with 12 overweight individuals participating in the
randomized, blind, crossover study (Bodinham et al., 2012). In
just 4 weeks, the RS intake significantly increased the first-
phase insulin secretion in individuals at risk of developing
type-2 diabetes. Other studies demonstrated a dampen insulin
response and improvement of insulin sensitivity following
RS consumption (Johnston et al., 2010; Maki et al., 2012;
Robertson et al., 2003).
The RS consumption has been shown to be able to
beneficially increase the stool bulk, giving mild laxative
effects which promote the regularity of bowel movement
(Phillips, 1995). A study of rats that were fed with high
amylose maize exhibited an increase of cecal weight and a
decrease in cecal pH (Charrier et al., 2013). This supports a
previous study that exhibited a decrease of intestinal pH while
reducing the production of potentially harmful secondary bile
acids, ammonia and phenols (Birkett et al., 1996). In addition,
the consumption of RS may help in preventing the degradation
of the mucous layer within the colon (Toden, 2006). Another
study using Sprague–Dawley model has also shown that RS
could reduce body fat of high-fat diet-induced overweight and
obese rats, and improve lipid metabolism disorders (Shen et al.,
2014).
Resistant starch as prebiotics
It is quite difficult to conclude the suitability of RS to be
regarded as a prebiotic candidate due to the broad diversity of
starches. In general, a type of RS has to fulfill the following
criteria to be fully identified as prebiotic.
Criteria 1: resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by
mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal absorption
RS resistance is mostly contributed by their structural charac-
teristics. However, due to the diverse physico-chemical
properties of RS, it is hard to establish the standard degree of
resistance required to be fully resist the upper digestion in the
human gastrointestinal tract. The RS
2
and RS
3
, which are
naturally occurring starches, are inaccessible towards enzym-
atic digestion contributed by their complex structure. Both RS
did not undergo any physical or chemical modification but
instead they can be produced through genetic engineering or
selected breeding to further enhance their resistance. The RS
3
and RS
4
are produced through either physical or chemical
manipulation. The degree of modification affects the degrees
of resistance, and for most modified starches, the RS content
increases with increasing degree of modification (Nayak et al.,
2014). However, the modification itself needs to adhere to
strict regulation from a respective governing body for it to be
suitable for consumption. In the US, the Food and Drug
Administration has provided a complete detail of additives and
the concentration allowed in food in the market.
One of the main characteristics that determine the resistance
of starch is the amylose to amylopectin ratio. In starch
structure, the amylose and amylopectin molecules are
organized in semi-crystalline structure of double helices
where the entanglement between the molecules holds the
integrity of starch granules. For example, in RS
3
preparation,
the amylose which exists in the linear fraction, can easily
undergoes retrogradation where the resultant retrograded
starch with increased thermal stability contributes to its
resistance (Leszczyn
˜ski, 2004). Several other studies have
also demonstrated that, as the ratio of amylose to amylopectin
increases, the enzymatic digestibility of the starch decreases
(Jane, 2006; Li et al., 2008). This is due to the interaction of
amylose molecules with amylopectin which prevents the starch
from swelling thus reducing the accessibility of enzymes to
hydrolyze starch molecules (Case et al., 1998; Jiang et al.,
2010; Shi et al., 1998)
Another starch characteristic that could influence its
digestibility is the lipid content. The presence of lipid in the
starch molecules may retard the starch’s enzymatic hydrolysis
(Jiang et al., 2010). The amylose–lipid complexes which are
resistant to amylase hydrolysis, restricts starch swelling and
reduces the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch granules (Jane &
Robyt, 1984; Morrison, 2000; Morrison et al., 1993). In
addition, the presence of lipid on the surface of starch granules
can contribute to their resistance (Morrison, 1981, 1995).
Criteria 2: able to be fermented and be utilized by gut
microbiota
Starch portion that has successfully resisted the upper digestive
system will eventually reach the colon. For a RS to be qualified
as a prebiotic that contributes to its beneficial effect towards
the host, it must be able to be used as a fermentation substrate
for the existing gut microbiota. Two main types of bacterial
fermentation exists in the gut, i.e. saccharolytic and proteolytic.
The favorable saccharolytic bacteria are responsible for the
breaking down of carbohydrate, whereas the proteolytic
bacteria break down protein molecules. Saccharolytic bacteria
are usually more dominant in the proximal colon whereas
proteolytic bacteria are more abundant in the distal part of the
colon (Salminen et al., 1998). The two types of fermentation
will produce different by products which can be tested to
determine the RS efficacy as prebiotic candidates. Most studies
on prebiotics usually investigate criteria 2 and 3, collectively.
Criteria 3: selectively stimulate activity and/or growth of one
or a limited number of gut bacteria that contribute to host
health and well being
In most cases, the RS might only be able to fulfill Criteria 2,
where the fermentation is not specific towards beneficial
bacteria. The RS may also be fermented by a wide array of
gut microbiota including the pathogens, as typically demon-
strated by the fermentation of dietary fiber (Gibson &
Roberfroid, 1995). Criteria 3 is the most difficult to fulfill
when investigating a putative prebiotic carbohydrate (Gibson
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Table 1. Methodology to test the potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.
Criteria In vitro test In vivo test
Resistance towards gastric acidity,
hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes
and gastrointestinal absorption
Pre-treatment of the starch substrate with
various acids and enzymes that mimic the
gastrointestinal condition.
Measuring substrate recovery in feces of rat
Intubation into the gastrointestinal system of
anesthetized rat.
Direct recovery of undigested molecules in the
distal ileum following oral administration of
substrate.
Able to be fermented and utilize by
gut microbiota
Fermentation of carbohydrates by batch or
continuous model with fecal bacteria.
Animal model – Rats are fed with food or
drink fortified with prebiotic for a duration of
time. The animal will then be anesthetized and
killed to recover the colon for further analysis.
Indirect method – Collection of breath air at
regular time intervals to measure the
concentration of gases, i.e. hydrogen.
Direct method – Collection of feces to meas-
ure the recovery of test substrate.
Selectively stimulate activity and/or
growth of one or limited number of
gut microbiota
Same as above, with further analysis
includes the enumeration of bacteria,
e.g. fluorescent in situ hybridization and
culture dependant methodology.
Same as above, with further analysis includes
the enumeration of bacteria, e.g. fluorescent in
situ hybridization and culture dependant
methodology.
Figure 2. The process of resistant starch to be
qualified as a prebiotic.
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et al., 2004). These require quantitative microbiological
analysis of major colonic bacterial genera for example
bacteroides, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, clostridia, enterobac-
teria, eubacteria and the total aerobes/anaerobes (Sarbini et al.,
2013). To date, molecular-based microbiological methodolo-
gies have been developed and accepted as a reliable tool. In
addition, the production of organic acids, gas and enzymes
have been used as markers to monitor stimulation of the
bacterial activity (Sarbini & Rastall, 2011). Therefore, it is
important to design studies that can demonstrate specific
potential of RS as a prebiotic. Table 1 shows the methodologies
to test the potential of starch as a prebiotic. One last thing to
note is that for the RS to be fully proven as a prebiotic, a
strategized human clinical study must be conducted. Figure 2
summarizes the process of RS to be qualified as a prebiotic.
Conclusion
There is no doubt that RS has prebiotic potential as more
recent and upcoming studies are conducted on RS influencing
the gut microbiota. It is essential to understand the factors
affecting the RS content in food. Another important issue that
needs to be addressed is the establishment of standard
procedures to demonstrate prebiotic potential via in vitro and/
or in vivo tests due to the diverse source of RS. With the
expansion of prebiotic market, especially in the US and Japan,
the emergence of RS could facilitate this demand.
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge the reviewers for their critical
reading and scientific inputs. We would also like to thank the
library staff at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia for their collaboration in retrieving
the scientific literature.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no declarations of interest. The authors are
responsible for the content and writing of this article.
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DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993590 The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic 7
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... RS4 represents a group of starches that have been chemically modified to reduce their digestibility. 5,6 RS is also present in ragi. 7 Finger millet starch is slightly resistant to amylolysis. ...
... The resonances at 79 and 70 ppm are due to C-4 involved in the α′- (1,4) linkages and C-4 of the nonreducing terminal units, respectively. 6 The 13 C NMR spectra of ECC-MS have been depicted in Figure 7. The 13 C NMR spectra of cross-linked starch produced strong and intense signals at 78.86, 73.35, 72.07, 71.71, and 60.59 at a lower intensity signal of 100.16 ppm. ...
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Starch, being a polymer of excessive demand for the development of products of pharmaceutical importance, has been tremendously treated in many ways for improving the desired characteristics such as viscosity, paste clarity, digestibility, swelling, syneresis, and so forth. In the present study, alkali-extracted starch of mandua grains (Eleusine coracana; family Poaceae) was treated with epichlorohydrin for cross-linking and the modified starch was assessed for swelling, solubility, water binding capacity, moisture content, and degree of cross-linking. The digestion resistibility of modified starch was analyzed in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8), and simulated colonic fluid (pH 7.4). The structural modifications in treated mandua starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and C13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The results of the study reflected the significant modification in mandua starch after treatment with epichlorohydrin (1.0% w/w sdb, solid dry basis). The degree of cross-linking of treated mandua starch was 85.15%, and the swelling capacity of mandua starch changed from 226.51 ± 2.175 to 103.14 ± 1.998% w/w after cross-linking with epichlorohydrin. A remarkable increment in digestion resistibility was observed in modified mandua starch. The XRD pattern and FTIR spectra revealed the presence of resistant starch after chemical modification. The decomposition pattern of modified mandua starch was also different from extracted mandua starch. All the results reflected the effective modification of mandua starch by epichlorohydrin and the formation of resistant starch to a significant content. The treated mandua starch may have the potential in developing various preparations of food, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.
... Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the total amount of starch and starch breakdown products that escape digestion in the small intestine of healthy people [1]. Because it is not digested in the small intestine, RS does not raise blood glucose and improve glycemic control. ...
... During food processing, heat and humidity may be involved in the destruction of RS1 and RS2; however, RS3 can be formed. The microbiota ferments RS1, RS2, and RS3 in the large intestine [1,2]. Bacterial mass increases and production of short-chain fatty acids, providing many benefits to human health [2]. ...
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Resistant starch is a type of carbohydrate that is slowly digested in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwave, stir-frying, and deep frying), cooling and freezing on the quality of macaroni prepared with wheat flour and other resistant combinations starch sources. In this study, the in vitro digestibility of macaroni was determined and the glycemic index was estimated. Research results showed that cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwave, stir-frying, and deep frying) reduced the resistant starch content of macaroni from 3.37 to 66.66%; however, cooling and freezing significantly increased the resistant starch content of macaroni from 6.88 to 24.19% and 9.85 to 37.28%, respectively. Macaroni prepared with the addition of flour/starch containing high levels of resistant starch exhibited a significantly lower estimated glycemic index (44.53-47.10) than the control sample using100% wheat flour (49.31).
... Thus, the aforementioned prebiotics fall into the definition as outlined in the seminal paper by Gibson et al. (2004). Resistant starch can increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of the trophic and signaling volatile short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate and dilute fecal bile acids (Zaman and Sarbini, 2016). Several previous porcine studies supplemented various sources of RS as functional ingredients (e.g., inclusion levels at 7 -10%) rather than as gut modifier feed additives (e.g., inclusion levels at< 1%) in their diets (Bird et al., 2007;Rideout et al., 2008;Bhandari et al., 2009;Fouhse et al., 2015). ...
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... cholerae (23). On the other hand, carbohydrates such as galactose and rice starch which are also known as prebiotics (24,25) effectively reduced virulence expression in V. cholerae (23). Interestingly, V. cholerae is shown to adhere to starch granules (26), further bolstering the supremacy of starch-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) over glucose based ORT. ...
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The Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain (EcN) has shown its probiotic efficacy against many enteric pathogenic bacteria infecting human, including Vibrio cholerae, either alone or in combination with prebiotics. Understanding of these mechanisms of infection control requires the basic knowledge of probiotic mediated gut microbial community alterations especially in presence of different prebiotics. The present study has used the ex-vivo microbiota model and Next Generation Sequencing techniques to demonstrate the effect of EcN along with different sugars, namely glucose, galactose and starch, on the human gut microbiome community composition. The microbiome compositional changes have been observed at two different time-points, set one and a half years apart, in fecal slurries obtained from two donors. The study has indicated that the extent of microbiome alterations varies with different carbohydrate prebiotics and EcN probiotic and most of the alterations are broadly dependent upon the existing gut microbial community structure of the donors. The major distinct compositional changes have been found in the conditions where glucose and starch were administered, both with and without EcN, in spite of the inter-donor microbial community variation. Several of these microbiome component variations also remain consistent for both the time-points, including genus like Bacteroides, Prevotella and Lactobacillus. Altogether, the present study has shown the effectiveness of EcN along with glucose and starch towards specific changes of microbial community alterations independent of initial microbial composition. This type of model study can be implemented for hypothesis testing in case of therapeutic and prophylactic use of probiotic and prebiotic combinations.
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In this study, waxy corn starch (WCS) was enzymatically modified by amylosucrase, followed by complexation with lauric acid (LA) to produce starch-lipid complexes. Compared to the native WCS with average chain length (CL¯) of 25.4, the amylosucrease-modified WCSs showed a significantly higher CL¯ ranging from 29.3 to 52.5. The complexation with lauric acid inhibited the reassociation of starch chains, producing V-type complexes with crystallinity reached as much as 42.4%. Besides. the melting of V-type complexes presented endothermic peaks at Tp of 55.1–60.4 °C, and thermal stability of V-type complexes had a negative correlation with the V-type crystallinity. In vitro digestion implies that the formation of V-type complexes gradually increased the content of rapidly digestible starch and accordingly decreased the content of resistant starch. This study may provide an efficient technology to produce V-type starch-lipid complexes with controllable physical and digestion properties using waxy starch as substrate.
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Resistant starch (RS) is one kind of biomacromolecules with prebiotic effects. Nowadays, it is still a challenge to characterize structure and content of RS over entire molecular weight (Mw) distribution. In this study, a combined technique of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and liquid chromatography (LC) for the accurate structure characterization and quantitative analysis of RS was developed. AF4 coupled online with multiangle light scatting (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors (AF4-MALS-dRI) was used to characterize the structural information (radius of gyration and Mw) and content of RS with Mw larger than 5 kDa. Meanwhile, RS was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The glucose content in the digested starch solution was quantitatively determined using LC. The results demonstrated that AF4-LC is a simple and rapid method for structurally informative detection and quantitative analysis of RS over entire Mw distribution.
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Sago starch which naturally contains high amount of resistant starch, comes to the attention due to its ability to confer health benefits as functional food i.e., prebiotic. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of sago starch consumption on body weight, satiation, caecum short chain fatty acids body, and hepatic lipid content on diet-induced obese rats for obesity management. A total of 36 male Sprague Dawley rats were fat-induced and divided into the obesity-prone and obesity-resistant groups. Eight percent and sixteen percent resistant starch from sago and Hi-maize260 were incorporated into the standardised feed formulation. Food intake was weighed throughout the intervention period. The caecum sample was subjected to short chain fatty acids analysis using HPLC. Hepatic lipid content was measured using the Folch method. Both dosages of sago starch (8 and 16% SRS) promoted body weight loss with a reduction of food intake, which suggested satiety. No significant differences was observed in the production of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate from the caecum sample. Both dosages of sago starch (8 and 16% SRS) also showed lower hepatic lipid content and visceral adipose tissue than the baseline and control groups. However, 8% sago starch showed the lowest hepatic lipid content in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant groups. Overall results demonstrated that sago starch has the potential as an obesity and overweightness control regime as it promotes satiety, lowers visceral adipose tissue, and reduces hepatic lipid content. Consumers should consider adding sago starch in their daily meals.
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HCl-breadfruit resistant starch type III (HCl-BFRS3) is a type of resistant starch (RS) produced from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis). Generally, RS is the non-digestible starch fraction that resists digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, and is completely or partially fermented in the colon which gives it beneficial physiological effects as a potential prebiotic. The present work assessed the fermentation properties of HCl-BFRS3 produced by local underutilised food crops. HCl-BFRS3 with 57.86% of RS content was analsyed for its fermentation properties. In vitro fermentability of HCl-BFRS3 with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria, LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 13649 and L. brevis ATCC 8287), was studied. Their growth patterns, pH changes, and prebiotic activity score (PAS) along with four other different carbohydrate sources (glucose, inulin, fibersol-2, and breadfruit starch) and a control sample against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 was evaluated after 72 h of fermentation. It was found that HCl-BFRS3 selectively supported the growth of both lactobacilli and E. coli ATCC 11775, in the range of 6.21 to 9.20 log10 CFU/mL. HCl-BFRS3 also decreased the pH from the fermentation by L. plantarum ATCC 13649 and L. brevis ATCC 8287 after 24 h. The highest PAS was obtained by L. plantarum ATCC 13649 grown on HCl-BFRS3 (+1.69) as compared to inulin and fibersol-2. In conclusion, HCl-BFRS3 could be exploited as a prebiotic that benefits human health. Nevertheless, further assessment on the suitability of HCl-BFRS3 as a prebiotic material needs to be carried out.
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Objective The aim of this present study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. Research methods and procedures A randomized, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (aged 23±2 years with a BMI of 23.0±3.0 kg/m²). Following an overnight fast, muffins containing only SWF or muffins where 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at ten time points following meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 minutes after breakfast, and the amount eaten recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Results Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (p>0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (p=0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (p<0.05) but had no effect on plasma glucose CCK, GLP-1 or PYY3-36 concentration (p>0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-hour period.
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This review examines the relation between the consumption of sugars and their effects on short-term (ie, to 2 h) satiety and food intake in humans. Many factors need to be considered in the evaluation of reported studies and the conclusions derived from this body of literature. These factors include evaluation of the dose and form (solid or liquid) of the treatments, time of day administered, characteristics of the subjects, sample size, and approaches used to measure satiety and food intake. Mechanisms by which sugars may signal regulatory systems for food intake need to be considered when evaluating both study designs and conclusions. For this reason, the relation between the blood glucose response to sugar consumption and subsequent feeding behavior is also examined. It is concluded that sugars stimulate satiety mechanisms and reduce food intake in the short term and that the mechanisms by which this response occurs cannot be attributed solely to their effect on blood glucose.
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Starch is synthesized in semi-crystalline granular structures. Starches of different botanical origins possess different granular sizes, morphology, polymorphism and enzyme digestibility. These characteristics are related to the chemical structures of the amylopectin and amylose and how they are arranged in the starch granule. In this paper, structures and locations of amylose and amylopectin molecules in the granule are reviewed. The branch structures of amylopectin molecules and their relationship with the polymorphism, structures, and morphology of the starch granules are discussed. Internal structures of starch granules revealed by confocal laser-scattering microscopy and by using a surface-gelatinization method are compared and their effects on surface pinholes and serpentine channels of the starch granules are discussed.
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Since 1970, several novel microbial enzymes producing specific oligosaccharides have been discovered. Using these new enzymes, it is now possible to produce on an industrial scale various oligosaccharides such as glycosylsucrose, fructooligosaccharides, maltooligosaccharides, isomaltooligosaccharides (branched-oligosaccharides), galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, palatinose (isomaltulose), lactosucrose and so on. Recent developments in industrial enzymology have made possible a series of new starch oligosaccharides such as β-1,6 linked gentiooligosaccharides, α,α-1,1 linked trehalose, α-1,3 linked nigerooligosaccharides and branched-cyclodextrins. Some brand-new sweeteners including trehalose and nigerooligosaccharides are being developed as food ingredients with physiologically unique functions such as superoxide dismutase-like activity and immunological activity. Also, soybean oligosaccharides containing raffinose, stachyose and other oligosaccharides mentioned above are now used in beverages, confectionery, bakery products, yogurts, daily products and infant milk. At present, the market for these oligosaccharides in Japan is expected to be more than 20 billion yen/year.